Ashtanga Sangraha Sharira Sthana Chapter 1 – Putrakamiya – Pumsavana karma – the desire for getting a so.
अथातः पुत्रकामीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥१॥
Vivahayogya stree – marriageable woman
अथ खलु पुमानेकविंशतिवर्षः कन्यामतुल्यगोत्रां तुल्याभिजनामसञ्चारिरोगकुलप्रसूतां रूपशीललक्षणसम्पन्नामनूनाविनष्टदन्तौष्ठकर्णनासानखकेशस्तनीं मृदुमरोगप्रकृतिमकपिलामपिङ्गलामहीनाधिकाङ्गी द्वादशवर्षदेशीयाममरभुजगसरिदचलवृक्षपक्षिनक्षत्रान्त्यप्रेष्यभीषणकनामान्यनुद्वहन्तीमनघामनिन्द्याम निन्द्येन विधिनोद्हेत् ॥ २ ॥
A man of 21 years of age, should take a maiden as his wife, who belongs to a gotra (family lineage) other than his own, but to the community of his own; who is not from the family in which some diseases are hereditary; who is endowed with beauty, chastity, and auspicious qualities; in whom the teeth, lips, ears, nose, nails, hairs, and breasts have neither developed to the full nor have fallen; who is of tender and healthy constitution, whose colour is neither yellowish-red nor crimson-red, who has neither more number nor less number of body parts than usual, who is twelve years of age, whose name is not other than that of gods, serpents, rivers, mountains, trees, birds or stars and also not of the lower castes, slaves, or menials; which is not harsh (to hear); whose character is sinless and who is not of a bad reputation in the society. (2)
Notes: Twenty-one years and twelve years of age for the man and woman respectively is for marriage only and not for procreation. Marriage within one’s own gotra (family lineage) is forbidden for the risk of hereditary diseases. The name of the maiden should be of things considered auspicious and pleasing to hear.
Santana yogya vayas – age suitable of procreation
तस्यां षोडशवर्षायां पञ्चविंशतिवर्षः पुरुषः पुत्रार्थं प्रयतेत । तदा हि तौ प्राप्तवीर्यौ वीर्यान्वितमपत्यं जनयतः । ऊनपञ्चविंशतिवर्षेणोनषोडशवर्षायामाहितो गर्भ: कुक्षिस्थ एव विनाशमाप्नुयादल्पायुर्बलारोग्यविभवो वा स्याद्विकलेन्द्रियो वा । ऋतावद्ये च रात्रित्रये तथा दुष्टे शुक्रार्तव इति ॥३॥
Man, after attaining the age of twenty-five years, should have sex with his wife, who has attained sixteen years of age, for the purpose of begetting male offspring. Only at those ages, both of them will have attained full vigour and will be capable of producing children of valour. sexual intercourse before twentyfive years of age for man and sixteen years for woman will only produce a child which dies in the womb itself, or if born, will have short life, poor strength, illhealth or abnormal body parts. Same thing happens with sexual intercourse, during the first three days of Rtu (period of menstrual flow) and with impurities of sukra (semen / male reproductive tissue) and artava (menstrual fluid / ovum, female reproductive tissue). (3)
Sukra laksana – qualities of semen
तत्राहारस्य सम्यकपरिणतस्य क्रमान्मज्जानमनुप्राप्तस्य सारः शुक्रसंज्ञां लभते । तत्तु क्षीर इव सर्पिरिक्षुरस इव गुडः शरीरे शुक्रधरा कलामाश्रित्यास्त्रुतं सर्वाङ्गव्यापितया स्थितम् विशेषतश्च मज्जमुष्कस्तनेषु । हर्षोदीरितं तु संघट्टनेन हृदयावेशात् पिण्डीभूतमङ्गादङ्गात् प्रवर्तते । तत् सौम्यं स्निग्धं गुरु शुक्लं मधुगन्धि मधुरं पिच्छिलं बहु बहलं घृततैलक्षौद्रान्यतमवर्णं च शुक्रं गर्भाधानयोग्यं भवति ॥४॥
The essence (nutrient portion) that gets formed from the food after its proper digestion and which has produced the dhatus (tissues) in sequential order upto the stage of majja (bone marrow), derives the name sukra (semen, male reproductive tissue) at its next stage. Just as ghee is present in milk and jaggery (treacle) in sugarcane juice, sukra is present all over the body and also in the sukradharakala (secreting membranes, organs of production of male reproductive tissues) it is especially found in majja (bone-marrow), muska (scrotum, testes) and stana. (breasts). Excited (stimulated) by sexual pleasure, filled in the heart (mind), it begins to ooze from every part of the body, forming a mass (of liquid). It is cold (in potency), unctous (viscus), heavy (in weight) white, sweet in taste, of pleasant smell, slimy, more in quantity, thick in consistency and resembles ghee, oil and honey (in colour); such a sukra will only be suitable for producing an embryo. (4)
Notes: Male reproductive element is actually the spermatozoa (sukranu) which is produced by the testicles (vrushanas); they are present in large numbers, suspended in the fluid called semen, which is the secretion of epidedymus (adhi vrusanika), vas deferens (sukra vahini) and prostate gland (astila granthi); the properties such as sukla (white), snigdha (unctousness), sita (cold) etc., enumerated above pertain to this fluid, the semen. Each spermatozoon has chromosomes and genes within it and these are the carriers of hereditary traits from father to children. Typical characteristic features of every organ of the body of the father are present in them and so each spermatozoon is the replica of the male human being.
Artava – menstrual blood
तथा रक्तमेव च स्त्रीणां मासे मासे गर्भकोष्ठमनुप्राप्य त्र्यहं प्रवर्तमानमार्तवमित्याहुः ।
अतिप्रसङ्गेनानृतावृतौ वा तदेवासृग्दरं प्रदरं व्यापदं च रक्तयोनिसंज्ञां लभते । तत्साधने रक्तपित्तचिकित्सितं गुह्यरोगप्रतिषेधं चेक्षेत ॥५॥
In the case of the woman, the rakta (blood), gets collected inside the uterus and flows out for three days every month. This is known as artava (menstrual fluid). Its excess flow or flow apart from the regular period, gets the name asrgdara, pradara and raktayoni, respectively, which are abnormalities. The treatment of these conditions being similar to that of raktapitta (haemorrhagic disease) and guhya roga (diseases of the vagina) will be described in those chapters later. (5)
Rakta gulma – Uterine tumor
वातकफावृतमार्गाणां चाप्रवर्तमानं पित्तलैरुपाचरेत् । तद्धि वर्द्धमानमन्तर्वर्तमानं सशुक्र मशुक्रं वा जीवरहितं वातलान्यासेवमानाया योषितो गर्भलिङ्गा निदर्शयद् गुल्मीभवति । तत्र गुल्मचिकित्सित मीक्षेत ॥ ६ ॥
कदाचिद्वा गर्भ इव वातोदरं भवति तद्वातोपशमनैरुपशाम्यति ॥७॥
If it (menstrual blood) accumulates inside itself, due to obstruction of its passage by vata or kapha, it is should be treated with measures (drugs and foods etc) which increase pitta. In the woman who indulges in foods and activities which increase vata, this accumulated fluid, either alone or getting mixed with sukra (semen) develops into a lifeless gulma (tumor), exhibiting signs of pregnancy. Its management will be described later in the chapter dealing with treatment of gulma. (6)
Some other times, the condition develops into vatodara (enlargement of abdomen caused by increase of vata) resembles pregnancy and subsides by treatment which mitigates vata. (7)
Garbhabhasa – spurious pregnancy
तदेव कदाचिदार्तवं सौम्यैबृंहणात्मभिराहारविहारैः स्तम्भितमनुपद्रवमेवोदरं गर्भाधिष्ठितमिव वर्धयति । येन तामगर्भां गर्भिणीमाहुर्मूढाः । ततो विपरीतैर्यदृच्छया वा प्रवृत्ते रक्ते गर्भशरीरमपश्यन्तो भूतहतमित्यज्ञा ब्रुवते । यस्मात्सम्भवत्योजसोऽपहरणं रक्षोभिर्नतु शरीरापहरणमनिष्टत्वादशक्तेर्वा । इच्छाशक्त्योर्हि प्रवृत्तेरुपलब्धिः । न च दृश्यते कस्यचिदमानुषैर्देहापहारः ॥८॥
यदि च दृष्टमपि समुल्लङ्घ्य केचिदतिशक्तियुक्ता गर्भस्य शरीराक्षेपे प्रवर्तन्ते तदा कथमिव प्राप्तावसरास्तज्जननीमुपेक्षेरन् ॥९॥
Yet other times, the same thing (accumulated menstrual fluid) causes enlargement of the abdomen in that woman, who indulges in foods and activities which are cold and nourishing. This enlargement of abdomen without any troublesome symptoms, imitates pregancy, very closely. Ignorant persons take this condition to be pregnancy though it is actually not so. With indulgence of foods and activities of opposite qualities or by chance (of its own accord without any reason) the flow of (menstrual fluid) reappears; then foolish persons, not finding any sign of the foetus, declare that it has been snatched away by Bhutas (evil spirits). Bhutas will only destroy the ojas (essence of the tissues) but not the body (of the foetus) as it is neither desired by them nor they (bhutas) are capable of destroying it. It (destruction of embryo) can only be due to strong intention. Snatching away of the human body by non-human beings is not seen any time. (8)
If such a destruction of the embryo is suspected as due to some very powerful bhutas, then why do they spare the mother?. (9)
Notes: The above description refers to the condition known as pseudocyesis (spurious or false pregnancy) in modern parlance, In this condition there will be no formation of embryo at all, but the woman develops signs of pregnancy.
Artava laksana – qualities of menstrual blood
आर्तवं पुनश्शशरुधिरलाक्षारसोपमं धौतं च विरज्यमानं शुद्धमाहुः ॥१०॥
यथा च बालस्य जीर्णस्य वा तरोः पुष्पफलं पुष्पफलस्य वा तद्विधस्य गन्धो नोपलभ्यते तथैव नोनषोडशातीतसप्तीतवर्षस्य पुंसः शुक्ररोमादयो योषितश्चोनद्वादशातीतपञ्चाशद्वर्षाया रजस्तन्यादय इति ॥११॥
अथ शुद्धशुक्रार्तवमरोगं मिथोऽनुरक्तं मिथुनमुपस्त्रेह्य विधिवत् संशोध्यास्थापनानुवासनाभ्यामुपाचरेत् । विशेषस्तु घृतक्षीरवद्भिर्मधुरौषधसंस्कारैः पुरुषम् । तैलेन ना पित्तलैश्च मांसैः । एवं हि समानगुणतया शुक्रार्तवमाप्यते ॥१२॥
Artava (menstrual fluid) resembles the blood of the rabbit or a solution of lac in colour; the cloth stained with it does not retain the stain when washed. Such artava is said to be pure. (10)
Just as the flowers and fruits of trees which are either very young or very old do not possess the natural smell of the flowers and fruits (of a middleaged tree) so also the man who is less than sixteen years and more than seventy years of age, will not have the sukra (semen) and growth of hairs (mustaches etc as seen in the middle aged man) Similarly the woman who is less than twelve years and more than fifty years of age will not have rajas (menstrual fluid), stanya (breast milk) etc (as seen in a middle aged woman). (11)
The man and woman who have pure sukra (semen) and artava (menstrual fluid) who are healthy, who are in love with each other and who are desirous of sexual intercourse, should be treated with (Panchakarma) purificatory therapies such as decoction-enema and oil-enema, after adopting proper procedure.
Later on, the man should be allowed the use of especially ghee, milk and drugs of sweet taste;
while the woman especially the use of oil and meat which bring about increase of pitta. These methods being of similar nature (to sukra and artava respectively) will enhance them (both in quantity and quality). (12)
Notes: The female reproductive element is actually the ovum that is produced by the ovary (phalakosa) It is the counterpart of spermatozoon and likewise contains chromosomes and genes – the carriers of the physical and mental traits of the mother. Each ovum is the replica of the female human being. One mature ovum gets expelled from any one of the ovaries, every twenty-eight days, slowly moves inside the uterine tube (bija vahini) awaiting the arrival and union of the spermatozoon. The union of the ovum and spermatoon is known as fertilisation. If such union takes place, the fertilised ovum moves into the uterus, gets embedded in its wall and begins to grow as embryo leading to pregnancy. If, on the other hand, fertilisation does not take place, the ovum which has come into the uterus is expelled out of it, along with the blood accumulated in the uterine wall, in anticipation of imbedding of the fertilised ovum. This degraded blood, containing the unfertilised ovum is the menstrual blood, it flows out of the body through the vaginal tract for about 3 to 5 days.
Dusta sukra-artava – vitiated semen and menstrual blood
वातपित्तश्लेष्मकुणपगन्धिग्रन्थिपूयक्षीणमूत्रपुरीषरेतांसि त्वबीजानि भवन्ति । तत्र तनु रूक्षं फेनिलमरुणमल्पं विच्छिन्नं सरुजं चिराच्च निषिच्यते वातेन । किञ्चित्पीतमपिच्छिलमानीलं वा दहदिव प्रवर्तते पित्तेन । मज्जोपसंसृष्टं प्रभूतं विबद्धं चाम्भसि च किञ्चिन्मज्जति श्लेष्मणा | कुणपगन्ध्यनल्पं रक्तेन । ग्रन्थिभूतं वातश्लेष्मभ्याम् । पूतिपूयनिभं पित्तश्लेष्मभ्याम् । क्षीणं वातपित्ताभ्याम् । तदुक्तं ससाधनं प्राक् । मूत्रपुरीषगन्धि सन्निपातेन ॥ १३ ॥
Retas (semen) which is polluted by vata, pitta or kapha, which possesses the smell as that of a cadaver, which is formed into pellets which is mixed with pus, which is scanty and which is mixed with urine or faeces will be incapable of producing the embryo.
The semen which is thin, non-viscid, frothy, slightly-red in colour, scanty, coming out of the body, drop by drop, slowly, accompanied with pain is to be understood as being vitiated by vata;
that which is slightly yellow or blue in colour, nonslimy and coming out of the body accompanied with burning sensation, as vitiated by pitta;
that which is mixed with majja (bone-marrow) which is large in quantity, thick in consistency and which sinks slightly in water is said to be vitiated by kapha;
that which is having a cadaveric smell and large in quantity is to be taken as vitiated by rakta (blood);
that which is solidified is due to vitiation by vata and kapha together; that which has putrid smell and resembles pus, is due to vitiation by pitta and kapha together; that which has decreased in quantity is to be understood as vitiated by vata-pitta together; that which possess the smell of urine and faeces is due to vitiation by all the three dosas together.
The treatment of all these conditions have already been described earlier (in dosadi vijnaniya-chapter 10 of sutrasthana). (13)
आर्तवमपि शुक्रवद्दोषैरुपसृष्टमबीजमेव । तस्य लिङ्गं नाम च पूर्ववत् । तेषु कुणपग्रन्थिपूयक्षीणरेतांसि कृच्छ्रसाध्यानि । मूत्रपुरीषशुक्रार्तवं त्वसाध्यं कुणपग्रन्थिपूयार्तवं च । तत्राद्यांस्त्रीन् शुक्रार्तवदोषान्यथास्वं दोषसाधनेन साधयेत् । गुह्ययोनिरोगप्रतिषेधेन चोभयान्॥१४॥
अपि च ।
Just as vitiated sukra (semen) is incapable of producing the embryo, so also the vitiated artava. The features and names of such vitiated artava are same as of the former (sukra). Of these that which has a cadaveric smell, which has formed into pellets, that which resembles pus and that which is very scanty are difficult to treat (cure); sukra or artava which are having the smell of urine, faeces or a cadaver, and formed into pellets and which resemble pus are impossible to be cured.
Out of these, the first three kinds (vitiated by vata, pitta and kapha) should be treated with the usual treatment of dosas; the other kinds, as per the therapies described in diseases of the penis and vagina. (14)
Dusta sukrartava chikitsa – treatment of the vitiated semen and menstrual blood
वातिके शुक्रदोषे वसुकसैन्धवफलाम्लसिद्धं यवक्षारप्रतीवापं सर्पिष्यानम् । बिल्वविदारीसिद्धं क्षीरयुक्तमास्थापनम् । मधुकभद्रदारूसिद्धं तैलमनुवासनम् । क्षीरकुलीररससिद्धं तैलमुत्तरबस्तिः । पैत्तिके काण्डेक्षुश्वदंष्ट्रागुडूचीसिद्धं मूर्वामधूकप्रतीवापं सपिंपानम् । त्रिवृच्चूर्णः सघृतो विरेकः । पयस्याश्रीपर्णीसिद्धं क्षीरयुक्तमास्थापनम् । मधुकमुद्गपर्णीसिद्धं तैलमनुवासनमुत्तरबस्तिश्च । श्लैष्मिके पाषाणभेदाश्मन्तकामलकक्काथसिद्धं पिप्पलीमधुकचूर्णप्रतीवापं सर्पिष्पानम् । मदनफलकषायो वमनम् । दन्तीविडङ्गचूर्णस्तैललीढो विरेकः । राजवृक्षमदनफलकषायप्रगाढमास्थापनम् । मधुकपिप्पलीसिद्धं तैलमनुवासनमुत्तरबस्तिश्च ॥ १५ ॥
Further on –
In case of sukra (semen) vitiated by vata, the patient should be given a drink of ghee, mixed with vasuka ( romaka lavana), saindhava and madana which possess a sour taste, added with yavakshara; decoction enema prepared from bilva and vidari and mixed with milk; oil-enema with oil processed with madhuka and bhadradaru; uterine enema (douche) with oil processed with milk and flesh of kulira (crab).
In case of sukra vitiated by pitta, the patient should be given a drink of ghee processed with kandeksu (sugarcane), svadamstra and guduchi, added with powder of murva and madhuka; purgation using powder of mixed with ghee, decoction enema prepared from payasya, and sriparni mixed with milk; oil enema and uterine enama (douche) with oil processed with madhuka and mudgaparni.
In cause of vitiation by kapha, the patient should be given a drink of ghee processed with decoction of pashanabheda, asmantaka and amalaka mixed with powder of pippali and madhuka; emesis using decoction of madanaphala; purgation by licking the oil mixed with powder of danti and vidanga; decoction enema with a thick decoction of rajavriksha and madanaphala; oil enema and uterine enema (douche) with oil prepared with madhuka and pippali. (15)
वातजे पुष्पदोषे भाङ्गमधुकभद्रदारूसिद्धं सर्पिष्पानम् । काश्मर्यक्षुद्रसहासिद्धं वा क्षीरम् । मधुकसृगालविन्नाकल्कं पयस्सर्पिस्सहितं प्रियङ्गतिलकल्कं वा योनौ धारयेत् । सरलमुद्द्रपर्णीकषायः प्रक्षालनम् । पित्तजे काकोलीद्वयविदारीमूलक्वाथमुत्पलपद्मकक्वाथं मधूकपुष्पकाश्मर्यफलक्वाथं वा सशर्करं पिबेत् । श्वेतचन्दनक्वाथं वा सक्षौद्रम् । धवधातकीकल्कं वा घृतेन वा मधुकमधुरसामृद्वीकाकल्कम् । शम्याकगवाक्षीक्षीरे विरेकः । चन्दनपयस्याकल्कं योनौ धारयेत् । गैरिकारिष्टकषायः प्रक्षालनम् । श्लैष्मिके कुटजकटुकाश्वगन्धाक्वाथं पिबेत् । समाक्षिकं वा क्षीरिवृक्षप्रवालक्काथमेतेषामेव वा चूर्णं मधुघृताभ्यां लिह्यात् । मदनफलकषायेण वमनम् । तत्कल्कमेव च योनौ धारयेत् । लोध्रतिन्दुककषायः प्रक्षालनं बस्तमेषमूत्रं वा ॥१६॥
In case of puspa (menstrual fluid) being vitiated by vata, the patient should be given a drink of ghee processed with bharangi, madhuka and bhadradaru; or drink of milk processed with kasmarya and ksudrasaha; a paste of madhuka and srgalavinna mixed with milk and ghee; or a paste of priyangu and tila should be retained inside the vaginal tract, the vaginal tract should be washed with the decoction of sarala and mudgaparni.
In case of vitiation by pitta, the patient should be given a drink of any one of the decoction of, the two kakoli and root of vidari; or utpala and padmaka; or madhuka puspa and kasmaryaphala, each one mixed with sugar; or a decoction of svetachandana mixed with honey. A paste of dhava and dhataki or paste of madhuka, madhurasa and mrdvika mixed with ghee should be given to eat; then purgation with milk processed with samyaka and gavaksi; paste of chandana and payasya should be retained inside the vaginal tract; vaginal wash should be done with a decoction of gairika and arista.
In case of vitiation by kapha, the patient should be given a drink of decoction of kutaja, katuka and ashwagandha; or a decoction of tender sprouts of ksiravrikshas (trees which yeild milky sap) mixed with honey, or the powder of these sprouts mixed with honey and ghee; emesis with decoction of madanaphala; the paste of the same (madanaphala) should be retained in the vaginal tract, vaginal wash (should be done) with the decoction of lodhra and tinduka or with urine of either sheep or goat. (16)
कुणपरेतसि धातकीपुष्पखदिरार्जुनदाडिमैः सिद्धमसनादिभिर्वा सर्पिः पाययेत् । ग्रन्थिरेतसि पाषाणभिदा पलाशभस्मना वा । पूयरेतसि परूष कादिन्यग्रोधादिभ्याम् । मूत्रपुरीषरेतसि वायुनातिविकृते हिङ्गूशीरचित्रकैरथवा चित्रकवितुन्नकप्रियङ्गुहिङ्गुसमङ्गामृणालसिद्धमेलामोचचूर्णप्रतीवापम् । तथा ग्रन्थ्यार्तवे पाठात्रिकण्टकवृक्षकक्वाथम् । कुणपपूयार्तवे चन्दनक्वाथं पिबेत् । त्रिफलाकल्कक्वाथौ चात्र धारणाचमने ॥१७॥
In case of semen having cadaveric smell, the patient should be given a drink of ghee processed with dhatakipuspa, khadira, arjuna and dadima; or with drugs of asanadigana (vide chapter 16 of sutrasthana).
In case of semen forming into pellets, a drink of ghee is processed with Pashanabheda or ashes of palasa.
In case of semen resembling pus, drink of ghee processed with drugs of parusakadi or nyagrodhadiganas ( vide chapter 16 of sutrasthana).
In case of semen with smell of urine or faeces, and that greatly vitiated by vata, a drink of ghee processed with hingu, usira and chitraka; or with chitraka, vitunnaka, priyangu, hingu, samanga and mrunala mixed with powder of ela and moca.
In case of artava. assuming the form of pellets, the patient should be given a decoction of patha, trikantaka and vrikshaka.
In cases of artava having cadaveric smell or resembling pus, the patient should drink the decoction of chandana; the paste and decoction of triphala should be used for inserting into the vaginal tract and washing the tract ( respectively). (17)
सर्वेषु चशुक्रार्तवदोषेषु स्त्रीपुंसौ स्नेहादिकर्मभिर्विशेषेण चोत्तरबस्तिभिः पुनः पुनरुपाचरेत्। यथास्वं च योनौ कल्कैः पिचुर्भिश्च । इत्येवं विशुद्धशुक्रार्तवौ पूर्वोक्तं विधिमासेवेताम् ॥१८॥
In all types of vitiation of sukra (semen) and artava (menstrual fluid) both the man and the woman, must be treated with purificatory therapies commencing with oleation etc and especially with uterine/vaginal emesis (douches) repeatedly. So also the retaining of the paste of drugs or a diaper processed with them in the vaginal tract (is to be done often).
Only after the semen and menstrual blood are purified by these measures, the man and the woman should undergo the regimen mentioned above. (18)
Ritukala Menstrual period
ऋतुस्तु दृष्टार्तवो द्वादशरात्रं भवति । षोडशरात्रमित्यन्ये । शुद्धयोनिगर्भाशयार्तवाया मासमपि केचित् । तद्वददृष्टार्तवोऽप्यस्तीत्यपरे ॥१९॥
Ritu – the period during which menstrual flow is visible – is of twelve days duration (from the day of appearance of menstrual flow); some say it is of sixteen days, and still others opine that the entire month is a period in those who have purity of vaginal tract, uterus and menstrual flow; some authorities opine that there is also a period of invisible menstrual flow. (19)
Ritumati lakhsana – features of menstruating woman
क्षामप्रसन्नवदनां स्फुरच्छ्रोणिपयोधराम् । स्त्रस्ताक्षिकुक्षिं पुंस्कामां विद्यादृतुमतीं स्त्रियम् ॥२०॥
The woman, whose face is slightly rundown but cheerful, whose waist and breasts throb (of their own accord), whose eyes and abdomen are slightly drooping down and who craves for the company of men is to be understood as Ritumati menstruating woman. (20)
पद्मं संकोचमायाति दिनेऽतीते यथा तथा । ऋतावतीते योनिः स्याच्छुक्रंनातः प्रतीच्छति ॥ २१ ॥
Just as the lotus flower closes after sunset, the uterus also closes after the menstrual period, and does not receive the semen (seed) thereafter. (21)
मासेनोपचितं रक्तंधमनीभ्यामृतौ पुनः । ईषत्कृष्णं विगन्धं च वायुर्योनिमुखान्नुदेत् ॥ २२ ॥
The blood which has accumulated in the vessels of the uterus for one month, which is slightly black and of foetid odour is expelled out by vata, through the vaginal tract during the next menstrual period. (22)
Ritumati charya – regimen of woman during periods
ततः पुष्पदर्शने प्रथमदिवसात् प्रभृति ब्रह्मचारिणी स्नानाद्यलङ्काररहिता दर्भसंस्तरशायिनी त्रिरात्रमासीत । पर्णशरावकरतलान्यतमेन यावकं पयसा सिद्धमल्पं कर्शनार्थमश्रीयात् । तीक्ष्णोष्णाम्ललवणानि च वर्जयेत् ॥२३॥
From the first day of the appearance of menstrual flow, the woman should spend three days avoiding sexual activities, bathing, and cosmetics; sleep on a bed made of darbha grass. In order to slim herself, she should eat little quantity of mess prepared from small barley and milk, taking (holding) it either in a leaf, a saucer, or palms of her hands; she should also avoid foods which are pungent, hot, sour and salty. (23)
चतुर्थेऽहन्युद्वर्तिता शीतसलिलस्नातानुलिप्सालङ्कृता शुक्लमाल्याम्बरा कृतमङ्गलस्वस्त्ययनैवंविधमेव भर्तारं पश्येदनन्यमनाः । तदा हि यादृशमेव पश्यति चिन्तयति वा तादृशं प्रसूत इति ॥२४॥
On the fourth day, getting up from the bed, she should take a bath in cold water, apply fragrant paste to the body, dress herself with white flowers and clothes, perform auspicious rites and without having any other thought in her mind, should see her husband, who has also prepared himself in a similar manner. Only then, she will be able to get a child as she wishes or desires it to be. (24)
Maithuna kala – time for sexual intercourse
ततः स्नानात् पुनरपि गुणवत्पुत्रार्थी त्रिरात्रमुपेक्षेत । पुष्पदर्शनात् सप्तरात्रम् । अथाष्टम्यां दशम्यां द्वादश्यां वा रात्रौ पुत्रकामः संवसेत् । पञ्चम्यां सप्तम्यां नवम्यां वा दुहितृकामः | तासूत्तरोत्तरमायुरारोग्यैश्वर्यसौभाग्यबलवर्णेन्द्रियसम्पदपत्यस्य भवति । अतः परं तूत्तरोत्तरमेवायुरादीनां ह्रासः ॥२५॥
The man desirous of a good son should again wait for three more days from the day of bathing (4th day) or in other words, seven days from the appearance of menstrual flow. He should then have sexual intercourse on the eighth, tenth or twelveth nights; the person desirous of a daughter on the fifth, seventh or ninth nights. Among these nights that which is later is better than the earlier, in endowing to the offspring long life, health, wealth, prosperity, strength, complexion and keenness of sense faculties.
Then onwards (after the thirteenth night) there will be decrease (deficiency) of the above qualities in the offspring. (25)
तत्र युग्मासु रात्रिष्वल्पीभवत्यार्तवमयुग्मास्वाप्याय्यते । तस्मात्तासु क्रमात् पुत्रस्य दुहितुश्च जन्म । अत एव चानुपरतार्तवदर्शनां पुत्रार्थी विप्रकृष्टेष्वप्यहस्सु नोपेयात् । यदि त्वाहारानुरोधादयुग्मासु शुक्रस्याधिकता युग्मासु च न्यूनता स्यात्ततः पुमान् स्त्र्याकृतिर्दुर्बलो हीनाङ्गो वा जायते । स्त्री च पुरुषाकृतिर्दुर्बला हीनाङ्गा वा । एकादशीत्रयोदश्योस्तु नपुंसकं स्यात् ॥२६॥
On even days (6, 8, 10 and so on) the artava (menstrual fluid) will be less and on odd days (5, 7, 9) it will be more, so sexual intercourse on those days will lead to the birth of son and daughter respectively.
Man desirous of a healthy son should avoid sexual intercourse even on distant days (tenth or twelveth) if the menstrual flow continues.
If by the effect of food or activities, increase of sukra takes place on odd days and its decrease on even days, sexual intercourse on such days will lead to the birth of male child having either feminine features, poor strength or poor physique; if a female child it will have masculine features, of poor strength or poor physique respectively; sexual intercourse on eleventh and thirteenth days leads to the birth of a eunuch. (26)
Garbhadana karma – rites before sexual intercourse
अथोपाध्यायः पुत्रीयं विधानमाचरेत् । शूद्रायास्तु मन्त्रवर्जितम् । यादृशं च पुत्रमाशासीत तद्रूपवर्णचरितान् जनपदाननुचिन्तयेति स्त्री वाच्या तज्जनपदाहारविहारोपचार परिच्छदांश्चानुविदधीत ॥ २७ ॥
The person should then perform the religious rites connected with childbirth without the chanting of sacred hymns in the case of persons of lower castes.
The woman should be told to retain in her mind the form, colour, and mannerisms of such person whose should like her son to possess; she should also adopt the habits of such person, with regard to food, activities, behaviour, dress etc. (27)
कर्मान्ते च पुमान् मासं ब्रह्मचारी सर्पिः क्षीराभ्यां शाल्योदनमभिप्राश्य नात्याशितः सुखी स्रग्वी सुमनाः प्रीणिताङ्गः शुक्लनिवसनो मौहूर्तिकानुमते रात्रिभागे कल्याणानि चिन्तयानस्तदभिकामः स्वास्तीर्णं शयनं दक्षिणेन पादेन प्रागारोहेत् । तद्विधैव च प्रमदा कर्शिताङ्गी तैलमाषोत्तराहारा पूर्वं वामपादेन पुरुषस्य दक्षिणतः शय्यामधिरोहेत् । तत्र मन्त्रं प्रयुञ्जीत । “आयुरसि सर्वतः प्रतिष्ठासि धाता त्वा दधातु विधाता त्वा दधातु ब्रह्मवर्चसा भवेति । ब्रह्माबृहस्पतिर्विष्णुस्सोमस्सूर्यस्तथाश्विनौ । भगोऽथ मित्रावरुणौ वीरं दधतु मे सुतम् | ” इति ॥२८॥
After these religious rites, the man who has maintained celibacy for a month should partake in cooked rice along with ghee and milk but should not over-eat. He should keep himself happy, put on garlands, have a cheerful mind and body, wear white clothes; then at the prescribed time of the night he should step on to the nuptial bed placing his right foot first, harbouring good thoughts and anticipating good results all the while.
Similarly the woman who has slimmed herself a little, by partaking foods prepared from oil and masa (black-gram), should step onto the bed from the right side of her husband, placing her left foot first.
Sitting on the bed, the husband should chant the following hymns “O, Dhata, you are the Lord of life, you are everywhere, grant us all the good. “O Vidhata, bestow on us, the radience of sacred knowldege; May Brahma, Brhaspati, Visnu, Soma, Surya, Asvinis, Bhaga, Mitra, and Varuna, grant me a brave son.” (28) “
Maithuna vidhi – procedure of sexual intercourse
तत: परस्परं सामभिरभिसान्त्व्य सहर्षमनुकूलं संविशेताम् । पर्याप्ते चैनां शीतोदकेन सहसा परिषिञ्चेत् ॥ २९ ॥
The couple should then engage themselves in sexual intercourse, pleasing each other with sweet words and acts, and keeping themselves happy all through. Immediately after the intercourse, the lady should be sprinkled with cold water. ( 29 )
तत्रात्याशिता क्षुधिता पिपासिता भीता विमनाः शोकार्ता क्रुद्धातिमेदुरान्यकामाऽव्यवायकामा वा न गर्भं धत्ते विगुणं वा । तथा पुरुषोऽपि । न चासौ अधस्तिष्ठेत् । यथा हि स्त्रीचेष्टः पुमान्जा यते पुंश्चेष्टा वा स्त्री । न च न्युब्जां पार्श्वगतां वा सेवेत । न्युब्जायां वातो बलवान् स योनिं पीडयति । दक्षिणपार्श्वगताया: श्लेष्मा पीडितश्च्युतः पिदधाति गर्भाशयम् । वामपार्श्वगतायास्तद्वत् पित्तं विदहति रक्तशुक्रे । तस्मादुत्ताना बीजं गृह्णीयात् । तथा हि यथास्थानमेव तिष्ठन्ति दोषाः ॥ ३० ॥
The lady who has over-eaten, or who is hungry, thirsty, terrified, inattentive, grief-stricken, or angry; who is very fatty, desiring something else and who is not willing for sexual intercourse will not conceive at all or conceives improperly; so also the man (will not be able to produce conception).
During sexual intercourse, the woman should not be allowed to mount on the man, if allowed so, the forthcoming child, if a boy, will have feminine behaviour and if a girl, masculine behaviour.
The woman, should neither be lying on her abdomen nor on her two sides; the activities of vata will be powerful when she is lying on her abdomen, and so causes troubles in the vagina; if she is lying on her right side, kapha increases, gets displaced and covers (the mouth of) the uterus; when she is lying on the left side, pitta increases and vitiates both the blood and the semen.
Hence, the woman should receive the seed, lying on her back only; for, in this position, all the doshas will be confined to their normal places. (30)
Pumsavana karma – plan to get a male child
लब्धगर्भा चैनां विदित्वा प्राग्व्यक्तीभावाद्गर्भस्य पुष्ये पुंसवनानि प्रयुञ्जीत । द्वादशरात्रमित्यन्ये । तत्रापि युग्मदिनेष्विति केचित् । प्रत्यहमित्यपरे ॥३१॥
Having come to know that the lady has conceived and before the signs of pregnancy manifest clearly, pumsavana (rite to beget a male child) should be done on the day of pusya stellar constellation. Some say it should be done for twelve days and that too on even days. Some others say it should be done every day. ( 31 )
तद्यथा । लक्ष्मणावटशुङ्गसहदेवाविश्वदेवानामन्यतमं क्षीरेऽभिषुत्य त्रींश्चतुरो वा बिन्दून् दक्षिणे नासापुटे स्वयमासिञ्चेत् पिचुना । वामे तु दुहितृकामा । न चैतान् निष्ठीवेत् । तथा पुष्योद्घृतायाः श्वेतबृहत्या मूलकल्काद्रसं नावयेत् । तद्वच्चोत्पलपत्रं कुमुदपत्र लक्ष्मणामूलं वटशुङ्गानि चाष्टौ च नावयेत् ॥३२॥
The man (desirous of a son) should himself instill, with the help of a peice of cloth, into the right nostril (of the lady) three or four drops of milk in which herbs like laksmana, vatasunga (young sprouts of vata) sahadeva, visvadeva and such others have been soaked and then macerated. If desious of a daughter, he should instill drops into her left nostril. The milk should not be spit out.
Similarly the juice of the roots of svetabrhati, petals of utpala, kumuda, roots of laksmana or of the sprouts of vata-eight in number all collected in the pusya constellation can also be made use of. (32)
शुक्लमाल्याम्बरधरा च नारी पुष्योद्धृताया लक्ष्मणाया मूलकल्कमुदुम्बरमात्रं पयसा पिबेत् पुत्रस्योत्पादनाय स्थितये च । तद्वद्गौरदण्डमपामार्गं जीवकर्षभकौ शङ्खपुष्पीमध्यदण्डां सहचरं नग्नजितमग्निजिव्हामष्टौ वा वटशुङ्गानि । शालिपिष्टस्य च पच्यमानस्योष्माणमाघ्राय तद्रसं देहल्यां स्थिता पूर्ववन्नावयेत् । यच्चान्यदपि ब्राह्मणा वृद्धस्त्रियो वा ब्रूयुस्तच्च कुर्यात् ॥३३॥
The woman, putting on a garland of white flowers and wearing white dress, should drink a thin paste of roots of laksmana, collected in pusya constellation, one audumbara (pala) in quantity mixed with milk, in order to obtain a son and for safe carrying of pregnancy. Similarly gauradanda, apamarga, jivaka, rsabhaka, sankhapuspi sahachara, madhyadanda, nagnajita, agnijihva, or eight sprouts of vata may also be used for this purpose.
She should cook thin gruel with rice flour, inhale its fumes during cooking, keep the cooked gruel on the threshold of the door of the house for some time and instil the thin fluid into her nose. Any other thing indicated by the learned brahmanas or aged women should also be done. (33)
Garbh asthapana vidhi – method to protect pregnancy
ततः प्रजास्थापनाख्या दशौषधीः शिरसा दक्षिणेन च पाणिना धारयेत् । एताभिश्च सिद्धं पयो घृतं वा पिबेत् । एताभिरेव पुष्ये पुष्ये स्नायात् सदा च समालभेत । तथा सर्वासां जीवनीयानामौषधीनां सदोपयोगस्तै-स्तैर्विधानैरिति गर्भस्थापनानि ॥३४॥
Next, the pregnant lady should wear the ten herbs known for prajasthapana (protecting the foetus) on her head and right hand and also drink milk and ghee processed by these drugs. She should take bath on every pusya constellation and make use of the above drugs.
Similarly, constant use of drugs of jivaniya gana (vide chapter 16 sutrasthana) in the above ways, will also be beneficial. These are measures known as garbhasthapana (safe continuance of pregnancy). (34)
सौम्याकृतिवचनोपचारचेष्टाश्च प्रियहितानुवर्तिनः परिचारकास्तथा भर्तेति । पुनश्चैनां मासादुपेयात् ॥३५॥
The attendants who are to serve the pregnant woman should be mild in their dress, speech, service and activities; endowed with agreeable and comforting behaviour. The husband should also be likewise and share her bed once a month only. (35)
Garbha varna – colour of the foetus
तत्र शुक्रे शुक्ले घृतमण्डाभे वा गर्भस्य गारैत्वं तैलाभे कृष्णत्वं मध्वाभे श्यामत्वम् । तथा क्षीरादिमधुराणामुपयोगान्मातुरुदकविहाराच्च गौरता तिलान्नविदाहिना कृष्णता । व्यामिश्राणां श्यामता । देशकुलानुवृत्तितश्च वर्णभेदः ॥३६॥
If the semen is of white colour like ghritamanda (supernatant fluid of ghee), the colour of the off-spring will be whitish-yellow; if it is of the colour of oil, the offspring will be black; and if the semen is of the colour of honey the offspring will be bluish-black. If the mother indulges in sweet foods such as milk etc, and in water sports, the colour of the child will be whitish-yellow; indulgence in foods which cause heart-burn such as tila, the colour of the child will be black; with the use of mixed type of foods, the colour will be blue-black; the colour of the child will be different even in accordance with the region, race and occupation. (36)
तथा तेजोधातोरुदकाकाशधातुसम्पर्कागौरता । भूवायुसम्पर्कात् कृष्णता । सर्वधातुसाम्ये श्यामता ॥३७॥
Further, tejo dhatu (fire element) associated with udaka (water) and akasa (space) dhatu (elements) makes the colour of the child to be yellowish-white; with association of bhu (earth), and vayu (air) elements causes black colour; when all the elements are in equal proportion the colour of the child will be blue-black (brown). (37)
Satva visesakara bhava – factors influencing the mental features
सत्वविशेषकराणि पुनर्मातापितृसत्वादयोऽन्तर्वल्याः श्रुतयश्चाभीक्ष्णं स्वोपचितं च कर्म भवति । पूर्वाभ्यासश्चेति ॥ ३८ ॥
The factors which influence the mental make-up of the child are the mental traits, chastity, family behaviour, cleanliness etc of the parents; the sound (voice of others and sounds of different kinds) the pregnant woman hears constantly, the effects of actions of past lives. (38)
Some verses more
घृतक्षीरादिनित्यासु मुदितासु कफात्मसु । आर्तवं तिष्ठत्ति चिरं विपरीतास्वतोऽन्यथा ॥३९॥
Women who are habituated to the use of ghee, milk etc, daily, who are cheerful, who belong to kapha constitution will retain the artava (menstruation) for long time; while those of opposite nature of these qualities will not retain long. (39)
निपातादेव गृह्णाति रागं वासो यथाऽमलम् । ध्रुवं गर्भं तथा बीजं क्षेत्रं बीजमुपस्कृतम् ॥४०॥
Just as a clean cloth absorbs any colour quickly on contact, the field (uterus) if well prepared, quickly receives the prepared (purified) seed (male reproductive element), and sustain the foetus (without any trouble ). ( 40 )
अविरुद्धे ध्रुवं दैवे काले युक्तस्य कर्मणः । सिद्धिः पुंसवनाद्यस्मात् पूर्वं व्यक्तेः प्रयोजयेत् ॥४१॥
Just as successful result is sure to be seen for all actions done at proper time and when the divine influence is not contradictory so also pumsavana (rite to beget male offspring) done before the appearance of patent signs of pregnancy (will surely yeild the desired effect).
जाताश्चैवं रूपवन्तो महासत्त्वाश्चिरायुषः । ऋणान्मोचयितारः स्युः सुपुत्राः पुत्रिणां मताः ॥४२॥
Sons who are thus born, endowed with beauty, great intellegence, and long life are really the relievers of debt (of the parents); so say those who have borne children. (42)
देवताचारशौचादिरता सूते महागुणम् । धावत्येवं चाचरितं प्राग्जन्माभ्यासयोगतः ॥४३॥
Parents who are in the habit of worshipping gods, leading cultured life and maintaining cleanliness will beget children of excellent qualities; all the good of past lives will run quickly into them (become inherent in such sons). (43)
योषितोऽपि स्त्रवत्येव शुक्रं पुंसः समागमे । गर्भस्य तन्न किञ्चित्तु करोतीति न चिन्त्यते ॥४४॥
At the time of sexual intercourse with men, even women will secrete sukra; since it has nothing to do with the formation of the foetus, it is not described herein. (44)
॥ इति प्रथमोऽध्यायः ॥
Thus ends the Ashtanga Sangraha Sharira sthana First Chapter pumsavana.