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Charaka SamhitaCharaka Samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 30 - Dashamahamooliya Adhyaya - Ten Vessels Having...

Charaka Samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 30 – Dashamahamooliya Adhyaya – Ten Vessels Having Their Roots in the Heart

अथातोऽथेंदशमहामूलीयमध्यायं व्याख्मास्यामः ॥ १ ॥ इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः ॥ २ ॥

We shall now expound the ohapter on “The Ten Vessels Having Their Roots in the Heart”. Thus said Lord Atreya. [1-2] In this chapter it is proposed to give a camplete summary of the whole treatise.

Heart, its synonyms and importance

अथें दश महामूलाः समासक्ता महाफलाः । महञ्चार्थश्च हृदयं पर्यायैरुच्यते बुधैः ॥ ३ ॥ पडङ्गमङ्गं विज्ञानमिन्द्रियाण्यर्थपञ्चकम् । आत्मा च सगुणश्चेतश्चिन्त्यं च हृदि संचितम् ॥ ४ ॥

There are ten vessels of great biological importance attached to the heart. The synonyms of heart inter alia are ‘mahat’, ‘artha’ and hrdaya’.

Two upper limbs, two lower limbs, trunk and head, other viscera, consciousness, sense faculties, five objects of senses, soul together with its qualities like happiness etc., mind and objects of the mind are all located in the heart. [3-4]

The two Sanskrit synonyms, viz. ‘mahat’ and ‘artha’ conveying the sense of heart are used only in the science of medicine, not elsewhere. Heart is known as ‘mahat’ because of its overall biological importance. It is ‘artha’ because it is the organ par excellence.

Verse 4 explains the excellence of the heart as an organ, In fact, the body as a whole owes its existence to the heart, let alone the two upper limbs, two lower limbs, head and the trunk, the soul with all its qualities, specially consciousness is also located in the heart. The description of heart as an abode of the various somatic, psychic and spiritual entities as furnished above is exhaustive enough. One cannot therefore, argue agaist any of these entities being included in the list by force of implications. (e. g. one cannot say that consciousness is not to be included as a separate entity because of its being already included in the qualities of the soul. Consciousness itself is a very important entity located in the heart ). The implied meanings are always of a secondary imoportance.

Results of injury to heart

प्रतिष्ठार्थ हि भावानामेषां हृदयमिष्यते । गोपानसीनामागारकर्णिकेवार्थचिन्तकैः तस्योपघातान्मूर्च्छायं भेदान्मरणमृच्छति । ॥५॥

As the central girder supports the wood or bamboo frame work of thatch, so the heart represents the substratum of all the entities described above. Even a small injury to the heart results in fainting. Any serious injury to it leads to death. [5]

Now the question arises: “How the heart which is stated to be only of the measurement of two fingers, in breadth can be a substratum for all the four limbs, trunk and head, the six sense faculties, their objects— more important of all the soul (which is omnipresent) together with consciousness, mind and its objects (which in fact represent something in the external world and not present in the heart)? The reply is that the heart is not considered to be a substratum of these elements in the sense of their being actually located there. The idea is that all these elements owe their existence to the heart as the frame work of thatch to the central girder. That is to say, it is only so long as the heart is in its normal condition, that these elements also work normally and in the event of heart being injured, they are also injured.

If at all anything is actually located in the heart, it is only the soul, consciousness and mind. It is not correct to say that the soul being omnipresent may not be located in a small place like heart. The soul represents not the universal-self but the animated self who enjoys happiness and misery. This soul together with consciousness and mind cannot but be located in the heart. That is why consciousness, happiness and misery are felt only in the heart. One actually feels pain in the cardiac region and nowhere else while he is in the pensive or unhappy mood.

Heart, the seat of ojas

यद्धि तत् स्पर्शविज्ञानं धारि तत्तत्र संश्रितम् ॥ ६ ॥

तत् परस्यौजसः स्थानं तत्र चैतन्यसंग्रहः । हृदयं महदर्थश्च तस्मादुक्तं चिकित्सकैः ॥ ७ ॥

The heart is indispensable for all the normal mental and physical activities because the entire sense perception representing animation depends on the heart. Moreover, the heart is the substratum of the ojas par-excellence and it is also the controller of the mind. That is why, the physicians have designated the heart as ‘hrdaya’, ‘mahal’ and ‘artha’. [ 6-7]

Sense perception is of two types, viz. of the sense faculties and of the mind. Both of them are indispensable for any feeling whatsoevercf. Sarira 1 : 133. That is why the sense perception is responsible for the proper combination of the body, sense faculties, mind and soul. Thus, all that is felt and also the very act of feeling are dependent on the heart. Normally there is no feeling unless the mind or the sense faculties come in touch with their respective objects. It is not that all these feelings occur everywhere all the time. But then even the very act of coming in touch with the objects is dependent on the normal condition of the heart. It cannot be argued that the combination of the body, sense faculties, mind and soul occurs in other bodily regions. Such a combination, occuring elsewhere is only of a temporary nature and as such it is not responsible for the sustenance of life. It is only the combination in the heart which sustains the life. That is why, if the heart is affected, all the normal bodily and mental activities are paralysed. It is not so with other parts of the body.

There are two types of ojas-paraujas or the ojas par-excellence and aparaujas or the general type of ojas. The measurement of the latter is equal to half of the volume of an anjali (the space created by cupping both the hands together)-cf. Sarira 7:15. Elsewhere it is also said, “The ojas which is the substratum of life is of eight drops only in quantity; it is located in the heart”. The site of apara ojas is vessels attached to the heart. In prameha (diabetes) it is the apara type of ojas and not para type which gets reduced in quantity, because a slight reduction in the quantity of para type of ojas leads to death. In diabetes, even though there is reduction in the quantity of ojas, the individual still survives. Rasadhatu is also known as ojas-cf. Nidaana 4:7 and Chikitsa 8:41. But here ojas which is the essence of all dhatus is taken into account and it is not the synonym of rasa.

Some are of the view that ojas is a subsidiary tissue element (upadhatu) rather than a tissue element, for the tissue elements are those which sustain and nourish the body but ojas does not nourish it; so it cannot be treated as the eighth group of tissue elements. To say that ojas is nothing but a kind of sukra (sperm) is not correct. As a matter of fact ojas is the essence of all dhatus, hence it is not different from them and cannot be treated as an eighth dhatu on a subsidiary dhatu. As it has been stated, ojas is produced out of the essence of tissue elements as honey is the product of the essence collected by bees from fruits and flowera-cf. Sutra 17: 75. The heart is the abode of the soul when the mind starts inclining towards the external objects; the soul controls and confines it to the cardiac region. This marks the culminating point of the yogic practices when the soul attains perfection. So it is the heart which plays such an important role in the matter of spiritual elevation or salvation.

Vessels attached to the heart

तेन मूलेन महता महामूला मता दश । ओजोवहाः शरीरेऽस्मिन् विधम्यन्ते समन्ततः ॥ ८ ॥

Attached to the heart are the ten vessels which carry ojas and pulaste all over the body. [8]

Ojas and its importance

येनौजसा वर्तयन्ति प्रीणिताः सर्वदेहिनः । यहते सर्वभूतानां जीवितं नावतिष्ठते ॥ ९ ॥ यत् सारमादौ गर्भस्य यत्तद्गर्भरसाद्रसः । संवर्तमानं हृदयं समाविशति यत् पुरा ॥ १० ॥ यस्य नाशात्तु नाशोऽस्ति धारि यहृदयाश्रितम् । यच्छरीररसस्नेहः प्राणा यत्र प्रतिष्ठिताः ॥ ११ ॥ तत्फला बहुधा वा ताः फलन्तीव (ति) महाफलाः ।

It is the ojas which keeps all the living beings refreshed. There can be no life without ojas. Ojas marks the beginning of the formation of embryo. It is the nourishing fluid from the embryo. It enters the heart right at the stage of the latter’s initial formation. Loss of ojas amounts to the loss of life itself. It sustains the life and is located in the heart. It constitutes the essence of all the tissue elements. The elan vital owes its existence to it. But all this action of ojas manifest itself in different ways, only with the help of these vessels. So these vessels play an important role (in the maintenance of health. [9-11]

The actions described here pertain to both the types of ojas. It is this ojas where the soul is lodged after the union of the sperm and ovum. It is the essence of the slime material formed as a result of the union of the sperm and ovum. Entrance of ojas into the heart of the embryo manifest the cardiac activities. Thus, in the three different stages of the foetus, ojas plays an important role. At the time of conception, it is the essence of the sperm and the ovum. In the second stage, it is the essence of the slime material which provides nutrition to the embryo. In third stage, when there is formation of various organs, ojas manifests its own actions. Because it pervades all the stages of life, the synonym ‘mahat’ attributed to it is justified. Death occurs due to loss of ojas even if there is no loss of other tissue elements of the body. It is called ‘dhuri’ because it is important in bringing about coordination among all the factors responsible to sustain life. Here the various properties of ojas have been enumerated with a view to emphasising its importance. Thus, the vessels carrying ojas serves manyfold purposes. They, even though ten in number, when attached to the heart go on branching and become innumerable spreading all over the body.

Defination of different coadints

ध्मानाद्धमन्यः स्त्रवणात् स्त्रोतांसि सरणात्सिराः ॥ १२ ॥

Because of pulsation, some of them are called ‘dhamani’; because of transudation some of them are called ‘srotas’ and because of the action of simply carrying a substance from one place to another, some others are called ‘sira’. [ 12 ]

Dhamanis, start pulsating when they get filled up with nutrient material derived from external sources. Subsequently, these nutrient materials are supplied to the tissues through the process of transudation, and at this level, they are known as ‘srotas’. Channels belonging to the third category, that is sira, simply carry substances from one place to another. They do not pulsate nor does the process of transudation take place there. They are called ‘sira’.

Tenets for preservation of Ojas

परिरक्षता । विशेषेण मनसो दुःखहेतवः ॥ १३ ॥ हृद्यं यत् स्याद्यदौजस्थं स्रोतसां यत् प्रसादनम् । तत्तत् सेव्यं प्रयत्नेन प्रशमो ज्ञानमेव च ॥ १४ ॥ तन्महत् ता महामूलास्तश्चौजः परिहार्या

Those who want to preserve ojas and maintain heart and the vessels attached to it in good condition, should avoid such of the factors as may lead to unhappiness (mental worries). Diets and drugs which are conducive to the heart, ojas and channels of circulation should be taken. Tranquility and wisdom should be followed meticulously for this purpose. [ 13-14]

The best factors to be adopted

अथ खल्वेकं प्राणवर्धनानामुत्कृष्टतममेकं बलवर्धनामेकं वृंहणानामेकं नन्दनानामेकं हर्षणानामेकमयनानामिति । तत्राहिंसा प्राणिनां प्राणवर्धनानामुत्कृष्टतमं, वीर्य वलवर्धनानां, विद्या बृंहणानाम्, इन्द्रियजयो नन्दनानां, तथ्चावबोधो हर्षणानां, ब्रह्मचर्य मयनानामिति; एवमायुर्वेद विदो मन्यन्ते ॥ १५ ॥

According to the scholars of Ayurveda, the foremost factors among those which promote longevity, strength, nourishment, delightfulness and happiness and lead to salvation are as follows:

Non-violence stands the first and foremost among the promoters of longevity of living beings. Semen among the promoters of strength; knowledge among the promoters of nourishment; self-control among the promoters of delightfulness; understanding of truth among the promoters of happiness and abstinence from the sexual act among those leading to salvation. [ 15 ]

Food is one of the factors to promote longevity but non-violence leads to the attainment of virtues. So the latter is the foremost among the promoters of longevity. Meat is no doubt an important diet for the nourishment of the body but knowledge provides nourishment both to the mind and body; hence it is treated as the foremost among the promoters of nourishment.

The proper study of Ayurveda

तत्रायुर्वेद विदस्तन्वस्थानाध्याय प्रश्नानां पृथक्त्वेन वाक्यशो वाक्यार्थशोऽर्थावयवराच प्रवक्तारो मन्तव्याः । तत्राह – कथं तन्त्रादीनि वाक्यशो वाक्यार्थशोऽर्थावयवराश्चोक्तानि भवन्तीति ॥ १६ ॥

अन्नोच्यते – तन्त्रमार्षे कात्स्नर्येन यथाम्नाय मुच्यमानं वाक्यशो भवत्युक्तम् । १७ बुद्धया सम्यगनु प्रविश्यार्थतत्वं वाग्भिर्व्याससमासप्रतिज्ञाहेतूदाहरणोपनयनिगमनयुक्ताभित्रिविधशिष्यबुद्धिगम्माभिरुच्यमानं वाक्यार्थशो भवत्युक्तम् ॥१८॥ तन्त्रनियतानामर्थदुर्गाणां पुनर्विभावनैरुक्तमर्थावयवशो भवत्युक्तम् ॥ १९ ॥

Scholars conversant with Ayurveda should be in a position to explain the whole text; its different sections and chapters and specific topics in each chapter, distinctly. They should be able to recite faithfully the contents of the text, interpret them and give their gist. How could this be done ? The entire text transmitted through the sages is to be recited in the appropriate order. After proper understanding, the meanings underlying the text are to be interpreted with due regard to the principles of elaboration, contraction, thesis, reasoning, examplification, subsumptive correlation and conclusion, intelligible to all the threesuperior, inferor and mediocre types of disciples. The concepts difficult to grasp from the text are to be clarified again and again so that a clear picture of the text can be had. [ 17–19 ]

Sometimes, it is difficult to arrive at the correct meaning of the text specially when the text is not very clear, e. g. in the text “शरीरचेष्टा या चेष्टा स्थैर्यार्था बलवधिन’ -cf. Sura 7:31, the term ‘cesta’ appears to have been repeated but as a matter of fact, the second ‘cesta’ is to be construed as ‘ca-istu’ and this renders the meaning of the text quite clear and helps in arriving at the correct meaning thereof.

Ayurveda, its source and scope

तत्र चेत् प्रष्टारः स्युः – चतुर्णामृकसामयजुरथर्ववेदानां’ कं’ ‘वेदमुपदिशन्त्यायुर्वेदविदः ?, किमायुः ?, कस्मादायुर्वेदः ?, किमर्थमायुर्वेदः ?, शाश्वतोऽशाश्वतो वा ?, कति कानि चास्याङ्गानि ?, कैश्चायमध्येतव्यः ? किमर्थं च ? इति ॥ २० ॥

Again the question arises as to which of the four-Rk, Saman, Yajus and Atharvan-vedas do the scholars of Ayurveda follow ? What is the life span? Why is it called Ayurveda ? What is the object of Ayurveda ? Is it eternal or ephemeral? What are its branches and how many are they? Who are eligible to study it and what for. [20]

Source of Ayurveda

तत्र भिषजा पृष्टेनैवं चतुर्णामृक्सामयजुरथर्ववेदानामात्मनोऽथर्ववेदे भक्तिरादेश्या, वेदो ह्याथर्वणो दानस्वस्त्ययनवलिमङ्गलहोमनियमप्रायश्चित्तोपवासमन्त्रादिपरिग्रहाच्चिकित्सां प्राह; चिकित्सा चायुषो हितायोपदिश्यते ॥ २१ ॥

Of the four-Rk, Yajus, Saman and Atharvan-vedas, physicians owe their loyalty to the Atharva veda because this deals with the treatment of diseases by taking recourse to gift, propitiatory rites, worship, auspicious observances, oblations, observance of spiritual rules, atonement, fast, incantations etc. They are prescribed for the sake of longevity. [21]

Purpose being the same, Ayurveda forms a part of the Atharvaveda.

Definition of Ayu

वेदं चोपदिश्यायुर्वाच्यं; चेत्येकोऽर्थः ॥ २२ ॥

तत्रायुश्चेतनानुवृत्तिर्जीवितमनुबन्धो wift

After instructions about the veda, various aspects of the life span are to be described. Life span is nothing but the continuation of consciousness, the act of keeping alive, anubandha (which transmigrates from one body to another) and dhari ( one that prevents the body from decay). These terms, viz. cetananuvrtti, jivita, anubandha and dhari are synonymous with ayus. [ 22 ]

From the time of pregnancy till the time of death, consciousness in living beings continues uninterrupted. Conciousness connot be direclty observed after death and so its continuation thereafter cannot be accepted. What about the continuance of consciousness during sleep? During sleep there is no discontinuty of consciousness, otherwise one would not have a feeling ‘I slept well’. This shows the continuance of consciousness in a subtle form even during that state.

In Sutra 1 : 42, life is described as the combination of body, senses, mind and soul. Even though, continuation of consciousness (that is life span) is not identical with the life (ayus) itself, it is being described here as the life itself. This is because, the life being the cause of the contination of consciousness and the latter, the former’s effect, both are intended to be treated as one and the same. For the description of the terms, viz. anubandha and dhari, vide the commentary on Sutra 1:42.

Definition of Ayurveda

तदायुर्वेदयतीत्यायुर्वेदः कथमिति चेत् ? उच्यते-स्वलक्षणतः सुखासुखतो हिताहिततः प्रमाणाप्रमाणातश्चः यतश्चायुष्याण्यनायुष्याणि च द्रव्यगुणकर्माणि वेदयत्यतोऽप्यायुर्वेदः । तत्रायुष्याण्यनाष्युयाणि च द्रव्यगुणकर्माणि केवलेनोपदेक्ष्यन्ते तन्त्रेण ॥ २३ ॥

The science which imparts knowledge about life, with special reference to its definition, and the description of happy and unhappy life, useful and harmful life, long and short spans of life and such other material alongwith their properties and actions as promote and demote longevity will be described in the entire treatise. [ 23 ]

Some commentators derive the term af from the root ‘vidl’ ( विदल लाभे ), to get. But any such meaning cannot be accepted in the present context.

Figuratively, the term ayus indicates substances which both promote and demote longevity. Substances which are not conducive to longevity are not to be used and so they are to be discarded. Thus the knowledge of even such substances serves the useful purpose for the sustenance of life; hence they are described among others to mean life.

Happy life and unhappy life

तत्रायुरुक्तं स्वलक्षणतो यथावदिदैव पूर्वाध्याये च । तत्र शारीरमानसाभ्यां रोगाभ्यामनभिद्रुतस्य विशेषेण यौवनवतः समर्थानुगतबलवीर्ययशः पौरुष पराक्र मस्य ज्ञानविज्ञानेन्द्रियेन्द्रियार्थवलसमुदये वर्तमानस्य परमर्द्धिरुचिरविविधो. पभोगस्य समृद्धसर्वारम्भस्य यथेष्टविचारिणः सुखमायुरुच्यते; असुखमतो विप र्ययेण; हितैषिणः पुनर्भूतानां परस्वादु परतस्य सत्यवादिनः शमपरस्य परीक्ष्यकारिजोऽप्रमत्तस्य त्रिवर्ग परस्परेणानुपहतमुपसेवमानस्य पूजार्हसंपूजकस्य ज्ञानविज्ञानोपशमशीलस्य वृद्धोपसेविनः सुनियतरागरोषेर्ष्यामद मानवेगस्य सततं विविधमदानपरस्य तपोशानप्रशमनित्यस्याध्यात्मविदस्तत्परस्य लोकमिमं चामुं चावेक्षमाणस्य स्मृतिमतिमतो हितमायुरुच्यते; अहितमतो विपर्ययेण ॥ २४ ॥

In this chapter as well as in the first chapter of this section life has been defined.

Those who are not afflicted with physical and mental ailments, who are endowed with youth, enthusiasm, strength, varility, reputation, manliness, boldness, knowledge of arts and sciences, senses, objects of senses, ablity of the sense organs, riches and various luxurious articles for enjoyment, who achieve what ever they want and move as they like, lead a happy life; others lead an unhappy life.

Those who are the well-wishers of all creatures, who do not aspire for the wealth of others, who are truthful, peace loving, who examine things before acting upon them, who are vigilant, who enjoy the three important desires of life viz., virtue, wealth and pleasure without the one affecting the other, who respect superiors, who are endowed with the knowledge of arts, sciences and tranquility, who serve the elders, who have full control over passion, anger, envy, pride and prestige, who are constantly given to various types of charity, meditation, acquisition of knowledge and quite life (solitude), who have full knowledge of the spiritual power and are devoted to it, who make efforts both for the existing as well as the next life and are endowedwith memory and intelligence, lead a usefullife, others do not. [24]

Determination of life span

प्रमाणमायुषस्त्वर्थेन्द्रियमनोबुद्धिचेष्टादीनां विकृतिलक्षणैरुपलभ्यतेऽनिमित्तैः, अयमस्मात् क्षणान्मुहूर्तादिवसान्त्रिपञ्च सप्तदशद्वादशाद्दात् पक्षान्मासात् पण्मासात् संवत्सरांद्वा स्वभावमापत्स्यत इति; तत्र स्वभाव: प्रवृत्तेरुपरमो मरणमनित्यता निरोध इत्येकोऽर्थः; इत्यायुषः प्रमाणम् ; अतो विपरीतमप्रमाणसरिटाधिकारे; देहप्रकृतिलक्षणमधिकृत्य चोपदिष्टमायुषः प्रमाणमायुर्वेदे ॥ २५ ॥ प्रयोजनं चास्य स्वस्थस्य स्वास्थ्यरक्षणमातुरस्य विकारप्रशमनं च ॥ २६ ॥

The limitation of the span of life is rom the sudden abnormal change in the sense faculties and the reception of their objects in the mind, intellect and general movement. They help in the prediction of the death of an individual after a particular moment, time or day, after three, five, seven or ten days and after a fortnight, a month, six months or a year.

Svabhava (reversion to the origional state), uparama of pravrtti (deprivation of all activities), marana (death), anityata (ephemeral state) niradha (obstruction in the continuity of the living process)–all these are synonymous for death. This is about the (limited) span of life. In the absence of such signs and symptoms, the span of life is to be determined as unlimited from the point of view of prognosis.

In Ayurveda, the span of life is described to be determined on the basis of nature of the physique, type of constitution and special signs.

The utility of this science is to help maintain the health of a healthy individual and cure of discases of a patient. [ 25-26 ]

Abnormal change in the perception of the objects of senses is described in Indriya 2: 8; change in the sense faculties in Indriya 4 : 18; change in the mind in Indriya 8 : 21; change in intellect in Inrriya 11: 7 ane change in movement in Indriya 12:4.

On the basis of bad prognostic signs, one can predict the occurrence of death any time, within one year and not beyond that. Determination of the life span of an individual on the basis of his physique is described in Vimana 8: 111. The prakti or constitution of the individual also determines the span of life – cf. Vimuna 8 : 96. Specific signs and symptoms of individuals having a long span of life is described in Surira 8:51.

Eternity of Ayurveda

सोऽयमायुर्वेदः शाश्वतो निर्दिश्यते, अनादित्वात्, स्वभावसंसिद्धलक्षणत्वात्, भावस्वभावनित्यत्वाञ्च । न हि नाभूत् कदाचिदायुषः सन्तानोबुद्धिसन्तानो वा शाश्वतश्चायुषो वेदिता, अनादि च सुखदुःखं सद्रव्यहेतुलक्षणमपरापरयोगात् । एप चार्थसंग्रहो विभाव्यते आयुर्वेदलक्षणमिति । गुरुलघुशीतोष्ण स्निग्धरूक्षादीनां द्रव्याणां सामान्य विशेषाभ्यां वृद्धिहासौ, यथोक्तं – गुरुभिरभ्यस्यमा नैर्गुरुणामुपचयो भवत्यपचयो लघूनां, एवमेवेतरेषामिति, एप भावस्वभावो नित्यः, स्वलक्षणं च द्रव्याणां पृथिव्यादीनां; सन्ति तु द्रव्याणि गुणाञ्च नित्या नित्याः । न ह्यायुर्वेदस्याभूत्वोत्पत्ति रुपलभ्यते, अन्यत्राचवोधोपदेशाभ्याम् एतद्वै द्वयमधिकृत्योत्पत्तिमुपदिशन्त्येके । स्वाभाविकं चास्य लक्षणमकृतकं, यदुक्तमिहाद्येऽध्याये च; यथाअग्नेरौष्ण्यम्, अपां द्रवत्वम् । भावस्वभावनित्यत्वमपि चास्य, यथोक्तं – गुरुभिरभ्यस्य मानैर्गुरुणामुपचयो भवत्यपचयो लघुनामिति ॥ २७ ॥

Ayurveda or the science of life is eternal because of the following :

1. It has no beginning;

2. It deals with such things as are inherent in Nature; and 3. Such natural manifestations are eternal.

There is no discontinuity either in the living process or in the knowledge of things ( conducive to it or otherwise). Living beings who are in know of the various factors relating to the science of life are also eternal. The knowledge of happiness ( good health ) and unhappiness ( ill health ) alongwith their etiology, symptomatology and therapeutics has a continuity and is without any beginning. This is what is described in the Ayurveda.

Substances having propertics live heaviness, lightriess, cold, heat, unctuousness, ununctuousness etc., get increased when other substances having similar properties are added; Substances having dissimilar qualities, on the other hand decrease their quantity, e. g., habitual intake of heavy things increases the heavy factors and decreases the light ones in the body. So also is the case with others. This is the eternity of natural manifestations. The inherent attributes of prithvi etc. are eternal. However, matters and their attributes are both eternal and ephemeral.

The Ayurveda is either conceived or taught by preceptors. Because of this, some scholars ascribe a beginning to the Ayurveda. In fact, it is not so and it is not known ever Ayurveda was non-existent at any time after which it was propagated. Like the heat of the fire and liquidity of water, the Ayurveda or the Science of life is innate and it does not involve any artificiality (efforts of mortals). This is what is described in this chapter as well as in the first chapter of this section (cf. Sutra 30:23 and Sutra 1 : 42).

Its natural manifestations are eternal, e. g. habitual intake of heavy things increases the heavy factors and decreases the light ones in the body. [27]

There are three factors to prove the eternity of the science of life It is not the book containing the knowledge of the science but the very utility of the science which is eternal and is being prescribed without interruption. Life, the various aspects of which are deseribed in this science is eternal. There is continuity of life. Its knowledge and the living beings who know the science are eternal. Much more than the life itself, it is the good health and ill health and their various aspects affecting the life which are described in this science. Cause, signs and symptoms and management of individuals having both good health and ill health are described in the Ayurveda: The unhappiness caused by ill health is to be tackled and such ways and means as are necessary to tackle them are described here. Similarly, there is the description of the ways and means to maintain good health leading to happiness in the Ayurveda.

The matter and their attributes are both eternal and ephemeral. The causes like akasa etc., are eternal and as effects they are ephemeral. The same principle is applicable to the eternity and ephemerality of their attributes. The attributes of akasa, like quantity etc., are eternal and taste etc., are ephemeral. But these ephemeral attributes like taste have their continuity which is also eternal. Thus the etiological factors which are manifested naturally, produce or alleviate diseases that are also natural.

The science of life deals among others with thn correlation of these eternal causes and effects. Thus the science itself is eternal. Brahma is described to have originally conceived Ayurveda-cf.. Sutra 1:4. Bharadvaja learnt the science from Lord Indra-cf. Sutra 1: 5. But these statements are not indicative of any beginning of the science. The phenomena of “increase by homologous substances and decrease by heterogenous ones” are nothing but natural manifestations and do not involve artificiality. Such natural manifestations are indicative of the eternity of the science of life.

The Eight Disciplines of Ayurveda

तस्यायुर्वेदस्याङ्गान्यष्टौ; तद्यथा-कायचिकित्सा, शालाक्यं, शल्यापहर्तृकं, विषगरवैरोधिक प्रशमनं, भूतविद्या, कोमारभृत्यकं, रसायनं, वाजीकरण मिति ॥२८॥

The ayurveda has eight branches viz., 1. Internal medicine, 2. Science of diseases specific to supra-clavicular region, viz. eye ear, nose, mouth, throat etc., 3. Surgery, 4. Toxicology, 5. Science of demonic seizures ( Psychology ), 6. Pediatrics, 7. Science of rejuvenation and 8. Science of aphrodisiacs. [ 28 ]

TI term ‘kaya’ means agni or the enzymes responsible for the digestion as well as metabolism. KayaChikitsa deals with the management of diseases coused by the impairment of the power of digestion and metabolism. Science of the treatment of diseases involving the use of fine probes is known as salakya. Gara type of poison produces cumulative toxicity. Toxicity produced due to the combination of imcompartible articles is known as vairodhika. Bhutas means evil spirits. Diagnosis and management of such afflictions is known as Bhutavidya. (the treatment of demonaic seizures). Management of newly born child and catering to its various needs is Kaumarabhrtya or pediatrics.

Role of Ayurveda

स चाध्येतव्यो ब्राह्मणराजन्यवैश्यैः । तत्रानुग्रहार्थ प्राणिनां ब्राह्मणैः, आरक्षार्थ राजन्यैः, वृत्य वैश्यैः; सामान्यतो वा धर्मार्थकामपरिग्रहार्थसर्वैः । तत्र यदध्यात्मविदां धर्मपथस्थानां धर्मप्रकाशकानां वा मातृपितृभ्रातृबन्धुगुरुजनस्य वा विकारप्रशमने प्रयत्नवान् भवति, यच्चायुर्वेदोक्तमध्यात्ममनुध्यायति वेदयत्यनुविधीयते वा, सोऽस्य परो धर्मः; या पुनरीश्वराणां वसुमतां वा सकाशात् सुखोपहारनिमित्ता भवत्यर्थावाप्तिरारक्षणं च, या च स्वपरिगृहीतानां प्राणिनामातुर्यादारक्षा, सोऽस्यार्थः, यत् पुनरस्य विग्रहणयशः शरण्यत्वं च, या च संमानशुश्रूषा, यच्चेटानां विषयाणामारोग्यमाधत्ते सोऽस्य कामः । इति यथाप्रश्नमुक्तमशेषेण ॥ २९ ॥

The science ( of life ) is to be studied by brahmanas for providing benefit to all creatures, by ksatriyas for protection and by vaisyas for earning livelihood. In general, the Ayurveda can be studied by all for the attainment of virtues, wealth and pleasure. Virtues are attained by treating individuals who have spiritual knowledge, who practise and propagate righteousness and others like mother, father, brothers, friends and superiors. These are also achieved by meditation, propagation and practice (accomplishment) of the spiritual knowledge contained in the science of life. With a view to leading a comfortable life one can earn wealth and protection by treating kings and other wealthy individuals. He can also protect his subordinates and servants by this science. He draws pleasure by the respect shown to him by learned people, by his ability to protect others, by the prestige and obligation and by keeping his beloved ones like wife. free from diseases.

Thus all the queries are answered in their entirety. [ 29 ].

Mutual scholarly discussion

अथ भिषगादित एव भिपजा प्रष्टव्योऽष्टविधं भवति–तन्त्रं तन्त्रार्थान, स्थानं, स्थानार्थान्, अध्यायम्, अध्यायार्थान्, प्रश्नं, प्रश्नार्थाश्चेति पृष्टेन चैतद्वक्तव्यमशेषेण वाक्यशो वाक्यार्थशोऽर्थावयवशश्चेति ॥ ३० ॥ 3

Eight problems on which a physician can examine another are the treatise, sections, chapters and topics along with the scope of each. Being put to such questions, a physician should recite the textual data, interpret them and give the gist in their entirety. [30]

Synonyms of Ayurveda and its scope

तत्रायुर्वेदः शाखा विद्या सूत्रं ज्ञानं शास्त्रं लक्षणं तन्त्रमिप्यनर्थान्तरम् ॥ ३१ ॥ तन्त्रार्थः पुनः स्वलक्षणैरुपदिष्टः । स चार्थः प्रकरणैर्विभाव्यमानो भूय एव शरीरवृत्तिहेतुव्याधिकर्मकार्यकाल कर्तृकरणविधिविनिश्चयाद्दशप्रकरणः, तानि च प्रकरणानि केवलेनोपदेक्ष्यन्ते तन्त्रेण ॥ ३२ ॥

Sakha, vidya, sutra, jnana, sastra, laksanna and tantra are synonymous with the Ayurveda or the science of life.

The scope of this science has already been explained in its definition. Various topics discussed in this science are 1. anatomy, 2. physiology, 3. etiology, 4. pathology, 5. therapeutics, 6. achievement of good health, 7. climatology including the stage of the disease, 8. physicians. 9. therapies including wholesome locality and 10. procedure. Descriptions of these topics are spread over the entire treatisc. [ 31-32 ]

The body is composed of five mahubhutas and is variously divided into several organs. Its various functions are maintained by the intake of food etc. The unwholesome contact with senses, intellectual blasphemy and seasonal variations constitute the etiology of diseases. Disturbance of the equilibrium of dhatus is responsible for the causation of discases. Various seasonal changes and the stages of the manifestation of diseases constitute the kala or time. The procedure to be followed for treatinent is dependent upon the time, the disease and the drug e. g. habitual use of hot water in winter is not harmful to longevity-cf. Sutra 6:13. Desa or locality is not directly enumerated in the list but is cover ed under two of these items-the unwholesome locality in hetu or etiology and wholesome in karana or therapies.

Divisions of the treatise

तन्त्रस्यास्याष्टौ स्थानानिः तद्यथा- लोकनिदान विमानशारीरेन्द्रिय चिकित्सि तकल्पसिद्धिस्थानानि । तत्र त्रिंशदध्यायकं लोकस्थानम्, अष्टाष्टाध्याय कानि निदानविमानशारीरस्थानानि, द्वादशकमिन्द्रियाणां, त्रिशकं चिकित्सितानां, द्वादशके कल्पसिद्धिस्थाने भवतः ।। ३३ ।।

The following are the eight sections of the treatise

1. Slokasthana or the section on general principles having thirty chapters.

2. Nidanasthana or the section on diagnosis of diseases having eight chapters;

3. Vimanasthana or the section on specific determination of drugs etc., having eight chapters;

4. Sarirasthana or the section on anatomy including embryology having eight chapters;

5. Indriyasthana or the section on prognostic signs having twelve chapters;

6. Chikitsasthana or the section on therapeutics having thirty chapters;

7, Kalpasthana or the section on pharmaceuticals having twelve chapters; and

Siddhisthana or the section on the successful administration of panchakarma ( five elimination therapies) having twelve chapters. [33]

In brief:

भवति चात्र

द्वे त्रिंशके द्वादशकं त्रयं च त्रीण्यष्टकान्येषु समाप्तिरुता । श्लोकौषधारिष्टविकल्पसिद्धिनिदान मानाश्रयसंज्ञकेषु ॥ ६४ ॥

Thus it is said

Sutra and Chikitsa sections have thirty chapters each, Indriya, Kalpa and Siddhi sections have twelve chapters each, and Nidana, Vimana and Sarira sections have eight chapters each. about the entire treatise. [ 34 ]

स्वे स्वे स्थाने यथास्वं च स्थानार्थ उपदेक्ष्यते । सविंशध्यायशतं शृणु नामक्रमागतम् ॥ ३५ ॥

The scope of each section is described in respective places ( sections ) in the order of their occurrence, the names of one hundred twenty chapters are given below :- [ 35 ]

Enumeration of the chapters of  Charaka Samhita Sutrasthana

दीर्घञ्जीवोऽप्यपामार्गतण्डुलारग्वधादिकौ । चतुष्को भेषजाश्रयः ॥ ३६ ॥ पड्विरोकाश्रयश्चेति मात्रातस्याशितीयौ च नवेगान्धारणं तथा । इन्द्रियोपक्रमश्चेति चत्वारः स्वास्थ्यवृत्तिकाः ॥ ३७ ॥ खुड्डाकश्च चतुष्पादो महांस्तिस्रैषणस्तथा । सह वातकलाख्येन विद्यान्नैर्देशिकान् बुधः ॥ ३८ ॥ स्रेहनस्वेदनाध्यायावुभौ यचोपकल्पनः । चिकित्साप्राभृतश्चैव सर्व एव प्रकल्पनाः ॥ ३९ ॥ कियन्तः शिरसीयश्च त्रिशोफाष्टोदरादिकौ । रोगाध्यायो महांश्चैव रोगाध्यायचतुष्टयम् ॥ ४० ॥ अष्टौनिन्दितसंख्यातस्तथा लङ्घनतर्पणे । विधिशोणितिकश्चैव व्याख्यातास्तत्र योजनाः ॥ ४१ ॥ यजःपुरुषसंख्यातो भद्रकाप्यान्नपानिकौ । विविधाशितपीतीयश्चत्वारोऽन्नविनिश्चयाः ॥ ४२ ॥ दशप्राणायतनिकस्तथाऽर्थेदशमूलिकः द्वावेतौ प्राणदेहार्थी प्रोक्तौ वैद्यगुणाश्रयौ ॥ ४३ ॥

The names of chapters are

1. Quest for longevity;

2. Dehusked seed of apamarga ( Achyranthes aspera Linn. );

3. aragvadha ( Cassia fistula Linn. )

4. Six hundred purgatives;

The abovementioned four chapters constitute the quadrate on drugs.

5. Measurement of eating;

6. Human dietetics;

7. Non-suppression of natural urges;

8. Description of sense organs;

The above mentioned four chapters ( Nos. 5 to 8) constitute the quadrate on the maintenance of positive health ).

9. Minor chapter on the four aspects of therapeutics;

10. Major chapter on the four aspects of therapeutics;

11. Three basic desires of life;

12. Vata-its merits and demerits,

The above mentioned fout chapters (Nos. 9 to 12 ) constitute the quadrate on physician, medicine etc.

13. Oleation;

14. Fomentation;

15. Requirements of a physician;

16. Duties of a physician;

The above mentioned four chapters (Nos. 13 to 16) constitute the quadrate on therapeutic measures.

17. Enumeration of diseases relating to head;

18. Three types of swelling;

19. Eight abdominal diseases;

20. Major chapter on the enumeration of diseases;

The above mentianed four chapters (Nos. 17 to 20) constitute the quadrate on diseases.

21. Eight types of undesirable persons;

22. Lightening and nourishing therapies;

23. Refreshing regimen;

24. Blood purification and the regimen therefor;

The above mentioned four chapters (Nos. 21 to 24) consti.tute the quadrate on therapeutics

25. Origin of man and his diseases;

26. Discourse among Atreya, Bhadrakapya etc.

27. Properties of diets and drinks;

28. Various types of diets and drinks;

The abovementioned four chapter (Nos. 25 to 28) constitude the quadrate on dietetics.

29. Ten resorts of life;

30. Ten vessels having their roots in the heart; The above mentioned two chapters ( Nos. 29 and 30) deal with the resorts of life and qualities of physicians. [ 36-43 ]

Subclassification of : औषधस्वस्थनिर्देशकल्पनारोगयोजनाः चतुष्काः षट् क्रमेणोक्ताः सप्तमश्चान्नपानिकः ॥ ४४ ॥ द्वौ चान्त्या संग्रहाध्यायाविति त्रिंशकमर्थवत् । लोकस्थानं समुद्दिष्टं तन्त्रस्यास्य शिरः शुभम् ॥ ४५ ॥ चतुष्काणां महार्थानां स्थानेऽस्मिन् संग्रहः कृतः । लोकार्थः संग्रहार्थञ्च श्लोकस्थानमतः स्मृतम् ॥ ४६ ॥

Seven quadiates (each containing four chapters) on drugs, maintenance of positive health, physicians including medicines etc., therapeutic measures, diseases, therapeutics and dietetics are described consecutively. The first section as well as the entire treatise are summarised in the last two chapters. Thus the first section of thirty chapters is very important. In fact it serves as the brain of the whole treatise. In this section quadrates of great importance are collected. Because of the compilation of fundamental principles concerning various aspects of the Ayurveda, this is known as the ‘sloka’ section. [ 44-46 ]

This section depicts fundamental principles, provides information and maintains the continuity of ideas with a view to giving a good grasp of the science of medicine. This is stated to be the reason for which Susruta has selected the title ” for this section-cf. Susruta : Satra 3 : 12.

Chapters of Charaka Samhita Nidanasthana

ज्वराणां रक्तपित्तस्य गुल्मानां मेहकुष्ठयोः । शोपोन्मादनिदाने च स्यादपस्मारिणां च यत् ॥ ४७ ॥ इत्यध्यायाष्टकमिदं निदानस्थानमुज्यते

The Nidanasthana or the section on the diagnosis of diseases contains eight chapters providing for the diagnosis of the following aliments :

1. Jvara (fever).

2. Raktapitta (a condition characterized by bleeding from various parts of the body);

3. Gulma (abdominal tumour);

4. Meha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes mellitus);

5. Kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy);

6. Sosha (consumption);

7. Unmada (insanity);

8. Apasmara (epilepsy).

Chapters of Charaka Samhita Vimanasthana

रसेषु त्रिविधो कुक्षौ ध्वंसे जनपदस्य च ॥ ४८ ।। त्रिविधे रोग विज्ञाने स्रोतःस्त्रपि च वर्तने ।

रोगानीके व्याधिरूपे रोगाणां च भिषग्जिते ॥ ४९ ॥ अष्टौ विमानान्युक्तानि मानार्थानि महर्षिणा ।

The Vimanasthana or the section on specific determination has eight chapters envisaging the specific determination of the following eight topics:

1. Rasa or taste ;

2. Trividhakuksiya (three factions of the stomach capacity);

3. Janapadodbvasina ( epidemic diseases)

4. Trividbarogavisesavijnana (three factore for the specific determination of diseases);

5. Srotas (channels of circulation);

6. Roganika (classification of diseases);

7. Vyadhitarupiya (classification of patients);

8. Rogabbisagjitiya ( treatment of diseases). (48-50)

Chapters of Sarira sthana

कतिधापुरुषीयं च गोत्रेणातुल्यमेव च ॥ ५० ॥ खुड्डिका महती चैव गर्भावक्रान्तिरुच्यते । पुरुषस्य शरीरस्य विचयौ द्वौ विनिश्चितौ ॥ ५१ ॥ शरीरसंख्या सूत्रं च जातेरष्टममुच्यते । इत्युद्दिष्टानि मुनिना शारीराण्यत्रिसूनुना । ५२ ॥

The Sarirasthana (section on anatomy including ) has eight chapters dealing with the following topics

embryology etc.:

1. Katidbapurusiya (classification of constituents of the individual);

2. Atulyagotriya (exogamy);

3. Khuddikagarbhavakranti (minor chapter on the formation of foetus);

4. Mabatigarbhavakranti (major chapter on the formation of foetus).

5. Purusavicaya (individual self as a replica of the universal self);

6. Sariravicaya (analysis of the body);

7. Sarirasainkhya (enumeration of the organs of the body);

8. Jatisitriya (process of delivery). (50-52)

Chapters of Charaka Samhita Indriyasthana

वर्णस्वरीयः पुष्पाख्यस्तृतीयः परिमर्शनः । चतुर्थ इन्द्रियानीकः पञ्चमः पूर्वरूपिकः ॥ ५३ ॥ कतमानि शरीरीयः पन्नरूपोऽप्यवाक्शिराः । यस्यश्यात्रनिमित्तश्च सद्योमरण एव च ॥ ५४ ॥ अणुज्योतिरिति ख्यातस्तथा गोमयचूर्णवान् । द्वादशाध्यायकं स्थानमिन्द्रियाणामिति स्मृतम् ॥ ५५ ॥

Indriyasthana or the section on the prognosis of diseases has twelve chapters dealing with the following topics:

1. Varnasvariya (prognosis indicated by complexion and voice);

2. Puspitaka (infallibility of prognostic signs and symptoms);

3. Parimarsana (prognosis indicated by palpation);

4. Indriyanika (prognosis indicated by the function of sense organs);

5. Purvarupiya (prognosis indicated by premonitory symptoms);

6. Katamani saririya (prognosis indicated by the nature of diseases);

7. Pannaripiya (prognosis indicated by the distorted images in the pupil);

8. Avaksirasiya (prognosis indicated by symptoms like the inverted reflection of images in the pupil);

9. Yasyasyavanimittiya (prognosis indicated by such signs as dark-blue colour of the eye etc.,)

10. Sadyomaraniya (prognostic signs of imminent death);

11. Aunjyotiye (prognosis indicated by signs like loss of the complexion of the body);

12. Gomayacurniya (prognosis indicated by signs like the appearance of powder like thing in the head resembling that of cowdung cake). (53-55)

Chapters of Charaka Samhita Chikitsasthana

अमयामलकीयं च प्राणकामीयमेव च । करप्रचितकं वेदसमुत्थानं संयोगशर मूलीयमासिक्तक्षीरकं माषपर्णभृतीयं च पुमान् जातबलादिकम् ।। ५७ ।। चतुष्कद्वयमप्येतद्ध्यायद्वयमुच्यते । रसायनमिति ज्ञेयं वाजीकरणमेव च ॥ ५८ ॥ ज्वराणां रक्तपित्तस्य गुल्मानां मेह्कुष्ठयोः । शोषोन्मादेऽप्यपस्मारे क्षतशोथोदरार्शसाम् ॥ ५९ ॥ श्वासकासातिसारिणाम् । ग्रहणीपाण्डुरोगाणां छर्दिवीसर्पतृष्णानां विषमद्यविकारयोः ॥ ६० ॥ रसायनम् ॥ ५६ ॥ तथा । द्वित्रणीयं त्रिमर्मीय मूरुस्तम्भिकमेव च । वातरोगे वातरक्ते योनिव्यापत्सु चैव यत् ॥ ६१ ॥ त्रिंशच्चिकित्सितान्युक्तानि

Chikitsasthana or the section on therapeutics has thirty chapters. The first chapter deals with rasayana or rejuvenation therapy. It consists of four sub-chapters dealing with the following topics:

1 (a). Use of abbaya (Terminalia chebula Linn.) and amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) for rejuvenation;

1 (b). Desire for longevity;

1 (c). Use of amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) culled by hand;

1 (d). Propagation of the science of rejuvenation.

The second chapter of this section deals with aphrodisiacs. It consists of four sub-chapters dealing with the following topics :

2(a). Use of the preparation of the root of sara (Saccharum munja Roxb.).

2 (b). Use of the rice soaked in milk and such other preparations;


2 (c). Use of milk collected from a cow fed with masaparna (Teramnus labialis Sprang.);

2 (d). Duties of a man who has gained strength, among others.

The remaining twenty eight chapters of this section deal with the treatment of the following conditions:

3. Jvara (fever);

4. Raktapitta (a condition characterised by bleeding from various parts of the body);

5. Gulma (a type of abdominal tumour);

6. Meha (obstinate urinary disorders including diabetes mellitus);

7. Kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy); 8. Sosa (consumption);

9. Unmada (insanity);

10. Apasmara (epilepsy);

11. Ksata (phthisis);

12. Sotha (oedema);

13. Udara (obstinate abdominal diseases including ascitis); 14. Arias (piles);

15. Grahani (sprue);

16. Pandu (anemia);

17. Svasa (conditions causing dyspnoea including bronchial asthma);

18. Kasa (coughing);

19. Atisara (diarrhoea);

20. Chardi (vomiting);

21. Visarpa (acute spreading diseases of the skin including erysipelas);

22. Trsna (thirst);

23. Visavikara (poisoning);

24. Madyavikara (alcoholism);

25. Dvivraniya (two types of ulcers);

26. Trimarmiya (diseases appearing in three vital organs of the body);

27. Urustambha (spastic paraplegia);

23. Vataraga ( diseases specially caused by the vitiation of vata);

29. Vatarakta (gout);

30. Yonivyapat ( gynic diseases). (56–61)

Chapters of Charaka Samhita Kalpasthana

अतः कल्पान् प्रचक्ष्महे । फलजी मतकेक्ष्वाकुकल्पो पञ्चमो वत्सकस्योक्तः पष्ठश्च श्यामा त्रिवृतयोः कल्पस्तथैव धामार्गवस्य च ।। ६२ ।। कृतत्रेधने । चतुरङ्गले || ६३ ।। तिल्वकस्य सुधायाश्च सप्तलाशीषु च। दन्ती द्रवन्त्योः कपश्च द्वादशोऽयं समाप्यते ।। ६४ ।।

Kalpasthana or the section on pharmaceuticals has twelve chapters dealing with the preparations of the following drugs :

1. Phala (Randia dumetorum Lam.);

2. Jimutaka (Luffa ecbinata Roxb.);

3. Iksyaku (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) ;

4. Dhamargava (Luffa cylindrica M. Roem);

5. Vatsak (Holarrbena antidysenterica Wall.);

6. Krutavedhana (Lnffa acutangnla Roxb.);

7. Syamatrivrit (Operculina turpethum R. B.);

8. Chaturungala (Cassia fistula Linn.);

9. Tilvaka (Symplocos racemosa Roxb.);

10. Sudha (Eupborbia nerifolia Linn.);

11. Saptala (Acacia concinna D .C.); and Sankbini (Canscora decussata Roem et. Sch.) ;

12. Danti (Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg.) and Dravanti (Jatropha glandnlifera Roxb.). (62-64).

Chapters of Charaka Samhita Siddhisthana

कल्पना पञ्ञ्चकर्माख्या बस्तिसूत्री तथैव च । स्नेहव्यापदिकी सिद्धिनेंत्रव्यापदिकी तथा ।। ६५ ।। सिद्धिः शीधनयोश्चैव बस्तिसिद्धिस्तथैव च । प्रासृती मर्मसंख्याता सिद्धिर्बस्त्याश्रया च या ।। ६६ ।। फलमात्रा तथा सिद्धिः सिद्धिश्चोत्तर संज्ञिता । सिद्धयो द्वादशैवैतास्तन्त्रं चात्र समाप्यते ।। ६७ ।।

Siddhisthana or the section on the successful administration of five elimination therapies has twelve chapters dealing with the following topics;

1. Factors to be considered for the successful administration of elimination therapies;

2. Persons who are fit and unfit for the administration of elimination therapics;

3. Details about the administration of enema therapy;

4. Management of complications due to the administration of therapies like unctuous enema;

5. Management of complications due to defects in the canula and the other parts of the equipment used for enema;

6. Management of the complications of emesis and purgation therapies;

7. Management of complications of enema therapy;

8. Enema of one prastha (768 g) in quantity;

9. Management of diseases occuring in the three vital regions of the body, viz. head, heart and bladder.

10. Enema for different types of diseases;

11. Enema prepared of phala (Randia dumetorum Lam.) etc.,

12. Urethral and vaginal douches. (65-67).

स्वे स्वे स्थाने तथा ऽध्याये चाध्यायार्थः प्रवक्ष्यते ।

तं ब्रूयात् सर्वतः सर्वं यथास्वं ह्यर्थसंग्रहात् ॥ ६८ ॥

Contents of each chapter will be described in the respective chapters and sections. All these in brief will be described in all the respective chapters and sections. (68).

Summary of each chapter and section will be given at the end of respective chapters and sections. In the Sarirasthana or the section on anatomy including embryology etc., contents of the section are not described but this is understood from the derivation of the word ‘Sarira’. Contents of this section are mentioned in other classics also. In Sarirasthano, such measures as would imbue the body with manly as well as godly virtues in their entirety are described-cf. Sarira 8:69.

Definition of Technical terms

पृच्छा यन्त्राद्यथाम्नायं विधिना प्रश्न उच्चते । प्रश्नार्थी युक्तिमांस्तस्य तन्त्रणैवार्थनिश्चयः ।। ६९ ।।

निरुक्तं तन्त्रणात्तन्त्रं, स्थानमर्थप्रतिष्ठया | अधिकृत्यार्थ मध्यायनामसंज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ ७० ॥ इति सर्वं यथाप्रश्नमष्टकं संप्रकाशितम् ।

कार्येन चोक्तस्तन्त्रस्य संग्रहः सुविनिश्चितः ॥ ७१ ।।

An enquiry from the treatise quite in order and without contradicting the contextual propriety is called ‘prasna’ or a question. Elucidating the question with reasoning and an explanation about its actual textual implications is known as prasnartha or the ex-. position of the question. Because it provides information about the measures to be followed for the maintenance of health, it is called ‘tantra’ or treatise (tantrana means to sustain the body or to observe the rules of health). A sthana or section deals with a particular topic and the specific problems of this topic are discussed in the chapters concerned (adhyayas).

Thus, replies to all the eight questions (raised in para 20 of this chapter) alongwith a well ascertained summary of the entire treatise are given. (69-71).

Definitions and derivation of terms like ‘presna’ or question, ‘praSnartha’ or exposition of the question, ‘tantra’ or treatise, ‘stland’ or section and,adhyaya’ or chapter are given in above verses.

सन्ति पाल्लविकोत्पाताः संक्षोभं जनयन्ति ये । वर्तकानामिवोत्पाताः सहसैवाविभाविताः ॥ ७२ ॥ तस्मात्तान् पूर्वसंजल्पे सर्वत्राष्टकमादिशेत् । परावरपरीक्षार्थं तत्र शास्त्रविदां बलम् ॥ ७३ ॥ शब्दमात्रेण तन्त्रस्य केवलस्यैकदेशिकाः । भ्रमन्त्यल्पबलास्तन्त्रे ज्याशब्देनेव वर्तकाः ॥ ७४ ।।

Some individuals having only partial knowledge of the science, at times create difficulties for others like the sudden flights of the male bustards. Therefore, with a view to knowing their actual acquaintance with the science and assessing their superiority or otherwise, one should put these eight questions to them before a formal discussion. Only persons well versed in the science can face such questions. Those who are not acquainted with the science as a whole and know it only partially, get frightened by the very sound of the treatise in its entirety like the male bustards by the sound of the bowstring. (72-74).

The terror created by the sudden flights of malebustards is very popularly known. It is only the scholars in the science who know the eight questions described in the twentieth paragraph of this chapter and their answers as elaborated subseqeuntly (and not others) who have only a partial knowledge.

Similes for pseudo and genuine physicians

पशुः पशूनां दौर्बल्यात् कश्चिन्मध्ये वृकायते । स सत्यं वृकमासाद्यं प्रकृतिं भजते पशुः ॥ ७५ ॥ तद्वदज्ञोऽज्ञमध्यस्थः कश्चिन्मौखर्यसाधनः । स्थापयत्याप्तमात्मानमाप्तं त्वासाद्य भिद्यते ।। ७६ ।। बभ्रुगूढ इवोर्णाभिरबुद्धिरबहुश्रुतः । किं वै वक्ष्यति संजल्पे कुण्डभेदी जडो यथा ।। ७७ ।। सद्वृत्तैर्न विगृह्णीयात् मिषगल्पश्रुतैरपि । हन्यात् प्रश्नाष्टकेनादावितरांस्त्वाप्तमानिनः ।। ७८ ।। दम्भिनो मुखरा ह्यज्ञाः प्रभूताबद्धभाषिणः । प्रायः, प्रायेण सुमुखाः सन्तो युक्ताल्पभाषिणः ।। ७९ ।। तत्त्वज्ञानप्रकाशार्थ महङ्कारमनाश्रितः । स्वल्पाधारज्ञमुखरान्मर्षयेन्न विवादिनः ॥ ८० ॥ परो भूतेष्वनुक्रोश स्तत्वज्ञाने परा दया । येषां तेषामसद्वादनिग्रहे निरता मतिः ।। ८१ ।।

Taking advantage of the weakness of others any animal may play the role of an wolf; but when it comes across a real wolf, its true nature is exposed. Similarly an ignorant individual, because of his garrulous nature tries to bully the ignorant ones but he breaks down when a real scholar is met with.

A man deprived of wisdom and knowledge of the science like an old babbru (large-brown mongoose) hidden in its own bristles (hairs) shrinks to speak anything in debates as a man of low-family does.

One should not challenge a righteous (submissive) man even though he is not well acquainted with the science. But one who poses to be an expert should not be spared; he must be challenged with the eight categories of questions.

Ignorant individuals who are egoistic and garrulous usually speak too much, though with much of inconsistency. Saintly individuals who are well versed in the science usually speak less but what they say is relevant to the topic of discussion.

It is not for the sake of ego but for the purpose of keeping the light of knowledge burning that one must challenge a garrulous individual of little learning.

Those who have great compassion towards creatures and are ever-prepared to impart knowledge for this, should be ever vigilant in putting down false arguments. (75-81).

Pseudo physicians cannot stand the presence of a real wise physician. The wool worn by a large-brown-mongoose and a sheep might be simi ar in appearance. But being motivated by this similarity, if a mongoose breaks out with a sheep it does so only to perish. Or an old mongoose lying in the midst of a heap of wool might for a while just form part of the whole mass of wool but as soon it opens its mouth,. people are disillusioned about its identity. Such is the case with a pseudo-physician.

Characteristics of ignorant and learned physicians

असत्पक्षाक्षणित्वार्तिदम्भपा रुष्यसाधनाः । भवन्त्यनाप्ताः स्वे तन्त्रे प्रायः परविकत्थकाः ।। ८२ ।।

तान् कालपाशसदृशान् वर्जयेच्छास्त्रदूषकान् । प्रशमज्ञानविज्ञानपूर्णाः सेव्या भिषक्तमाः ॥ ८३ ।।

Those who are not well versed in the science of their own profession resort to dogmatic views, take excuses for lack of time or sudden illness, try to show their ability by demonstrating books, equipments etc., use harsh and abusive language and speak ill of others during debates. They are like the noose of kala (death god); they abuse the scriptures. They should therefore be shunned. On the other hand, one should serve good physicians who are full of tranquility and have the knowledge of arts and sciences of the profession. (82-83).

Causes of unhappiness and happiness

समग्र दुःखमायत्त मविज्ञाने द्वयाश्रयम् । सुखं समग्र विज्ञाने विमले च प्रतिष्ठितम् ॥ ८४ ॥

इदमेवमुदारार्थमज्ञानां न प्रकाशकम् । शास्त्रं दृष्टि प्रणष्टानां यथैवादित्यमण्डलम् ॥ ८५ ॥

All psycho-somatic ailments are caused by the ignorance of the individual whereas understanding of things leads to complete happiness of both the body as well as the mind.

As the sun cannot help a blindman to see things so also this treatment which provides instructions for the benefit of both the present life as well as the next life may not help to enlighten those who are devoid of the power of understanding. (84-85).

Proper understanding of things alongwith the psychosomatic happiness may lead to salvation.


अथें दशमहामूलाः संज्ञा चासां यथा कृता । अयनान्ताः षडम्याश्च रूपं वेदविदां च यत् ।। ८६ सप्तकश्चाष्टकश्चैव परिप्रश्नाः सनिर्णयाः । यथा वाच्यं यदर्थं च षड्विधाश्चैकदेशिकाः ॥ ८७ ॥ अथें दशमहामूळे सर्वमेतत् प्रकाशितम् । संग्रहश्चायमध्यायस्तन्त्रस्यास्यैव केवलः ॥ ८८ ॥ यथा सुमनसां सूत्रं संग्रहार्थ विधीयते । संग्रहार्थं तथाऽर्थानामृषिणा संग्रहः कृतः ॥ ८९ ॥

To sum up –

The reason for designating the ten vessels attached to the heart as mahamula, the foremost ones among the six categories of regimen, the characteristic features of learned physicians, the eight types of questions along with their replies, methods of reply and elaboration and six types of pseudo-physicians-all these are described in this chapter on the “Ten vessels having their roots in the heart”. A summary of the entire treatise is given in this chapter. As a garland is prepared of flowers by the help of a thread (sutra) so also the topics of the entire treatise are summarised here (in the S utrasthana). (86-89).

Foremost factors among certain categories of regimen are already described in 25th chapter of this section. They are related to the various aspects of diseases-cf. Sutra 25:41. But these factors are described here with a view to helping in the attainment of salvation,

इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृते श्लोकस्थानेऽर्थदशमहामूलीयो नाम त्रिंशोऽध्यायः ॥ ३० ॥

Thus ends the 30th chapter on the “Ten Vessels having Their Roots in the Heart” of the Sitra section of the work by Agnivesa as redacted by Charaka.. (31).

अग्निवेशक तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृते । इयताऽवधिना सर्व सूत्रस्थानं समाप्यते ॥ ९० ।।

Here ends the section on general principles of Ayurveda (Sutra sthana) of Agnivesa’s work as redacted by Charaka (90)

The End of Sutra Sthana.


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