We shall now expound the chapter- Angavibhaga sharira different parts of the body; thus revealed Atreya and other great sages.
अथातोऽङ्गविभागं शारीरं व्याख्यास्यामः । इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ।
Anga-pratyanga – major and minor parts
षडङ्गमङ्गं प्रत्यङ्गं तस्याक्षिहृदयादिकम् ॥ १ ॥
Head, trunk, two arms and two legs-are in brief, the six anga (major parts) of the body; eyes, heart etc. are the pratyanga (minor parts) attached to them. 1.
शब्द: स्पर्शश्च रूपं च रसो गन्धः क्रमाद्गुणाः। खानिलाग्न्यब्भुवाम् एकगुणवृद्ध्यन्वयः परे ॥ २ ॥
Sabda (sound), sparsa (touch), rupa (form), rasa (taste) and gandha (smell) are the qualities of kha (akasa), anila (vayu), agni (tejas), ambu (ap) and bhu (prthvi) respectively. Increase of one quality more is found in each succeeding (bhuta). 2.
Notes: Sabda, sparsa, rupa, rasa and gandha are the natural characteristic guna (qualities/properties) of the five primary elements (panca bhuta) when they are in their paramanu rupa (atomic state). In the next stage of evolution, akasa bhuta gives origin to vayu bhuta, which has two guna viz. sabda of akasa bhuta and sparsa (its own). From vayu bhuta is born the agnibhuta which has three guna viz sabda, sparsa and rupa (its own). From agni bhuta is born the ap bhuta which has four guna viz. sabda, sparsa, rupa and rasa (its own). From ap bhuta is born the prthvi bhuta which has five guna-viz. sabda, sparsa, rupa, rasa and gandha (its own).
Bhautika sharira – Bhuta-body relation
तत्र खात् खानिदेहेऽस्मिन् श्रोत्रं शब्दो विविक्तता । वातात्स्पर्शत्वगुच्छ्वासा वग्रूपपक्तयः ॥ ३ ॥
In this human body, from prthvi bhuta are (produced) the orifices (tubes, channels, pores), the ears (organs of sound perception), the sound (voice, sound of the heart, lungs, intestines etc.) and empty spaces. From vayubhuta are (produced) the touch, the skin (organ of touch perception) and respiration. From agnibhuta are (produced) the eyes (organs of perception of light), vision, and digestion. From ap bhuta are (produced) the tongue (organ of taste perception), taste, fluids, and moisture. From prthvi bhuta, are (produced) the nose (organ of perception of smell), the smell and the bones. 3-3½.
Notes: The above is a very brief description. There are many substances in the body belonging to each bhuta category which can be understood by their physical properties and functions; ear, skin, eyes, tongue and nose are the seats of sense organs (indriya adhisthana), the ear has sabdendriya (organ of sound perception), the skin has sparsanendriya (organ of touch perception), the eye has rupendriya (organ of perception of light/form), the tongue has rasanendriya (organ of taste perception) and the nose has ghranendriya (organ of smell perception).
Matruja pitruja bhava – maternal and paternal derivations
मृद्वत्र मातृजं रक्तमांसमज्जगुदादिकम् ॥ ४ ॥ पैतृकं तु स्थिरं शुक्रधमन्यस्थिकचादिकम् । चैतनं चित्तमक्षाणि नानायोनिषु जन्म च ॥ ५ ॥ Soft parts such as blood, muscle, marrow, the rectum etc. are matrja (derived from the mother); those which are static (compact, hard) such as the semen, arteries, bones, hair etc. are pitrja (derived from the father); from cetana (atmasoul) are derived the mind, the sense organs and birth (ordeal of being born) in various species of living beings. 4–5.
Notes: The doctrine of the “cycle of births and deaths” is indicated in the last sentences. Atman (soul) who is immortal, undergoes the ordeal of being born in different species of living gs depending upon the good or bad actions he performs, good actions lead to birth in good, noble species while bad actions lead to birth in bad mean species. The effects of these actions do not end with death in any one life but are carried by him to his next birth also. These are known as vasana. Because of this only the same persons sometimes exhibit extraordinary capacity of remembering and revealing incidents of their earlier lives.
Satmyadi bhava – derivations from habituation etc
सात्म्यजं त्वायुरारोग्यमनालस्यं प्रभा बलम् ।
From satmya (habituation) are derived the life (duration of life), health, enthusiastic activity, radiance (brilliance in all activities, colour and complexion etc.) and strength (physical and mental). 6a.
Notes: Satmya is the effect of getting habituated to foods, drinks, activities, climate, place of living etc.
रसजं वपुषो जन्म वृत्तिर्वृद्धिरलोलता ॥६॥
From rasa (nutrient portion of food) is derived the birth (origin) of the body (formation and development of foetus), its maintainance (continuance of life activity), growth and non-attachment (to sensual activities). 6b.
Notes Food is the cause for man’s behaviour in respect of his sensory activities. Certain foods make for great involvement in sensual activities even neglecting one’s routine imperative duties. Thus they drive the person away from persuing the path of righteousness.
Satvadiguna bhava – derivaties from primary qualities
सात्विकं शौचमास्तिक्यं शुक्लधर्मरुचिर्मतिः । राजसं बहुभाषित्वं मानक्रुद्धम्भमत्सरम् ॥ ७॥ तामसं भयज्ञानं निद्राऽऽलस्यं विषादिता । इति भूतमयो देहः
Cleanliness, belief in gods, inclination to follow the path of pure virtue (righteousness) are satvika (derivations from satvaguna); talkativeness, pride, anger, vanity and jealousy are rajasa-(derivations from rajoguna); fear, ignorance, sleep, lazyness and grief are tamasa-(derivations from tamoguna), Thus the body is composed of the bhutas. 7-8a.
Notes: Cleanliness is of three kinds-kayika (of the body), vacika (of speech) and manasika (of the mind); gratefulness, obli compassion, valour, nobility, ingenity, good memory and many such virtuous qualities are also from satvaguna. Bravery, ungratefulness, sensuality (pleasure seeking, especially in sexual activities) unsteadyness, and other vices are from rajoguna. Committing errors, poor intellect, memory, courageand strength are some derivations from tamoguna. The human body like all the substances of the universe is made up of pancabhutas only.
Sapta tvaca – the seven skins
तत्र सप्त त्वचोऽसृजः ॥ ८ ॥
पच्यमानात्प्रजायन्ते क्षीरात्सन्तानिका इव ।
In this (body), seven skins (layers of) are produced during the cooking (metobolic heat activity) of blood just as the layer of scum, during the cooking of milk 8.
Notes The names and feature of these layers of the skin is fur(chapter 4 of sharirasthan) as follows
nished by Susruta samhita Avabhasini, the first layer is 1/18 in lize (thickness) of a paddy grain, and exhibits colours and shades; Lohita, the second is 1/16 in thickness, sveta the third is 1/12 in thickness; Tamra, the fourth is 1/8 in thickness; vedini, the fifth is 1/5 in thickness, Rohini the sixth is of the size of a paddy, Mamsadhara the seventh, is double the size of a paddy. Each layer is the seat for many diseases.
Sapta kala-seven membranes
धात्वाशयान्तरक्लेदो विपक्कं स्वस्वमूष्मणा ॥ ९ ॥ श्लेष्मस्त्राय्वपराच्छन्नः कलाख्यः काष्ठसारवत् । ताः सप्त
The moisture present inside the dhatu (tissues) and asayas (organs) cooked (processessed) by their own heat (of each dhatu and asaya) become transformed into structures called Kala, just as essence gets formed in the trees. These are covered (coated, smeared) with slesman (kapha), snayu (tendenous waxy material) or apara (chorion); these are seven. 9-10.
Notes Identification of these structures known as kala has still remained a problem. These are generally assumed to be thin membrance, responsible for certain specific functions. Their names and details as furnished in susruta samhita (chapter 4 of sharira sthana) is as follows-
(1) Mamsadhara kala- present inside the muscles and allow the formation of net work of veins, arteries, tendons and other tubular structure.
(2) Raktadhara kala— present inside the muscles and more so in the liver and spleen and holding the blood inside them.
(3) Medodhara kala-present in the abdomen and interior of the bones holding the bone marrow (red marrow in small bones and yellow marrow in big bones).
(4) Slesmadhara kala-present inside the bony joints providing lubrication for easy movement.
(5) Purisadhara kala-present inside the pakvasaya (intestines) and attends to the function of separation the waste (faecal matter) at the unduka (caecum).
(6) Pittadhara kala present inside the amasaya (stomach and duodenum) with holds the ingested food for sometime in the amasaya and attends to cooking of food (digestion).
(7) Sukradhara kala-present in the right side, two anguli (fingers breadth) below the opening of the orifice of the urinary bladder.
Spoken in terms of modern anatomical knowledge, they may be identified as
(1) mamsadhara kala-sheaths or seperating membranes of individual muscles.
(2) raktadhara kala-heamopoitic membranes of liver and spleen.
(3) medodhara kala—membrane secreting bone marrow.
(4) slesmadhara kala-membrane secreting synovial fluid.
(5) purisadhara kala—mucus membrane of the intestines attending to absorption.
(6) pittadhara kala—mucus membrane of the stomach, duodenum and small intestine attending to digestion of food.
(7) sukradhara kala-membrane inside the testes and seminal ducts, producing and transporting semen.
Sapta asaya – seven containers
सप्त चाधारा रक्तस्याद्यः क्रमात् परे ॥ १०॥ कफामपित्तपक्वानां वायोर्मूत्रस्य च स्मृताः । गर्भाशयोऽष्टमः स्त्रीणां पित्तपक्वाशयान्तरे ॥ ११ ॥
Adhara (asaya) containers/recepticles-are seven; the first is of rakta (blood), followed by those of kapha, ama (undigested food), pitta, pakva (digested food), vayu (vata), and mutra (urine); in women garbhasaya (uterus), the eighth situated in between pittasaya and pakvasaya.10-11.
Notes: Raktasaya is the yakrit (liver) and plihan (spleen); amasaya is the stomach and small intestine; pittasaya is duodenum, liver and gall bladder; pakvasaya is the large intestine inclusive of caecum; vatasaya is large intestine inclusive of rectum; and mutrasaya is the urinary bladder.
Kosthanga – viscera
कोष्ठाङ्गानि स्थितान्येषु हृदयं क्लोम फुप्फुसम् । यकृत्प्लीहोण्डकं वृक्कौ नाभिदिम्भान्त्रबस्तयः ॥ १२ ॥
Kosthanga (organs inside the chest and abdomen) are the hrdaya (heart), kloma (?), phuphphusa (lungs), yakrit (liver), plihan (spleen) unduka (caecum), two vrikka (kidneys),. nabhi (umbilicus), dimbha (uterus ?), antra (intestines) and basti (urinary bladder). 12.
Notes : Kloma has been variously identified as trachea, right lung, gall bladder, or pancreas of these, pancreas is accepted by the majority of scholars. Similarly the identification of dimbha; generally it is identified as uterus.
Jvitadhama – seats of life
दश जीवितधामानि शिरोरसनबन्धनम् ।
कण्ठोऽस्त्रं हृदयं नाभिर्बस्तिः शुक्रौजसी गुदम् ॥ १३ ॥
The ten jivita dhama are the siras ( head), rasana bandhana (attachment of the tongue), kantha (throat), asra (blood), hrdaya, (heart ), nabhi (umbilicus), basti (urinary bladder), sukra (semen), ojas (essence of dhatus) and guda (rectum and anus). 18.
Jala-kandaradi – net-like structures, tendons etc
जालानि कण्डराश्चाङ्गे पृथक् षोडश निर्दिशेत् । षट् कूर्चाः सप्त सीविन्यो मेढ्रजिह्वाशिरोगताः ॥ १४ ॥ शस्त्रेण ताः परिहरेच्चतस्त्रो मांसरज्जव: । चतुर्दशास्थिसङ्घाताः, सीमन्ता द्विगुणा नव ॥ १५ ॥
There are in the body sixteen jala (net like structures) and kandara (big tendons) seperately; six kurca (brush-like structures), seven sivani (sutures, raphae) located in the penis, tongue and head (skull), these should be spared from sharp instruments; ( there are ) four mamsa rajju (muscular ropes), fourteen asthisanghata (confluence of bones), eighteen simanta (border lines, dividing lines, demarcations). 14-15.
Asthi (bones ) – snayu ( tendons) -pest (muscles) — अस्थनां शतानि षष्टिश्च त्रीणि दन्तनखैः सह । धन्वन्तरिस्तु त्रीण्याह, सन्धीनां च शतद्वयम् ॥ १६ ॥ दशोत्तरं सहस्त्रे द्वे निजगादात्रिनन्दनः । स्नानां नवशती पञ्च पुंसां पेशीशतानि तु ॥ १७ ॥ अधिका विंशतिः स्त्रीणां योनिस्तनसमाश्रिताः ।
Three hundred and sixty is the number of asthi (bones) inclusive of teeth and nails. Dhanvantari (divodasa) says they are three hundred only. The number of sandhi (bony joints) is two hundred and ten. Atri’s son ( Krsna atreya) says they are two thousand; snayu ( tendons) are nine hundred, pesi ( muscles) are five hundred, in men and twenty more in women located in the vaginal tract and breasts. 16-172.
Sira – veins
दश मूलसिरा हृत्स्थास्ताः सर्वसर्वतो वपुः ॥ १८ ॥ रसात्मकं वहन्त्योजस्तन्निबद्धं हि चेष्टितम् । स्थूलमूला: सुसूक्ष्माग्रा: पत्ररेखाप्रतानवत् ॥ १९ ॥ भिद्यन्ते तास्ततः सप्तशतान्यासां भवन्ति तु ।
Mula sira (root veins) are ten located in ( attached to ) the hrdaya (heart ), they transport the rasa ( first fluid tissue) and ojas (essence of tissues) to the whole body; on them all the activities of the body depend. They are big at their roots and very small at their tips, and appear like the lines of a leaf (net like); thus divided they become seven hundred (in number). 18-19.
Sira- veins not to be cut for venesection
तत्रैकैकं च शाखायं शत, तस्मिन्न वेधयेत् ॥ २० ॥ सिरां जालन्धरां नाम तिस्त्रश्चाभ्यन्तराश्रिताः । षोडशद्विगुणाः श्रोण्यां, तासां द्वे द्वे तु वक्षणे ॥ २१ ॥ द्वे द्वे कटिकतरुणे शस्त्रेणाष्टौ स्पृशेन्न ताः । पार्श्वयोः षोडशैकैकामूर्ध्वगां वर्जयेत्तयोः ॥ २२ ॥ द्वादशद्विगुणाः पृष्ठे पृष्ठवंशस्य पार्श्वयोः । द्वे द्वे तत्रोर्ध्वगामिन्यौ न शस्त्रेण परामृशेत् ॥ २३ ॥ पृष्ठवज्जठरे तासां मेहनस्योपरि स्थिते । रोमराजौमुभयतो द्वे द्वे शस्त्रेण न स्पृशेत् ॥ २४ ॥ चत्वारिंशदुरस्यासां चतुर्दश न वेधयेत् । स्तनरोहिततन्मूलहृदये तु पृथग्द्वयम् ॥ २५ ॥ अपस्तम्भाखययोरेकां तथाऽपालापयोरपि । ग्रीवायां पृष्ठवत्तासां नीले मन्ये कृकाटिके ॥ २६ ॥ विधुरे मातृकाश्चाष्टौ षोडशेति परित्यजेत् । हन्वोः षोडश, तासां द्वे सन्धिबन्धनकर्मणी ॥ २७ ॥
In each extremity the (number of) siras (veins) are one hundred; out of them, the four viz, one by name jalandhara and three situated deep inside, should not be cut (for performing venesection).
In the sroni (pelvis) there are thirty two siras; of them, two each in both vanksana (groins), two each in both katika taruna (crest of pelvic bone); these eight should not be touched by the sharp instrument (of venesection).
In the parsva (flanks) there are sixteen; of them one on either side going upwards should be avoided.
In the prstha (back) these are twentyfour on either side of the vertebral column; among them two each on either side going upwards should not be touched by the sharp instruments.
In the jathara (abdomen) their number is same as in the back; out of them two on either side located above the penis on either side of the line of hair should not be touched by the sharp instrument.
In the uras (chest) there are forty; out of them the fourteen viz. two each situated at stanarohita (upper border of the brest), stanamula (lower border of the breast), hrdaya (region of the heart), one each at apasthambha (left and righs borders of the chest) and apalapa (left and right borders of the back) should not be cut.
In the griva (neck) their number is same as in the back; among them, sixteen viz. two nila, two manya, two krkatika, two vidhura, and eight matrka-should be avoided.
In the hanu (lower jaw) there are sixteen; of them, the two which binds of joint (of the lower jaw with the skull) should not be cut). 20-27.
जिह्वायां हनुवत्तासामधो द्वे रसबोधने । द्वे च वाचः प्रवर्तिन्यौ नासायां चतुरुत्तरा ॥ २८ ॥ विंशतिर्गन्धवेदिन्यौ तासामेकां च तालुगाम् । षट्पञ्चाशन्नयनयोर्निमेषोन्मेषकर्मणी ॥ २९ ॥ द्वे द्वे, अपाङ्गयोर्द्वे च तासां नासानेत्राश्रिताः षष्टिर्ललाटे, स्थपनी येत्। श्रि तत्रैकां, द्वे तथाऽऽवर्ती, चतस्त्रश्च कचान्तगाः । सप्तैवं वर्जयेत्तासाम् कर्णयोः षोडशात्र तु ॥ ३१ ॥ द्वे शब्दबोधने शङ्खौ सिरास्ता एव चाश्रिताः । द्वे शङ्खसन्धिगे तासाम् मूर्ध्नि द्वादश तत्र तु ॥ ३२ ॥ एकैकां पृथगुत्क्षेपसीमन्ताधिपतिस्थिताम् । इत्यवेध्यविभागार्थं प्रत्यङ्गं वर्णिताः सिराः ॥ ३३ ॥ अवेध्यास्तत्र कार्येन देहेऽष्टानवतिस्तथा । सङ्कीर्णा ग्रथिताः क्षुद्रा वक्राः सन्धिषु चाश्रिताः ॥ ३४ ॥
In the jihva (tongue) their number is same as in lower jaw (sixteen); of them two lower ones which make for taste perception and two which make for speech (should not be cut). In the nose there are twenty four; of them, the two responsible for smell perception and one in the palate should not be cut.
In the eyes they are fifty six; of them, six viz, two each which do the closing and opening of the eyelids; the two situated at the apanga (the outer angle of the eye) (one in each eye) should be avoided.
In the forehead there are sixty; out of them, the one located at the sthapani, two at the avarta, four at the border line of the hair-these seven should be avoided.
In the ears there are sixteen; of them two responsible for perception of sound should be avoided. In the sankha emples) also they are of the same number (sixteen); of m, two situated at the joints of the temples should not be
the head there are twelve; of them, one each located +ksepa (at the border line of hairs), simanta (sutures ‘ll) and adhipati (bregma in the centre of the clner, formed into lumps, very minute, which are fuseated inside joints also should not be cut (for curved letting). 28-34.
Sira vibhaga – classification of veins
तासां शतानां सप्तानां पादोऽस्त्रं वहते पृथक् । वातपित्तकफैर्जुष्टं शुद्धं चैवं स्थिता मलाः ॥ ३५ ॥ शरीरमनुगृह्णन्ति पीडयन्त्यन्यथा पुनः ।
Out of the seven hundred siras (veins) one fourth of them (one hundred seventyfive) carry blood vitiated by vata, pitta, kapha and pure (unvitiated) blood seperately. The mala (dosa), remaining so (within their normal state) sustain the body, while, on the other hand (in their abnormal state) they cause troubles to the body. 35.
तत्र श्यावारुणाः सूक्ष्मा: पूर्णरिक्ताः क्षणात्सिराः ॥ ३६ ॥ प्रस्पन्दिन्यश्च वातास्त्रं वहन्ते पित्तशोणितम् ।
स्पर्शोष्णाः शीघ्रवाहिन्यो नीलपीताः कफ पुनः ॥ ३७ ॥
Those (veins) which are bluish-red in colour, small, (sometime) full and (some time) empty momentarily an having throbbing (pulsations) are carrying blood mixed vata; those which are warm to touch, of quick par bluish-yellow in colour are carrying blood mixe those which are white in colour, smooth, str firm, hard) and cold to touch are carryi kapha; mixture of these signs ind Those which are deep seated, er slight red colour are carryin dosas) 36-38. (in the at the cut.
When such vitiated blood travel through the veins, they (dosas) exhibit their characteristic signs in the vein also, which can be recognised in in the one and the same vein. It should also be remembered that the term ‘sira’ stands for both veins and arteries. Recognition of increase of dosas is attempted by nadipariksa (examination of the pulse) which is actually noting the features of the radial artery at the wrist.
Dhamani – arteries
धमन्यो नाभिसम्बद्धा विंशतिश्चतुरुत्तरा | ताभिः परिवृता नाभिश्चक्रनाभिरिवारकैः ॥ ३९ ॥ ताभिश्चोर्ध्वमधस्तिर्यग्देहोऽयमनुगृह्यते ।
Dhamanis, attached to the nabhi (umbilicus) are twenty-four; surrounded by them, the umbilicus resembles the axle hole of a wheel surrounded by spokes. By these (dhamanis) spreading upwards, downwards and side wards the entire body is maintained (with supply of nourishment). 30-39/2.
Notes The term ‘dhamani’ literally means that which throbs’ “having pulsation” hence denotes an artery; the above description of the umbilicus being the centre of the arterial system pertains to foetal life. After birth, the heart becomes the centre.
Bahya srotas – external circulatory channels
स्त्रोतांसि नासिके कर्णौ नेत्रे पाय्वास्यमेहनम् ॥ ४० ॥ स्तनौ रक्तपथश्चेति नारीणामधिकं त्रयम् ।
Srotas (orifices, channels, passages) are the two in the nose, two in the ears, two in the eyes, one of the rectum, one of the mouth and one of the urethra; in women; there are three more, two in the breasts and one of the passage of blood (menstrual fluid). 40.
Notes These orifices are big (wide) in size, open to the exterior and nine in number, hence, these are also called as sthula srotas, bahya srotas, nava dvara, nava chidra (nine cuts or doors of the body).
Abhyantra srotas – internal channels
जीवितायतनान्यन्तः स्त्रोतांस्याहुस्त्रयोदश ॥ ४१ ॥ प्राणधातुमलाम्भोन्नवाहीनि अहितसेवनात् । तानि दुष्टानि रोगाय, विशुद्धानि सुखाय च ॥ ४२ ॥
Srotas which are internal are said to be thirteen and are seats of life (activities essential for existence of life); they are, one each of prana (respiration), the dhatus (the seven basic tissues), the malas (the three chief wastes), ambu (water) and anna (food).
These getting vitiated (becoming abnormal) by indulgence in unsuitables (foods and activities) give rise to diseases; when unvitiated (normal) these make for health. 41-42.
स्वधातुसमवर्णानि वृत्तस्थूलान्यणूनि च । स्त्रोतांसि दीर्घाण्याकृत्या प्रतानसदृशानि च ॥ ४३ ॥
These possess the same colour as their dhatu (tissue in which they are present), are circular, big (wide) or small (minute), long and resemble the net-like lines of a leaf. 43.
आहारश्च विहारश्च यः स्याद्दोषगुणौः समः । धातुभिर्विगुणो यश्च स्त्रोतसां स प्रदूषकः ॥ ४४ ॥ Foods and activities which possess qualities similar those of the dosas and dissimillar with those of the the vitiators of the srotas. 44.
Srota dusti – abnormalities of the channels
अतिप्रवृत्तिः सङ्गो वा सिराणां ग्रन्थयोऽपि वा। विमार्गतो वा गमनं स्त्रोतसां दुष्टिलक्षणम् ॥ ४५ ॥
Atipravrtti (increase of structure or function), Sanga (decrease of structure or function), Sira (srotas) granthi (formation of lumps, tumors, thickening, etc.) and Vimarga gamana (movement in unusual or wrong paths) are the Sroto dusti laksana (signs of abnormality of srotas). 45.
बिसानामिव सूक्ष्माणि दूरं प्रविसृतानि च । द्वाराणि स्त्रोतसां देहे रसो यैरुपचीयते ॥ ४६॥
The orifices (openings/mouths) of the srotas are minute small, spread long and far, like those in the lotus stalk; through them rasa (fluid tissue carrying nutrition) nourishes (all the parts of the body). 46.
व्यधे तु स्रोतसां मोहकम्पाध्मानवमिज्वराः । प्रलापशूलविण्मूत्ररोधा मरणमेव वा ॥ ४७ ॥ स्त्रोतोविद्धमतो वैद्यः प्रत्याख्याय प्रसाधयेत् ।
उद्धृतय शल्यं यत्नेन सद्यः क्षतविधानतः ॥ ४८ ॥
If the srotas are injured, delusion/loss of consciousness, tremors, flatulence, vomitting, fever, delerium, pain in the abdomen, suppression of feaces and urine and even death may occur. Hence the physician should first inform the relatives of the person who has injury to srotas, about the incurability and then do treatment, remove the foreign body with all out efforts and treat the wound in the same way as treating a recent/fresh wound. 47-48.
Notes In addition to the above, some more details about these internal stotas available in Astanga sangraha (chapter 6 of sharira sthana) are furnished here: “Srotas are thirteen in number viz, 1. Pranavahasrotas-its chief organs are the hrdaya (heart) and the mahasrotas (alimentary tract), it gets vitiated (becomes abnormal) by dryness and depletion (of tissues), suppression of thirst, hunger, and other urges of the body etc. Respiration-increased, dicreased, difficult or interrupted, acompanied with pain and sound are the (chief) signs of vitiation; treatment for these is the same as that of svasa (dyspnoea). 2. Ambuvaha (udakavaha) srotas-its chief organs are talu (palate) and kloma (pancreas), it gets vitiated by ama (uncooked food), fear, excess of alcoholic drinks, dry foods, suppression of thirst etc; severe thirst, dryness of the mouth, ringing in the ears and unconsciousness are signs of its vitiation, treatment for these, is same as that of trsna (thirst). 3. Annavaha srotasits chief organs are the amasaya (stomach) and vamaparsva (left flank/ oesophages). 1. Rasa-vaha srotas its chief organs are the hrdaya (heart) and the ten dhamani (blood vessels). 5. Raktavaha srotas-its chief organs are yakrt (liver) and plihan (spleen) 6. Mamsavaha srotas-chief organs are the snayu (tendons) and tvak (skin). 7. Medovaha srotas chief organs are. the two vrkka (kidneys) and mamsa (muscles). (vapavahana or pancreas in Caraka). 8. Asthivaha srotas cheif organs the jaghana (pelvis) and medas (fat). 9. Majjavaha srotas- chief organs are the parsva (joints) and asthi (bones). 10. Sukravaha-srotas-chief organs are the two stana (breasts), the two muska (scrotum or the testes to be more precise). Caraka includes sephas (penis) also. 11. Mutravaha srotas-chief organs are the basti (urinary bladder) and the two vanksana (groins). 12. Purisavaha srotaschief organ are pakvasaya (large intestine) and sthulaantra (sthula guda-rectum according to Caraka. 13. Svedavaha srotas-chief orgns are madas (fat) and romakupa (hair follicles).
Srotas are so called because they have sravana (secretion, exude fluid materials).
From the foregoing description and other relevant information from other treatises, modern scholars are inclined to understand the internal srotas as minute pores in the wall of the cells of the primary tissues of the body and the thirteen kinds of srotas thus referring to the functional system of the body, viz.; pranavaha srotas-respiratory system, annavaha srotas dcgestive system and so on.
Jatharagni – fire-like agency in the stomach-duodenum
अन्नस्य पक्ता पित्तं तु पाचकाख्यं पुरेरितम् । दोषधातुमलादीनामूष्मेत्यात्रेयशासनम्॥४९॥
Pacaka pitta, as described earlier ( in chapter 12 of sutra-sthana) is the one that cooks ( digests) the food; Atreya proclaims that there is usma (heat, fire-like agency) in (each one of) the dosa, dhatu and mala. 49.
Notes Pacaka pitta is present inside the jathara and cooks the Singested food, hence it is variously called as jatharagni, kosthagni, kayagni, audaryagni and also as vaisvanara.
तदधिष्ठानमन्नस्य ग्रहणादूरहणी मता । सैव धन्वन्तरिमते कला पित्तधराह्वया ॥ ५० ॥ आयुरारोग्यवीर्यौजोभूतधात्वग्निपुष्टये । स्थिता पक्वाशयद्वारि भुक्तमार्गार्गलेव सा ॥ ५१ ॥ भुक्तमामाशये रुध्वा सा विपाच्य नयत्यधः । बलवत्यबला त्वन्नमाममेव विमुञ्चति ॥ ५२ ॥ ग्रहण्या बलमग्निर्हि स चापि ग्रहणीबलः । दूषितेऽग्नावतो दुष्टा ग्रहणी रोगकारिणी ॥ ५३॥ यदन्नं देहधात्वोजोबलवर्णादिपोषणम् । तत्राग्निर्हेतुराहारान्न ह्यपक्वाद्रसादयः॥५४॥
Its (pacaka pitta vis a vis jatharagni) seat is grahani duodenum) so called because it withholds the food (for a certain time inside the amasaya (stomach) to fecilitate digestion). In the opinion of Dhanvantari it is the kala known as pittadhara. Situated at the entrance of the pakvasaya (intestines) and acting as a bolt to the door of pathway/channel of food, it is responsible for duration of life, health, valour, ojas (essence of the dhatu), strength of (all) the bhutagni and dhatvgni.
When it (grahani) is strong, it with-holds the ingested food in the amasaya (stomach), cooks (digests) it well and then brings it down [into the pakvasaya (intestines)] but when weak it allows even uncooked (undigested) food [into the pakvasaya (intestines)].
The strength of the grahani is from agni itself, and itself (strength of agni) is from grahani; when the agni undergoes vitiation, it (grahani) also gets vitiated and produces diseases.
That food which bestows nourishment to the dhatus of the body, ojas, strength, colour (and complexion) etc. is really made so by the agni, which is the cause for its cooking (digestion); rasa and others (dhatu) do not get (formed and nourished) by uncooked (undigested) food. 50-54.
Aharapaka (digestive processes)
अन्नं कालेऽभ्यवहृतं कोष्ठं प्राणानिलाहृतम् । द्रवैर्विभिन्नसङ्घातं नीतं स्नेहेन मार्दवम् ॥ ५५ ॥ सन्धुक्षितः समानेन पचत्यामाशयस्थितम् । औदर्योऽग्निर्यथा वाह्यः स्थालीस्थं तोयतण्डुलम् ॥ ५६ ॥
The food ingested at the proper time, is drawn into the alimentary tract by the pranavata; its hard/big masses split and made soft by the liquid; then the audaryagni (jatharagni-fire-like agency) activated by samanavata cooks the food present in the amasaya (stomach) just like the external fire cooks the rice and water kept in the pot. 55-56.
आदौ षड्समप्यन्नं मधुरीभूतमीरयेत् । फेनीभूतं कफं, यातं विदाहादम्लतां ततः ॥ ५७ ॥ पित्तमामाशयात्कुर्याच्यवमानं, च्युतं पुनः । अग्निना शोषितं पक्कं पिण्डितं कटु मारुतम् ॥ ५८ ॥
Although the food consists of all the six tastes, it first becomes madhura (sweet) and gives rise to the production of kapha, of frothy nature; next undergoing further cooking
it becomes amla (sour) and gives rise to the production of pitta; then getting expelled from the amasaya (stomach) it gets dried, becomes solid and katu (pungent) and gives rise to the production of vata. 57-58.
Notes: The three successive stages of transformations-the madhura, amla and katu-are known as Avasthapaka each one to the production of kapha, pitta and vata respectively. All these three stages together form the first phase of digestion of food.
भौमाप्याग्नेयवायव्याः पञ्चोष्माणः सनाभसाः ।
पञ्चाहारगुणान्स्वान् स्वान् पार्थिवादीन् पचन्त्यनु ॥ ५९ ।
The five usma (agni) (fire-like agency) viz, bhauma, apya, agneya, vayavya and nabhasa, cook the parthiva and other qualities of foods; each of its own kind, respectively. 59.
Notes Bhauma (parthiva), apya, agneya, vayavya and nabhasakinds of agni are known as bhutagnis. They are present in the jatharagni itself and derive strength from it, and commence their actions after the three avasthapaka are completed. Each bhutagni acts upon its own kind of materials the food, parthivagni acts on parthiva materials, apyagni on apya materials and so on. This activity of the bhutagni is known as Nisthapaka which is the second phase of digestion.
यथास्वं ते च पुष्णान्ति पक्का भूतगुणान् पृथक् । पार्थिवाः पार्थिवानेव शेषाः शेषांश्च देहगान् ॥ ६० ॥
They (qualities of food) after undergoing cooking, nourish the qualities (materials of the body i.e, dosas, dhatus and mala), parthiva qualities (of the food) nourish parthiva qualities (materials of the body) only, and the rest the others (respectively). 60.
Notes: After Nisthapaka, the parthiva qualities of the food become the nourishment of the parthiva category of materials (such as bones, muscles etc); apya qualites nourish only apya materials (kapha, rasa lasika, medas, majja, mutra etc.), vayaviya qualites nourish vayaviya materials (vata skin, etc.), nabhasa qualities nourish nabhasa materials (empty spaces, ears etc.), In this manner the different qualities of food provide nourishment to the materials of the body.
किट्टं सारश्च तत्पकमन्नं सम्भवति द्विधा । तत्राच्छं किट्टमन्नस्य मूत्रं विद्याद्धनं शकृत् ॥ ६१ ॥
The digested food (after both phases of digestion) gets divided into two parts viz, kitta (waste) and sara (essence). The fine (liquid) portion of waste product of food becomes mutra (urine) and the solid portion becomes sakrt (feaces).
सारस्तु सप्तभिर्भूयो यथास्वं पच्यतेऽग्निभिः ।
The sara (essence) undergoes further cooking (transformation) by the seven agnis of their own, (dhatvagni present in each dhatu).
रसाद्रक्तं ततो मांसं मांसान्मेदस्ततोऽस्थि च ॥ ६२ ॥ अस्थनो मज्जा ततः शुक्रं शुक्राद्दर्भः प्रजायते ।
Dhatu parinama – tissue metobolism
From rasa, rakta gets formed, then mamsa (from rakta), from mamsa, medas gets formed, then asthi from medas; from asthi, majja gets formed, then the sukra (from majja), from sukra the garbha (embryo) gets formed.
Notes The sara (essence) of food also known as ahararasa gets absorbed in the pakvasaya (the small and large intestines) and undergoes further transformation and becomes rasa dhatu-the first dhatu. It contains nutritive materials (posaka amsa) required by all the other dhatus. It travels to all the tissues through the internal srotas present in the dhatus and supplies them their nutrition. These nutritive materials are acted upon by the dhatvgni, present in each dhatu. After this, two kinds of materials get formed viz, sara (essence) and kitta (waste). The sara (essence) is again of two kinds viz 1. sthula (gross) which is more in quantity, Is made use of by the same dhatu for its own growth. 2. suksma (fine)-which is less in quantity, is the moity required for the formation of the next succeeding dhatu. Thus rasadhatu contributes some materials to mamsa and so on. Hence it is said that one dhatu is the food for the other. The rasa dhatu, so called because it is constantly circulating, carries these materials also from one dhatu to the other. Hence the above description of “the proceding dhatu giving birth to its succeeding dhatu”. The last dhatu the-sukra-leads to the formation of the embryo.
Rasa dhatu carrying nulrition to all the dhatus and the formation of the seven dhatus has been explained by commentators like Cakrapanidatta, with three Nyayas (anologies) viz, ksira dadhi nyaya, kedarikulya nyaya and khalekapota nyaya.
1. ksiradadhi nyaya-just as the milk gets converted into curds, curds into butter and butter to ghee, the rasa dhatu becomes raktadhatu,
rakta becomes mamsa and so on. This explanation has been rejected as it cannot explain the formation of sara and kitta.
2. khale kapota nyaya-just as pegions from far and near come to the heap of corn kept at one place, pick up their requirement and go back to their dwellings, so also each dhatu picks up its requirement from the pool of rasa dhatu (in the pakvasaya). This anology has also been, rejected as it does not provide for circulation of rasadhatu.
3. Kedarikulya nyaya-just as a vast field of crops, divided into small plots, each one supplied with water by small channels, thus supplying nutrition to all the crops at their own places; the water of one plot flowing into its next in small quantities, rasa dhatu also flows through small channels (internal srotas), supplyng nutrition to all the dhatus remaining in their own places. This anology answering to all the provisions (chiefly the circulation of rasadhatu, existence of srotas contribution of moities from one dhatu to the other etc. has been accepted.
The presence of fiire like agency in each tissue, the process of paka (cooking, digestion, transformation) the production of essence and waste in each dhatu, formation and development of dhatu one after the other, ensuring the growth of the body all these are known as Dhatu parinama (tissue metobolism).
Kapha, pitta, kha mala (the waste products of the external srotas) sweda (sweat), nakha (nails) and roma (hair), fatty material of the eyes, skin and feaces; and the ojas (essence of dhatu) are the mala (wastes) of the dhatus respectively. 63.
Notes kapha is the waste product of rasadhatu, pitta is of rakta, excretions of the eyes, nose, mouth are the wastes of mamsa; sweat is of medas; nails and hair are of asthi; fatty material of feaces, eyes, skin etc. are of majja, and ojas is the waste product of sukra.
प्रसादकिट्टौ धातूनां पाकादेवं द्विधर्छतः ॥ ६४॥
The essence and wastes of dhatus are produced only after paka (digestion/transformation in the dhatus). 64.
परस्परोपसंस्तम्भाद्धातुस्त्रेहपरम्परा । केचिदाहुरहोरात्रात्षडहादपरे, परे ॥ ६५ ॥ मासेन याति शुक्रत्वमन्नं पाकक्रमादिभिः । सन्तता भोज्यधातूनां परिवृत्तिस्तु चक्रवत् ॥ ६६ ॥
The continuity of evolution of dhatus is because of the intimate interrelationship (between the preceeding and the succeeding dhatu).
Some (authorities) say, that the food gets converted to sukra (last dhatu) in one day; some say, after six days; and yet others, after one month, after undergoing series of paka (digestion and transformation)
The transformation of bhojya dhatus (nutrient tissues, small quantities of essence of the preceding tissue) goes on uninturrpted like the (movement of) wheel. 65-66.
वृष्यादौनि प्रभावेण सद्यः शुक्रादि कुर्वते ।
प्रायः करोत्यहोरात्रात्कर्मान्यदपि भेषजम् ॥ ६७ ॥
Aphrodisiacs (drugs etc.) by their special effects, produce sukra etc. immediately. Probably other medicines also produce their actions (effects) by a day and night. 67.
व्यानेन रसधातुर्हि विक्षेपोचितकर्मणा ।
युगपत्सर्वतोऽजस्त्रं देहे विक्षिप्यते सदा ॥ ६८ ॥
Rasa dhatu itself gets circulated by the proper (normal) activity of vyanavata, throughout the body, continuously, at all times.
क्षिप्यमाण: खवैगुण्याद्रसः सज्जति यत्र सः । यस्मिन्विकारं कुरुते खे वर्षमिव तोयदः ॥ ६९ ॥ दोषाणामपि चैवं स्यादेकदेशप्रकोपणम् ।
When the rasa dhatu accumulates/stagnates at any place due to the abnormality of the kha (srotas inside the dhatus) it gives rise to diseases in that place, just as clouds (stagnating at one place) bring about rain. Like wise the dosas also undergo aggravation (increase) at any one place (due to stagnation). 69-70a.
Notes: The chief seat of rasa is hrdaya (heart) which is the seat of vyana vata also. Vyana pushes the rasa through the siras and dhamanis (blood vessels), and causes its circulation inside the suksma srotas present in the dhatus. When these srotas become abnormal (the four kinds of sroto dusti mentioned earlier) due to indulgene in unhealthy A.H.- 1 – 28
foods and activities, the circulation of rasa is obstructed (partially or completely) at the site of such abnormality. Obstruction leads to accumilation. Rasa dhatu is the medium of transport of the dosas (vata, pitta and kapha) also. So when there is accumilation of rasa at any place there is accumilation of dosas also. Both the two together give rise to the onset of diseases at that place.
Jatharagni pradhanayam – importance of gastric fire
अन्नभौतिकधात्वग्निकर्मेति परिभाषितम् ॥ ७० ॥ अन्नस्य पक्ता सर्वषां पक्तृणामधिको मतः । तन्मूलास्ते हि तद्द्वृद्धिक्षयवृद्धिक्षयात्मकाः ॥ ७१ ॥ तस्मात्तं विधिवद्युक्तैरन्नपानेन्धनैर्हितैः । पालयेत्प्रयतस्तस्य स्थितौ ह्यायुर्बलस्थितिः ॥ ७२ ॥
Thus, was described the activities of the agni of anna, (fire-like agency responsible for digestion of food known as kosthagni, jathragni, kayagni etc.), the bhuta (the five bhutagni) and the dhatu (the seven dhatvagni). Among all these digestive agencies, that which cooks the food (i. e. jatharagni, kosthagni) is great (in strength), it is the root (chief cause) for them (bhutagni and dhatvagni); its increase and decrease make for their increase and decrease respectively; so it should be preserved (maintained normal) with great effort (care), by the proper use of suitable foods and drinks; on its normalcy depend the life span, and condition of strength (of the person). 71-72.
Jatharagni bheda – kinds of gastric fire
समः समाने स्थानस्थे विषमोऽग्निर्विमार्गगे। पित्ताभिमूच्छिते तीक्ष्णो मन्दोऽस्मिन्कफपीडिते ॥ ७३ ॥
It (jatharagni) is sama (normal) when samana vata is in its normal seat (or condition); it becomes visama (erratic) when samana vata is in the wrong path (or increased); it is tiksna (very powerful) when (the samanavata is) associated with pitta, and it is manda (weak) when (samana vata is) associated with kapha. 73.
समोऽग्निर्विषमस्तीक्ष्णो मन्दश्चैवं चतुर्विधः |
Thus the agni is of four kinds-Sama (normal), Visama (erratic, unsteady), Tiksna (strong) and Manda (weak),
यः पचेत्सम्यगेवान्नं भुक्तं सम्यक् समस्त्वसौ ॥ ७४ ॥ विषमोऽसम्यगप्याशु सम्यग्वाऽपि चिरात्पचेत् । तीक्ष्णो वह्निः पचेच्छीघ्रमसम्यगपि भोजनम् ॥ ७५ ॥ मन्दस्तु सम्यगप्यन्नमुपयुक्तं चिरात्पचेत् । कृत्वाऽऽस्यशोषाटोपान्त्रकूजनाधमानगौरवम् ॥ ७६ ॥
That which cooks (digests) the properly ingested food at the proper time is Samagni (normal); that which cooks the food sometimes too quickly though it is improperly consumed (at improper time, more in quantity etc.) and some times too slow, though the food is properly consumed (at proper time and in usual quantity), is Visamagni; Tiksnagni is that which digests the food too quick even though the food is improper (or more in quantity); Mandagni is that which digests the food even though proper, after a long time producing dryness of the mouth, noise in the abdomen, gurglings of the intestines, flatulence, and heavyness. 76.
Notes: Ayurvcda attaches great importance to the jatharagni-digestive activity in the gastrointestinal tract. Health and ill-health depend on it. Almost all organic diseases (of both the body and mind) are said to arise from abnormal states of digestive activity. Hence the utmost need to preserve its normalcy.
Trividha bala – Three kinds of strength
सहजं कालजं युक्तिकृतं देहबलं त्रिधा । तत्र सत्त्वशरीरोत्थं प्राकृतं सहजं बलम् ॥ ७७ ॥ वयस्कृतमृतूत्थं च कालजं, युक्तिजं पुनः । विहाराहारजनितं तथोर्जस्करयोगजम् ॥ ७८ ।।
Sahaja, kalaja and yuktikrta-are the three kinds of strength of the body. Among them, Sahaja is that which is due to satva guna etc. (body having excellence of all the tissues and of the mind) and which is natural (born with, innate to the body); Kala is that due to season and age of the Person), Yuktija is that due to (accruing from) activities, foods and effect of rejuvinators (drugs etc.). 77-78.
Notes: Bala or strength is of two kinds viz, (1) karmasakti-capacity to do work and (2) vyadhiksamitva- capacity to resist or withstand diseases. Both these, are included in the three fold classification mentioned in the above verse, Sahaja is the inborn or natural strength and is attributed to the predominance of satva guna. Kalaja or seasonal strength during winter and youth mans strength is optimum while during summer, infancy, young age and old age it is minimum, due to the effect of climate and condition of tissues and organs of the body, Yuktikrta means artificially created; by habitual use healthy foods and activities, avoidance of unhealthy or poisonlike foods and drinks, and use of medicines (rejuvinators, tonics, aphrodisiacs, serums and vaccines etc.). Habitat, race, familial traits, planetary influences at the time of birth, condition of the seeds (spermatozoan and ovum), the womb, and also of the mind are the other factors influencing the strength of man.
Trividha desa – three kinds of habitat
देशोऽल्पवारिद्रुनगो जाङ्गलः स्वल्परोगदः । आनूपो विपरीतोऽस्मात्समः साधारणः स्मृतः ॥ ७९ ॥
The country (reigon of land) which has less of water (resources), vegetation and mountains is (known as) Jangala (arid, dry, desert like), It produces few diseases (in man and animals). Anupa (marshy, wet, water logged) is its opposite. Sadharana (moderate) is that which is sama (moderate) neither too less nor too much of these features). 79.
Notes Number of diseases affecting man is great in anupa (marshy) region, less in jangala (arid) and of moderate number in sadharana (moderate) regions; so also the longevity of life, people of anupa regions have short span of life, people of jangala regions have long span and those of sadharana regions have moderate span. Vata is predominant in jangala and people suffer from more of vata diseases; kapha is predominant in anupa and kapha diseases are more in the people of this region; in sadharana region, there is no such dosas predominance, any dosa may get aggravated by the effect ol the foods and activities indulged.
Dhatu pramana – quantity of tissues
मज्जमोदोवसामूत्रपित्तश्लेष्मशकृन्त्यसृक् । रसो जलं च देहेऽस्मिन्नेकैकाञ्जलिवर्द्धितम् ॥ ८० । पृथक् स्वप्रसृतं प्रोक्तमोजोमस्तिष्करेतसाम् । द्वावञ्जली तु स्तन्यस्य चत्वारो रजसः स्त्रियाः ॥ ८१ ॥ समधातोरिदं मानं विद्याद्धृद्धिक्षयावतः ॥ ८२ ॥
(The quantity of ) majja (marrow), medas (fat), vasa ( muscle fat), mutra (urine ), pitta, slesman (kapha ), sakrt (feaces) asrk (blood), rasa (plasma ) and jala (water, body fluids like lymph) are in this body, one anjali more in their successive order ( quantity of ) ; ojas ( essence of dhatu), mastiska (brain matter) and retas (semen) are one prasrta each; in women stanya (breast milk ) is two anjali and rajas (menstrual fluid) four anjali; these are the measures when they are normal and on these (measure) the increase and decrease (of dhatu and others ) have to be understood (determined).
Notes : Anjali is 192ml and prasrta 96ml. approximately.
Deha prakrti – human constitution/temperament
यः स्याद्दोषोऽधिकस्तेन प्रकृतिः सप्तधोदिता ।। ८३ ॥
Depending on the dosa that is predominant in the sukra (semen or the spermatozoan to be more specific), asrik (menstrual blood or the ovum to be more specific) at the time of their union ), in the bhojya (food), cesta (activities) of the garbhini (pregnant woman), garbhasaya (uterus) and rtu (season ) seven kinds of prakrti ( human constitution ) are produced. 83.
Notes The seven kinds of prakrti are counted as follows; three ekadosaja-one from each dosa viz; vataja, pittaja and kaphaja; three dvidosaja/dvandva dosaja or samsargaja-from the combination of two dosas viz vata+pittaja, vata+kaphaja and kapha+pittaja; one tridosaja, sammisraja or sannipataja-from the combination of all the three dosas. The features of these kinds are described further.
Vata prakrti – nervous temperament
विभुत्वादाशुक्रारित्वाद्वलित्वादन्यकोपनात् । स्वातन्त्रयाद्वहुरोगत्वाद्दोषाणां प्रबलोऽनिलः ॥ ८४ ॥ प्रायोऽत एव पवनाध्युषिता मनुष्या दोषात्मका: स्फुटितधूसरकेशगात्राः । शीतद्विषश्चलधृतिस्मृतिबुद्धिचेष्टासौहार्ददृष्टिगतयोऽतिबहुप्रलापाः ॥ ८५ ॥ अल्पवित्तबलजीवितनिद्राः सन्नसक्तचलजर्जरवाचः । नास्तिका बहुभुजः सविलासा गीतहासमृगयाकलिलोलाः ॥ ८६ ॥ मधुराम्लपटूष्णसात्म्यकाङ्क्षाः कृशदीर्घाकृतयः सशब्दयाताः । न दृढा न जितेन्द्रिया न चार्या न च कान्तादयिता बहुप्रजा वा ॥ ८७॥ नेत्राणि चैषां खरधूसराणि वृत्ताम्यचारूणि मृतोपमानि | उन्मीलितानीव भवन्ति सुप्ते शैलद्रुमांस्ते गगनं च यान्ति ॥ ८८ ॥ अधन्या मत्सराध्माता: स्तेना: प्रोद्बद्धपिण्डिकाः । वातिकाः ॥ ८९ ॥ श्वशृगालोष्टगृध्राखुकाकानूकाश्च
Because of (properties like) – all-pervading (in all the parts of the body), quick acting, strong (powerful), tendency to aggravate others (dosas, dhatus and malas etc.), acting independently, and producing many diseases vata is powerful among the dosas.
Hence persons born with the predominance of pavana (vata) generally have, hair and body which are cracked and dusky (lustreless), they hate cold, are unsteady in respect ofcourage, memory, thinking, movement (walking and others), friendship, vision and gait; talk more and irrelevant, possess little of wealth, strength, span of life and sleep; their voice (speaking) is obstructed, interrupted, unsteady or harsh; they are atheists, gluttons, pleasure seeking; desirous of music, humor, hunting or gambling; desirous of habituation to sweet, sour, salty and hot foods; are lean and tall in shape, produce sound during walking (kunkles in joints of the leg); are not steadfast, cannot control their senses, not civilised (brutish, impolite), not liked by women, not have many children; their eyes are rough (dry), lustreless, round, unpleasant and resemble those of the dead; lids kept open while sleeping; they dream as though roaming on the mountains, dwelling on trees and moving in the sky; persons of vataprakriti are non-magnanimous, bloated with jealosy, of stealing nature and having bulged calves; they resemble (in movements, mental behaviour etc.) animals such as the dog, jackal, camel, vulture, rat and crow. 84-89.
Pitta prakrti – bilious temperament
पित्तं वह्निर्वह्निजं वा यदस्मात्पित्तोद्रिक्तस्तीक्ष्णतृष्णाबुभुक्षः । गौरोष्णाङ्गस्ततम्रहस्ताविक्रः शूरो मानी पिङ्गकेशोऽल्परोमा ॥ ९० ॥
दयितमाल्यविलेपनमण्डनः सुचरितः शुचिराश्रितवत्सलः । विभवसाहसबुद्धिबलान्वितो भवति भीषु गतिद्विषतामपि ॥ ९९ ॥ मेधावी प्रशिथिलसन्धिबन्धमांसो नारीणामनभिमतोऽल्पशुक्रकामः । आवासः पलिततरङ्गनीलिकानां भुङ्क्तेऽन्नं मधुर कषायतिक्तशीतम् ॥ ९२ ॥ धर्मद्वेषी स्वेदनः पूतिगन्धिर्भूर्युच्चारक्रोधपानाशनेर्ध्यः । सुप्तः पश्येत्कर्णिकारान्पलाशान् दिग्दाहोल्काविद्युदर्कानलांश्च ॥ ९३ ॥ तनूनि पिङ्गानि चलानि चैषां तन्वल्पपक्ष्माणि हिमप्रियाणि | क्रोधेन मद्येन रवेश्च भासा रागं व्रजन्त्याशु विलोचनानि ॥ ९४ ॥ मध्यायुषो मध्यबलाः पण्डिता: क्लेशभीरवः । व्याघ्रर्क्षकपिमार्जारयक्षानुकाश्च पैत्तिकाः ॥ ९५ ॥
Pitta is fire itself or born from fire; hence persons having predominance of pitta, have very keen (severe) thirst and hunger, are white (in the colour of the skin) and warm in body; possess coppery red palms, soles and face; are brave and proud; have brown and scanty hair; are fond of women, garlands, unguents (perfumeries); are of good behaviour, clean, affectionate to dependents, desirous of grandeour, adventure have mental power (ability) of facing fear and enemity; highly intellegent, possess very loose and lean joints and muscles; do not like women; possess less of semen and sexual desire; possess grey hair, wrinkles, and blue patches on the skin; consume food which is sweet, astringent, bitter and cold; hate sunlight (and heat); perspire heavily, emit bad smell from the body; expel facces frequently, have more anger, eating, drinking (wine) and jealosy; while in sleep dream of (flowers of) karnikara and palasa, forest fire, meteor, lightening/thunder bolt, bright sunrays and fire; their eyes are thin (small), brown, unsteady with thin and few eyelashes; eyes desirous of cold comfort, becoming red very quick by anger, drinking wine and exposure to sunlight. Persons of pitta prakrti are of medium life— span, medium strength, highly learned, afraid of discomfort and resemble (in behaviour) animals like the tiger, bear, ape, cat and yaksa. 90-95.
Kapha prakrti – phlegmatic temperament
श्लेष्मा सोमः श्लेष्मलस्तेन सौम्यो गूढस्निग्धश्लिष्टसन्ध्यस्थिमांसः । क्षुत्तृड्दुःखक्लेशघर्मैरतप्तो बुद्ध्या युक्तः सात्त्विकः सत्यसन्धः ॥९६॥प्रियङ्गुदूर्वाशरकाण्डशस्त्रगोरोचनापद्मसुवर्णवर्णः। प्रलम्बबाहुः पृथुपीनवक्षा महाललाटो घननीलकेशः ॥ ९७ ॥ मृद्वङ्गः समसुविभक्तचारुदोहो बह्वोजोरतिरसशुक्रपुत्रभृत्यः । धर्मात्मा वदति न निष्ठरं च जातु प्रच्छन्नं वहति दृढं चिरं च वैरम् ॥ ९८ ॥ समदद्विरदेन्द्रतुल्ययाततॊ जलदाम्भोधिमृदङ्गसिंहघोषः । स्मृतिमानभियोगवान् विनीतो न च बाल्येऽप्यतिरोदनो न लोलः ॥ ९९ ।। तिक्तं कषायं कटुकोष्णरूक्षमल्पं स भुङ्क्ते बलवांस्तथाऽपि । रक्तान्तसुस्निग्धविशालदीर्घसुव्यक्तशुल्कासितपक्ष्मलाक्षः ॥ १०० ॥ ‘अल्पव्याहारक्रोधपानाशनेहः प्राज्यायुर्वित्तो दीर्घदर्शी वदान्यः | श्राद्धो गम्भीरः स्थूललक्षः क्षमावानार्यो निद्रालुर्दीर्घसूत्रः कृतज्ञः ॥ १०१ ॥ ऋजुर्विपश्चित्सुभगः सुलज्जो भक्तो गुरूणां स्थिरसौहृदश्च । स्वप्ने सपद्मान् सविहङ्गमालांस्तोयाशयान् पश्यति तोयदांश्च ॥ १०२ ॥ब्रह्मरुद्रेन्द्रवरुणतार्क्ष्यहंसगजाधिपैः । श्लेष्मप्रकृतयस्तुल्यास्तथा सिंहाश्वगोवृषैः ॥ १०३ ॥
Slesman (kapha ) is soma (moon-like, cool, mild); hence persons of kapha prakrti are mild in nature, possess deep seated (not prominantly seen), unctous and well-knit joints and muscles; are not much troubled by huger, thirst, unhappi-ness ( troubles ) strain and heat; endowed with intellegence, right attitude and truthfulness; possess colour like that of priyangu, durva sarakanda, sastra ( iron, steal weapon), gorocana, padma or suvarna; have long arms, big and elevated chest, big (wide ) forehead, thick and blue hair; soft, even (symmetrical), well defined and good looking body, of great vigour, sexual prowess, desire in tastes; more of semen, children and attendents; are of righteous, benovalent nature, do not speak harsh and abusively; horbour enimity, concealed and deep for long time; their gait is like that of an elephant in rut; their voice like the roaring of clouds, ocean, mridanga, (drum) or lion; possess good memory, perseverance, humbleness, do not weep (cry) much even in childhood; are not greedy (clinging to pleasures ) consume food which is bitter, astringent, pungent, hot, dry and less in quantity, and still remain strong; their eyes are red at the angles, unctous, wide, long, with well degined white and black spheres (sclera and cornea) and with more eye lashes; have less of speech, anger, desire for drink (wine), food and activities; endowed with more life (longivity), wealth, foresight and munificience; have faith (in god, granting gifts, charity etc.); dignified, greatly charitable; of forgiving nature, civilised; very sleepy/drowsy, slow, grateful, straightforward, learned, pleasant to look at, bashful, obedient to teachers (and elders) and of fast friendship; see reservoers of water full of lotus and rows of birds and clouds (in dream); persons of slesma prakrti are similar (in nature) with Brahma, Rudra, Indra, Varuna, Tarksya (garuda) hamsa (swan) Gajadhipa (the elephant Airavata), lion, horse, and bull. 96-103.
प्रकृतीर्द्वयसर्वोत्था द्वन्द्वसर्वगुणोदये । शौचास्तिक्यादिभिश्चैवं गुणैर्गुणमयीर्वदेत् ॥ १०४ ॥
Persons born with predominance of two dosas and all three dosas possess features of two or all the dosas together. Likewise, by features such as cleanliness, belief in god etc. persons are to be understood as belonging to the (category of the) gunas (the three mahaguna-satva, rajas and tamas). 104.
Notes: Among the seven kinds of dosa prakrti, persons of sammisra prakiti (combination of all the three dosa in equal proportion) are the best in health and other aspects but very few in number. Persons of samsarga prakriti (combination of any two dosa) are moderate (in health etc.) and form highest percentage numerically, persons of ekadosoja prakriti (single dosa origin) are poor in health and other aspects. Among these three, kapha prkriti is best, pitta prakrti moderate and vata prakrti is least.
Caraka samhita describes seven kinds of satvika prakrti, six kinds of rajasa prakrti and three kinds of tamasa prakrti, designating them as “kaya” such as brahma kaya etc. (vide chapter 4 of sharira sthana). These are known today as psychological temperaments.
Vayah – age
वयस्त्वाषोडशाबालं तत्र धात्विन्द्रियौजसाम् । वृद्धिरासप्ततेर्मध्यं तत्रावृद्धिः परं क्षयः ॥ १०५ ॥
The period upto sixteen years of age is Balya (childhood) in which there occurs the increase of dhatu (tissues), indriya (sense perception) and ojas (essence of dhatus responsible for strength); the period upto seventy years is Madhya (middle age, youth) in which there is no increase of tissues etc; then (after seventy years) it is ksaya-decrease/ depletion of tissues etc. or old age). 105.
Notes: Susruta, further sub-divides each of the above three periods as follows
Balya – childhood
1. a. ksirapa (drinks only milk) st day of birth upto 1 year. b. ksira-annada (milk and solid food) 1-2 years. c. annada (only solid food)-2 to 16 years.
Kapha is the predominant dosa during balya and so diseases of kapha are more common. The tissues are undergoing the process of growth and development, and so poor in strength (capacity to work and resist diseases).
Madhya – middle age
a. vrddhi (adolescence) 16-20 years. b. yauvana (youth) 20-50 years. c. sampurnata (full grown) 30-40 years. d. parihani (degeneration) 40-60-70 years.
All the tissues will have attained optimum growth and development, are capable of any hard work and resist diseases. Pitta is the predominant dosa in this period and so diseases of pitta origin are more common.
Jirna – old age
a. ksina-(from 70 till death).
All the tissues will slowly undergo decrease and degeneration, lose their strength and capacity to resist disease. Vata is the predominant dosa in this period and diseases of vata origin are common.
sharira laksana – physiognomy
स्वं स्वं हस्तत्रयं सार्द्धं वपुः पात्रं सुखायुषोः । न च यद्युक्तमुद्रिक्तैरष्टाभिर्निन्दितैर्निजैः ॥ १०६॥
अरोमशासितस्थूलदीर्घत्वैः सविपर्ययैः ।
Three and a half hasta (arms length) in one’s own arm is the height of the body suitable for a happy life. This measure-nent does not apply to those who belong to the eight kinds of Nindita (unsatisfactory, abnormal, bad, physique) such as troma (hairless), asita (black), sthula (big, obese) and dirgha (tall), with their opposites. 106½.
Notes: One hasta is 45 cms; three and half hasta (157 cms ) is the average height of an adult male; height varies depending on many factors such as sex, habitat, race, heredity etc. The eight kinds of body configurations considered to be bad to health are: (1) aroma-no hair on the body, ( 2 ) atiloma — too much of hair on the body, ( 3 ) atikrsna -very black in skin color. (4) atigaura-very white in colour. (5) atisthula-very stout/ obese/corpulent. (6) atikrsa-very thin/emaciated. (7) atidirgha – very tall and (8) ati-hraswa — very short/dwarf/ pigmy; As known now, these are the effects of increased or decreased activity of the various endocrine glands (hormonal disorders). Some persons of these kinds lead a fairly healthy life while others suffer.
सुस्निग्धा मृदवः सूक्ष्मा नैकमूलाः स्थिरा: कचाः ॥ १०७ ॥ ललाटमुन्नतं श्लिष्टशङ्खमर्धेन्दुसन्निभम् । कर्णौ नीचोन्नतौ पश्चान्महान्तौ श्लिष्टमांसलौ ॥ १०८ ॥ नेत्रे व्यक्तासितसिते सुबद्धघनपक्ष्मणी । उन्नताग्रा महोच्छ्वासा पीनर्जुर्नासिका समा ।। १०९ ।। ओष्टौ रक्तावनुद्वृत्तौ, महत्यौ नोल्बणे हनू । महदास्यं, घना दन्ताः स्निग्धाः श्लक्ष्णाः सिताः समाः ॥ ११०॥ जिह्वा रक्ताऽऽयता तन्वी, मांसलं चिबुकं महत् । ग्रीवा ह्रस्वा घना वृत्ता, स्कन्धावुन्नतपीवरौ ॥ १११ ॥ उदरं दक्षिणावर्तगूढनाभिसमुन्नतम् । तनुरक्तोन्नतनखं स्निग्धमाताम्रमांसलम्॥११२॥ दीर्घाच्छिद्राङ्गुलिमहत्पाणिपादं प्रतिष्ठितम् । गूढवंशं बृहत्पृष्ठं, निगूढाः सन्धयो दृढाः ॥ ११३ ।। धीर: स्वरोऽनुनादी च, वर्णः स्निग्धः स्थिरप्रभः । स्वभावजं स्थिरं सत्त्वमविकारि विपत्स्वपि ॥ ११४ ॥ उत्तरोत्तरसुक्षेत्रं वपुर्गर्भादिनीरुजम् । आयामज्ञानविज्ञानैर्वर्द्धमानं शनैः शुभम् ॥ ११५ ॥ इति सर्वगुणोपेते शरीरे शरदां शतम् । आयुरैश्वर्यमिष्टाश्चं सर्वे भावाः प्रतिष्ठिताः ॥ ११६ ॥
Hair (on the head) should be smooth, soft, thin, with only one root and firm. The forehead should be high, with well joined temples and resemble the half moon (curved in front). The ears should be thin at the bottom and thick at the top, broad sidewards, well joined and muscular. The eyes should have the white and black areas clearly visible, with well joined and thick eyelashes. The nose should hava elevated tip, capable of deep breathing, with straight bridge and even (neither depressed nor elevated). The lips should be red and not bulging out. The lower jaw should be big but not protruding. The mouth should be big, teeth should be thick (firm), unctous, smooth, white and evenly placed. The tongue be red, broad, and thin; the chin be muscular and big. The neck be short, thick and round; the shoulders bulged out and muscular. The abdomen should have the umbilicus with a right whirl, deep and bulged evenly (in all places). The nails should be thin, red, elevated, unctous (smooth), coppery-red all over and muscular. The fingers should be long and seperate. The hands and feet should be big; the back should have the vertebral column concealed and big, the joints should be deep and firm. The voice should be courageous (loud, commanding attention) and vibrating. The colour (of the skin) should be unctous/greasy and with good lustre.
The mind (mental activities) should be natural, firm (steady) and not undergoing change even at times of danger (remaining steadfast even in trying situations).
The body which has better features in successive states, than those described so far, which has remained disease free since birth, which possesses the (normal) height, intellegence (common sense), scholarship and growing slow is auspicious (best for health and long life).
In such a body, endowed with all good featutes, the span of life is one hundred springs (years), full of wealth, desires and all other comforts clearly assured. 108-116.
Ashta vidha sara – eight excellences
त्वग्रक्तादीनि सत्त्वान्तान्यग्रयाण्यष्टौ यथोत्तरम् । बलप्रमाणज्ञानार्थं साराण्युक्तानि देहिनाम् ॥ ११७ ॥ सारैरुपेतः सर्वैः स्यात्परं गौरवसंयुतः ।
Eight kinds of Sara commencing with (that of) twak, and rakta and ending with (that of) satva, each succeeding one better than its preceding, have been enumerated for determining the quantity of strength of the body. The person endowed with all the sara is sure to earn great respect, hopeful of success in all his activities, capable of withstanding troubles, will be wise and steady.
Notes: Sara literally means essence, possessing all good qualities in excellent standard and no defects, the eight kinds of sara are-(1) twak sara or rasa sara-excellence in skin, (2) raktasara-excellence of blood, (3) mamsa sara-excellence of muscles, (4) meda sara-excellence of fat, (5) asthisara-excellence in bones, (6) majja sara-excllence of (7) sukra sara-excellence of semen and (8) satva sara-excellence of mind. Caraka samhita (chapter 8 of vimanasthana) enumerates the features of each of these eight sara which may be referred. The dhatu (tissues) which has been such an excellence will have capacity to resist diseases and do all its normal functions efficiently. marrow
अनुत्सेकमदैन्यं च सुखं दुःखं च सेवते । सत्त्ववांस्तप्यमानस्तु राजसो नैव तामसः ॥ ११९॥ दानशीलदयासत्यब्रह्मचर्यकृतज्ञताः । रसायनानि मैत्री च पुण्यायुर्वृद्धिकृगणः ॥ १२० ॥
The person with predominance of satva guna, experiences, (enjoys) happiness and misery without agitation (getting upset emotionally) and humility (depression, miserable mind) respectively; whereas persons of rajas and tamas (gunas predominant) do not do so.
Habits of charity, compassion, truthfulness, celibacy, gratitude, rejuvinators (drugs, tonics), friendship (with all) and be novalent activities form the group which enhances the span of life 119-120.
इति श्रीवैद्यपतिसिंहगुप्तसूनुश्रीमद्वाग्भटविरचितायामष्टाङ्गहृदयसंहितायां शारीरस्थानेऽङ्गविभागो नाम तृतीयोऽध्यायः ॥ ३॥
Thus ends the chapter called Angavibhaga sharira; the third in sharira sthana of Astangahrdaya samhita composed by Srimad Vagbhata, son of Sri Vaidyapati Simhagupta.