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Charaka SamhitaCharaka Samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 27 - Healthy Ayurveda Diet and Drinks -...

Charaka Samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 27 – Healthy Ayurveda Diet and Drinks – Annapana Vidhi Adhyaya

सप्तविंशोऽध्यायः अथातोऽन्नपानचिधिमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः ॥ १ ॥ इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः ॥ २ ॥

We shall now expound the chapter on the “Properties of Diets and Drinks”. Thus said Lotd Atreya.

In the previous chapter, the properties of various drugs and diets have been spoken of in general terms. It is now proposed to describe the specific properties of drugs and diets generally useful for every individual. Here, diets include all solid items of food, and drinks comprise all liquids including linctus.

Importance of wholesome food

इष्टवर्णगन्धरसस्पर्श विधिविहितमन्नपानं प्राणिनां प्राणिसंज्ञकानां प्राणमाचक्षते कुशलाः, प्रत्यक्षफलदर्शनात्; तदिन्धना ह्यन्तरनेः स्थितिः तत् सवमूर्जयति, तच्छरीरधातुव्यू हवलवर्णेन्द्रिय प्रसादकरं यथोक्तमुपसेव्यमानं, विपरीतमहिताय संपद्यते ॥ ३ ॥

Such diets and drinks whose colour, smell, taste and touch are pleasing to the senses and conducive to the health, if taken in accordance with the rules, in fact represent the very life of living beings. The effect of the use of such diets and drinks can be perceived directly. If consumed according to rules, they provide fuel to the fire of digestion; they promote mental as well as physical strength, strength of tissue elements and complexion and they are pleasing to the senses. Otherwise they are harmful. [3]

Rules relating to the intake of various drugs and diets are explained in Sutra-8 and will further be dealt with in greater detail in Vimana-1. Visual, olfactory, gustatory and tactile perceptions are involved in various diets and drinks; only the auditory perception is wanting. The order of these perceptions indicated in the above passage is as we experience in actual practice. It is only with regard to the gustatory perception, which actually comes last, the order is broken in view of its comparatively predominant position, inasmuch as it is the last but one in the list.

Here, living beings include only those belonging to animal kingdom. Even though trees etc., of the vegetable kingdom are also endowed with life, they do not come under the purview of these descriptions. To sum up Apart from human beings other living beings of the animal kingdom are also included here. We know from actual practice that the intake of proper diets and drinks is the only means of survival. Thus, diet and drinks virtually constitute the very life of all living beings. The correlation of diets and drinks with life can be very well. inferred from the actual experience in life. Those who take proper food and drinks live long and those not doing so die a premature death. Proper maintenance of the power of digestion which is the supporter of elan vital also depends upon the intake of proper diet and drinks cf.-Sutra 27: 342.

Types of food and their actions

तस्माद्धिताहितावबोधनार्थमन्नपानविधिमखिलेनोपदेक्ष्यामोऽग्निवेश ! । तत् स्वभावादुदकं क्लेदयति, लवणं विष्यन्दयति, क्षारः पाचयति, मधु संदधाति, सर्पिः स्नेहयति, क्षीरं जीवयति, मांसं बृंहयति, रसः प्रीणयति, सुरा जर्जरीकरोति, शीधुस्ववमति, द्राक्षासवो दीपयति, फाणितमाचिनोति, दधि शोफं जनयति, पिण्याकशाकं ग्लपयति, प्रभूतान्तर्मलो मापसूपः, दृष्टिशुक्रघ्नः क्षारः, प्रायः पित्तलमम्लमन्यत्र दाडिमामलकात्, प्रायः श्लेष्मलं मधुरमन्यत्र मधुनः पुराणाञ्च शालिषष्टिकयवगोधूमात्, प्रायस्तिक्तं वातलमवृष्यं चान्यत्र वेत्राग्रामृतापटोलपत्रात्, प्रायः कटुकं वातलमवृष्यं चान्यत्र पिप्पलीविश्वभेषजात् ॥ ४ ॥

So we shall now explain the properties of various diets and drinks in order to bring to light their useful and harmful effects on the body, O! Agnivesa.

By nature water produces stickiness, salt causes moistness, alkalies help digestion, honey brings together the ruptured tissue elements, ghee produces unctuousness, milk invigorates, meat brings about corpulence, meat soup nourishes, wine causes flabbiness, sidhu type of wine causes emaciation, wine prepared of grape stimulates appetite, phanita ( penidium ) helps to accumulate doshas, curd causes oedema, vegatable of pinyaka (haritasigru-?) causes depression; soup of masa (Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) produces considerable amount internal excreta; alkalies impair the power of digestion and reduce semen. Except dadima (Punica granatum Linn) and amalaka (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), all diets of sour taste generally aggravate pitta. Except honey, old sali and sastika types of rice, barley and wheat, all diets of sweet taste generally aggravate kapha. Except the sprouts of vetra (Salix caprea Linn, ), Guduchi ( Tinospora cordifolia Miers) and leaves of patola (Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn.), all diets of bitter taste generally aggravate uvata and are unaphrodisiac.

Similarly except pippali (Piper longum Linn.) and ardraka (Zingiber officinale Rosc. ), all diets with pungent taste aggravate vata and are unaphrodisiac. [4]

By properties of diets and drinks is meant their distinctive attributes and actions. Diets also include the meat of various parts of animals. All this is being explained here. Of course, in this chapter properties of only some commonly used diets and drinks are directly mentioned. The author himself will say this in verse 329 of this chapter. But there are certain general statements like the properties of meat of various animals, depending upon their habitat etc; (c. f. Verse 331) and also properties of matter depending upon their bhautika constituents as explained in the previous chapter (c, f. Sutra 26: 11), indirectly provide information on the properties of all the drugs, diets and drinks. Thus, directly and indirectly properties of all diets and drinks are mentioned here. This has been clarified in verse 330 of this chapter.

Properties of rice etc., constituting the four types of diet, viz., eatables, drinkables, lickables and chewables are described here. In the above paragraph only those of the diets and drinks as are very commonly used are described. Their group-wise properties will be given later. Description of the properties of water is given first place in the order of priority because it is used both in the diets and drinks. In chapter 25, water has been described as the best among the refreshing and bowel binding material. No statement about its stickiness (kledana) has been made there. The property of stickiness is being emphasised here inasmuch as this property constitutes the distinctive therapeutic action of water. The main difference between the description given in chapter 25: 40 and this chapter lies in the fact that the subject matter of that chapter relates to the predominence of a given substance in relation to a specific action shared by other substance. The subject matter of this chapter, on the other hand, relates to the description of the predominant therapeutic properties of various diets and drinks. In verse 24 of this chapter, musa (Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) is described as productive of excreta in large quantity. The same property is being expiained in this paragraph in relation to the soup of masa (Phaseolus rodiatus Linn.). Apparently the present description seems to be redundent in view of what will be explained in verse 24. But it may be noted that the properties of original substance and its preparations are not always alike, so it cannot be taken for granted that both masa (Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) and its preparations would necessarily share the same properties. It was, therefore, necessary to spell out the properties of the original masa (Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) as well as its soup preparation separately inspite of the apparent repetitions. The one example where there is a clear cut contradiction between the properties of the original substance and its preparation is saktu (roasted grain floer). While saktu in itself is light but a special type of pastrey (siddha pindiku) made out of it is heavy.

Diets and drinks having sour taste aggravate pitta. This statement raises the problem as to why of all the doshas, pitta is stated first in the present context. As a matter of fact no priority as such can be ascribed to any of the doshas. The one reason behind the preference. given to pitta would be that it is related to the fire of digestion which plays a very important role in the digestion of food taken. That is why perhaps even the sweet taste which should have normally been explained first, comes only second to the sour taste.

In fact, only three tastes viz., sour, sweet and pungent, are explained here. They include all the other three tastes through vipuka; saline taste in its vipaka stages is generally sweet, so bitter and astringent tastes are of pungent vipaka. The reading “प्रायः सर्वं तिक्तं” is perhaps from Haritasamhita. It is interpolated here by mistake.

परमतो वर्गसंग्रहेणाहारद्रव्याण्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः शुकधान्यशमीधान्यमांसशाकफलाथयान् वर्गान हरितमद्याम्बुगोरसेविकारिकान् दश द्वौ चापरो वर्गों कृतान्नाहारयोगिनाम् । रसवीर्यविपाकैश्च प्रभावैश्च ॥ ५ ॥ । ॥ ६ ॥ प्रचक्ष्महे ॥ ७ ॥

Classification of food articles

We shall now explain the tastes, potencies, vipakas and specific action of the various aticles of diets and drinks classified according to the following twelve groups :

1. Sukadhanya ( corns with bristles ) 2. Samidhanya (pulses ) 4. Saka ( vegetables ) 3. Mansa ( meat ) 5. Phala (fruits) 7. Madya ( wines ) 9. Gorasa ( milk and milk products ) 6. Harita (salads ) 8. Ambu ( water ) 10. Iksuvikara ( products of sugar cane ) 11. Kytanna (food preparations ) 12. Aharayogin (accessory food articles ) [ 5-7] Suka dhanyas ( corns with bristles ) :

— अथ शूकधान्यवर्गःरक्तशालिर्महाशालिः कलमः शकुनाहृतः । तूर्णको दीर्घशूकश्च गौरः पाण्डुकलाङ्गुलौ ॥ ८ ॥ सुगन्धको लोहवालः सारिवाख्यः प्रमोदकः । पतङ्गस्तपनीयश्च ये चान्ये शालयः शुभाः ॥ ९ ॥ शीता रसे विपाके च मधुराचाल्पमारुताः । बद्धाल्पवर्चसः स्निग्धा वृंहणाः शुक्रमूत्रलाः ।। १० ।। रक्तशालिवरस्तेषां तृष्णाघ्नस्त्रिमलापहः । महांस्तस्यानु कलमस्तस्याप्यनु ततः परे ॥ ११ ॥ पांसुवाप्य नैषधकादयः । यवका हायनाः शालीनां शालयः कुर्वन्त्यनुकारं गुणागुणैः ॥ १२ ॥

Now begins the group consisting of corn with bristles

The group of corn with bristles can be further divided into the following categories :

a .Sali

b. Sastika

c. Vrihi

d. Syamaka

e. Yava

f. Godhuma

Sali class of corns are of the following varieties :

1. raktasali

2. mahasali

3. kalama

4. sakunahrta

5. murnaka

6. dirghasuka

7. gaura

8. panduka

9. langula

10. sugandhaka

11. lohavala

12. sariva

13. pramodaka

14. patanga

15. tapaniya

These Sali types of corn are cold in potency and sweet in taste as well as vipaka; they do not produce much of wind; they are bowel-binding; they produce stool in small quantity; they are unctuous and nourishing, and they produce semen and urine in considerable quantity. Of them, red variety of rice (raktasali ) is the best inasmuch as it relieves thirst and alleviates all the three vitiated doshas. The next best is mahasali; the next to it is kalama and others follow in the order of their description.

Besides, there are some other (minor) varieties of sali viz., 1. yavaka, 2. hayana, 3. pamsu 4. vapya, 5. naisadhaka etc; which imitate good and bad qualities of the varieties of rice mentioned here. [8-12]

Sali rice is harvested in the winter. The bowel-binding property of suli rice is due to its specific action. Normally, by virtue of its sweet (madhura) vipaka, it should not have shared this property.

The minor varieties of suli like yavaka etc., do not (according to Chakrapani) share the good property of raktasuli etc., viz., thirst relieving and dosha alleviating properties. They, on the other hand, produce thirst and aggravate the doshas.

Varieties of rice and their qualities

शीतः स्निग्धोऽगुरुः स्वादुस्त्रिदोषघ्नः स्थिरात्मकः । पष्टिकः प्रवरो गौरः कृष्णगौरस्ततोऽनु च ॥ १३ ॥

वरकोद्दालकौ चीनशारदोज्ज्वलदर्दुराः । गन्धनाः कुरुविन्दाच षष्टिकाल्पान्तरा गुणैः ॥ १४ ॥ मधुरचाम्लपाकश्च व्रीहिः पित्तकरो गुरुः । बहुमूत्रपुरीपोष्मा त्रिदोषस्त्वेव पाटलः ॥ १५ ॥

Sastika rice (which is harvested in summer) is cold in potency, unctuous, light, sweet, alleviator of the three doshas and stabilising. White variety of sastika is superior to the blackwhite one.

The minor varieties include :1. varaka, 2. uddalaka, 3. cina, 4. sarada, 5. ujjala, 6. dardura, 7. gandhana, 8. kuruvinda

They are slightly inferior in quality.

Vrihi type of rice (hearvested in the autuman) is sweet in taste, sour in paka, heavy, and aggrayator of pitta. Patala variety of rice produces urine and stool in large quantity and aggravates all the three doshas. [ 13-15]

According to some commentators, varaka, uddalaka etc., belong to kudhanya category (unworthy of human consumption). Susruta has treated patala as a different type of rice as different from vrihi.

Some inferior varieties

सफोरदूषः श्यामाकः कषायमधुरो लघुः । वातलः कफपित्तघ्नः शीतः संग्राहिशोषणः ॥ १६ ॥ हस्तिश्यामाकनीवारतोयपर्णीगवेधुकाः । प्रशान्तिकाम्भः श्यामाकलौहित्याणुप्रियङ्गवः ॥ १७ ॥ मुकुन्दो झिण्टिगर्मूटी वरुका चरकास्तथा । शिविरोत्कटजूर्णाहाः श्यामाकसदृशा गुणैः ॥ १८ ॥

Syamaka ( Setaria italica Beauv. ) and koradusa ( Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn. ) are astringent and sweet in teste, cold in potency, bowel-binding drying and light. They aggravate vata, and allevite kapha as well as pitta. Corns similar to syamaka in property are :

1. hastisyamaka ( avariety of syamaka )

2. nivara ( udika )

3. toyaparni

4. gavedhuka ( ghulunca — it is of two types viz., wild and cultivated )

5. Prasantika ( red-bristled udika which grows in land )

6. ambhahsyamaka (de)

7. lauhitya

8. anu

9. priyangu (kangani)

10. mukunda ( vakastrna )

11. jhintigarmuti

12. varuka (sana )

13. naraka (syamabija )

14. sivira (siddhaka )

15. utkata

16. jurnahva (millet) [ 16-18]

Form Nidana 2:4, it appears that kodrava ( Paspalum scrobiculatum Linn.) aggravates pitta but as a matter of fact this is due to the method of preparation involving the addition of nispava (a type of simbi) conjee etc., in it. Thus, kodrava described above does certainly alleviate kapha and pitta.

Tava dhanya and venu yava: रूक्षः शीतोऽगुरुः स्वादुर्थहुवातशकृद्यवः । स्थैर्यकृत् सकषायश्च वल्यः लेष्मविकारनुत् ॥ १९ ॥ मधुरः कफपित्तहा । रूक्षः कषायानुरसो मेदः क्रिमिविषघ्नश्च चल्यो वेणुयवो मतः ॥ २० ॥

Tava (barley) is ununctuous, cold in potency, light and sweet accompanied with astringent taste. It produces wind and stool in large quantity. It is stabilising and strength promoting. It alleviates the vitiated kapha. Venuyava (bamboo seed) is ununctuous, strength promoting and sweet with accompanying astringent taste. It alleviates vitiated kapha and pitta, It cures adiposity, infections and toxic conditions. [19-20]

Barley is strength-promoting because it clarifies obstruction to channels of circulation or because of its specific action. As it is cold in potency and is sweet with accompanying astringent taste, it alleviates not only the vitiation of kapha but also that of pitta-cf. Susruta : Sutra 46:41.

Godhuma – wheat

सन्धानकृद्वातहरो गोधूमः स्वादुशीतलः । जीवनो बृंहणो वृष्यः स्निग्धः स्थैर्यकरो गुरुः ॥ २१ ॥

नान्दीमुखी मधूली च मधुरस्निग्धशीतले । इत्ययं शूकधान्यानां पूर्वो वर्गः समाप्यते ॥ २२ ॥

Wheat is restorative alleviator of vitiated vata, sweet, cold in potency, invigorating, nourishing aphrodisiac, unctuous, stabilising and heavy. Nandimukhi (yavika) and Madhuli ( a variety of wheat) are sweet, unctuous and cold in potency.

Thus the frist group consisting of corns with bristles has been described. [ 21-22]

Being sweet, cold in potency and unctuous, wheat aggravates kapha – (vide Susruta : Sutra 46 : 44 ). The prescription of wheat as diet in the spring season (vasanta) when kapha is predominant, relates to the old wheat and not to the fresh one. The fact that old wheat does not aggravate kapha has also been clearly stated in paragraph 4 of this chapter.

The list of various food articles coming under this category is not an exhaustive one. Only a few important ones have been listed.

Varieties of pulses and their qualities – samidhanya

अथ शमीधान्यवर्गःकपायमधुरो रूक्षः शीतः पाके कटुर्लघुः । विशदः श्लेष्मपित्तघ्नो मुद्रः सूप्योत्तमो मतः ॥ २३ ॥ वृष्यः परं वातहरः स्निग्धोष्णो मधुरो गुरुः । बल्यो बहुमः पुंस्त्वं माषः शीघ्रं ददाति च ॥ २४ ॥ राजमाषः सरो रुच्यः कफशुक्राम्लपित्तनुत् । तत्स्वादुर्वातलो रूक्षः कपायो विशदो गुरुः ॥ २५ ॥ उष्णाः कषायाः पाकेऽम्लाः कफशुक्रानिल (पहाः । कुलत्था ग्राहिणः कासहिक्काभ्वासार्शसां हिताः ॥ २६ ॥ मधुरा मधुराः पाके ग्राहिणो रूक्षशीतलाः । मकुष्ठकाः प्रशस्यन्ते रक्तपित्तज्वरादिषु ॥ २७ ॥ चणकाच मसूराश्च खण्डिकाः सहरेणवः । लघवः शीतमधुराः सकपाया विरुक्षणाः ॥ २८ ॥ पित्तश्लेष्मणि शस्यन्ते सूपेष्वालैपनेषु च । तेषां मसूरः संग्राही कलायो वातलः परम् ॥ २९ ॥ स्निग्धोष्णो मधुरस्तिक्तः कषायः कटुकस्तिलः । त्वच्यः केश्यश्च बल्यश्च वातघ्नः कफपित्तकृत् ॥ ३० ॥ मधुराः शीतला गुर्व्या वलघ्न्यो रूक्षणात्मिकाः । सस्नेहा वलिभिर्भोज्या विविधाः शिम्विजातयः ॥ ३१ ॥ शिम्वी रूक्षा कषाया च कोष्ठे वातप्रकोपिनी । I न च वृष्या न चक्षुष्या विष्टभ्य च विपच्यते ॥ ३२ ॥ आढकी कफपित्तघ्नी वातला, कफवातनुत् । अवल्गुजः सैडगजो, निष्पावा वातपित्तलाः ।। ३३ ।। काकाण्डोमा ( ला ) त्मगुप्तानां माषवत् फलमादिशेत् । द्वितीयोऽयं शमीधान्यवर्गः प्रोक्तो महर्षिणा ॥ ३४ ॥

Now begins the group consisting of pulses. Of the pulses utilised in the form of soup, mudga (Phaseolus mungo Linn. ) is the best. It is astringent and sweet in taste, pungent in vipaka, ununctuous, cold in potency, light and nonslime. It alleviates the vitiated kapha and pitta,

Masa (Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) is aphrodisiac. It exceedingly alleviates the vitiated vata; It is unctuous, hot in potency, sweet, heavy and strength-promoting. It produces excreta in large quantity and semen instantaneously.

Rajamasa (Vigna cylindrica Skeels) is laxative and palatable. It reduces semen, alleviates kapha and amlapitta (acid dyspepsia). It aggravates vata. It is unctuous, astringent, non-slime and heavy.

Kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Linn.) is hot in potency, astringent in taste and sour in vipaka. It reduces semen and alleviates the vitiated kapha as well as vata. It is constipative and is useful for patients suffering from coughing, hiccup, dyspnoea and piles.

Makustha (Phaseolus aconitifolius Jacq.) is sweet in taste and vipaka, constipative, ununctuous and cold in potency. It is useful for patients suffering from raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from various parts of the body), fever etc.

Canaka (Cicer arietinum Linn.), masura (Lens culinaris Medic.), khandika (three faceted variety of kalaya, that is Lathyrus sativus Linn.) are light, cold in potency, sweet with accompanying astringent taste and ununctuous. In the form of soup and ointment, they are useful for patients suffering from diseases due to the vitiation of pitta and kapha. Of them, masura (Lens culinaris Medic. is constipative. Kalaya ( Lathyrus sativus Linn.) considerably aggravates vata.

Tila (Sesamum indicum Linn.) is unctuous, hot in potency, sweet, bitter, astringent and pungent in taste. It is conducive to the growth of skin and hair. It is strength promoting. It alleviates the vitiation of vata and aggravates kapha and pitta.

The various types of simbi (Dolichos lablab Linn.) are all sweet, cold in potency and heavy. They demote strength; they are ununctuous. They are to be taken together with some unctuous substance by sturdy persons.

Simbi (Dolichos lablab Linn.) is ununctuous and astringent. It aggravates vata in the kostha. It is neither aphrodisiac nor couducive to eyes. It produces wind during the process of digestion.

Adhaki (Cajanus cajan Millsp.) alleviates the vitiation of kapha and pitta but aggravates pata,

Avalguja ( Psoralea corylifolia Linn. ) and edagaja ( Cassia tora Linn. are alleviators of kapha and vata.

Nispava ( a type of fimbi ) aggravates vata and pitta.

Properties of kakandoma ( a type of simbi ) almagupta ( Mucuna prurita Hook. ) and una ( Linns usitatissimum Linn. ) are the same as masa ( Phaseolus radiatus Linn ).

Thus second group consisting of pulses has been described. [ 23-34 ]

Attributes like unctuousness, sweet taste and hot potency are indicative of the rata alleviating property of masa (Phaseolus radiatus Linn. ), but this property has been specially mentioned in verse-24 with a view to indicate that masa ( Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) is one of the best alleviators of vata.

Aphrodisiacs are of three types-some of them help ejaculation of semen, some increase the quantity of semen and some others increase the quantity of ejaculation. Masa ( Phaseolus radiatus Linn. ) has all the three properties.

Kulattha ( Dolichos biflorus Linn. ) is of four types, depending upon the colours of the seed viz; white, black, red and spotted. This can again be classified into two viz; domesticated or cultivated and wild. Wild variety of kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Linn.) shares all the properties of the domesticated variety but the former is specially useful in the diseases of eye.

Tila ( Sesamun indicum Linn.) is of many varieties-c. f. Susruta: Sutra 46:40. Of them, black variety is the best, white variety is next best and the remaining varieties come next to them. The description furnished in verse 30 here pertains to black variety of tila.

Simbi. ( Dolichos lablab Linn . ) is also of many varieties depending upon the colour of the seed viz; black, yellow, red and white. In addition, there is a minor variety of it also.

Food derived from animal kingdom

अथ मांसवर्गःगोखराश्वतरोष्ट्राश्वद्वीपिसिंहर्क्षवानराः वृको व्याघ्रस्तरक्षुश्च लोपाको जम्बुकः श्येनो शशघ्नी मधुद्दा भासो गृध्रोलकबुलिङ्गकाः ॥ ३६ ॥ धूमिका कुररश्चेति प्रसहा मृगपक्षिणः । श्वेतः श्यामश्चित्रपृष्ठः कालकः काकुलीमृगः ॥ ३७ ॥ कृर्चिका चिलटो भैको गोधा शल्लकगण्डकौ । कदली नकुलः भ्वाविदिति भूमिशयाः स्मृताः ॥ ३८ ॥ सृमरश्चमरः खङ्गो महिषो गवयो गजः । न्यकुर्चराहश्चानूपा मृगाः सर्वे रुरुस्तथा ॥ ३९ ॥ बभ्रुमार्जारमूपिकाः ॥ ३५ ॥ वान्तादश्यापवायसौ ।

कूर्मः कर्कटको मत्स्यः शिशुमारस्तिमिङ्गिलः । शुक्तिशङ्कोद्रकुम्भीरचुलुकीमकरादयः इति वारिशयाः प्रोक्ता वक्ष्यन्ते वारिचारिणः । हंसः क्रौञ्चो बलाका च वकः कारण्डवः ध्रुवः ॥ ४१ ॥ शरारिः पुष्कराहश्च केशरी मणितुण्डकः । मृगालकण्ठो महुश्च कादम्बः काकतुण्डकः ॥ ४२ ॥ उत्क्रोशः पुण्डरीकाक्षो मेघरावोऽम्बुकुक्कुटी । आरा नन्दीमुखी वाटी सुमुखाः सहचारिणः ॥ ४३ ॥ रोहिणी कामकाली च सारसो रक्तशीर्षकः । चक्रवाकस्तथाऽन्ये च खगाः सन्त्यम्बुचारिणः ॥ ४४ ॥ पृषतः शरभो रामः श्वदंष्ट्रो मृगमातृका । शशोरणौ कुरङ्गश्च गोकर्णः कोट्टकारकः ॥ ४५ ॥ चारुषको हरिणैणौ च शम्बरः कालपुच्छकः । ॥ ४० ॥ ऋष्यश्च वरपोतश्च विज्ञेया जाङ्गला मृगाः ॥ ४६ ॥ लावो वर्तीरकश्चैव सकपिञ्जलः । चकोरचोपचक्रश्च वार्तीकः कुक्कुभो रक्तवर्त्मकः ॥ ४७ ॥

लावाद्या विष्किरास्वेते वक्ष्यन्ते वर्तकादयः । वर्तको वर्तिका चैव वहीं तित्तिरिकुक्कुटौ ॥ ४८ ॥ कङ्कशारपदेन्द्राभगोनर्द गिरिवर्तकाः ।

ऋकरोऽवकरश्चैव वारडश्चेति विष्किराः ॥ ४९ ॥ शतपत्रो कोयष्टिर्जीवञ्जीवकः । भृङ्गराजः कैरातः कोकिलोऽत्यूहो गोपापुत्रः प्रियात्मजः ।। ५० ।। लट्टा लट्ट (टू) पकी बभ्रुर्व डिण्डिमानकः | दुन्दुभिपाक्कारलोहपृष्ठकुलिङ्गकाः जटी ॥ ५१ ॥ कपोत शुकशारङ्गाश्चिरटीकङ्कुष्टिकाः सारिका कलविङ्कश्च चटकोऽङ्गारचूडकः ॥ ५२ ॥ पारावतः पाण्ड (न) विक इत्युक्ताः प्रतुदा द्विजाः ।

Now begins the group consisting of meats: The group of animals whose meat is commonly used as food are enumerated under the follwing eight categories.

1. Go ( cow ) 3. Asvatara ( mule ) 5 Asva ( horse ) 7. Sinha ( lion ) A. Prasaha ( animals and birds who eat by santching ) 2. Khara (ass) 4. Ustra ( camel ) 6. Dipi ( panther ) 8. Rksa ( bear ) 9. Vanara (monkey ) 11. Vyaghra ( tiger ) 13. Babhru ( large brown mangoose ) 10. Vrka ( wolf ) 12. Taraksu (hyena ), 14. Marjara (cat), 15. Musika (mouse) 16. Lopaka (fox ), 17. Jambuka (jackal), 18. Syena (hawk), 19. Vantada (dog), 20. Casa ( blue jay ), 21. Vayasa (crow) 22. Sasaghni ( golden eagle), 23. Madhuha (honey buzzard), 24. Bhasa ( beared vulture), 25. Grdhara (vulture) 26. Uluka (owl) 27. Kulingaka (sparrow hawk) 29 Kurara (fish eagle ) 28. Dhumika (owlet)

B. Bhumisaya (animals who live in burrows in earth)

1. Sveta kakulimrga (white python) 2. Syama kakulimrga (greenish black python) 3. Citraprstha kakulimrga ( spotted python) 4. Kalaka kakulimrga (black python) 5. Kurcika ( hedgehog) 7. Bheka (frog) 9. Sallaka ( pangolin) 11. Kadali ( marmet) 13. Svavit (porcupiue) 6. Cillata (musk shrew) 8. Godha (inguana) 10. Gandaka (gecko) 12. Nakula (mongoose)

1. Symara (wild boar ) 3. Khadga (rhinoceros) 5. Gavaya (gayal cow) 7. Nyanku ( antelope ) C. Anupa (animals inhabitating marshy land ) 2. Camara (yak ) 4. Mahisa (buffalo) 6. Gaja (elephent ) 8. Varaha (hog) 9. Ruru (deer)

D. Vaaisaya (aquatic animals)

1. Kurma ( tortoise) 3. Matsya( fish) 5. Tmingila (whale) 7. Sankha (conch snail) 9. Kumbhira (crocodile) 11. Makara (great Indian crocodile ) etc., 2. Karkataka ( crab ) 4. Sisumara (estuarine crocodile) 6. Sukti (pearl oyster) 8. Udra (cat-fish) 10. Culuki ( gangetic dolphin)

E. Varicara ( birds moving in water)

1. Hamsa (swan) 3. Balaka (snow wreath crane) 4. Baka ( common crane ) 6. Plava (pelican) 8. Puskarahva ( lilly trother 2. Kraunca ( demoiselle crane) 5. Karandava (goose) 7. Sarari (skimmer) 9. Kesari (comb dock) 10. Manitundaka ( red watted lap-wing) 11. Mrnalakantha (snake bird) 12. Madgu ( little cormoraut ) 13. Kadamba (whistling teal) 14. Kakatunda (common river bird) 15. Utkrosa (trumpeter) 16. Pundarikaksa ( white eyed pochard) 17. Megharava ( screamer) 19. Ara (cobbler’s owl bird) 21. Vati (grebe) 23. Sahacari ( petrel) 25. Kamakali (frigate bird) 27. Raktasirsaka ( sarasa crane with a red head) 28. Cakravaka ( ruddy sheldrake) 18. Ambukukkuti (water hen) 20. Nandimukhi ( flamingo ) 22. Sumukha (laughing gull) 24. Rohini (tropic bird) 26. Surasa (sarasa crane)

F. Jangala (animals dwelling in dry land forests)

1. Prsata (spotted deer) 3. Rama (kashmir deer ) 5. Mrgamatrka (hog deer) 7. Urana (wild sheep) 2. Sarabha (wapiti ) 9. Gokarna (mule deer) 11. Caruska (gahelle) 12. Harina (red deer) 13. Ena (krsna) (black buck) 14. Sambara (Indian sambar) 15. Kalapucchaka (black tailed deer) 16. Raya ( musk deer) 17. Varapota (deerlet) 4. Svadamstra (mouse deer) 6. Sasa (hare) 8. Kuranga ( roe deer) 10. Kottakaraka (barking deer)

G. Viskira (gallinacious birds) Group 1

1. Lava ( common quail) 3. Kapinjala (jungle bush quail ) 2. Vartiraka (rain quail )

Group II 4. Vartika (gray partridge) 5. Cakora (chukor) 6. Upacakra (sushi chukor) 7. Kukkubha (Crowp heasant) 8. Raktavartma (red jungle fowl) 9. Vartaka (male bustard) 11. Barhi (peacock) 13. Kukkuta (cock) 15. Sarapada ( stork) 17. Gonarda (hill partridge) 19. Krakara (snipe) 21. Varada (spoonbill) 10. Vartika (female bustard) 12. Tittira (partridge) 14. Kanka (heron ) 16. Indrabha (anjutant) 18. Girivartaka (mountain quail) 20. Avakara (pea-fowl)

H. Pratuda (packer birds)

1. Satapatra (wood packer) 2. Bhrigaraja ( king bird of paradisc) 3. Koyasti (coucal) 4. Jivanjivaka ( common mynah ) 5. Kairata (butcher’s bird) 6. Kokila (kocl) 7. Atyuha (bulbul ) 9. Priyalmaja (babbler) 11. Lattasaka ( minivet) 13. Vataha tree pie ) 15. Jali (hea poc) 17. Pakkara (green barbet) 19. Kulingaka (baya or weaver bird) 20. Kapola (dove) 22. Saranga (large Indian parakeet) 23. Cirati ( window bird) 8. Gopaputra (cow-bird) 10. Latta (scarlet minivet) 12. Babhru (Bengal-tree pic) 14. Dindimanaka (toucan) 16. Dundnbhi (horn bill) 18. Lohaprstha (king fisher) 24. Kanku ( blossom headed parakcet) 21. Suka (green parakect) 25. Yastika (sun bird) 27. Kalavinka ( house sparrow) 28. Cataka (tree sparrow) 29. Angaracudaka ( free crested wren) 30. Paravata (pigeon) 31. Pandavika (white pigeon) [ 35-52] 26. Sarika (shama thrush)

Eight varieties of animlas

प्रसहा भक्षयन्तीति प्रसहास्तेन संक्षिताः ॥ ५३ ॥ बिलवासित्वादानूपानूपसंथयात् । जलेचर्याजलेचरः ॥ ५४ ॥

भूशया जले निवासाजलजा स्थलजा जाङ्गलाः प्रोक्ता मृगा जाङ्गलचारिणः ।

विकीर्य विधिकाराश्चेति प्रतुद्य प्रतुदाः स्मृताः ॥ ५५ ॥ योनिरष्टविधा स्वेषा मांसानां परिकीर्तिता ।

Animals and birds who take their food by snatching are known as prasaha; those residing in burrows are known as bhusaya; those residing in marshy land are anupa; those residing in water are known as jalaja (aquatic); those birds which move on water are known as jalacara; those residing in dry land forests are known as jangala; those which disperse food before taking are known viskira (gallinaccous) and those which strike at the food article before taking it are preduda ( peckers). [ 53-55 ]

Qualties of the food obtained from them

प्रसहा भूशयानूपवारिजा वारिचारिणः ॥ ५६ ।। बलोपचयवर्धनाः । गुरुष्णस्निग्धमधुरा वृष्याः परं वातहराः कफपित्तविवर्धनाः ॥ ५७ ॥ हिता व्यायामनित्येभ्यो नरा दीप्तानयश्च ये । प्रसहानां विशेषेण मांसं मांसाशिनां भिषक् ॥ ५८ ॥ जीर्णाशग्रहणीदोषशोषार्तानां प्रयोजयेत् । लावाद्यो वैष्किरो वर्गः प्रतुदा जाङ्गला मृगाः ॥ ५९ ॥ लघवः शीतमधुराः सकपाया हिता नृणाम् । पित्तोत्तरे वातमध्ये सन्निपाते कफानुगे ॥ ६० ॥ विष्किरा वर्तकाद्यास्तु प्रसहाल्पान्तरा गुणैः । Meat of the burrow-dwelling, marshy and aquatic those which eat by santching and those which move in water heavy, hot in potency, unctuous, sweet, aphrodisiac, of vata and aggravator of kapha and pitta. It promotes and plumpness. It is useful for those who take physical habitually and who have strong power of digestion. meat of meat-eating prasaha type of animals (those eat by snatching) is specially useful for patients suffering chronic piles, sprue and consumption.

The meat of the first group of the gallinaceous birds beginn. ing with quail, the packers ane animals of jangala type (living in dry-land-forests ) is light, cold in potency and sweet with accompanying astringent taste. It is useful for patients suffering from diseases due to the vitiation of all the three doshas (highly vitiated pitta, moderately vitiated vata and slightly vitiated kapha). The meat of the second group of gallinaceous birds beginning with male bustard is inferior to that of prasahas in qualities. [ 56-60]

Prasaha type of animals are of two kinds-meat eating ones viz; tiger. hawk etc; and those which do not take meat viz; cow etc.

Goat and sheep

नातिशीतगुरुस्निग्धं मांसमाजमदोपलम् ।। ६१ ।। शरीरधातुसामान्यादनभिष्यन्दि मांसं मधुरशीतत्वाहुरु योनावजाविके वृंहणम् । वृंहणमाविकम् ॥ ६२ ॥ मिश्रगोचरत्वादनिश्चिते ।

Goat meat is neither too cold in potency nor too heavy nor too unctuous. It does not vitiate any dosha and is homologous with the muscle of the human body. It does not obstruct the channels of circulation and is nourishing.

Mutton is heavy due to its sweet taste and cold potency; it is nourishing. It is not possible to include goat and sheep in any of the eight categories mentioned above because they inhabit at times marshy land, at times deserts and sometimes both. [ 61-62 ]

As goat meat is homologous with human flesh it does not aggravate kapha inspite of its cold potency, heaviness, and unctousness. Apart from what has been stated in verse 62 above, mutton also alleviates the vitiation of pitta by virtue of its sweet taste and cold potency. Therefore, it is prescribed to be taken in autumn (September to November) when normally pitta remains in an aggravated state-c. f. Sutra 6:43. It is only when mutton is added with other things that it aggravates pitta leading to the causation of raktapitta (a disease characterized by bleeding from different parts of the body ) – c. f. Nidana 2:4.

Eventhough tittiri ( partridge) also inhabits both the deserts and marshy land, still it is possible to predict in its case as to which particular species inhabit marshy land or the desert. It is not so with regard to the goat and sheep. There is a ort of over-lapping with regard habitat of all types of goat and sheep.

Qualities of specific variety of animal food

सामान्येनोपदिष्टानां मांसानां स्वगुणैः पृथक् ॥ ६३ ॥ केषांचिहुणवैशेष्याद्विशेष उपदेक्ष्यते । दर्शन श्रोत्रशेधाग्निवयोवर्णस्वरायुषाम् ॥ ६४ ॥ वहीं हिततमो बल्यो वातघ्नो मांसशुक्रलः । गुरुष्णस्निग्धमधुराः स्वरवर्णवलप्रदाः । ६५ ।। बृंहणाः शुक्रलाश्चोक्ता हंसा मारुतनाशनाः । लिग्धाश्चोष्णाश्च वृष्याश्च वृंहणाः स्वरवोधनाः ॥ ६६ ॥ बल्याः परं वातहराः स्वेदनाश्चरणायुधाः । गुरूष्णो मधुरो नातिधन्वानूपनिषेवणात् ॥ ६७ ॥ तित्तिरिः संजयेच्छीघ्रं त्रीन् दोपाननिलोलवणान् । पित्तश्लेष्मविकारेषु मन्दवातेषु शस्यन्ते सरक्तेषु कपिञ्जलाः ॥ ६८ ॥ शैत्यमाघुर्यलाघवात् । लघवोऽग्निविवर्धनाः ॥ ६९ ॥ विपाकतः । लावाः कषायमधुरा सन्निपातप्रशमनाः कटुकाश्च गोधा विपाके मधुरा कपायकटुका रसे ॥ ७० ॥ वातपित्तप्रशमनी बृंहणी बलवर्धनी । शल्लको मधुराग्लश्च बिपाके कटुकः स्मृतः ॥ ७१ ॥ वातपित्तकफनश्च कासश्वासहरस्तथा ।  कपाय विशदाः शीता रक्तपित्तनिवर्हणाः ॥ ७२ ॥ विपाके मधुराश्चैव कपोता गृहवासिनः । तेभ्यो लघुतराः किंचित् कपोता वनवासिनः ॥ ७३ ॥ शीताः संग्राहिणश्चैव स्वल्पमूत्रकराच ते । शुकमांसं कपायाम्लं विपाके रुक्षशीतलम् ॥ ७४ ॥ शोषकासक्षयहितं संग्राहि लघु दीपनम् । चटका मधुराः स्निग्धा वलशुक्रविवर्धनाः ॥ ७५ ।। सन्निपातप्रशमनाः शमना मारुतस्य च । कषायो विशदो रुक्षः शीतः पाके कटुर्लघुः ॥ ७६ ॥ शशः स्वादुः प्रशस्तश्च संनिपातेऽनिलावरे | मधुरा मधुराः पाके त्रिदोपशमनाः शिवाः ॥ ७७ ।। लघवो वद्धविण्मूत्राः शीताश्चैणाः प्रकीर्तिताः । विषमज्वरे ॥ ७९ ॥ च तत् । स्नेहनं बृहणं वृष्यं श्रमन्नमनिलापहम् ॥ ७८ ॥ वराहपिशितं बल्यं रोचनं स्वेदनं गुरु । गव्यं केवलवातेषु पीनसे शुष्ककासश्रमात्यग्निमांसक्षयहितं स्निग्धोष्णं मधुरं वृष्यं माहिपं गुरुतर्पणम् ॥ ८० ॥ दाढर्थ बृहत्त्वमुत्साहं स्वप्नं च जनयत्यपि । गुरुष्णा मधुरा बल्या वृंहणाः पवनापहाः ॥ ८१ ।। मत्स्याः स्निग्धाध वृष्याश्च बहुदोषाः प्रकीर्तिता शैचालशष्पभोजित्वात्स्वमस्य च विवर्जनात् ॥ ८२ ॥ दीपनीयश्च लघुपाको महाबलः । वर्ण्यो वातहरो वृष्यश्चक्षुष्यो बलवर्धनः ॥ ८६ ॥ मेधास्मृतिकरः पथ्यः शोषघ्नः कर्म उच्यते । खनमांसमभिष्यन्दि स्नेहनं बृंहणं वर्ण्य रोहितो बलकृन्मधुरं स्मृतम् ॥ ८४ ॥ श्रमन्नमनिलापहम् ! धार्तराष्ट्रचकोराणां दक्षाणां शिखिनामपि ॥ ८५ ।। चटकानां च यानि स्युरण्डानि च हितानि व क्षीणरेतःसु कासेषु हृद्रोगेषु क्षतेषु च ॥ ८६ ॥ मधुराण्यविदाहीनि सद्योवलकराणि च । शरीरबृंहणे नान्यत् खाद्यं मांसाद्विशिष्यते ॥ ८७ ।। इति वर्गस्तृतीयोऽयं मांसानां परिकीर्तितः ।

General properties of meat of various animals have been discussed above; some of them have specific properties and such specific properties are now being discussed.

Meat of pea-cock is most useful as a promotor of eye sight, power of hearing, intelligence, power of digestion, youth, complexion, voice, longevity, strength, manasadhatu (muscle ) and semen. It alleviates vata.

Meat of swan is heavy, hot in potency, unctuous, sweet and nourishing. It promotes voice, complexion, strength and semen. It alleviates pata. 12

Meat of cock is unctuous, hot in potency, aphrodisiac and nourishing. It clarifies the voice, promotes strength, produces sweating and alleviates vata.

Meat of partridge is neither heavy, nor hot, nor sweet, since it inhabits both the desert and the marshy land. It alleviates the vitiation of all the three-doshas dominated by vata.

The meat of gray partridge is cold in potency, sweet and light. By virtue of these qualities, it is useful in diseases due to the vitiation of pitta, kapha and rakta where oata is in a mild state. Meat of common quail is astringent, sweet and of pungent vipaka. It promotes digestion and alleviates the vitiation of all three doshas.

Inguana meat is astringent and pungent in taste, pungent in vipaka, nourishing, strength pormoting and alleviater of the vitiation of vata as well as kapha.

Pangolin meat is sweet and sour in taste and pungent in vipaka. It alleviates vitiated vata, pitta and kapha. It also. alleviates diseases like coughing and dyspnoea.

The meat of the domesticated variety of pigeon is astringent, non-slime, cold in potency and sweet in vipaka. It cures raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from various parts of the body ).

The meat of wild pigeon is slightly lighter than the domesticated variety. It is cold in potency and astringent in taste. It causes oliguria.

The meat of green parakeet is astringent and sour in taste, pungent in vipaka, cold in potency, bowel binding, light and promoter of digestion. It is useful in consumption coughing, and phthisis.

The meat of sparrow is sweet and unctuous. It promotes strength and the quantity of semen. It cures samnipata ( a condition caused by the vitiation of all the three doshas.) and vitiated vata.

The meat of hare is astringent, non-slime, ununctuous, cold in potency, pungent in vipaka, light and sweet in taste. It is useful in samnipata (a condition caused by the vitiation of all the three doshas.) where the vitiated state of vata is relatively mild.

The meat of black-buck is sweet in taste as well as vipaka, light, cold in potency and wholesome. It alleviates all the three doshas when vitiated. It obstructs the passage of stool and urine.

Pork is unctuous, nourishing, aphrodisiac, fatigue remover, alleviator of vata, promoter of strength and heavy. It is palatable. It produces sweating.

Beef is useful in the exclusive vitiation of vata, rhinitis, irre. gular fever, dry cough, fatigue, atyagni (excessive digestion and matabolism) and wasting of muscles.

Buffalo-meat is unctuous, hot in potency, sweet in taste, aphrodisiac, heavy and refreshing. It promotes sturdity, corpulence, enthusiasm and sleep.

Fish in general is heavy, hot in potency, sweet, strength promoting, nourishing, unctuous and aphrodisiac. It alleviates vata and is associated with many injurious fects on the body.

Rohita fish lives on moss and grass and does not sleep, Therefore, it promotes the power of digestion. It is light for digestion and it promotes strength considerably.

Tortoise meat promotes complexion, virility, eye sight, strength, intelligence and memory. It is wholesome and alleviator of vata. It cures consumption.

The meat of rhinoceros causes obstruction in the channel of circulation. It promotes strength and alleviates vata. It is sweet, unctuous, nourishing, complexion-promoter and fatigueremover.

Eggs of swan, chakor, hen, peacock and sparrow promote strength instantaneously. They are sweet and do not cause burning sensation. They are useful in diseases like oligospermia, cough, heart-diseases and tuberculosis,

No other food excels meat in producing nourshing effect. Thus ends the third group describing the meat of various animals. [63-87 ]

Heaviness and ununctuousness of the meat of pea-cock are already explained by virtue of the bird being included in the group beginning with vartaka ( male hustard), that is the second group of gallinaceous birds. These properties have however, been repeated with a view to emphasising the existence of such properties specially in the meat of pea-cock. Whereever there is a repetition, it implies that the relevant properties are specially available in the drugs or diets concerned.

It has been stated in verse 67 that the meat of tittiri (pratridge ) is neither too heavy, nor too hot, nor even too sweet by virtue of the bird dwelling in the desert and the marshy land. This indicates that only such of the partridges share these properties as dwell in a desert or marshy land. May be, even some other animals like the cow who dwell in desert as well as in marshy land share such properities by virtue of their habitat. The aphrodisiac property of tree sparrow will be illustrated in Chikitsa 2: 1:46. Even if the reading चटकाः मधुरा… etc; ( verse 75 ) is not accepted, the aphrodisiac property of this bird will be explained in Cikitisa 2: 1:46.

In addition to the properties mentioned in general terms in verse 56-61, the meat of pea-cock etc; shares many other properties. That is why such properties have been specially indicated here in verses 63-86. It has allready been stated in chapter 25: 40 of this section that meat is the best nourishing diet. This point has again been emphasised in verse 87 above.

Vegetables – leaves, tubers and fruits

अथ शाकवर्गः- पाठाशुषाशटीशाकं वास्तुकं सुमिषण्णकम् ॥ ८८ ॥ विद्याद्राहि त्रिदोषनं भिन्नवर्चस्तु वास्तुकम् ॥ त्रिदोषशमनी वृष्या काकमाची रसायनी ॥ ८९ ॥ नात्युष्णशीतवीर्या च भेदिनी कुण्डनाशिनी । राजक्षवकशाकं तु त्रिदोषशमनं लघु ॥ १० ॥ ग्राहि शस्तं विशेषेण ब्रहण्यशविकारिणाम् । कालशाकं तु कटुकं दीपनं गरशोफजित ॥ ९१ ॥ लघुष्णं वातलं रूक्षं कालायं शाकमुच्यते । दीपनी चोष्णवीर्या च ग्राहिणी कफमारूते ॥ ९२ ॥ प्रशस्यतेऽम्लचाेरी ग्रहण्यशहिता च सा । मधुरा मधुरा पाके भेदिनी श्लेष्मवर्धनी ॥ ९३ ॥ वृष्या स्निग्धा च शीता च मदघ्नी चाप्युपोदिका । रूक्षो मदविषन्नश्च प्रशस्तो रक्तपित्तिनाम् ॥ ९४ ॥ मधुरो मधुरः पाके शीतलस्तण्डुलीयकः । मण्डूकपर्णी वेत्राग्रं कुचेला वनतितकम् ॥ ९५ ॥ कर्कोटकावल्गुजको पटोलं शकुलादनी । वृषपुष्पाणि शार्केष्टा केम्बूकं सकठिल्लकम् ॥ ९६ ॥ नाडी कलायं गोजिहा वार्ताकं तिलपर्णिका । कौलकं कार्कशं नैम्बं शाकं पार्पटकं च यत् ॥ ९७ ॥कफपित्तहरं तिक्तं शीतं कटु विपच्यते ।

Now begins the description of vegetable group.

Patha ( Cissampelos pareira Linn.), susa (Cassia occidentalis Linn.), fati (Hedychium spichatum Ham.), vastuka ( Chenopodium album Linn.) and sunisannaka (Marsilea minuta var. Indica) alleviate all the three vitiated doshas. All of them except vastuka (Chenopodium album Linn.) are bowel binding. Vastuka is, however, laxative.

Kakamachi (Solanum nigrum Linn.) is alleviator of all the three doshas when vitiated, aphrodisiac, tonic and purgative. It is neither too hot nor too cold in potency. It cures obstinate skin diseases including eprosy.

Rajakasavaka (Euphorbia microphylla Heyne ) is the alleviator of all the three vitiated doshas, light, bowel binding and specially useful for those suffering from sprue and piles.

Kalasaka (Corchorus capsularis Linn.) is pungent and promoter of digestion. It cures toxic conditions and oedema. Kalaya (Lathyrus sativus Linn.) is light, hot in potency, ununctuous and aggravator of vata.

Changeri (Rumev dentatus Linn.) is hot in potency bowel binding and promoter of digestion. It alleviates kapha as well as pitta and is useful for sprue and piles.

Upodika (Basella rubra Linn.) is sweet in taste as well as vipaka, purgative, aggravator of kapha, aphrodisiac, unctuous, cold in potency and curative of intoxication.

Tanduliyaka (Amaranthus tricolor Linn.) is ununctuous, curative of intoxication and poisoning, useful for patients suffering from raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body ), sweet in taste as well as vipaka and cold in potency.

Mandukaparni ( Centella asiatica Urban) tender shoots of vetra (Salix caprea Linn.), kucela ( Cissampelos pareira Linn.), vanatiktaka (Cyclea peltata), karkotaka (Momordica dioica Roxb.), avaluguja (Psoralea corylifolia Linn.), patola (Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn.), sakuladani (Picrohiza kurroa Royle ex-Benth ), flowers of brsa (Adhotoda vasica Nees), sarngistha (?), kembuka (?), kathillaka (Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.) nadi (?), round variety of kalaya (Lathyrus aphacea Linn.), gojihva (Onosma bractiatum Wall), vartaka (Solanum melongena Linn.), tilaparni (Gynandropsis gynandra Bripuet ), karavellaka ( Momordica chaoantia Linn. ), karkasa ( ? ), nimba (Azadirachta indica A Juss.), prapataka ( Fumaria parviflora Lam.)-all these are alleviators of kapha and pitta, bitter in taste, cold in potency and pungent in vipaka. [ 88-97]

Kakamachi (Solanum nigrum Linn.) is neither too hot nor too cold in potency. This is corroborated by the statement made by Susruta : Sutra 46 : 266. According to another statement of Susruta, however, kakamachi alleviates vata by virtue of its hot potency-c. f. Susruta : Sutra 40:5. This statement is intended to convey the idea that kakmachi is of hot potency ( and not too much of hot in potency ).

Qualities of different vegetables

सर्वाणि सूप्यशाकानि फज्जी चिल्ली कुतुम्बकः ॥ ९८ ।। आलुकानि च सर्वाणि सपत्राणि कुटिजरम् । शणशाल्मलिपुष्पाणि कर्बुदारः सुवर्चला ॥ ९९ ।। पत्तुरश्च॒च्चूपर्णिका । निष्पावः कोविदारश्च कुमारजीवो लोट्टाकः पालङ्कया मारिषस्तथा ॥ १०० ।। कलम्वनालिकासूर्यः कुसुम्भवृकधूमकौ । लक्ष्मणा च प्रपुन्नाडो नलिनीका कुठेरकः ॥ १०१ ॥ लोणिका यवशाकं च कुष्माण्डकमवल्गुजम् । यातुकः शालकल्याणी त्रिपर्णी पीलुपर्णिका ।। १०२ ॥ शाकं गुरु च रूक्षं च प्रायो विष्टभ्य जीर्यति । मधुरं शीतवीर्यं च पुरीपस्य च भेदनम् ।। १०६ ।। स्विनं निष्पीडितसं स्नेहाढ्यं तत् प्रशस्यते । शणस्य कोविदारस्य कर्बुदारस्य शाल्मलैः ॥ १०४ ॥ पुष्पं ग्राहि प्रशस्तं च रक्तपित्ते विशेषतः । न्यग्रोधोदुम्बराश्वत्थलक्षपद्मादिपल्लवाः ।। १०५ ॥ कषायाः स्तम्भनाः शीता हिताः पित्ततिसा१०६ ॥ वायुं वत्सादनी हन्यात् कर्फ गण्डीरचित्रकौ ।। १०६ ।। श्रेयसी बिल्वपर्णी च विल्वपत्रं तु वातनुत् । भण्डी शतावरीशाकं वला जीवन्तिकं च यत् ॥ १०७ ॥ पर्वण्याः पर्वपुष्याच वातपित्तहरं स्मृतम् । लघु भिन्नशकृत्तिक्तं लाङ्गलक्युरुवूकयोः ॥ १०८ ॥ तिलवेतमशाकं च शाकं पञ्चाङ्गुलस्य च । वातलं कटुतिक्ताम्लमधोमार्गप्रवर्तनम् रुक्षाम्लमुष्णं कौमुम्भं कफन्नं पित्तवर्धनम् । त्रपुसैर्वारुकं स्वादु गुरु विष्टम्भि शीतलम् ॥ ११० ॥ मुखप्रियं च रूक्षं च मूत्रलं त्रपुसं त्वति । एर्वारुकं च संपर्क दाहतृष्णाकुमार्तिनुत् ॥ १११ ॥ ।। १०९ ।।वचभेदीम्य लावूनि fantcaten रूक्षशीतगुरूणि च । तद्वद्वचभेदहिते तु ते ।। ११२ ।। सारं पक्ककूष्माण्डं मधुराम्लं तथा लघु । सृष्टमूत्रपुरीषं च सर्वदोषनिबर्हणम् ।। ११३ ।।

● All types of supyasaka viz, masaparni (Teramnus labialis Spreng.) etc., phanji (Rives ornata Chois). cilli ( Chenopodium album Linn.), kutumbaka (Laucas linifolia Spreng.), all types of aluka (tuber) alongwith their leaves, kutinjara (?) sana (Crotalaria juncia Linn. ). flower of salmali (Salmalia malabarica Schotts & End.), karbudara ( Bauhinia variegata Linn.-white variety), suvorcala (Helianthus annuus Linn.) nispava ( a variety of stmbi ), kovidara ( Bahunia variegata Linn.-red variety ), pattura (Gelosia orgentea Linn.), cuccuparni (Corcorvus olitorius Linn), kumarajiva (Putranjiva roxburghii Wall), lottaka (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.), palankya (Spinacia oleracia Linn.), marisa ( Amaranthus tricolor Linn. ), kalamba (Ipomoea reptans Poir.), nalika (Onosma echoides Linn.), asuri (Brassica juncea Czern & Coss. ), kusumbha (Carthamus tinctorius Linn.), vrkadhumaka (?), laksmana (?), prapunnada (Cassia tora Linn.), nalini (stalk of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.), kutheraka (Ocimum bacilicum Linn.), lonika (Protulaka oleracea Linn.), yavasaka (Alhagi pseudolhagi Devs. ), kusmanda ( Benincasa hispida Cogn.), avalguja ( Psoralea corylifolia Linn.), yatuka (?), salakalyani (?). triparni ( Adiantum luuulatum Burm. ). piluparni (?)-vegetables of all these types are heavy, ununctuous, sweet, cold in potency and purgative. They produce wind duriug the process of digestion. They become wholesome for intake when boiled and drained of the juice, and added with fatty substances in plenty. .), kovidara ( Bauhinia

Flowers of sana ( Crotalaria juncia Linnvariegata Linn-red. cariety), karbudara (white variety of kovidara) and salmali (Salmalia malabarica Schott and Endl.) are bowel-binding and useful for raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body).

Tender leaves of nyagrodha (Ficus bengalensis Linn.), Udumbara (Ficus racemosa Linn.), asvattha (Ficus religiosa Linn.), plaksa (Ficus lacor Buch-Ham. ), kamala (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) etc., are astringent, bowel-bindiug, cold in potency and useful in paittika type of diarrhoea.

Vatsadani (Tinspora cordifolia Miers. ), alleviates vata, gandira (Euphorbia antiquorum Linn.) and chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) alleviate kapha. Sreyasi (Terminalia chebula Linn.), bilvaparni (?) and leaves of bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr.) allevite vata.

Bhandi (?), satavari ( Asparagus racemosns Willd), bala (Sida cordifolia Linn.), jivanti ( Leptadenia reticulata W. & A.) parvani (?) and parvapuspa (?) alleviate vata and pitta.

Langalaki (Gloriosa superba Linn.) and urubuka ( a variety of Ricinus communis Linn.) are light, laxative and bitter.

Tila (Sesamum indicum Linn.), vetasa (Salix caprea Linn.), and the small variety of eranda ( Ricinus cummunis Linn.) aggravate vata. They are pungent, bitter and sour in taste and purgative.

Kusumbha (Carthamus tinctorius Linn.) is ununctuous, sour, hot in potency, alleviator of kapha and aggravator of pitta.

Both trapusa (Cucumis sativus Linn.) and ervarurka (Cucumis melo var utilissmus Duthie and Fuller) are sweet, heavy, producers of wind in the intestine and cold in potency. Trapusa. however, is palatable, ununctuous and exceedingly diuretic. Ripe fruit of ervaruka cures burning sensation, thirst and exhaustion.

Alabu (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.), is purgative, ununctuous, cold in potency and heavy.

Cirbhata (Cucumis melo Linn.) and ervaruka share the properties of alabu (Legenaria scieraria Standl.) but the former two are useful in diarrhoea.

Ripe kusmanda (Barincasa hispida Cogn.) is sweet and sour in taste, slightly alkaline and light. It helps elimination of urine and faces and alleviates all the three vitiated doshas. [98-113]

It is only tne ripe kusmanda ( Braincasa hispida Cogn.) whose properties are mentioned in verse 113. According to Susruta tender kusmunda alleviates pitta, the one slightly matured aggravates kapha; the ripe one alleviates all the three doshas c. f. Susruta : Sutra 46 213 (Note: Chakrapanis commentary in this context is not clear).

Water plants and others

केलूटं च कदम्वं च नदीमाषकमैन्दुकम् । विशदं गुरु शीतं च समभिष्यन्दि चोच्यते ॥ ११४ ॥ उत्पलानि कपायाणि रक्तपित्तहराणि च । तथा तालप्रलम्बं स्यादुरःक्षतरुजापहम् ॥ ११५ ।। खर्जूरं ॥ ११६ ॥ तालस्यं च रक्तपित्तक्षयापहम् । तरूटबिसशालूकक्रौञ्चादनकशेरुकम् शृङ्गाटकाङ्कलोड्यं च गुरु विष्टम्भि शीतलम् । कुमुदोत्पलनालास्तु सपुष्पाः सफलाः स्मृताः ॥ ११७ ॥ शीताः स्वादुकषायास्तु कफमारुतकोपनाः । कपायमोषद्विष्टम्भि रक्तपित्तहरं स्मृतम् ॥ ११८ ॥ पौष्करं तु भवेद्वीजं मधुरं रसपाकयोः । बल्यः शीतो गुरुः स्निग्धस्तर्पणो बृंहणात्मकः ॥ ११९ ॥ वातपित्तहरः स्वादुर्वृष्यो मुञ्जातकः परम् । जीवनो बृंहणो वृष्यः कण्ठ्यः शस्तो रसायने ।। १२० ॥ विदारिकन्दो बल्यश्च मूत्रलः स्वादुशीतलः । अम्लिकायाः स्मृतः कन्दो ग्रहण्यर्शोहितो लघुः ॥ १२१ ॥ नात्युष्णः कफवातघ्नो ग्राही शस्तो मदात्यये । त्रिदोषं बद्धविण्मूत्रं सार्षपं शाकमुच्यते ॥ १२२ । ( तद्वत् स्याद्रक्तनालस्य रूक्षमम्लं विशेषतः ।) तद्वत् पिण्डालुकं विद्यात् कन्दत्वाच्च मुखप्रियम् । सर्पच्छत्रकवर्ज्यास्तु बह्वयोऽन्याइछत्रजातयः ॥ १२३ ॥ शीताः पीनसकश्च मधुरा गुर्व्य एव च । चतुर्थः शाकवर्गोऽयं पत्रकन्द फलाश्रयः ॥ १२४ ॥

Keluta (?), kadamba ( Anthocaphaius indicus A. Rich. ), nadimasaka ( ? ) and enduka ( ? ) are non-slime, heavy and cold in potency. They obstruct the channels of circulation. Various types of utpala (Nymphaea alba Linn) are astringent and they cure raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body ).

Sprout of tala ( Borassus flabellifer Linn. ) cures tuberculosis. Kharjura ( Phoenix sylvestris Roxb ) and the kernal of tala ( Borassus flabellifer Linn. ) are curative of raktapitta ( a disease characterised by bleeding from various parts of the body) and tuberculosis.

Taruta ( ? ), bisa ( Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ), saluka ( Nymphaea alba Linn. ), krauncadana (?), kaseruka ( Scirpus grossus Linn. f. ) stngataka ( Trapa bispinosa Roxb. ), ankalodya ( small variety of Nymphaea alba Linn.) are heavy, productive of wind in the abdomen and cold in potency.

Rhizome, flower and fruit of kumuda ( a variety of utpala) and utpala ( Nymphaea alba Roxb. ) are cold in potency, sweet and astringent in taste. They aggravate kapha and vata.

Seeds of puskara (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) are slightly astringent, productive of wind in the abdomen, curative of raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different of the body) and sweet both in taste as well as vipaka.

Munjataka ( Eulophia compestris Wall. ) is strength promoting, cold in potency, heavy, unctuous, refereshing, nourishing, sweet and exceedingly aphrodisiac. It alleviates vata and pitta.

Vidari ( Ipomoea paniculata R. Br. ) is invigorating, nourshing, aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, sweet in taste and cold in potency. It promotes strength and voice.

The root of amlika ( Tamarindus indica Linn.) is beneficial for sprue, piles and alcoholism. It is light, bowel-binding and not very hot in potency. It alleviates both vata and kapha. Leaves of sarsapa (Brassica nigra Kotch ) vitiate all the three doshas and obstruct the elimination of urine and stool.

Raktanala ( Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. ) shares all the properties of sarsapa (Brassica nigra Kotch) but it is specially ununctuous and sour in taste.

Pindalu (Dioscorea alata Linn.) shares all the qualities of sarsapa ( Brassica nigra Kotch ) and being an edible root, it is palatable.

In additon to sarpacachatra (a type of chatra) there are many other types of chatra ( Psalliota compestris Fr. ) which are cold in potency, heavy and sweet in taste. They aggravate vata. Thus, ends the group of vegetables which include leaves, roots including rhizomes, fruits, flowers etc. [ 114-124 ]

Fruits and their qualities

अथ फलवर्ग :

तृष्णादाहज्वरश्वासरक्तपित्तक्षतक्षयान् स्वरभेदं वातपित्तमुदावर्ते मदात्ययम् ॥ १२५ ॥ तिक्तास्यतामास्यशोषं कासं चाशु व्यपोहति । मृद्धीका बृंहणी वृष्या मधुरा स्निग्धशीतला ॥ १२६ ॥ मधुरं वृंहणं वृष्यं खर्जूरं गुरु क्षयेऽभिघाते दाहे च वातपित्ते च तर्पणं बृंहणं फल्गु गुरु विष्टम्भि परूषकं मधुकं च वातपित्ते च मधुरं वृंहणं वल्यमाम्रातं शीतलम् । तद्धितम् ॥ १२७ ॥ शीतलम् । शस्यते ॥ १२८ ॥ तर्पणं गुरु । सस्नेहं श्लेष्मलं शीतं वृष्यं विष्टभ्य जीर्यति ॥ १२९ ॥ तालशस्यानि सिद्धानि नारिकेलफलानि च । वृंहणस्निग्धशीतानि वल्यानि मधुराणि च मधुराम्लकषायं च विएम्भि पित्तश्लेष्मकरं भव्यं ग्राहि अम्लं परुषकं द्राक्षा पित्तश्लेष्मप्रकोपीणि नात्युष्णं गुरु संपकं स्वादुप्रायं मुखप्रियम् । बृंहणं जीर्यति क्षिप्रं नातिदोषलमारुकम् ॥ १३३ ॥

द्विविधं शीतमुष्णं च मधुरं चाम्लमेव च । गुरु पारावतं ज्ञेयमरुच्यत्यग्निनाशनम्

भव्यादल्पान्तरगुणं तथैवाल्पान्तरणं कषायमधुरं टङ्कं वातलं गुरु तूदमम्लं ॥ १३० ॥ गुरु शीतलम् । वऋविशोधनम् ॥ १३१ ॥ बदराण्यारुकाणि च । कर्कन्धुनिकुचान्यपि ॥ १३२ ॥ ॥ १३४ ॥ काश्मर्यफलमुच्यते । कपित्थमामं कण्डघ्नं विषघ्नं ग्राहि परूषकात् ।। १३५ ॥ शीतलम् । वातलम् ॥ १३६ ॥ मधुराम्लकपायत्वात् सौगन्ध्याच्च परिपक्कं च दोषनं विषघ्नं ग्राहि गुर्वपि ॥ १३७ ॥ बिल्वं तु दुर्जुरं पक्कं दोषलं पूतिमारुतम् । स्निग्धोष्णतीक्ष्णं तद्दालं दीपनं कफवातजित् ॥ १३८ ॥ रक्तपित्तकरं वालमापूर्ण पित्तवर्धनम् । पक्कमानं जयेद्वायुं मांसशुक्रवलप्रदम् ॥ १३९ ॥ रुचिप्रदम् । कषायमधुरप्रायं गुरु विष्टम्भि शीतलम् । जाम्बवं कफपित्तघ्नं ग्राहि वातकरं परम् ॥ १४० ॥ बदरं मधुरं स्निग्धं भेदनं वातपित्तजित् । तच्छुकं कफवातघ्नं पित्ते न च विरुध्यते ॥ १४१ ॥ कषायमधुरं शीतं ग्राहि सिम्चि (चि) निकाफलम् । गारुकी करीरं च बिम्बी तोड़नधन्वनम् ॥ १४२ ॥ मधुरं सकषायं च शीतं पित्तकफाप्रहम् । संपकं पनसं मोचं राजादनफलानि च ॥ १४३ || स्वादूनि सकपायाणि स्निग्धशीनगुरुणि च । कषाय विशदत्वाच रुचिप्रदम् ॥ १४४ ॥ अवदंशक्षमं हृद्यं वातलं लवलांफलम् । नीपं शताहकं पील तृणशुभ्यं विकङ्कतम् ॥ १४५ ॥ प्राचीनामलकं चैव दोषघ्नं गरहारि च । ऐदं तिक्तमधुरं स्निग्धोष्णं कफवातजित् ॥ १४६ ॥ ॥ तिन्दुकं कफपित्तघ्नं कपायं मधुरं लघु । विद्यादामलके सर्वान् रसांल्लवणवर्जितान् ॥ १४७ ॥ रुक्षं स्वादु कषायाम्लं कफपित्तहरं परम् । रसासृड्यांसमेदोजान्दोषान् हन्ति विभीतकम् ॥ १४८ ॥ सौगन्ध्याच स्वरभेदकफोक्क्लेदपित्तरोगविनाशनम् । अम्लं कपायमधुरं वातघ्नं ग्राहि दीपनम् ॥ १४९ ।। स्त्रिग्धोष्णं दाडिमं हृद्यं कफपित्ताविरोधि च । रुक्षालं दाडिमं यत्तु तत् पित्तानिलकोपनम् ॥ १५० ।। मधुरं पित्तनुत्तेषां पूर्व दाडिममुत्तमम् । वृक्षालं माहि रूक्षोष्णं वातश्लेष्मणि शस्यते ॥ १५१ ॥ अम्लिकायाः फलं पकं तस्मादल्पान्तरं गुणैः । गुणैस्तैरेव संयुक्तं भेदनं त्वम्लवेतसम् ।। १५२ ।। शूलेऽरुचौ विबन्धे च मन्देऽग्नौ मद्यविष्ठवे । हिक्काश्वासे च कासे च वम्यां वर्चांगदेषु च ॥ १५३ ।। वातश्लेष्मसप्रुत्थेपु सर्वेष्येवोपदिश्यते । केसरं मातुलुङ्गस्य लघु शेषमतोऽन्यथा ॥ १५४ ।। रोचनो दीपनो हुद्यः सुगन्धिस्त्वग्विवर्जितः । कर्पूर: कफवातघः श्वासहिकार्शसां मधुरं किंचिदम्लं च हृद्यं भक्तमरोचनम् । हितः ।। १५५ ।। दुर्जरं । वातशमनं नागरङ्गफलं गुरु ।। १५६ ।। वातामाभिपुकाक्षोट मुकुलकनिकोचकाः गुरुष्णस्निग्धमधुराः सोरुमाणा वलप्रदाः ।। १५७ ॥ वातमा बृंहणा वृष्याः कफपित्ताभिवर्धनाः । प्रियालमेषां सदशं विद्यादौष्ण्यं विना गुणैः ॥ १५८ ।। श्लेष्मलं मधुरं शीतं श्लेष्मातकफलं गुरु | श्लेष्मलं गुरु विटम्भि चाङ्गोटफलमग्निजित् ।। १५९ ।। गुरुष्णं मधुरं रूक्षं केशघ्नं च शमीफलम् । विद्यम्भयति कारसं वातश्लेष्माविरोधि च ॥ १५९ ॥ आम्रातकं दन्तशठसम्लं सकरमर्दकम् । विद्यादैरावतकमेव वातघ्नं दीपनं चैव वार्ताकं कटु तिक्तकम् । रक्तपित्तकरं च ॥ १६१ ॥. विद्यात् पर्पेटकीफलम् ॥ १६२ ।। वातलं चाक्षिकीफलम् । पित्तश्लेष्महराणि च ।। १६३ ।। वातलं कफपित्तघ्नं पित्तश्लेष्मझमम्लं च मधुराण्यम्लपाकीनि अभ्वत्थोदुम्वरलक्षन्यग्रोधानां फलानि कषायमधुराम्लानि वातलानि गुरूणि च ॥ १६४ ॥ भल्लातकास्थ्यनिसमं तन्मांसं स्वादु शीतलम् । पश्चमः फलवर्गोऽयमुक्तः प्रायोपयोगिकः ॥ १६५ ॥

Now begings the description of the group of fruits:

Mydrka ( Vitis vinifera Linn. ) (Grapes) provides immediate cure for thirst, burning sensation, fever, dyspnoea, raktapitta ( a condition characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body), consumption, wasting, vitiated vata and pitta, udavarta (a type of abdominal disease characterised by retention of faeces) hoarseness of voice, alcoholism, bitter taste and dryness in mouth and cough. It is nourishing, aphrodisiac, sweet, unctuous and cold in potency.

Kharjura ( Phoenix sylvestris Roxb.) is sweet, nourishing, aphrodisiac, heavy, cold in potency and beneficial in wasting, injury, burning sensation and vitiated vata as will at pitta.

Phalgu (Ficus hispida Linn. f.) is refreshing, nourishing, heavy and cold in potency. It produces wind in stomach.

Parusaka (Grewia asiatica Linn.) and madhuka ( Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. ) are useful in alleviating vitiated vata as will as pitta.

Sweet variety of amrataka (Spondias pinnata Kurz. ) is sweet in taste, nourishing, strength promoting, refreshing, heavy, unctuons, aggravator of kapha, cold in potency and aphrodisiac. During digestion, it produces wind in the abdoman.

Ripe fruits of palmyra and coconut are nourishing, unctuous, cold in potency, strength promoting and sweet.

Bhavya (Dillenia indica Linn.) is sweet, sour and astringent in taste, productive of wind in the abdomen, heavy, cold in potency, aggravator of pitta as will as kapha and bowel-binding. It clearifies the mouth.

Sour variety of parusaka, ( Grewia asiatic Linn.) draksa (Vitis vinifera Linn.) badara (Zizyphus jujuba Lam.), aruka (Prunus Persica Linn.), karkandhu ( Zizyphus nummularia W. and A.) and nikuca (Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.) aggravates pitta and kapha.

Ripe aruka (Prunus persica Linn.) is not very hot in potency. It is very heavy, sweetish, palatable, nourihing and easily digestible. It does not aggravate much of doshas.

There are two types of paravata (Psidium guajava Linn.) fruits-one is sweet in taste and cold in potency and the other is sour in taste and hot in poteucy. Both of them are heavy to digest and curative of anorexia as well as excessive digestion and metadolism.

Fruit of kasmarya (Gmelina arborea Linn.) is only slightly different from bhavya (Dillenia indica Linn.) in quality.

Sour variety of tuda (Morus acedosha Griff.) is aiso slightly different from parusaka (Grewia asiatica Linn.) in quality.

Tanka (Pyrus communis Linn.) is astringent, sweet in taste and cold in potenoy. It aggravates vata.

Unripe kapittha (Feronia limonia Swingle) is harmful for voice. It is antitoxic, bowel-binding and aggravator of vata. Ripe fruit of kapittha is however, palatable due to sweet, sour and astringent tastes as well as its fragrance. It alleviates doshas and toxins and is astringent and heavy.

Ripe fruit of bilva ( Aegla marmelos Corr.) is difficult for digestion, aggravator of doshas and producer of foul smelling flatus. The young unripe fruits of bilva, however, are unctuous, hot in potency, sharp, promoter of digestion and alleviator of kapha as wiil as vata.

Young fruits of amra (Mangifera indica Linn.) cause raktapitta (a condition characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body). Matured but unripe fruits of amra aggravates pitta. Ripe fruits of amra alleviate vata and promote flesh, semen as well as strength.

Jambu (Syzygium cumini Skeels) is sweetish astringent, heavy, producer of wind in abdomen, cold in potency, alleviator of kapha and pitta, bowel-binding and aggravator of vata.

Badara (Zizyphus jujuba Lam.) is sweet, unctuous, laxative, and alleviator of uata as will as pitta. Its dried fruits alleviate vata and kapha but do not go against pitta.

Fruits of simbitika (Malus sylvestris Mill.) are astringent, sweet in taste, cold in potency and vowel-binding.

Gangeruki (Grewia papulitalia Vahl), karira (Capparis decidua Edgew.), bimbi ( Coccinia indica W. and A.) todana a variety of (Grewia tillaefolia Vahl) and dhanvana ( Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl) are sweet accompanied with astringent in taste, cold in potency and alleviator of pitta as will as kapha.

Ripe fruits of panasa (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.), Moca (Musa paradisiaca Linn.) and rajadana (Mimusops hexandra Roxb.) are sweet accompanied with astringent in taste, cold in potency, unctuous and heavy.

Fruits of lavali (Cicca acida Merrill) are palatable because of astringent taste, non-slimeness and fragrance. When taken in, they produce palatability in other food articles. It is good for heart but aggravates vata.

Nipa (Anthocephalns indicus A. Rich.), Salahvaka (Aspragus racemous Willd), pilu (Salvadora persica Linn.) trnasunya (Pandanus tectorius Soland. ), vikankata (Gymnosporia spinosa Fiori) and pracinamalaka (Flacourtia jangomas Racusch.) alleviate vitiated doshas and toxic conditions.

Ingudi (Belantites aegypatiaca Delile) is bitter and sweet in taste, unctuous, hot in potency and aleviator of kapha as well as vata.

Tindnka (Dispyros peregrina Gurke) is astringent, sweet, light and alleviator of kapha as will as pitta.

Amalki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) contains all tastes except saline.

Bibhitaka (Terminalia belerica Roxb.) is ununctuous, sweet, astringent, sour and an excellent alieviator of kapha as well as pitta. It cures the diseases relating to rasa ( plasma), rakta ( blood ), mamsa ( flesh) and medas (fat. )

There are three types of dadima (Punica granatum Linn.). The first variety which is the best of all is sour, astringent and sweet in taste, alleviator of vata, bowel-binding, promoter of digestion, unctuous, hot in potency and cardiac tonic. It does not provoke kapha and pitta. It cures hoarseness of voice and diseases due to the vitiation of kapha as well as pitta. The second variety is unctuous and sour in taste. It aggravates pitta and vata. The third variety is sweet and it alleviates pitta.

Vrksamla (Tamarindus indica Linn.) is bowel-binding, unctuous, hot in poiency and useful in vitiated vata and kapha. Ripe fruit of amlika (Tamarindus indicus Linn.) is slightly different from it in quality.

Amlavetasa (Rheum emodi Wall.) shares all the qualities of vrksamla. In addition, it is laxative.

The filaments of matulunga (Citrus decumana Linn.) are useful in colic pain, anorexia, constipation, impairement of digestion, alchoholism, hicough, dyspnoea, cough, vomiting, disorders relating to faeces and such other diseases as arise from the vitiated vata as well as kapha. Filaments, unlike other parts of this plant are light.

Karcura (Hedychium spicatum Ham ex Smith) without skin is palatable, digestive stimulant, cordial, fragrant, and alleviator of kapha as well as vata. It is useful for patients suffering from dyspnoea, hiccoug and piles.

Fruit nagaranga (Citrus reticulata Blanco) is slightly sour, cordial, difficult of digestion and heavy. It makes other foods palatable.

Vatama (Prunus amygdalus Batsch), abhisuka aksota (Juglans regia Linn.) mukula (Pistacia vera Linn.), nikuca ( Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb) and urumana (Prunus armeniaca Linn.) are heavy, hot in potency, unctuous, sweet, strength promoting, allevator of vata, nourishing, aphrodisiac and aggravator of kapha as well as pitta. Priyala (Buchanania lanzan Spreng.) shares all the qualities except their potency in which it is cold.

Fruit of slesmataka ( Cordia dichotama Forst F. ) is sweet in taste, cold in potency, heavy and aggravator of kapha.

Fruit of ankota (Alangium salviifolium Wang. ) is heavy and aggravator of kapha. produces wind in the abdomen and alleviates heat of the body.

Fruit of sami (Prosopis spicigera Linn.) is heavy, hot, sweet in taste, unctuous and depilatory of hair.

Fruit of karanja (Pongamia pinnata Merr.) produces wind in the abdomen and does not provoke vata or kapha.

Sour variety of amrataka ( Spondias pinnata Kurz), dantasatha (Citrus medica Linn.), karamarda (Carissa carandas Linn.) and airavataka are sour in taste and they cause raktapitta (a condition characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body).

Vartaka (Solanum melongena Linn.) alleviates vata. It is pungent and bitter in taste. It stimulates digestion. Fruit of parpataki (?) aggravates vata and alleviates kapha as well as pitta.

Fruit of aksiki (?) is sour. It aggravates vata but alleviates pitta as well as kapha.

Fruits of asvattha, (Ficus religiosa Linn.), udumbara (Ficus racemosa Linn.), plaksa (Ficus lacor Buck-Ham.) and nyagrodha (Ficus bengalensis Linn.) are astringent sweet, sour and heavy. They aggravate vata.

Nut of bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) is caustic like fire but its fruit is sweet and cold in potency.

Thus ends the fifth group dealing with fruits that are commonly used. [ 125-265]

amrataka ( Spondias pinnata Kurtz. ) is of two types-properties of sweet variety are described in verse 129 and those of sour variety in verse 161 of this chapter.

In the Susruta, dadima (Punica granatum Linn.) is described to be of two types according to their taste viz; sweet and sour. Sweet variety is described as the alleviator of all the three doshas where as the sour variety alleviates only vata and kapha Cf. Susruta: Sutra 46: 140-142. This sour variety of dadima however does not aggravate pitta inspite of its sourness. Similarly, the sweet variety does not provoke kapha inspite of its sweetness.

Vegetables used uncooked

अथ हरितवर्गःरोचनं दीपनं वृष्यमाईकं विश्वभेषजम् वातश्लेष्मविवन्धेषु रोचनो दीपनस्तीक्ष्णः रसस्तस्योपदिश्यते ॥ १६६ ॥ सुगन्धिर्मुखशोधनः । जम्बीरः कफवातघ्नः क्रिमिघ्नो भक्तपाचनः ॥ १६७ ॥ वालं दोषहरं, वृद्धं त्रिदोषं, मारुतापहम् । स्निग्धसिद्धं, विशुष्कं तु मूलकं कफवातजित् ॥ १६८ ॥ हिक्काकासविषश्वासपार्श्वशूल विनाशनः 1 पित्तकृत् कफवातघ्नः सुरसः पूतिगधन्हा ॥ १६९ ।। यवानी चार्जकश्चैव शिथ्रुशालेयमृष्टकम् । हृद्यान्यास्वादनीयानि पित्तमुत्लेशयन्ति च ॥ १७० ।। गण्डीरो जलपिप्पल्यस्तुम्बरुः शृङ्गवेरिका । तीक्ष्णोष्णकटुरूक्षाणि कफवातहराणि च ।। १७१ ।। पुंस्त्वघ्नः कटुरूक्षोष्णो भूस्तृणो वक्रशोधनः । कफवातघ्नी खराह्वा वस्तिरोगरुजापहा ॥ १७२ ।। धान्याकं चाजगन्धा च सुमुखश्चेति रोचनाः । सुगन्धा नातिकटुका दोषानुत्क्लेशयन्ति च ॥ १७३ ॥ ग्राही गृञ्जनकस्तीक्ष्णो वातश्लेष्मार्शसां हितः । स्वेदनेऽभ्यवहारे च योजयेत्तमपित्तिनाम् ॥ १७४ ।। श्लेष्मलो मारुतमश्च पलाण्डुर्न च पित्तनुत् । आहारयोगी वल्यश्च गुरुवृष्योऽथ रोचनः ॥ १७५ ।। क्रिमिकुष्ठकिलासघ्नो वातघ्नो गुल्मनाशनः । स्निग्धश्चोष्णश्च वृष्यश्च लशुनः कटुको गुरुः ॥ १७६ ।। शुष्काणि कफवातघ्घान्येतान्येषां फलानि च । हरितानामयं चैष षष्ठो वर्गः समाप्यते ॥ १७७ ।।

Now beings the description of plants that are used in Green ginger is appetiser, digestive, stimulant and salad from. aphrodisiac. Its juice is prescribed in diseases due to the vitiation of vata and kapha. It also cures constipation.

Jambira (Citurs medica Linn.) is appetiser, digestive stimulant, stimulant, sharp, fragrant, mouth-cleanser, alleviator of kapha as well as vata and anti-infective. It helps digestion of food.

Tender radish alleviates vitiated doshas. When overgrown, it provekes these doshas. When cooked with unctuous substance, it alleviates vata. When dried, it alleviates kapha and vata.

Surasa (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) cures hiccough, cough, poisoning, dyspnoea and pain in chest. It aggrvates pitta. alleviates kapha as will as vata and removes foetid odour.

Yavani (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague), arjaka (Ocimum gratissimum Linn.), sigru (Moringa oleifera Lam.), Saleya (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.) and mrstaka (Brassica nigra Koch) are cordial and palatable. They provoke pitta.

Gandira (Euporiba antiquorum Linn. ), jalapippali (Commelina salicifolia Roxb.), tumburu (Xanthoxylum alatum Roxb.) and sprouts of srngavera (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) are sharp, hot in potency, pungent in taste and unctuous. They alleviate kapha and vata.

Bhustrna (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) is unaphrodisiac, pungent ununctuous, hot in potency, and cleanser of mouth.

Kharahva (Trachyspermum roxburghianum Sprague) alleviates kapha, vata and the disorders of urinary bladder.

Dhanyaka (Coriandrum sativum Linn.), ajagandha (Gynandropsis gynandra Briquet) and sumukha are appetiser and fragrant. They are not very pungent. They also do not provoke doshas.

Grnjanaka is bowel-binding and sharp. It is useful for piles and diseases due to the vitiation of vata and kapha. It is to used for fomentation and as a food for such people who do not have pitta in excess.

Palandu (Allium cepa Linn.) aggravates kapha and alleviates vata, but it does not alleviate pitta. It is useful as a food. It is heavy and aphrodisiac. It promotes strength and appetite.

Lasuna (Allium sativum Linn.) cures infectious, obstinates skin diseases including leprosy, kilasa type of skin disease, disease due to the vitiation of vata and abdominal tumour. It is unctuous, hot in potency, aphrodisiac pungent and heavy.

In dried from as also the fruits of these plants that are used in salad from, alleviate kapha and vata.

Thus ends sixth group consisting of such plants that are used in salad from. [ 116-177]

The main difference between the fruits and their salad lies in the fact that the former are considered to be staple food while the latter is not so, even though, like the former, this is also used without cooking. The term “visvabhesaja” stands both for the green as well as dry ginger. But by virtue of the epithet ‘ardraka’ it conveys the sense of green ginger only in the present context.

Tender radish, when its taste is not well manifested, alleviates all the three doshas. As it has been state delsewhere, so long as radish is tender and taste in it is not manifested, it is light, stimulant of digestion and alleviator of pitta, vata and kapha. In its matured state, on the otherhand, it aggravates all the three doshas. It is with reference to this state, that in chapter XXV of this section, radish [ actually in the text aluka meaning a tuber has been mentioned is described as the worst unwolesome diet among roots bulbs ].

Gandira (Euphorbia antiquorum Linn.) is of two types viz. red and white. The red one is pungent in taste. It is mentioned in the group of salads. The white one grows in water and is described in the group of vegetables.

The properties even of the dry variety of ginger is clearly stated in verse 177 above. Some of the distinctive qualities will again be explained in the group relating to the “accessory food articles.”

Qualities of Madya – intoxicants liquors

अथ मद्यवर्गः

प्रकृत्या मद्यमम्लोष्णमम्लं चोक्तं विपाकतः । सर्व सामान्यतस्तस्य विशेष उपदेक्ष्यते ।। १७८ ।।

Now begins the group of wines. By nature wines in general are sour in taste as well as vipaka and hot in potency. The properties of specific types of wine will now be described. [178]

After food, drinks are being, described. Eventhough, water happens to be first in the list of drinks still wine is regarded as the best drink in view of its exhilerating effect and also its popularity. So wine is being described first. The sour taste of wine is not something explicity so felt during the course of drinking. But the effects of drinking like the morbid sensitiveness of teeth, salivation etc; clearly indicate the inherent sourness of the drink c. f. Vimana 8: 138. So by virtue of its specific action as above, wine is to be regarded as of sour taste. As it has been stated, “wine is the best among the substances having sour taste” c. f. Chikitsa 24: 116.

Different varieties of liquors and their qualities

कृशानां सक्तमूत्राणां ग्रहण्यशविकारिणाम् । सुरा प्रशस्ता वातघ्नी स्तन्यरक्तक्षयेषु च ॥ १७९ ।। हिक्काश्वाशप्रतिश्यायकासवग्रहारुचौ वम्यानाहविबन्धेषु वातघ्नी मदिरा हिता ॥ १८० ।। शूलप्रवाहिकाटोपकफवातार्शसां हितः । जगलो ग्राहिरूक्षोष्णः शोफनो भक्तपाचनः ॥ १८१ ।। शोपार्शीग्रहणीदोषपाण्डुरोगारु चिज्वरान् कफकृतान् । रोगात्रोचनदीपनः ॥ १८२ ॥ सुगन्धिर्वस्तिरोगनुत् | वर्ण्यश्च शार्करः ।। १८३ ।। रोचनो दीपनो हृद्यः शोषशोफार्शसां हितः । स्नेहश्लेष्म विकारो वर्ण्यः पक्करसो मतः ॥ १८४ ॥ जरणीयो विबन्धनः स्वरवर्णविशोधनः । शोफोदरार्शसाम् ॥ १८५ ।। गौडस्तर्पणदीपनः । लेखनः शीतरसिको हितः सृष्टभिन्नशद्वातो चाक्षिकी वातघ्नो पाण्डुरोगवणहिता दीपनी सुरासवस्तीव्रमदो छेदी मध्यासवस्तीक्ष्णो मैरेयो धातक्याऽभिपुतो हृद्यो रूक्षो माध्वीकवन्न चात्युष्णो रोचनं दीपनं हृद्यं वल्यं विबन्धनं कफनं च मधु सुरा समण्डा रूक्षोष्णा लघ्वल्पमारुतम् ।। १८९ ।। यवानां वातपित्तला । गुव जीर्यति विष्टभ्य इलेष्मला तु मधूलिका ।। १९० ।। दीपनं जरणीयं ॥ १९१ ।। हृत्पाण्डुक्रिमिरोगनुत् । सौवीरकतुषोदकम् पानाद्वातकफापहम् । चाम्लकाञ्जिकम् ॥ १९२ ॥ गुरुदोषसमीरणम् | विवन्धनमवस्रंसि दीपनं प्रायशोऽभिनवं मद्यं स्रोतसां शोधनं जीर्ण दीपनं लघु रोचनम् ॥ १९३ ।। हर्षणं प्रीणनं मद्यं भयशोकश्रमापहम् । प्रागल्भ्यवीर्यप्रतिभातुष्टिपुष्टिवलप्रदम् साच्चिकैर्विधिवद्यक्त्या पीतं स्यादमृतं यथा । वर्गोऽयं सतमो मद्यमधिकृत्य प्रकीर्तितः ॥ १९५ । ॥ १९४ ॥ हन्त्यरिटः मुखप्रियः सुखमदः जरणीयः परिणतो हृद्यो ग्रहण्यशहितं भेदि दाहज्वरापहं स्पर्शात् मता ॥ १८६ ॥ वदनप्रियः । मधुरो गुरुः ।। १८७ ।। रोचनदीपनः । मृद्धीकेचुरसासवः ॥ १८८ ।। पित्ताविरोधि च ।

Sura type of wine is useful for patients suffering from emaciation, suppression of urinc, sprue and piles. It alleviates vata and is useful in deficientlactation as will as anemia. Madira type of wine is useful in hiccup, dyspnoea, coryza, cough, constipation, anemia, emesis and obstruction of faeces and urine. It also alleviates vata.

Jagala type of wine is useful in colic pain, dysentery, meteorism, piles and oedema. It alleviates kapha and vata. It is constipative, ununctuous, hot and carminative.

Arista type of wine is useful in consumption, piles, sprue, anemia, anorexia, fever and diseases caused by the vitiaton of kapha. It is both digestive and carminative.

Sarkara type of wine is palatable, of light intoxicating effect ragrant and cvrative of bladder diseases. It is digestive stimulant, cordial and conducive to good complexion after it is well digested.

Pakvarasa type of wine is palatable, digestive, cordial and useful in consumption, oedema and piles. It cures diseases caused by the improper administration of unctuous substance and vitiation of kapha. It promotes complexion.

Sitarasika type of wine helps digestion. alleviates constipation, promotes voice as will as complexion and is useful in oedema, abdominal disease and piles.

Gauda type of wine produces more of faeces and flatus. It caused diarrhoea aud excessive elimination of flatus. It is nourishing and digestive.

Aksiki type of wine is useful for anemia and ulcers. It is digestive stimulant.

Surasava type of wine is a very strong intoxicant. It alleviates vata and is palatable.

Madhvasava type of wine is depletive and sharp.

Maireya type of wine is sweet and heavy.

Dhatakyasava [asava prepared with the fruits (actually flowers are used in practice) of dhataki ] type of wine is cordial, ununctuous, palatable and digestive.

Asava prepared with grape and sugarcane juice shares all the madhvika but it is not too hot in potency.

Wine prepared with honey is palatable, digestives; cordial and strength promoting. It does not aggravate pitta and vata to a great extent It alleviates kapha and cures constipation.

Wine prepared with barley together with its manda ( scum) is ununctuous and hot. It aggravates vata and pitta.

Wine prepared with madhulika (a type of godhuma) is heavy. It produces wind during digestion. It aggravates kapha.

Sauviraka and tusodaka are digestive and carminative. They are useful in heart diseases, anemia, parasitic infections, sprue, and piles. They are also laxative.

Sour congee alleviates burning sensation and fever by external application. When taken in, it alleviates vata, kapha and constipation. It is laxative and digestive.

Generally speaking, fresh wine is heavy and it aggravates all doshas. Old wine clarifies the channels of circulation. It is digestive, light and palatable.

Wine in general is exhilerating, and nourishing. It elimnates fear, grief and exhaustion. It promotes confidence, energy, intelligence, contentmet, nourishment and strength. If taken by good people observing all the rules, it works as an elixir.

Thus the seventh group pertaining to wine is deocrieed. [ 179-195]

Sura type of wine is the one where the manda ( scum) is not taken out. The scum portion of sura type of wine is known as madira. Suru type of wine is prepared by fermenting starchy food articles. The wine which is prepared with the decoction of medical drugs, honey etc; is known as arista for example dantyarista, abhayarista etc; Wine prepared of sugar is called sarkara. Pakvarasa is prepared by boiling sugar cane juice and sitararaika by unboiled sugarcane juice. Gauda is made out of sugarcandy. Wine prepared with bibhihtake (Terminala belerica Roxb.) is called aksiki. When alchohol is is uses as a liquid for the preparetion of a wine, it is known as surasava. Madhvasava is prepared out of the flowers of madhuka (Maduka indica J. F. Gmel). When asava and svru are mixed together in a vassel and fermented, the wine so prepared known as maireya. Wine prepared with the flowers of dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. ) is known as dhatakyasava. (According to Chakrapani, dhatakyusava is made out of the fruits of dhataki but it is only the flowers of dhataki that are used for preparing this wine.) Madhulika type of wine is also knowns a medaka.

Water as per Ayurveda

अथ जलवर्गः

जलमेकविधं सर्व पतत्यैन्द्रं नभस्तलात् ।

Now begins the description of the group consisting of various types of water.

The entire water is ultimately of only one type viz., the one which falls from the sky as directed by Indra.

Water includes rain water, hail stone, snow waters and water from dew. Properties of water in general have been described in Sutra 26 : 39,

They will be further described in verse 198 of this chapter. Lord Indra directs the fall of water from heaven according to the activities performed by the mortals.

Rain water

तत् पतत् पतितं चैव देशकालावपेक्षते ॥ १९६ ॥

While falling and also after fall from the sky, the properties of water vary depending upon the time and space. [196] The properties of water vary, depending on a particular spot in the sky with the predominence of one or the other mahabhutas from where it has fallen. The variation in seasons like winter, summer ets., and also the particular place on the earth where it has fallen, affect the properties of water.


खात् पतत् सोमवाय्वः स्पृष्टं कालानुवर्तिभिः । शीतोष्णस्निग्धरूक्षाद्यैर्यथासनं महीगुणैः ॥ १९७ ॥

Whole falling from the sky water comes in contact with the moon, the air and the sun-all ordained by the time. Similarly, after its fall on the earth, it gets in touch with the proximal properties of the earth liked cold, heat, unctuousness, ununctuousness etc. [197]

While in the sky, water not only comes in contact with the moon, the air and the sun but also with the earth which is in the sky in the from of dust particles and poisons of spiders etc., carried through the cloud. In fact, air is responsible for carrying the properties of earth in the sky. The contact of water with all these bodies ordiained by time and and also the time itself play a very important role in bringing about specific qualities in water after it has fallen down on the earth. In fact, the proximity of the various properties of earth to water is determind by the time. That is to say, water gets in touch with various properties of the earth according to the seasonal variations.

Susruta has put forth twofold classification of rain water viz., ganga and samudra. The ganga type of water is that which is not contaminated with dust, poison etc., whereas the samudra type of water is the one which is cantaminated with posion etc; This classification is also based on the seasonal variations which are resposible for bringing about the various merits and demertis in water.

The rain water falling in the month of asraina (September-October) is stated to be free from the dust, poison etc. Even if thre is some contamination with dust etc., it does not so pollute water by virtue of the neutralising factors in that season. That is why Susruta says, Samudra type of water is not to be taken except the one available during the month of svina (September-October ).-c. f. Susruta : Sutra 45: 7. According to Harita, the rainwater available in the monith of Kartika (October-November) and agrahayana (November-December) is also wholesome. As he says, “During the autum season when the fresh wind starts blowing and also during the hemanta (winter) the rain water may be collected in earthen vessels and taken. So the prescripton of Susruta regarding the wholesomenes of rain water available in the month of asvlna (September-October ) may be interpreted to mean that the rain water available in the months beginning with asvina and not asvina alone, is wholesome. According to some other commentators, asvina is the month Par excellence for collecting rain water. Jatukarna says, “During the rainy season snakes, insects, spiders etc., move in the sky carried by the cloud and so the rain water gets contaminated with their poison. So it should not be taken before the rise of agastya (the star conopus )” that is, before the advent of autumn.

Qualities of Rain water

शीतं शुचि शिवं मृष्टं विमलं लघु षड्गुणम् । प्रकृत्या दिव्यमुदकं,

By nature rain water has six qualities viz., benevolence, pleasantness and clearness. Effect of receptacle and season on Rain water : coldness, purity,

भ्रष्टं पात्रमपेक्षते ॥ १९८ ॥ श्वेते कपायं भवति पाण्डरे स्यात्तु तित्तकम् । कपिले क्षारसंसृष्टमूबरे कटु पर्वतविस्तारे मधुरं लवणान्वितम् ॥ १९९ ॥ कृष्णमृत्तिके । एतत् षाड्गुण्यमाख्यातं महीस्थस्य जलस्य हि ॥ तथाऽव्यक्तरसं विद्यादैन्दं कारं हिमं च यत् ॥ २०० ॥ यदन्तरीक्षात् पततीन्द्रसृष्टं चोक्तैश्च पात्रैः परिगृह्यतेऽम्भः । तदैन्द्रमित्येव वदन्ति धीरा नरेन्द्रपेयं सलिलं प्रधानम् ॥ २०१ ॥ ईषत्कषायमधुरं सुसूक्ष्मं विशदं लघु । अरूक्षमनभिष्यन्दि सर्व पानीयमुत्तमम् ॥ २०२ || गुर्वभिष्यन्दि पानीयं वार्षिकं मधुरं नवम् । तनु लध्वनभिष्यन्दि प्रायः शरदि वर्षति ॥ २०३ ॥ तत्तु ये सुकुमाराः स्युः स्निग्धभूयिष्ठभोजनाः । तेषां भोज्ये च भक्ष्ये च लेह्ये पेये च शस्यते ॥ २०४ ॥ हेमन्ते सलिलं म्निग्धं वृष्यं बलहितं गुरु । किंचित्ततो लघुतरं शिशिरे कफवातजित् ।। २०५ ॥ कषायमधुरं रूक्षं विद्याद्वासन्तिकं जलम् । ग्रैष्मिकं त्वनभिष्यन्दि जलमित्येव निश्चयः ॥ ऋतावृताविहाख्याताः सर्व एवाम्भसो गुणाः ॥ २०६ । विभ्रान्तेषु तु कालेषु यत् प्रयच्छन्ति तोयदाः । सलिलं तत्तु दोषाय युज्यते नात्र संशयः राजभी राजमात्रैश्व सुकुमारैश्व मानवैः । सुगृहीताः शरद्यापः प्रयोक्तव्या विशेषतः ॥ २०८ ॥

After it has fallen down on the earth, its properties are determined by the place of its fall. It is falls on the earth of white colour, it becomes astringent in taste; on yellowish white earth it is bitter; on brown earth it is alkaline, on saline soil it is of saline taste; on the mountain valley it is pungent in taste and on the black soil it is sweet in taste. These are the six properties of rain water after it has fallen on the ground. Tastes are not manifested in the rain-water, hailstone or snow water.

The rain water falling from the sky as ordained by Indra and collected in the suitable receptacle is known as aindra. This is the water par excellence fit to be taken by kings.

The water which is slightly astringent and sweet in taste, exceedingly thin, non-slime, light, soft and non-greasy is best to be taken.

Rainwater available in the rainy season is heavy and greasy. The one available during the autumn is thin, light and nongreasy. Persons with tender bodily constitution, and those who are accustomed to taking predominantly unctuous food are advised to use this water in the preparation of masticable and eatable food, linctus and drinks.

Water available during the hemanta (winter) season is unctuous, aphrodisiac, strength promoting and heavy; that of the sisira (later part of winter) is slightiy lighter and alleviator of kapha and vata. Water available during spring is astringent as well as sweet in taste and ununctuaus. Water of summer season is not greasy. Thus the properties of various types of water in different seasons have been described. Water collected from untimely rains is undoubte lly unwholesome.

Water of autumn season collected in suitable receptacles should specially be used by kings, those enjoying royal authority and persons having tender healths. [198-208 ] Verses 199-208 are perhaps interpolations.

River water

नद्यः पाषाणविच्छन्नविक्षुब्धाभिहतोदकाः । हिमवत्प्रभवाः पथ्याः पुण्याः देवर्षिसेविताः ॥ २०९ ॥ नद्यः पाषाणसिकतावाहिन्यो विमलोदकाः । मलयप्रभवा याश्च जलं तास्वमृतोपमम् ॥ २१० ।। पश्चिमाभिमुखा याश्च पथ्यास्ता निर्मलोदकाः । प्रायो मृदुवहा गुव्यों याश्च पूर्वसमुद्रगा ।। २११ ।। पारियाभवा याश्च विन्ध्यसह्यभवाश्च याः । शिरोहृद्रोगकुष्ठानां ता हेतुः श्रीपदस्य च ॥ २१२ ।।

The water of) rivers originating from the Himalayas and with their water dispersed, disturbed and hit by stones are sacred and wholesome. The devine sages use this water. The rivers originating from the Malayas and those carrying stones and sand possess clear water. The water of such rivers is just like nectar.

The rivers flowing towards the west possess wholesome and elear water. Those flowing towards the eastern sea generally possess soft and heavy water. Rivers originating from the Pariyatra (Western Vindhya range). Vindhya and Sahya ranges are responsible for diseases of head, heart, obstinate skin diseases including leprosy and filaria. [ 209-212]

Only those Himalayan rivers which originate from the table land (and not those originating from the valley) posses wholesome water. It is only in such rivers that the water is dispersed, disturbed and hit by the stones. Thus, what Susruta says about the water of the Himalayan rivers regarding their adverse effect on heart etc., is quite correct-c. f. Susruta : Sutra 45:21. His reference is obviously to the rivers originating from the Himalayan valleys. Susruta has also said that the rivers originating from Malaya ranges are responsible for infectious diseases-c. f. Susruta : Sutra 45 21. This aparently goes against the statement as in verse 210 above. But as a matter of fact, Susruta is referring to such of rivers as do not carrystones and sands. The wholesome effect as described in verse 210 above refers to such rivers from Malaya ranges as carry stones and sand.

Susruta has described the wholesomeness of water originating from the Pariyatra ranges-c. f. Susruta: Sutra 45: 21. He is obviously referring to the rivers orginating from the lakes of the Pariyatra range and not the rivers originating from caves of Pariyutra range which always possess unwholesome water. As Visvamitra says, “The water of rivers originating from lake is conducive to strength and good health and that of rivers originating from caves is responsible for diseases.

Rivers flowing towards the east generally possess unwholesome water. But there are exceptions as well; for example water of the Ganga, even thought it flows towards the east, is always wholesome. It is more so also because the Ganga originates from the table land of the Himalayas,

Water reservoirs and rivers of rainy season

वसुधाकीटसर्पाखुमलसंदूषितोदकाः नद्यः सर्वदोषसमीरणाः ॥ २१३ ॥ 1 वापीकूपतडागोरत्ससरःप्रस्रवणादिषु आनूपशैलधन्वानां गुणदोषौर्विभावयेत् ॥ २१४ ॥ पिच्छिलं क्रिमिलं किनं पर्णशैवालकदमैः । विवर्ण विरसं सान्द्रं दुर्गन्धं न हितं जलम् ॥ २१५ ॥ वर्षाजलवहा विस्रं त्रिदोषं लवणमम्बु इत्यम्ब्रुवर्गः प्रोक्तोऽयमष्टमः यद्वरुणालयम् । सुविनिश्चितः ॥ २१६ ॥

The rivers carrying rain water which are vitiated by the mud, insects, snakes, mice aud dirt are responsible for all kinds of diseases. The water of the pond, well, lake, spring, tank and cascade shares the merits and demerits of the places in which they are situated, e. g. marshy land, hilley area, desert etc.,

The water which is slimy, full of parasites and vitiated with leaves, moss and mud, of ugly colour high density, having bad taste, and smell is not wholesome.

Water of sea possesses fishy smell and is saline. It is responsible for the aggravation of the there doshas.

Thus the eighth group consisting of various types of described. [213-216]

The unwholesome effects of the rain-water during rainy season as described in verse 213 only corroborate what has already been stated in Sutra 25:39. The merits and demerits of the water of pond, lake etc., are to be determined according as they are located in marshy land, desert hill area etc. That is to say, the merits and demerits of the place concerned can be ascribed to water of pond, lake etc., situated is those places as well. What has been stated about the water of rivers flowing towards the west or the east, or water of marshy land, desert or hilly land applies to the pond etc., situated in such areas. As Harita says, “The water of the marshy land is heavy and it aggravates kapha. Contrary to this, the water of arid land is tasteful and light. The properties of water of pond etc., have been enumerated in grater details in the 45th chapter of Susruta. Such properties like alkalinity etc., can be viewed even by direct perception; so they have not been enumerated in the text.

Vapi means a pond with its banks and stairs well construced with bricks. Tadaga is probably derived from tata (bank) and agas (force), that is to say, tadaga gets its force form its bank and water in the tadaga comes from high slope. Tadaga may stand even for a tank in general. Utsa is a spring where water comes out from under-ground in a jet. Saras is a natural lake without any human effort, for example pampa etc.,

Prasravana cascade. Another reading for सरः प्रस्रवणादिषु is इदाधारजलादिषु Here harda stands for a deep tank situated in the vicinity of a rivei Dhura is nothing but a stream of water falling from the mountain (water fall). The list also includes the water of small fields and small wells constructed near a well or river.


अथ गोरसवर्ग :

स्वादु शीतं मृदु स्निग्धं वहलं लक्ष्णपिच्छिलम् । गुरु मन्दं प्रसन्नं च गव्यं दशगुणं पयः ॥ २१७ ।। तदेवंगुणमेवौजः सामान्यादभिवर्धयेत् । प्रवरं जीवनीयानां महिषीणां गुरुतरं स्नेहान्यूनमनिद्राय रुक्षोष्णं रसायनम् ।। २१८ ॥ पयः । तत् ॥ २१९ ॥ लघु । शस्तं वातकफानाह क्रिमिशोफोदरार्शसाम् ॥ २२० ।। वल्यं स्थैर्यकरं सर्वमुष्णं चैकशफं पयः । साम्लं छागं रक्तपित्तातिसारखं हिक्काभ्वासकर तूष्णं सलवणं रूक्षं शाखावातहरं लघु ॥ २२१ ॥ कषायमधुरं शीतं ग्राहि पयो लघु । क्षयकासज्वरापहम् ॥ २२२ ॥ पित्तम्लेष्मलमाविकम् । हस्तिनीनां पयो बल्यं गुरु स्थैर्यकरं परम् ॥ २२३ || जीवनं बृंहणं सात्म्यं स्नेहनं मानुषं पयः । नावनं रक्तपित्ते व तर्पणं चाक्षिशूलिनाम् ॥ २२४ ॥ क्षीरमुक्तं गव्याच्छीततरं हितमत्यग्नये च क्षीरमुष्ट्रीणामीबत्सलवर्ण

Now begining the group consisting of various types of milk and there preparations.

Cow milk has ten properties viz., sweetnes, coldness, softness, unctuousness, density, smothness, slimeness, heaviness, slowness and clarity. These are also the properties of ojas. So milk having identical properties is conducive to the promotion of ojas. Thus, milk is an elexir per excellence.

Milk of buffalo is heavy and cold is compared with the cow’s milk. It has more of unctuousness and it is useful for persons suffering from insomnia and too rapid digestion.

Milk of the camel is unctuous, hot, slightly saline, light and useful for persons suffering from anaha ( constipation), parasitic infection, oedema, ascites, piles and other diseases due to the vitation of vata and kapha.

The milk of animals having one hoof (that is, mare, ass etc.,) is all strength promoting, stabilising, hot, sour, saline, ununctuous, alleviator of vatika diseases of extremitics and light.

Milk of the goat is astringent as well as sweet in taste, cold, bowel-binding, light, and it is useful for persons suffering from raktapitta (a disease charactetised by bleeding from various parts of the body ), diarrhoea, consumption, coughing and fever.

Milk of sheep is hot. It aggravates hiccup and dyspnoea. It also alleviates pitta and kapha.

Milk of elephant is strength-giving, heavy and stabilising.

Human milk is invigorating, nourishing, wholesome and oleating. As an inhalation, it is useful for raktapitta (haemothermia ).

It is also soothing for persons having pain in eyes. [217-224] Like water, milk is also invigorating, hence after water properties of milk are being described. Other milk products are also being described under this group.

In Sarira 6:10, twenty attributes of matter have been listed. All the attributes of milk except prasannata (meaking clarity), are included in that list. Now the question arises what is meant by the epithet ‘prasanna’ and whether it can be ascribed as an attribute at all. It is explained that the term ‘prasanna’ implies freedom from all defects and this bears out the excellence of milk which can be well regarded as due to its attributes. Another explanation given is that the attributes mentioned in Sarira 6: 10 are not exhaustive and so there should be no difficulty in recognising ‘prasannata’ (even thought it is not enumerated in the list of twenty attributes of matter) as an attribute of milk.

According to some commentators, the reading adopted for the third pada of the verse 219 is ‘egigan’. If this reading is adopted, it will mean that buffalo-milk contains lessar fat than cow’s milk; it is only with regard to heaviness and coldness that buffalo’s milk excels cow’s milk. But this view is not at all tenable. One can see with naked eyes the existence of fat in buffalo’s milk in much greater quantity than in cow’s milk. Jatukarna has also said, “Buffallo’s milk is heavy and cold; it contains more fat; it is strength-promoting and exceedingly nourishing”. Susruta has also said that buffalo’s milk contains more fat than cow’s milk-c. f. Susruta : Sutra 45: 56. So the best reading for this pada soould be gre’ and not agr. That is to say, buffalo’s milk contains greater amount of fat than cows milk. At least there cannot be any two opinions about the fact that the buffalo’s milk contains fat in sufficient quantity.

Sweetness is generally the predominant taste of milk. The saline and other tastes ascribed to camel’s milk etc., are in fact the testes accompanying sweetness. That is why in chapter : 107, it has been clearly state that milk is only generally sweet and not absolutely sweet. In Sutra 1 107 milk is described as of cold in potency in general. The hot potency ascribed to mare’s milk etc., represents only a comparative estimate of mare’s milk in relation to other varieties of milk. For example, even though the drugs and diets having pungent taste are heavier than those having bitter taste, still they are regarded as light in comparison with the drugs and diets having sweet taste which are much heavier. So, even thoug mare’s milk is hotter in potency than other varieties of milk, which are exceedingly cold, still it is cold in relation to urine, honey etc. Similarly apparent differences in views regarding other attributes, viz., unctuousness etc., can be explained. There is no mention of the properties of elephant milk etc. because of the rarity of the use of the milk of these animals in applied medicine. They can however be in accordance with their properties.

Products of milk – curd

रोचनं दीपनं वृष्यं स्नेहनं बलवर्धनम् । पाकेऽम्लमुष्णं वातनं मङ्गल्यं वृंहणं दुधि ।। २२५ ।। पीनसे चातिसारे च शीतके विषमज्वरे । अरुचौ मूत्रकृच्छ्रे च कार्ये च दधि शस्यते ॥ २२६ ॥ शरदूग्रीष्मवसन्तेषु प्रायशो दधि गर्हितम् । रक्तपित्तकफोत्थेषु विकारेष्वहितं च तत् ॥ २२७ ॥

Curd is appetiser, digistive stimulant, aphrodisiac, unctuous, strength promoting, alleviator of vata, auspicious and nourishing. It is sour in vipaka and hot in potency. It is useful in pinasa (rhinitis), diarrhoea, sitaka (fever with cold ), irregular fever, anorexia, dysuria and emaciation

It is genereally harmful during autumn, summer and spring seasons. It is inveriably harmful in diseascs caused by the vitiation of blood, pitta and kapha. [225-227]

Curd is not only an appetiser by virtue of its capacity to add to deliciousness of any other food article but is also alleviator of anorexia. It serves as a noursihment for persons emaciated due to diseases. It is also useful those for who are emaciated by nature. It is useful in all the four types of rhinities by virtue of its specfic action or due to its capacity to bring about maturity of the nasal excretion.

Normally, by virtue of its sour taste curd should not be aphrodisiac nor should it have sitaka (fever with cold ) alleviating property because it aggravates kapha. But such effects are there due to its specific action. By virtue of its sour taste, hot potency and unctuousness, curd is exceedingly useful for alleviating the vitiated vata. The vata-alleviating property of curd is specifically mentioned because there are certain drugs and diets like immature curd, wine which, inspite of their having the above menioned peroperties do not alleviate vata. This principle will be followed in the description of the properties of all drugs and diets. It is not possible to enumerate all these properties in detail as it will increase the bulk of the text.

Curd is generally harmful in autumn, summer and spring seasons. Sometimes, it is not so even in these seasons if its use is warranted by other circumstances like the nature of the patient etc. Sometimes, it is harmful in other seasons also.


त्रिदोषं मन्दकं, जातं वातघ्नं दधि, शुक्रलः 1 सरः, श्लेष्मानिलघ्नस्तु मण्डः स्रोतोविशोधनः ॥ २२८ ॥

Immature curd aggravates all the there doshas. Curd in its primary stage alleviates vata. Cream of curd helps in the formation as will as ejaculation of semen in large quentity. Whey alleviates kapha as will as vata and also charifies the channels of circulation. [228]

Mandaka (immature curd) represents that stage of curd when it has strated fermenting without attaining any density. After it attains density, it takes some times before it gets matured as curd with all sour taste. In between these two stages curd is of sweet taste accompanined with sligh sourness. This types of curd is known as jata and is specially useful for vata. The properties mentioned in verse 225 to 227 refer to well matured curd.

Cream of curd helps not only in the formation but also in the ejaculation of semen in large quantity-c. f. Susruta : Sutra 34 : 79.


शोफार्शीग्रहणीदोषमूत्रमहोदरारुची 1 स्नेहव्यापदि पाण्डुत्वे तक्रं दद्याद्गरेषु च ॥ २२९

Butter-milk is useful in oedema, piles, sprue, anurea, obstinate abdominal diseases including ascitis, anorexia anemia and afflicion with gara type of poison. It is also used for alleviating the complications of oleation therapy. [226]


संग्राहि दीपनं हृद्यं नवनीतं नवोद्धतम् । ग्रहण्यर्शोविकारघ्नमर्दिता रुचिनाशनम् ।। २३० ।।

Fresh butter is digestive, stimulant and cardiotonic. It is useful in sprue. ples, facial paralysis and anorexia. [230]

The properties mentioned above, relate only to fresh butternot fresh, these properties are but too feeble.


स्मृतिबुद्धयग्निशुक्रौजः कफमेदोविवर्धनम् । वातापित्तविषोन्मादशोषालक्ष्मीज्वरापहम् शीतं मधुरं रसपाकयोः । सर्वस्नेहोत्तमं सहस्रवीर्य विधिभिर्घृतं कर्मसहस्रकृत् ॥ २३२ ॥ मदापस्मारमूर्च्छायशोषोन्मादगरज्वरान् । ॥ २३१ ॥ योनिकर्णशिरःशूलं सर्पोष्यजाविमहिषीक्षीरवत् स्वानि निर्दिशेत् । घृतं जीर्णमपोहति ॥ २३३ ॥

Cow ghee promotes memory, intellect, power of digestion, semen, ojas, kapha and fat. It alleviates vata, pitta, toxic conditions, insanity, consumption and fever. It is the best of all the unctuous substances. It is auspicious, cold in potency and sweet both in taste as well as vipaka. When administered according to the prescribed procedure, it increases, thousand times in potency and develops menifold utilities.

Old cow ghee is useful in intoxication, epilepsy, fainting, consumption, insanity, toxic manifestations, fever and pain in the ear, head as well as female genital tract.

Properties of ghee of other animals viz., goat, sheep and buffalo are the same as those of their milk. [ 231-233]

When ghee is prepared with certain specified drugs in accordance with a prescribed procedure, its potency and utilities increase many fold. This is because no other unctuous substance except ghee has such a tremendous capacity to absorb the properties of the drugs mixed with it. According to certain commentators of the Susruta, ghee alleviates all the three three doshas (c. f. Susruta : Sutra 45:96). Even if it be so, it is only specially medicated ghee which can alleviate kapha. Normally ghee aggravates and does not alleviate kapha. It does, no doubt, alleviate vata and pitta.

By old ghee is meant ghee preserved at least for ten years. As it issaid, “Ghee preserved for 10 years is considered to be old ( purana). If perserved for more than ten years it is considered very old (prapurana ).” The older the ghee, more efficacious it is. This is also what Harita has stated. In the above passage there is no mention of the properties of ghee of elephant etc., because such ghee are not in use. Other milk products :

पीयूषो मोरटं चैव किलाटा विविधाश्च ये ॥ २३४ ॥ दीतजीनामनिद्राणां सर्व एव सुखप्रदाः । गुरवस्तर्पणा वृष्या बृंहणाः पवनापहाः ॥ २३५ ।। विशदा गुरवो रूक्षा ग्राहिणस्तक्रपिण्डकाः । गोरसानामयं वर्गो नवमः परिकीर्तितः ॥ २३६ ।।

Colostrum, morata (Milk of a cow seven days after calving MW. ) and various types of kilata ( inspissated milk) are useful for patients having strong power of digestion and insomnia. They are heavy, refreshing. aphrodisiac and alleviators of vata. Takrapinda (cheese) is non-slime, heavy, ununctuous and bowel-binding.

Thus ends the ninth group consisting of milk and milkproducts of cow and other animals. [234-236]

Piyusa (colostrum) is the milk of the cow within seven days of its calving. Morata is the milk of the cow seven days after calving when it has not atteined normalcy in colour, taste, smell, density etc., Kilata is inspisated milk popularly known as ksirasu. Takrapinda (cheese) represents the dense protion of inspissated butter-milk from which water has been taken out. The above group includes the description of milk etc., of cow as well as other animals. The term “gorasa”, however, according to popular usage stands not only for cows milk but also for milk for animals.

Varieties of sugarcane


वृष्यः शीतः सरः स्निग्धो बृंहणो मधुरो रसः । लेष्मलो भक्षितस्येक्षोर्यान्त्रिकस्तु विदह्यते ॥ २३७ ॥ शैत्यात् प्रसादान्माधुर्यात् पौण्ड्रकाद्वंशकोऽवरः ।

Now be sing the group consisting of suger-cane, its products and allied sweet substance.

When taken by chewing, sugercane juice is aphrodisiac, cold in potency, laxative, unctuous, nourishing, sweet in taste and aggravator of kapha. But the machine pressed juice causes burning sensation (indigestion ). Paundraka type or sugercane is superior to vamsaka type in so for as the coldness, clarity and sweetness are concerned. [236]

It is only when taken in by chewing, sugercane juice has the properties mentioned above. When the juice is extracted by a machine, it cause burning sensation, because during the process of extracting juice by machine, the skin as well as the nodes of sugercane get pressed and also because the juice so extracted is preserved for quite sometime before use. Harita has said, “Suger cane juice extracted by a machine is mixed up with the juice or the skin as well as nodes. Being exceedingly thin, it comes in contact with the air and the sun and as such when taken in, it penitrates into the subtle channels or the body and cause too much of burning sensation.

It is not that the suger cane juice collected by machine alleviates raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from various parts of the body). It is only the juice taken in by chewing the cane that it alleviates this disease. Of course, if the machine pressed juice is to be used, it should be devoid of skin and nodes and also it should be taken immediately after its extraction. Sometimes, the juice extracted by a machine rather gets digested more quickly and easily.

Products of Sugercane

प्रभूतक्रिमिमजासृझेदोमांसक रो गुडः ॥ २३८ ॥ गुडश्चतुर्भागत्रिभागार्धावशेषितः । क्षुद्रो रसो गुरुयापूर्व श्रौतः स्वल्पमलो गुडः ।। २३९ ।। ततो मत्स्यण्डिकाखण्डशर्करा विमलाः परम् । यथा यथैषां वैमल्यं भवेच्छ्रत्यं तथा तथा ॥ २४० ।। वृष्या क्षीणक्षतहिता सस्नेहा गुडशर्करा । कपायमधुरा शीता सतिता यासशर्करा ॥ २४१ ।। रुक्षा वम्यतिसारघ्नी च्छेदनी मधुशर्करा । तृष्णासृपित्तदाहेषु प्रशस्ताः सर्वशर्कराः ॥ २४२ ॥

Treacle (guda) causes increased parasitic infection. It increases the quantity of marrow, blood, fat and fiesh. Before its formation as treacle (gula) the suger-cane-juice undergoes four stages viz., ardhavasdsita (when only of the juice remains in the process of boliling), tribhagavasesita (when 1/3rd remains), caturbhaguvasesita (when th remains) and ksudra guda or phanita (inspissated juice or penidium black in colour and thready). The juice undergoing transformation through all these four stages is progressively heavier. That is to say the phanita (inspissated juicepenidium) is the heaviest. Dhauta is that variety of treacle which is cleaned and which contains the least amount of impurity and as such does not cause that much increase in parasite etc. Matsyandika (curde suger when the juice is inspissated so as to take the shape of eggs of fish), Khanda (sugar candy) and sarkara (suger) are all progressively better refined and coolar in relation to dhauta guda.. That is to say, suger represents the best refined stage of juice. It is also the coldest of all varieties.

Suger prepared of suger cane juice is aphrodisiac, useful in consumption and unctuous. The suger prepared by boiling the decoction or duralabha (Fagonia cretica Linn.) is known as yasasarkara and it is astringent, sweet as well as bitter in taste and cold in potency.

Suger deposited in the vessel cotaining honey is ununctuous and useful in vomiting as well as diarrhoea. It is depleting.

Suger in general is useful in thirst, raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body ) and burning sensation. [ 238-242]

Honey and its varities

गुरु ॥ २४३ ॥ माक्षिक भ्रामर क्षौ पौत्तिकं मधुजातयः । माक्षिकं प्रवरं तेषां विशेषाद्धामरं माक्षिकं तैलवर्ण स्याघृतवर्ण तु पौत्तिकम् । क्षौद्रं कपिलवर्ण स्याच्छ्रतं भ्रामरमुच्यते ॥ २४४ ॥ वातलं गुरु शीतं च रक्तपित्तकफापहम् । सन्धातृ च्छेदनं रूक्षं कषायं मधुरं मधु ॥ २५४ ॥ हन्यान्मधूष्णमुष्णार्तमथवा सविषान्वयात् । गुरुरूक्षकषायत्वाच्छेत्याच्चाल्पं हितं मधु ॥ २४६ ॥

Honey is of four types viz. 1. Maksika (honey collected by the reddish variety of honey bee)

2. Bhramara (honey collected by bhrumara type of bee) 3. Ksaudra (honey collected by small type of honey bec) 4. Paittaka (honey collected by puttika type of bee-they are of big size).

Of them, maksika is the best; Bhramara is especially heavy. Maksika type of honey is of the colour of til oil. Paittika is of the colour of ghee. Ksaudra is borwn in colour and bhramara is of white colour.

Honey in general is the aggravator of vata, heavy, cold in potency and alleviator of rakta, pitta as well as kapha. It promotes healing and depletion. It is ununctuous, astringent and sweet in taste.

Warm honey or honey taken by an individual suffering from heat is fatal because during the process of collection it is contaminated with poisonous material from the bees themselves or from the various poisonous plants.

Honey should be taken in small quantity because it is heavy, ununctuous, astringent in taste and cold in potency. [243-246]

In continuation of the description of madhu sarkaru ( suger deposited in the vessels containing honey or the suger prepared of heoey ), different varieties of honey are being described here. Some other varieties of honey viz., chatra etc., have been described in Susruta-c. f. Susruta : Sutra 45: 137, but they are not so efficaciuos therapeutically. (The verse 244, according to Chakrapani is an interpolation. ).

Honey taken by an individual suffering from heat is not so fatal as warm honey. Being originally associaied with poisonous plants or poisonous bees, honey is by nature not conducive to heat. As such warm honey is always fatal. In fact, by virtue of its previous association with poisonous plants and bees, being tender and having cooling property, warm honey as well as honey taken by persons afflicted with heat are equally fatal. This is corroborated by the statement of Harita and Susruta -c. f. Susruta; Sutra 45 : 145.

As honey is ununctuous, of astringent taste and cold in potency, it is invisable to take it only in a small quantity. If taken in large quantity, it causes uma ( digestive and metabolic disorders) owing to its heaviness. Due to its being ununctuous, astringent taste and cold potency, it aggratvaes vata resulting in the manifestation of very serious diseases.

Precaution for honey consumption

नातः कष्टतमं किंचिन्मध्वामात्सद्धि मानवम् । उपक्रमविरोधित्वात् सद्यो हन्याचथा विषम् ॥ २४७ ॥ आमे सोष्णा क्रिया कार्या सा भध्वामे विरुध्यते । मध्वामं दारुणं तस्मात् सद्यो हन्याद्यथा विषम् ॥ २४८ ॥

Nothing is so troublesome as ama caused by the improper intake of honey. Heat is considered to be wholesome in the case of ama but it is not conducive to ama caused by the improper intake of honey. Cold is conducive to honey but is not so to ama. So by virtue of these therapeutic contradictions, ama produced by the improper intake of honey cause instantaneous death like poison [247-248]

Importance of honey

नानाद्रव्यात्मकत्वाच्च योगवाहि परं मधु । प्रतीक्षुविकृतिप्रायो वर्गोऽयं दशमो मतः ॥ २४९ ॥ ॥

As it originates from flowers having different tastes, potencies etc., honey is the best yogavahi substance. That is to say, it carries the properties of the drugs added to it. Thus, ends the 10th group dealing mostly with sugercane and its products. [249]

As honey originates from flowers of various types having different tastes, potencies etc., it is impregnated with many latent therapeutic powers. So it carries the therapeutic effects of emetic or aphrodisiac drugs or drugs used in asthapana type of enema or drugs having any other properties as and when they are added to it. The latent therapetic powers of honey manifest themselves by virtue its association with drugs having homologous properties and also due to its speific action. Specific action, however, plays the most important role in this connection. Thus, even though milk, wine etc., produced by the combination of several plants etc., they do not carry the properties of drugs added to them. On the other hand, drugs like silajatu (mineral pitch ), gingili oil etc., carry the properties of the drugs added to them by virtue of their specific action even thought they are not produced by the combination of several drugs. Inspite of its yogavahi property, honey is not prescribed for oleation in diseases caused by the vitiation of vata because of its ununctuousness etc., The most predominant qualities of honey are ununctuousness and astringent tastes because the bees generally hover around the flowers predominant with such properties. So honey hossesses many therapeutic mopertis its association with many drugs but mainly due to its not so much due to spicific action c.f. Susruta: Sutra 45 : 143.

Cooked food preparations

क्षुत्तृष्णाग्लानिदौर्बल्य कुक्षिरोगज्वरापहा स्वेदाग्निजननी पेया वातं चाप्यनुलोमयेत् ॥ २५१ ।। स्वेदंसंजनयत्यपि । लहितानां विरिक्तानां जीर्ण स्नेहे च तृप्यताम् ॥ २५२ ।। तर्पणी ग्राहिणी लघ्वी हुद्या चापि विलेपिका । मण्डस्तु दीपयत्यग्निं मृदूकरोति स्रोतांसि चातवचनुमोलनी ॥ २५० ।। दीपनत्वाल्लघुत्वाच्च मण्डः स्यात् प्राणधारणः । लाजपेया श्रमघ्नी तु क्षामकण्ठस्य देहिनः ॥ २५३ ।। तृष्णातीसारशमनो धातुसाम्यकरः शिवः । लाजमण्डोऽग्निजननो मन्दाग्निविषमानीनां दाहमूर्च्छानिवारणः ॥ २५४ ॥ वालस्थविरयोषिताम् । देयश्च सुकुमाराणां लाजमण्डः सुसंस्कृतः ॥ २५५ ॥ क्षुत्पिपासापहः पथ्यः शुद्धानां च मलापः । शृतः पिप्पलिशुण्डीभ्यां युक्तोलाजाम्लदाडिमैः ।। २५६ ।। कषायमधुराः शीता लघवो लाजसक्तवः ।

Now begins the group consisting of food preparations. Thin gruel ( peya ) alleviates hunger, thirst depressionabdominal diseases and fever. It promotes sweatingdigestive and is conducive to the downward movement flatus as well as faeces.

Thick gruel (vilepi) is refereshing, bowelbinding, light and cardiotonic.

Gruel water (manda) stimulates the power of digestion and facilitates the downward movement of flatus. It softens the channels of circulation, produces sweating. By virtue of its lightness and the capacity to promote digestion, gruel water is sustainer of life of those who have undergone fasting and emetic therapies and those who are suffering from theirst after the oleation therapy has been digested.

Thin gruel prepared of fried paddy removes fatigue of persons whose voice is weakened.

The gruel water prepared of fried paddy alleviates thirst and diarrhoea, maintains the normalcy of tissue elements, promotes digestion and cures burning sensation as well as fainting. It is auspicious. This types of gruel water when properly prepared with dhanyaka (Coriandrum astivum Linn.), pippali (Piper longum Linn.) is prescribed for persons of tender-health, children, women and old persons suffering from indigestion and irregularity in digestion. The gruel water of fried paddy when prepared with sour pomagranate, boiled with pippali (Piper longum Linn.) and sunthi (Zingiber officinkla Rosc.) allays hunger and thirst. It is wholesome and it helps elimnation of waste products from the body of those who have undergone the purificatory therapies.

Roasted flour of the fried paddy is astringent as well as sweet in taste, cold ni potency and light. [250-256]

In this group, food preparations are being described. The properties of such food proparations are sometimes natural and sometimes they result from the special method of preparation involved like combination etc.

It might be argued that it is not necessary to describe the properties of various types of corn separately in face of the description of such properties of food preparations from out of them. But as a matter of fact, we have to distinguish between the natural properties of crude grains and the artificial properties brought about in their food preparations. If there are identical properties both with regard to the crude grains as will as their food preparations, such properties in the latter would be strong enough. In the case of any variation in the natural quality of crude grains and artifical properties of food preparties, the the letter become rather weakened, The specical preparation of gruel water mentioned in verse 256 eliminates the residual waste products adhering to the wall of the channels of circulation even after the purificatory therapies. Some, however, hold the view that such preparations are indiacted for such of the patients as are not fully purifiied. But this view is not tenable so much that for patients who are not fully purified, administration of thin gruel is prohibited. As it is said, “Thin gruel obstructs the channels of circulation when administered to patients suffering from diseases due to kapha and pitta or vata and pitta or those who are not properly purified or those who are alcoholics. For them refreshing dietatic-therapy should be adopted” -c. f. Siddhi 6:25.

Different rice preparations

सुधौतः प्रस्रुतः स्विन्नः संततश्चौदनो लघुः ॥ २५७ ॥ भृष्टतण्डुलमिच्छन्ति गरश्लेष्मामयेष्वपि । अधौतोऽप्रसृतोऽस्विन्नः शीतश्चाप्योदनो गुरुः ॥ २५८ ॥ मांसशाकवसातैलघृतमजफलौदनाः 1 वल्याः संतर्पणा हृद्या गुरुवो वृंहयन्ति च ॥ २५९ ॥ तद्वन्मापतिलक्षीर मुद्द्र संयोगसाधिताः

Rice prepared of the boiled (dehusked) paddy, well cleaned and filtered is light when taken hot. Fried rice is useful ever in the toxic conditions as well as diseases due to kapha. The rice prepared of unboiled paddy, not cleaned as well as filtered, is heavy specially when taken after it has become cold.

Rice prepared with meat, vegtable, muscle fat, oil, ghee, marrow and fruit is strength promoting, refreshing, cardiac tonic, heavy and nourishing. Similar are the properties of the rice prepared of masa ( Phaseolus radiatus Linn.), tila ( Sesamum indicum Linn.), mudga ( Phaseolus mango Linn.) and milk. [257-259 ]

Rice should be taken when it is still warm after it is cooked. Heating it for the second time is not considered wholesome. As it is said, “Frozen and cold rice and rice heated for the second time should not be taken.” Even when rice is prepared with vegetables and mudga ( Phaseolus munge Linn.) which are ununctuous by nature, it is strength-promoting by virtue of the combination and addination of ghee etc. During its preparatian. That is why rice is used popularly.

Preparation of yava and others

कुल्मासा गुरवो रूक्षा वातला भिन्नवर्चसः ॥ २६० ।।

स्विन्नभक्ष्यास्तु ये केचित् सौप्यगौ धूमयाविकाः । भिषकू तेषां यथाद्रव्यमादिशेहु रुलाघवम् ॥ २६१ ॥

Kulmasa is heavy, ununctuous, aggravator of vata and laxative.

Edibles are also prepard with pulses, wheat, barley by steam boiling. The physician should determine their heaviness or lightness in accordance with the properties of the material used in their preparation. [ 260-261]

Paste of barley mixed up with hot water and slightly boiled so as to form a cake is known as kulamasa. Cakes, e. g. Idli etc, prepared simply by steam-boiling does not come under the second category. Unlike fried rice ( laja) etc., properties of steam-boiled preparation do not undergo any change.

Juices and soups

अकृतं कृत्यूषं च तनुं सांस्कारिकं रसम् । सूपमम्लमनम्लं च गुरुं विद्याद्यथोत्तरम् ॥ २६२ ॥

Juice is of two types-the one without fat, sait and peper, and the other prepared with fat, salt and peper.-vide Susruta : Sutra 46379. The former is thin owing to the presence of meat in a small quantity. The latter is thick owing to its preparation with plenty of fat, meat etc. Similarly, soup is of two types viz., one which is sour and the other which is not sour. The latter is heavier than the former. [262]


सक्तवो वातला रूक्षा बहुवर्चोनुलोमिनः । तर्पयन्ति नरं सद्यः पीताः सद्योबलाश्च ते ॥ २६३ ॥ मधुरा लघवः शीताः सक्तवः शालिसंभवाः । ग्राहिणो रक्तपित्तघ्नास्तृष्णाच्छर्दिज्वरापहाः ॥ २६४ ॥

The roasted corn-flour aggravates vata. It is ununctuous. It produces faeces in large quantity and is laxative. It provides instantaneous refreshment and strength when taken in. Roasted flour of rice is sweet, light, cool, bowel-binding, alleviator of raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding from various parts of the body), thirst, vomiting and fever. [293-264]

It is true that an ununctuous substance is often reagarded as an aggravator of vata; so there was no necessity to speeify this property of roasted corn-flour which is ununctuous. But then there are substances like butter-milk which inspite of their ununctuousness alleviate rather than aggravate vata. So in order to avoid confusion, the vata aggravating properly of roasted corn-flour is specifically mentioned here.

The roasted corn-flour possesses the properties as mentioned in the above verse only when it is mixed up with plenty of water and is taken in liquid form. Intake of such flour in solid form is infact not conducive to helth. Roasted corn-flour, no doubt, brings about strength immediately after its intake like aphrodisiacs but then in effect, the acquired strength is diminished afterwards.

Indications for Yava (barley) preparations

॥ २६५ ॥ इन्यायाधीन् यवापूपो यावको वाट्य एव च । उदावर्त प्रतिश्यायकासमेहगलग्रहान् वानासंज्ञास्तु ये भक्ष्याः प्रायस्ते लेखनात्मकाः । शुष्कत्वात्तर्पणाश्चैव विष्टम्भित्वाञ्च दुर्जराः ॥ २६६ ।। विरूढधानाः शष्कुल्यो मधुक्रोडाः सपिण्डकाः । पूपाः पूपलिकाद्याथ गुरवः पैष्टिकाः परम् ॥ २६७ ॥

Vatya preparation of barley or pastry made of barley alleviates diseases like udavarta (a type of abdominal disease characterised by the retention of faeces ), pratisyaya (coryza), cough, urinary diseases and obstruction in throat.

Fried barley is generally depletive. Owing to its dryness, it is refreshing and due to its heaviness it is difficult to digest. Germinated barley, faskuli, madhukroda, pindaka, pupa, pupalika etc., are pastries which are difficult for digestion. [265-267]

Porridge prepared with fried barley is known as vatya. Fried barley is known as dhuna and germinated barley when fried is known as virudhadhana. Saskuli is prepared by the paste of rice together with the sesamum seed fried fried with oil. Madhukroda (Madhusirsaka) is prepared with flour mixed up with honey and solidified by frying. The same madhukroda prepared in bolus form is known as pindaka. Pupa is a type of cake, also known as Pistika. Pupaika is a kind of sweet cake fried in ghee or oil. Nala has described, “One should kind the flour, mix it up with suger candey and fry it with ghee mildly, after which it becomes solid and round. Kesara (Crocus sativus Linn.) and other fragrant material may be added to it. Such a prepararion is known as pupalika.” The same papalika, if mixed up with suger and powder of amrataka (Spondias pinnata Kurz.) is known as khandasamyuva; if, however, it is covered with the skin of matulunga (Citrus medica Linn.) it is known as madhukroda.

Mixed preparations of Vegetables and meat

फलमांशवसाशाकपललक्षौद्र संस्कृताः भक्ष्या वृष्याश्च बल्याश्च गुरवो बृंहणात्मकाः ॥ २६८ ॥ वेशवारो गुरुः स्निग्धो बलोपचयवर्धनः । गुरवस्तर्पणा सगुडाः सतिलाश्चैव भक्ष्या वृष्याश्च वल्याश्च परंतु गुरवः स्मृताः ॥ २७० ॥ वृष्याः क्षीरेक्षुरसपूपकाः ॥ २६९ ॥ सक्षीरक्षौद्रशर्कराः ।

Eatables prepared with fruit, meat, muscle fat, vegetables, powder of sesamum and honey are aphrodisiac, strength promoting, heavy and nourishing. Vesavara (minced meat prepara

tion ) is heavy, unctuous, promoter of strength and plumpness. Pestries made predominently of milk and sugarcane juice are heavy, refreshing and aphrodisiac. Eatables prepared by sugar candy, sesamum, milk, honey and sugar are aphrodisiac and strength promoting but they are heavy. [ 268-270]

The description of vesavara is Sudasastra (science of cooking ) is as follows; “Meat without bone is to be boiled and minced in pastle and mortar. This should be cooked again by adding the powder of pippali ( Piper longum Linn. ), dried ginger, marica ( Piper nigrum Linn. ), suger candy and ghee into it. In the Kstrapupa type of pastry mentioned in verse 269, milk forms and important constituent where as in the eatables ( saksira bhaksa ) described in verse 270, milk is added in small proportion only.

Wheat preparations

सस्नेहाः स्नेहसिद्धाश्च भक्ष्या विविधलक्षणाः । गुरवस्तर्पणा वृष्या हृद्या गौधूमिका मताः ॥ २७१ ॥ संस्काराल्लघवः सन्ति भक्ष्या गौधूमपैष्टिकाः धानापर्पटपूपाद्यास्तान् बुद्ध्वा निर्दिशेत्तथा ॥ २७२ ॥ ।

Various types of eatables of wheat prepared by adding fat or fried with fat are heavy, refreshing, aphrodisiac, cardiotonic. Pastry preparations of wheat like fried wheat, chapatti, cake are light by virtue of the method involved in their prepara tion. Their properties can be explained accordingly. [ 271-272 ] Pressed Paddy preparation :

पृथुका गुरवो बल्या भक्षयेदल्पशस्तु तान् । यावा विटभ्य जीर्यन्ति सरसा भिन्नवर्चसः ॥ २७३ ।।

Prthuka ( pressed paddy ) is heavy and strength promoting. It should be taken only in a small quantity. Tavacipita (pressed barley ) produce wind during the process of digestion. Prthuka, if prepared without frying is laxative. [ 273]

According to some commentators, the term ‘yava’ stands for a particular type of food prepration known as sampista or sampistaka in Randahar.

Supya ( pulses ) prepartions

सुप्यान्नविकृता भक्ष्या वातला रूक्षशीतलाः । सकटुस्नेहलवणानल्पशो भक्षयेत्तु तानू ॥ २७४ ॥

Eatables prepared of pulses like mudga (Phaseolus mungo Linn.) and masa ( Phaseolus: radiatus Linn. ) aggravate vata. They are ununctuous and cold. They should be taken in small quantity together with pungent things, fat and salt. [274]

Food that gives nourishment and strength

मृदुपाकाश्च ये भक्ष्याः स्थूलाश्च कठिनाश्च ये । गुरवस्ते व्यांतिक्रान्त पाकाः पुष्टिबलप्रदाः ॥ २७५ ॥

Eatables which are not cooked fully, coarse and hard, are heavy, and they take a long time to get digested. They promote nourishment as will as strength. [ 275]

Assessment of diet

द्रव्यसंयोगसंस्कारं द्रव्यमानं पृथक् तथा । भक्ष्याणामादिशेद्बुद्धवा यथास्वं गुरुलाघवम् ॥ २७६ ॥

Lightness or heaviness of eatables is determined by the types of combination, methods of preparation and proportions in which ingredients are added to them. [ 276]

The above principale is to be followed for determining the qualities viz., heaviness and lightness of food items whose properties are not described here.


( नानाद्रव्यैः समायुक्तः पक्कामक्किन्नभर्जितैः । विमर्दको गुरुर्हृद्यो वृष्यो बलवतां हितः ॥ २७७ ॥ )

Vimardaka is prepared by the comibation of several ingredients-rips, unripe, soft and fried. It is heavy, cardio-tonic, and aphrodisiac. It is useful only for persons who are physically strong. [ 277]

Rasala and Lassi

रसाला बृंहणी वृष्या स्निग्धा बल्या रुचिप्रदा । स्नेहनं तर्पणं हृद्यं वातघ्नं सगुडं दधि ॥ २७८ ॥

Rasala is nourishing, aphrodisirc, unctuous, strength promoting and platable.

Curd mixed with suger candy is unctuous, refreshing, cardio-tonic and alleviator of vata. [ 278 ]

Rasala is prepared of curd by adding tvak (Cinnamomum zeylanica Blume ), ela ( Elettaria cardamomum Maton ), patra ( Cinnamonum tamala Ness and Eberm. ), nagakesara ( Mesua ferrea Linn. ) and nagara ( Zingiber officinale Rosc.) alongwith sugar. The preparation by mincing curd alongwith its cream is known as sikharini.

Panaka ( Linctus ) preparations

गुरु विटम्भि पानकम् । यच्चेश्रुविकृति प्रति ॥ २७९ ॥ तेषां कट्टम्लसंयोगान् पानकानां पृथक् पृथक् । द्रव्यं मानं च विशाय गुणकर्माणि चादिशेत् ॥ २८० ॥ कट्टुम्लस्वादुलवणा लघवो रागपाडवाः । द्राक्षाखर्जूरकोलानां परुषकाणां क्षौद्रस्य मुखप्रियाश्च हृद्याश्च दीपना भक्तरोचनाः ॥ २८१ ॥ आम्रामलकलेहाथ बृंहणा बलवर्धनाः । रोचनास्तर्पणाश्चोक्ताः स्नेहमाधुर्यगौरवात् ॥ २८२ ॥ बुद्ध्वा संयोगसंस्कारं द्रव्यमानं च तच्छ्रितम् । गुणकर्माणि लेहानां तेषां तेषां तथा वदेत् ॥ २८३ ||

Beverages_prepared of draksa ( Vitis vinifera Linn. ), Kharjura ( Phoenix sylvestris Roxb. ), kola ( Kizyphus jujuba Lam. ), parusaka ( Grewia asiatica Linn. ), honey and products of sugarcane are heavy and they produce wind during the process of digestion. However, their properties vary by the addition of pungent and sour things and such properties can be determined by taking into account the ingredients and the proportion in which they are added. Various types of ragasadava { raga and sadava ) are pungent, sour, sweet and saline in taste and they are light, palatable, cardio-tonic and carminative. They cause palatability in other food when added to it.

Linctus prepared of amra ( Mangifera indica Linn. ) and amalaka (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) is nourishing and strength promoting. Because of their unctuousness and sweetness, they are palatable and refreshing. Properties and actions of various types of linctus which are not described here are to be determined by the type of combination, method of preparation and the proportion in which ingredients are added to it. [ 279-283]

Ragasadava is prepared by boiling fresh mango fruit with sugarcandy adding oil as will as the powder of dry ginger into it. According to some commentators raga is prepared with sugar, citron, rocksalt, vrksamla ( Tamrindus indica Linn. ), Parusaka (Grewia asciatic Linn. ) fruit juice of jambu ( Syzygium Cumini Skeels ) and rajika ( Brassica jauncea Czern. & Coss.) where as sadava is prepared by the combination of both the sweet and sour ingredients. For the preparation of linctus from amra ( Mangtfera indica Linn. ) and amalaka ( Emblica officianalis Gaerto. ), a decoction of these fruits is prepared in the first instance and this is further boiled to a thicker consistency by adding sugar.

Fermented preparations of rice and other vegetables

रक्तपित्तकफोत्क्लेदि शुक्तं वातानुलोमनम् । कन्दमूलफलाद्यं तद्वद्विद्यात्तदासुतम् ॥ २८४ ॥ च शिण्डाकी चासुतं चान्यत् कालाम्लं रोचनं लघु । विद्याद्वर्ग कृतान्नाना मेकादशतमं भिषक् ॥ २८५ ॥

Sukta aggravates hemothermia as will as kapha and alleviates vata. Even the rhizomes, roots and fruits carry the same property when fermented in it. Sindaki and other beverages which have become sour in taste due to prolonged storage after fermentation are palatable and light. Thus ends the eleventh group consisting of food preparations. [ 284-285]

Sukta or cukra is prepared by mixing mastu (whey), suger candy, honey and congee in clear container and keeping it inside a hip of grains for thee days. The beverage ‘sindaki’ is known by this name in Tirabhuk ( ? ) region. Beverages when keep for a long time after fermentation become sour. Properties like palatability and lightness are attributed to such beverages as have become sour by prolonged preservation after fermentation and not to those in which extraneous sour things have been added.

अथ आहारयोनिवर्गः

Adjuvents of food – oils

कषायानुरसं स्वादु सूक्ष्ममुष्णं व्यवायि च । पित्तलं बद्धविण्मूत्रं न च श्लेष्माभिवर्धनम् ॥ २८६ ॥ वातघ्नेषूत्तमं बल्यं त्वच्यं मेधाग्निवर्धनम् । तैलं संयोगसंस्कारात् सर्वरोगापहं मतम् ॥ २८७ ॥ तैलप्रयोगादजरा निर्विकारा जितश्रमाः । आसन्नतिबलाः संख्ये दैत्याधिपतयः पुरा ॥ २८८ ॥ ऐरण्डतैलं मधुरं गुरु लेष्माभिवर्धनम् । वातासृग्गुल्महृद्रोगजीर्णज्वरहरं परम् ॥ २८९ ॥ कटूष्णं सार्षपं तैलं रक्तपित्तप्रदूषणम् । कफशुक्रानिलहरं कण्डूकोठविनाशनम् ॥ २९० ।। प्रियालतैलं मधुरं गुरु श्लेष्माभिवर्धनम् । हितमिच्छन्ति नात्यौ॰ण्यात्संयोगे वातपित्तयोः ॥ २९१ ॥ आतस्यं मधुराम्लं तु विपाके कटुकं तथा । उष्णवीय हितं वाते रक्तपित्तप्रकोपणम् ॥ २९२ ॥ कुसुम्मतैलमुष्णं च विपाके कटुकं गुरु । विदाहि च विशेषेण सर्वदोषप्रकोपणम् ॥ २९३ ।। फलानां यानि चान्यानि तैलान्याहारसंविधौ । युज्यन्ते गुणकर्मभ्यां तानि ब्रूयाद्यथाफलम् ॥ २९४ ॥

Now begins the group consisting of the adjuvants of food:

Oil from seasmum is sweet with an accompanying astringent taste, subtle (can penetrate through the subtle channels of the body), hot in potency and vyavayi (which undergoes paka or chemical change after it is pervaded all over the body). It aggravates pitta, binds bowel and reduces the quantity of urine but it does not aggravate kapha. It is the best among the alleviators of vata. It promotes strength, skin health, intelligence and the power of digestion. In combination with various drugs (samyoga), seasamum oil is said to cure all diseases. In ancient time, kings of demons, by virtue of the use of oil overcame aging, got rid of diseases as will as fatigues, acquired great strengh instantaneously and fought battles ( successfully).

Castor oil is sweet in taste, heavy, aggravator of kapha and alleviator of vata, raktagulma (a type of abdominal tumour specially in females. ), heart disease, indigestion and fever.

Mustard oil is pungent in taste and hot in potency. It aggravates rakta as well as pitta and reduces kapha, semen as well as vata. It cures itching and urticaria.

Oil of priyala ( Buchanania lanzan Spreng.) is sweet in taste, heavy and aggravator of kapha. Since it is not very hot, it is useful when vata and pitta are jointly aggravated.

Oil of atasi (Linum usitalissium Linn.) is sweet as well as sour in taste, pungent in vipaka and hot in potency. It alleviates vata but aggravates rakta and pitta.

Oil of kusumbha (Carthamus tinctorius Linn.) is hot in poteancy, pungent in vipuka and heavy. It produces burning senstion and aggravates all the doshas.

Several other oils are also used for the preparation of food. Their properties and actions are similar to those of the fruits from which these oils are extracted. [286-294]

Food ingredients and their various preparations, have been described previously. In the above verses properties of adjuvants of food are being described. Some times many drugs are added to the oil. This is known as samyoga. When drugs are added to the oil and boiled in it for medication, this process is known as samskura. Oils are also extracted from the heart wood of various trees. Their properties and actions are to be determined in accordance with those of the concerned trees.

Animal fat

मधुरो वृंहणो वृष्यो बल्यो मजा तथा वसा । यथासत्त्वं तु शैत्योष्णे वसामज्योर्विनिर्दिशेत् ॥ २९५ ।।

Muscle fat and marrow are sweet in taste, nourishing, aphrodisiac and strength promoting. Their potencies, viz, hot and coldness are to be determined according to the nature of the animal from which they are collected. [ 295 ]

If an animal inhabits marshy land, its muscle fat and marrow will be hot in potency. On the other hand the muscle fat and marrow of an animal inhabiting arid land are cold in potency. In the thirteenth chapter of this section, the general property of muscle fat and marrow is described to be neither too hot nor too cold-cf. commentary on Sutra 13 : 18.

Condiments, spices and salts

॥ २९६ ॥ सस्नेहं दीपनं वृष्यमुष्णं वातकफापहम् । विपाके मधुरं हृद्यं रोचनं विश्वभेषजम् लेष्मला मधुरा चार्द्रा गुर्वी स्निग्धा च पिप्पली । सा गुष्का कफवातघ्नी कुटूष्णा वृष्यसंमता ॥ २९७ ॥ नात्यर्थमुष्ण मरिचमवृष्यं लघु रोचनम् । छेदित्वाच्छोषणत्वाच्च दीपनं कफवातजित् ॥ २९८ ॥ वातम्लेष्मविबन्धघ्नं कटूष्णं दीपनं लघु । हिङ्गु शूलप्रशमनं विद्यात् पाचनरोचनम् ।। २९९ ।। रोचनं दीपनं वृष्यं चक्षुष्यमविदाहि च । त्रिदोषघ्नं समधुरं सैन्धवं लवणोत्तमम् ॥ ३०० ।। सौक्ष्म्यादौपण्याल्लघुत्वाञ्च सौगन्ध्याच रुचिप्रदम् । सौवर्चलं विबन्धघ्नं हृद्यमुद्गारशोधि च ।। ३०१ ।। तैक्ष्ण्यादौष्ण्याव्यवायित्वाद्दीपनं शूलनाशनम् । ऊर्ध्वं चाघश्च वातानामानुलोम्यकरं बिडम् ।। ३०२ ।। सतिक्तकटु सक्षारं तीक्ष्णमुत्केदि चौद्भिदम् । न काललवणे गन्धः सौवर्चलगुणाश्च ते ॥ ३०३ ॥ सामुद्रकं समधुरं, सतिक्तं कटु पांशुजम् । रोचनं लवणं सर्व पाकि स्स्रंस्यनिलापहम् ॥ ३०४ ॥

Dry ginger is unctuous, promoter of digestion, aphrodisiac, hot in potency, alleviator of vata as well as kapha, sweet in vipaka, cardio-tonic and palatable.

Green but ripe pippali (Piper longum Linn.) is aggravator of kapha. sweet in taste, heavy and unctuous. Dried pippali (Piper longum Linn.) is however, alleviator of kapha as well as vata, pungent in taste, hot in potency, and aphrodisiac.

Maricha (Piper nigrum Linn.) is not very hot in potency, non-aphrodisiac, light and platable. Due to its depleting and absorbing properties, it promotes digestion and alleviates kapha as well as vata.

The gum resin of hingu (Ferula narthex Boiss) is alleviator of colic pain, carminative and palatable.

Saindhava (rock salt) is the best among salts. It is palatable, promotoer of digestion, aphrodisiac, conducive for eye sight, alleviator of all the three doshas. and slightly sweet in taste. It does not cause burning sensation.

Sauvarchala (sonchal salt) is subtle (capable of permeating through the subtle channels of the body ), hot, light and fragrant. By virtue of these properties, it is palatable, laxative and cardiatonic and it purifies eructations.

Bida type of salt is sharp, hot and yavayin (which undergoes paka or chemical change after it is pervaded all over the body ). By virtue of these qualities, it promotes digestion, cures colic pain and helps eliminating of gas from abdomen both through the upper as well as lower tract ( mouth and anus).

Audbhida type of salt which is also known as utkarika is pungent and slightly bitter in taste. It is alkaline, sharp and softening.

Kala type of salt is only a variety of sonchal salt having all the attributes of the latter except that in the former there is no fragrance

Samudra (salt collected from the southern coast-also known as karakaca) is slightly sweet in taste where as pamsuja (salt collected from the eastern coast) is pungent acompanied bitter taste.

Salts in general are palatable, promote of digestion, laxative and alleviator of vata. [ 296-304]

Khsaras – alkalies

हृत्पाण्डुग्रहणीरोगप्लीहानाहगलग्रहान् । कासं कफजमशसि यावशूको व्यपोहति ॥ ३०५ ॥ तीष्णोष्णो लघुरूक्षश्च क्लेदी पक्ता विदारणः । दाहनो दीपनश्छेत्ता सर्वः क्षारोऽग्निसन्निभः ॥ ३०६ ॥

Tavaksara (an alkali preparation from the plant Hordium valgarae Linn. ) cures heart diseases, anemia, sprue, enlargement of spleen, constipation, obstruction in throat, coughing and piles of slaismika variety.

Alkali preparations ( ksharas ) in general are sharp, hot, light, ununctuous, softening, carminative, corrosive, coustic, digestive stimulant and depletive. They cause buins and thereby work like fire. [305-306]

Other alkalies used in food preparations are svarjika ( ? ), borax ete.,

Others :

कारवी कुञ्चिकाऽजाजी यवानी धान्य तुम्बरु | रोचनं दीपनं वातकफदौर्गन्ध्यनाशम् ।। ३०७ ।।

Karavi ( Cerum carvi Linn. ), kuncika ( Nigella sativa Linn. ), ajajr ( Cuminum cyminum Linn. ), yavani ( Trachyspermum ammi Sprague ), dhanya ( Coriandrum sativum Linn. ) and ( Xanthoxylon alatum Roxb. ) are palatable, digestive stimulant, alleviator vata as will as kapha and remover of foul odour. tumburu


आहारयोगिनां भक्तिनिश्चयो न तु विद्यते ।

समाप्तो द्वादशश्चायं वर्ग आहारयोगिनाम् ॥ ३०८ ॥

Adjuvants of food are unlimitted in number. Thus, ends the twelfth group consisting of adjuvants of food. [ 308 ]

There is no uniformity in the likings of individuals. Some of the adjuvants of food mentioned in this twelfth groupe may not be liked by some and therefore, may be no use to them. Some others which are not mentioned here like garlic, amrapesiku (powder of dried mango) etc. may be liked by and hence be useful to others as adjuvants of food.

Choice of grains

शूकधान्यं शमीधान्यं समातीतं प्रशस्यते । पुराणं प्रायशो कक्षं प्रायेणाभिनवं गुरु ॥ ३०९ ॥ यद्यदागच्छति क्षिप्रं तत्तल्लघुतरं स्मृतम् । निस्तुपं युक्तिभृष्टं च सूप्यं लघु विपच्यते ॥ ३१० ।।

Corns and grains, one year after their harvesting, are whoel some. Old corns and grains are mostly ununctuous and fresh ones heavy. Corns and grains which take a shorter time for cultivation as will as as hravesting are lighter than those taking longer time. Dehusked pulses when slightly fried become light for degestion. [309-310]

Properties of corns and grains which were not mentioned earlier are being described here. Corns and grains, one year after their harvesting are said to be wholesome because that time they become very light for digestion. But the use of freshly harvested corns and grains in hementa or winter seasons is an exception to it.

Susthika type of corn is the lightest of all beccuse it take only sixty nights for harvesting If only the time taken for the cultivation of corn or grain is taken into account to determine their lightness, then the vrihi type of grain which is harvested in autumn will be lighter than sali type of corn which is harvested in winter, sowing time of both the types being the same. In fact, it is not so. Vrihi type of grain is heavier than sali type of corn. Thus this comparison applies to the members of homogenous species. For example, corn should be treated as lighter then another corn only if the former takes a shorter time than the latter to grow. Similar is the case of grains. On the other hand, if a grain takes shorter time than a corn to grow it does not make the former lighter than the latter. The lightness of a grain or corn can be judged from the time it takes for getting digested.

Choice of animal food

मृतं कृशं चातिमेद्यं वृद्धं बालं विषैर्हतम् । अगोचरभृतं व्यालसूदितं मांमुत्सृजेत् ॥ ३११ ॥ ॥ अतोऽन्यथा हितं मांसं वृंहणं बलवर्धनम् ।

Meat of animals who have died a natural death, who are emaciated (or dried up after death), who are fatty in excess, who are old, who are too young, who are killed by poisonous arrows, who graze in a land not commensurate with their natural habitat and who are bitten by shakes and tigers etc. are unwholesome otherwise, meat is wholesome, nourishing and strength promoting. [311]

Meat soup and its qualities

प्रीणनः सर्वभूतानां हृद्यो मांसरसः परम् ॥ ३१२ ॥ शुष्यतां व्याधिमुक्तानां कृशानां क्षीणरेतसाम् । बलवर्णार्थिनां चैव रसं विद्याद्यथामृतम् ॥ ३१३ ।। सर्वरोगप्रशमनं यथास्वं विहितं रसम् । विद्यात् स्वर्य बलकरं वयोबुद्धीन्द्रियायुषाम् ॥ ३१४ ॥ व्यायमनित्याः स्त्रीनित्या मद्यनित्यश्च ये नराः । नित्यं मांसरसाहारा नातुराः स्युर्न दुर्बलाः ॥ ३१५ ॥

Meat soup is refreshing for all animals. For those who are dehydrated or emaciated, who are in convalesence stage, those having semen in small quantity and those who aspire better strength and complexion, meat soup is like ambrosia. When taken according to the prescribed method, meat soup alleviates many diseases. It promotes voice, youth, intelligence, power of sensory organs and longevity. If those who habituaally indulge in exercise, sex and wine, take meat soup regularly, they neither succumb to dsseases nor lose their strength.

Meat soup prepared according to various methods is no doubt useful in number of diseasrs but there are exceptions, for example meat is contraindicated in insanity-c. f. Chikitsa 9 : 96.

[ 312-315]

Unwholesome vegetable preparations

क्रिमिवातातपहतं शुष्कं जीर्णमनार्तवम् । शाकं निःस्नेहसिद्धं च वर्ज्य यच्चापरिस्रुतम् ॥ ३१६ ॥ पुराणमामं संक्लिष्टं क्रिमिव्यालहिमातपैः । अदेशकालजं क्लिनं यत्स्यात्फलमसाधु तत् ।। ३१७ ।। हरितानां यथाशाकं निर्देशः साधनारते । मद्याम्बुगोरसादीनां स्वे स्वे वर्गे विनिश्चयः ॥ ३१८ ॥

Vegetables infested with insects, exposed to wind the son for long, dried, up, old and unseasonal are unwholesome. When they are cooked without adding fat and residual water after boiling is not filtered out, vegetables become unwholesome for use.

Fruits which are old, unripe, afflicted by insects and serpents, exposed to snow or sun for long, growing in the land and season other than the normal habitat and time and putrified are unwholesome.

Rules regarding salads are the same as vegetables except that the rules regarding of the latter are not applicable to the former. Rules regarding the unwholesomeness of wines, water and milk prodcts are described in the respective groups. [ 316-318 ]

Generally unripe fruits are unwholesome. Bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr. ) etc., may be taken as exception. Similarly all the rules regarding wholesomeness or otherwise of vegetables apply to salads like ginger and onion as well with the only exception that the latter even if cooked without oil and even without water being taken out after boiling are not unwholesome.

In the groups relating to milk products, food preparations and food adjuvants, the rules regarding the wholesomeness of milk etc., are not specified in this chapter. There unwhole someness is to be determined on the basis of the rules regarding their wholesomeness under the respective groups. That is to say, if they do not have the properties conducive to their wholesomeness, they are to bo regarded as unwholesome.

Varieties of drinks used after food

यदाहारगुणैः अन्नानुपानं धातूनां आसवानां पानं विपरीतं तदिष्यते । दृष्टं यन्न समुद्दिष्टामशीर्ति विरोधि च ।। ३१९ ॥ चतुरुत्तराम् । परीक्ष्यानुपिवेद्धितम् ॥ ३२० ।। जलं पेयमपेयं च । स्निग्धोष्णं मारुते शस्तं पित्ते मधुरशीतलम् । कफेऽनुपानं रुक्षोष्णं क्षये मांसरसः परम् ॥ ३२१ ॥ उपवासाध्वभाष्य स्त्रीमारुतातपकर्मभिः क्लान्तानामनुपानार्थ पयः पथ्यं यथाऽमृतम् ॥ ३२२ ॥ सुरा कृशानां पुष्टयर्थमनुपानं विधीयते । कार्यार्थ स्थूलदेहानामनु अल्पानीनामनिद्राणां मद्यमांसोचितानां शस्तं मधूदकम् ॥ ३२३ || तन्द्राशोकभयक्कमैः । मद्यमेवानुशस्यते ॥ ३२४ ॥ व

Generally post-prandial drinks should have the properties opposite to those of the food taken. But at the same time, such drinks should not be harmful to the tissue elements of the body. Water as well as the eighty four varieties of alcohalic preparations ( described in the 25th chapter of this section ) are to be examined with a view to as certain their wholesomeness or otherwise and only useful drinks are to be taken.

In conditions caused by the aggravation of vata, unctuous and hot post-prandial drinks are useful. Simiarly in pitta sweet and cold, and kapha unctuous and hot post.prandial dainks are useful.

For consumption meat soup is the useful post-prandial drink. Milk is the post-prandial drink like ambrosia for those fatigued due to indulgence in fast, long waik, long speeches, sex and exposure to wind and sun. For nourishing emaciated individuals, wine is the best post-prandial drink. For causing emaciation of over corpulent individuals honey water is the useful post-prandial drink. Alchohol serves as useful post-prandial drink for those accustomed to alchohiic drinks as well as meat, and suffering from loss of digestion, insomnia, accompanied with drowsiness, grief, fear and exhaustion. [319-324]

In the verse 319, it has been explained that post-prandial drinks having qualities opposite to those of the food are to be taken. Curd is of sour taste and milk is sweet. Eventhough they have mutually opposite qualities, one of them can not be taken after the other because they, when taken together are not conducive to the growth of tissue elements. Similar is the explanation for the mutually contradictory properties of payasa (a milk preparation) and congee. The wholesomeness or otherwise of a particular type of wine or water as post-prandial drink is conditioned by two factors, viz., the property of the drink itself and the property of the food after which it is to be taken.

Effect of post parandial drinks on the indivdual and the food

अथानुपानकर्सगुणान् प्रवक्ष्यामः- अनुपानं तर्पयति, प्रीणयति, ऊर्जयति, बृंहयति, पर्यानिमभिनिर्वर्तयति, भुक्तमवसादयति, अन्नसङ्घातं भिनत्ति, मार्दवमापादयति, क्लेदयति, जरयति, सुखपरिणामितामाशुष्यवायितां चाहारस्योपजनयतीति ॥ ३२५ ॥

Now we shall explain the actions and properties of postprandial drinks. Post-prandial drinks in general, bring about refreshmet, pleasure, energy, nourishment, satisfaction and steadiness in the food eaten. It helps in breakdown, softening, digesting, proper assimilation and instant diffuion of the food taken. [325]

Summing up:

भवति चात्रअनुपानं हितं युक्तं तर्पयत्याशु मानवम् । सुखं पचति चाहारमायुषे च बलाय च ॥ ३२६ ॥

Thus it is said

Administration of wholesome post-prandial drink refreshes instantaneously and helps in individual in easy digestion resulting in the promotion of iongevity and strength. [326]

Contra-inditations of anupana – post parandial drinks

नोर्ध्वाङ्गमारुताविष्टा न हिक्काश्वासकासिनः । न गीतभाष्याध्यमनप्रसक्ता नोरसि क्षताः ॥ ३२७ ॥ पिवेयुरुदकं भुक्त्वा तद्धि कण्ठोरसि स्थितम् । स्नेहमाहारजं हत्वां भूयो दोपाय कल्पते ॥ ३२८ ॥

Water should not be taken after food by those suffering from diseases of the head due to the vitiation of vata. hiccup, dyasnoea, cough as well as tuberculosis. It is also prohibited for those who indulge in singing, speech ond study with loud sound because it remains in the throat and chest, and removes from there the unctuous substances taken alongwith food resulting in the further aggravation of the condition. [327-328 ]

In an individual suffering from the diseases of the head, water, if taken after food, does not go down and thereby aggravate vata. In normal course, fat contained in the food could have helped in the alleviation of vata but this effect is neturalised by the cold property of water (eventhough water is unctuous) resulting in the aggravation of vata. The han carries two meanings, viz. himsa or to kill or destroy and 2. gati to go or attain. According to certain commentators, the latter meaning, that is to go is implied in the term hatva (V+) ocuring in verse 328; then water taken after food should all the more alleviate vata and there should on the contrary, be the cure rathar than aggravation of the disease.

Some other commentators interprete the term ‘sneha’ occouring in verse 328-as the strength of the body-cf. Chikitsa 8: 25. According to them intake of water after food does not allow the assmilation of the nutrition from food as the whole thing remains in throat and chest. This results in the aggravation of the disease. Why briefly dercribed :

अन्नपानेकदेशोऽयमुक्तः प्रायोपयोगिकः । द्रव्याणि न हि निर्दष्टुं शक्यं कात्स्नर्येन नामभिः ॥ ३२९ ॥ यथा नानौषधं किंचिद्देशजानां वचो यथा । द्रव्यं तत्तत्तथा वाच्यमनुक्तमिह यद्भवेत् ॥ ३३० ।।

Only such of the diets and drinks as are mostly used by people, are described here. What to speak of description, it is even impossible to enumerate by names all the drugs as it is said, in the previous chapter, “There is no substance which is not useful as a drug” (-vide Sutra 26 12 ) Properties of such drugs which are not mentioned here may be determined by taking into account the attributes made for them by the people of that locality. [329-330]

Properties of only some selected drugs including diets and drinks which are of very common use are described in this chapter. Others are not mentioned here because they are unlimitted in number and it is impossible on the part of an individual even to mentioned their names in entirety. It is also impssible to describe all the attributes of such durgs even if some of them are known by name. Properties of such drugs as are not mentioned in this chapter can be determined on the principle laid down in the previous chapter-cf. Sutra 26: 11-12. There, all substances are classified in to five categories depending upon the dominence of one or the other of the mahabhutas and specific characteristics, viz. heaviness etc., alongwith the properties of the drugs belonging to each category are described. Information on the specific characteristics of drugs which are not mentioned here can be obtained from the people of the locality where these drugs are found. Some such drugs are known to the local people as of sweet taste, sour taste etc. From these tastes alone the mahabhautic composition of the drug is to be determined. Actions of such manabhutas and also drugs having various tastes are already desribed in the previous chapter. On the basis of these principles, actions of various drugs which are not described here can be determined.

Factors determining the qualities of dietary articles

चरः शरीरावयवाः स्वभावो धातवः क्रिया ।

लिङ्गं प्रमाणं संस्कारो मात्रा चास्मिन् परीक्ष्यते ॥ ३३१ ॥

Animal’s habitat and food, organs (parts) of the body, nature, activity, sex, size as well as mode of preparation and quantity are (also ) to be examined to determine the properties of drugs that are not described in this text. [331]

Effect of desa (place) on food

चरोऽनूपजलाकाशधन्वाद्यो जलजा नूपजाश्चैव भक्ष्यसंविधिः । ये ॥ ३३२ ।। जलानूपचराश्च गुरुभक्ष्याश्च ये सच्चाः सर्वे ते गुरवः स्मृताः । लघुभक्ष्यास्तु लघवो धन्वजा धन्वचारिणः ॥ ३३३ ॥

Cara (habitat and food) consists of habitats like marshy land, water, sky and desert as well as food intake of the animal. Meat of those animals which are born or who move in water

and marshy land, and who take heavy food is heavy (for digestion). Similarly those who take light food and are born or move in desert are light. [332-333 ]

It is not necessary that all animals which are born in water should confine their movement to water only. Similarly those which are not born in water may move in it. Meat of all such animals and birds which are born in water or who move in water and marshy land is heavy. Similarly, birth and movement in desert make the animals on bird light. Birds which move in the sky like syena (hawk) are lighter than prasaha type (animals and birds who eat by snatching) of the same species because akasa mahabhuta constituting (dominating) the sky is lighter. Some commentators are of the view that that the lightness of the birds moving in the sky is not specifically mentioned in the above verse and from this they conclude that there is no fixed rule regarding the lightness or otherwise of such birds. This view is not tenable because had the author intended such a proposition, he would not have referred to the sky in the first quarter of the verse 332.

Parts of animals

शरीरावयवाः सक्थिशिरः स्कन्धादयस्तथा । सक्थिमांसाहुरुः स्कन्धस्ततः क्रोडस्ततः शिरः ॥ ३३४ ॥

वृषणौ चर्म मेढ़ व थोणी वृक्कौ यकृहुरुम् । मांसाहरुतरं विद्याद्यथास्वं मध्यमस्थि च ॥ ३३५ ॥ Different parts of the body are thigh, head, shoulder etc. Flesh of the shoulder is heavier than that of the thigh. Similarly chest is heavier than shoulder and head is heavier than the chest. In comparison to all the above, flesh of testicles, skin, phallus, hips, kidneys, liver and rectum, middle parts of the body, and muscle attachment with bones is heavier. This comparison of lightness and heaviness is in respect of the same animal. [334-335 ]

Some commentators interprete the term ‘madhyamasthl’ occuring in verse 335 as the middle part of the bone, that is bone-marrow (madhyama middle part and asthi = bone ). But it is not correct as the heaviness of marrow is obvious from the description in verse 337 where it is said that tissue elements are progressively heavier.

Nature of certain articles, tissues and activity

स्वभावालघवो मुद्गास्तथा लावकपिञ्जलाः । स्वभावो भाषा वराहमहिषास्तथा ॥ ३३६ ॥ धातूनां शोणितादीनां गुरुं विद्याद्यथोत्तरम् । अलसेभ्यो विशिष्यन्ते प्राणिनो ये बहुक्रियाः ॥ ३३७ ॥ 36

Mudga (Phaseolus mungo Linn.), lava (common quail) and kapinjala (jungle bush quail) are light by nature. Similarly masa (Phaseolus radiatus Linn ), varaha (hog) and buffalo are heavy by nature. Tissue elements, viz., rakta (blood), mamsa (muscle ), medasfat), asthi ( bone), majja (marrow) and Sukra (semen) are progressively heavier. Animals having more activity are lighter than the lazy ones. [ 336-337]

Sex and srature

गौरवं लिङ्गसामान्ये पुंसां स्त्रीणां तु लाघवम् । महाप्रमाणा गुरवः स्वजातौ लघवोऽन्यथा ॥ ३३८ ।।

of the same species of quadruped animals, males are heavy and females are light. Similarly, anong them, those of larger size are heavy and smaller ones light. [338]

The term ‘linga’ in tae above verse denotes species. The above description relates to quadruped animals only. As it is said in Harita, “Females are lighter among quadrupeds and males among birds.” Similar statement is made in this text also (?). At the time of conception, sukra (sperm) plays a dominent role in the procreation of a male child and according to the statement in verse 337, sukra (sperm ) in the heaviest of all the tissue elements. In view of this principle a male should be heavier than a female of the same species. As a matter of fact, there are exceptions to this rule, for example, among birds males are lighter than females. This indicates that lightness or heaviness is determind by the nature rather than by any fixed principle.


गुरुणां लाघवं विद्यात् संस्कारात् सविपर्ययम् । व्रीहेर्लाजा यथा च स्युः सक्तूनां सिद्धपिण्डिकाः ॥ ३३९ ॥

Heaviness of food articles can be converted into lightness and vice versa by the process of preparation, as for example, the vrihi type of corn and saktu (froed corn flour) are heavy and light respectively in their natural state. But when fried, vrihi becomes light. Similarly saktu becomes heavy when boiled on fire so as to form a cake of bolus form. [339]


अल्पादाने गुरुरूणां च लघूनां चातिसेवने । मात्रा कारणमुद्दिष्टं गुरूणामल्पमादेयं लघूनां द्रव्याणां गुरुलाघवे ।। ३४० ॥ तृप्तिरिष्यते । मात्रां द्रव्याण्यपेक्षन्ते मात्रा चाझिमपेक्षते ॥ ३४१ ॥

The quantity of intake is also responsible for the heaviness or lightness of food articles. Even a heavy food article if taken in small quantity is light in effect and so a light one taken in large quantity results in heaviness. Thus, heavy things should be taken in small quantity and light things will one’s satisfaction. Action of food articles (as well as drugs ) is conditioned by the quantity of intake and the proper quantity in which food articles are to be taken is dependant on the power of digestion including metabolism of the individual. [ 340-341 ]

Intake of heavy things in small quantity causes lightness. Here, the quantity rather than the nature of the substance which determines the lightness because the substance being heavy by nature should have otherwise resulted in heaviness. This is mentioned in brief in Sutra 5:8 and there is an elaborate commentary on this topic there. Because of the contextual propritey this has been mentioned again here. Different food articles are required to be taken in different quantities with a view to ensure their proper digestion. There is no fixed quantity in which different food articles are to be taken. It is dependent upon the power digestion which varies from indiuidual to individual. Even in the same individual the power of digestion is variable on different days (time).

Diet and Agni – digestive power

बलमारोग्यमायुश्च प्राणाश्चासौ प्रतिष्ठिताः ।

अन्नपानेन्धनैश्चाग्निर्ज्वलति व्येति चान्यथा ॥ ३४२ ॥

Strength, health, longevity and vital breath are dependent upon the power of digestion including metabolism. When supplied with fuel in the from of food and drinks, this power of digestion is sustained; it dwindles when deprived of it. [ 342]

When food articles are taken in a quantity commensurate with the power of digestion, the latter is properly maintained resulting in the maintenance of health etc. The word ‘prana’ in the above verse stands for vital breath, the other meaning of this is the ten resorts of life like temporal region etc.-cf. sutra 29 : 3

Dietetic consideration compulsory

गुरुलाघवचिन्तेयं प्रायेणाल्पबलान् प्रति ।

मन्दकियाननारोग्यान् सुकुमारान्सुखोचितान् ॥ ३४३ ॥

Heaviness and lightness of food articles is to be considered mostly for the individuals who are weak, indolent, unhealthy, of tender health and who are given to luxury, [343]

Even immature curd suppresses the power of digestion of weak individuals.

Dietic consideration non-essential

दीप्ताग्नयः खराद्दाराः कर्मनित्या महोदराः ।

ये नराः प्रति तांश्चिन्त्यं नावश्यं गुरुलाघवम् ॥ ३४४ ॥

For those who have strong power of digestion, who are accustomed to the intake of heavy (hard) food articles, who are pot-bellied and accustomed to hard labour, heaviness or lightness of food articles does not mattar much. [344]

Those who are pot-bellied, accumulate fat in their body and this results in strong appetite. It is not that for individuals of above description, heaviness of food articles does not matter at all; In fact, it does. Such qualities of food are required to be taken into account because by nature heavy food invariably works against the power of digestion even if the latter is very strong.

Food-intake is a sacrifice (yaga)

हिताभिर्जुहुयान्नित्यमन्तरनिं समाहितः अन्नपानसमिद्भिर्ना मात्राकाली विचारयन् ॥ ३४५ ॥ आहिताग्निः सदा पथ्यान्यन्तरी जुहोति यः । दिवसे दिवसे ब्रह्म जपत्यथ ददाति च ॥ ३४६ ॥ नरं निःश्रेयसे युक्तं सात्म्यक्षं पानभोजने । भजन्ते नामयाः केचिद्भाविनोऽप्यन्तराढते ॥ ३४७ ॥

Paying due consideration to the quantity and time, a selfcontrolled man should regularly take such useful food and drinks as are conducive to the internal power of digestion including metabolism. like an ahitagni (a man who performs yajna), who takes diet conducive to the ower of digestion being aware of the wholesomeness of food and drinks, who resort to meditation of ‘Brahman’ and charity, enjoys bless without any disease during the present as well as future lives. [345-347]

During the present life the man becomes free from diseases due to the intake of wholesome food and in the future life due to the influence of the invisible effect accrued as a result of the righteous acts of the present life. Sinful acts and unwholesome diet-these are the two important factors for the causation of diseases. In the absence of these factors, the individual becomes free from all diseases.

To live for one hundred years

षत्रिंशतं सहस्राणि रात्रीणां हितभोजनः । जीवत्यनातुरो जन्तुर्जितात्मा संमतः सताम् ॥ ३४८ ॥

A self-controlied man, blessed by noble-man lives for hundred years free from diseases by the intake of wholesome food. [ 348]

Utility of the consideration of foods and drinks

प्राणाः प्राणभृतामन्त्रमन्नं लोकोऽभिधावति । वर्णः प्रसादः सौस्वर्य जीवितं प्रतिभा सुखम् ॥ ३४९ ॥ तुष्टिः पुष्टिर्बलं मेधा सर्वमन्ने प्रतिष्ठितम् । लौकिकं कर्म यहत्तौ स्वर्गतौ यच्च वैदिकम् ।। ३५० ।। कर्मापवर्गे यच्चोतं तच्चाप्यन्ने प्रतिष्ठितम् ।

Food sustains the life of living beings. All living beings in the universe require food. Complexion, clarity, good voice, longevity, geniusness, happiness, satisfaction, nourishment, strength and intellect are all conditioned by food. Professional activities leading to happiness in this world, vedic rituals leading to abode in heaven and observance of truth, brahmacarya leading to salvation are all based on food. [ 349-350]

Only the individual having a healthy body can afford to perform all activities leading to happiness, heaven and salvation, and for the preservation of health intake of food is essential. Hence food is the basic factor for the attainment of all of them.

Briefly :

तत्र श्लोकः

अन्नपानगुणाः साध्या वर्गा द्वादश निश्चिताः ॥ ३५१ ॥ सगुणाम्यनुपानानि गुरुलाघव संग्रहः । अन्नपानविधावुक्तं तत् परीक्ष्यं विशेषतः ॥ ३५२ ॥

Summing up the contents :Properties of food and drinks in general, ingredients having fore most qualities, twelve groups, post-prandial drinks alongwith their properties, brief statements on heaviness and lightness of food ingredients all these necessitating special study are mentiomed in this chapter on “The Properties of Diets and Drinks. [351-352]

इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृते श्लोकस्थानेऽन्नपानविधिर्नाम सप्तविंशोऽध्यायः ॥ २७ ॥

Thus ends the twenty seventh chapter on the “Properties of the Diets and Drinks” of the Sutra section of Agnivesa’s work as redacted by Charaka.


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