Ashtanga Sangraha Sharira sthana Chapter 2 – Garbhavakranti – formation of the foetus
अथातो गर्भावक्रान्तिं शारीरं व्याख्यास्यामः । इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥१॥
Garbhotpatti krama – mode of formation of the foetus
गते पुराणे रजसि नवेऽवस्थिते शुद्धे गर्भस्याशये मार्गे च बीजात्मना शुक्रमविकृतम विकृतेन वायुना प्रेरितमन्यैश्च महाभूतैरनुगतमार्तवेनाभिमूर्च्छितमन्वक्षमेव रागादिक्लेशवशानुवर्तिना स्वकर्मचोदितेन मनोजवेन जीवेनाभिसंसृष्टं गर्भाशयमुपयाति ॥२॥
After the expulsion of the old accumulated blood (menstrual fluid) by vata, the uterus and the passages (vaginal tract) having been purified thereby, the unvitiated sukra (semen) having the bija (seed) comes into the uterus; in the new one (next period of conception) the artava (menstrual blood/ovum) accompanied by the mahabhutas (primary elements) and helped by the action of vata which is in its normal condition It (sukra) then unites with the artava, along with the mahabhutas and the Jiva (soul) all at the same time. The Jiva (soul) carrying with it the miseries such as raga (desires) etc, which are the results of its own action, moving in speed as that of the mind, enters into the union (formed by sukra, artava and mahabhutas) inside the uterus. (2)
Notes: Vata, especially the apanavata is responsible for normal elimination of the menstrual blood. The pumbija (male seed) is the spermatozoa which are present in the sukra (semen), and the streebija (female seed) is the ovum produced by the ovaries. Only one out of the innumerable spermatazoa, present in the semen, unites with the ovum. In such a union, the panchamahabhutas (five primary elements) are already present and Jiva or atma (soul) also gets into it. Jiva or atma will be carrying with in him, the five klesa (miseries) also known as vasana viz., raga (desire) dvesa (hatred) avidya (ignorance) asmita (egoism) and abhinivesa (affection, adhereance, intent) which are the results of his own actions. Atma or jiva has to get rid of these klesas (miseries) by doing good actions and acquiring true knowledge, which is not possible in one lifetime. So he goes into the cycle of many births and deaths. His movement from one life to the next is achieved at very great speed or in other words, instantaneously. This is one of the fundamental postulates of Indian philosophy, especially of the Vedanta. The pancha mahabhuas are present both in the pumbija (spermatozoon) and the streebija (ovum) in very minute form and gradually increase in quantity absorbing nourishment from the maternal blood. This is the cause of the growth of the foetus. Along with the presence of mahabhutas, the presence of the tridoshas are also to be inferred without any doubt.
कार्याणां च कारणानुविधायित्वात्तत्समागतां प्रतिपद्यते । तत एव च शुक्रस्य बाहुल्यात् पुमानार्तवस्य बाहुल्यात् स्त्री तयोः साम्येन नपुंसकम् । शुक्रार्तवेऽनिलेन खण्डशो भिन्ने यथाविभागमपत्यानामुत्पत्तिः । विकृते वियोन्याकृतीनां च ॥३॥
In accordance with the rule that “effects are similar to the cause‘, the foetus will be similar to its causative factors (which combine inside the uterus).
So, with the predominance of sukra, a male foetus will be produced, and with the predominance of artava, a female foetus and when both these are equal, a eunuch.
The mass, formed by the union of sukra and artava (also mahabhutas and jiva) gets divided by vata (into one or more parts) leading to the production of (one or more) foetus. If abnormal (sukra, artava and function of vata) there will be the production of the foetus of unusual features. (3)
Notes: Spermatozoon and ovum are the carriers of typical characteristic features of the father and mother respectively. Each of them contain the tridoshas. During their union, these doshas undergo change in their proportion leading to the predominance of any one or more of them. The dosha or doshas which is predominant at that time will generate its own specific qualities and features in the developing foetus. this is known as formation of dehaprakirti (development of the constitution of the human being). The panchabhutas and the atma (with his vasanas) also exert their own influence on the foetus. Hence the statement here that the effect (karya) – the foetus – is similar to the karana (cause) – the sukra, artava etc.
The view that predominance of sukra and artava makes for production of male and female child respectively is rather difficult to explain. As known today sex determination depends upon the type of combination of sex chromosomes present in the spermatozoon and ovum. The spermatozoon and ovum contain structures called chromosomes., 23 pairs in total, divided into two kinds, viz, 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. The sex chromosomes are again of two kinds, ‘’X’ and ‘Y’. The spermatozoon contains either one X chromosome or one Y chromosome whereas the ovum contains ‘X’ chromosomes only.
When a spermatozoon containing ‘X’ chromosome unites with the ovum the embryo that develops will be a female (combination of XX) but when a spermatozoon containing ‘Y’ chromosome unites with the ovum (the combination XY) the resulting embryo will be a male.
Sadyo grihita garbha lakshana – features of woman just conceived
अथ नार्याः सद्योगृहीतगर्भायाश्च लिङ्गं योन्या बीजग्रहणं तृप्तिर्गरिमा स्फुरणं शुक्रार्तवयोरनुबन्धश्च । तथा प्रहर्षो हल्लासस्तन्द्राङ्गसादः प्रसेको हृदयव्यथा ग्लानिः पिपासा च ।
The following are the features of the woman who has just conceived: feeling of receiving the seed in the vaginal tract, a feeling of contentment, heaviness and throbbing, and mutual union of sukra ( male seed) and artava (female seed). Also, cheerfulness (happiness), oppression in the chest (nausea), stupor, mild debility, salivation, discomfort in the region of heart, tiredness and thirst.
Vyaktagarbha Lakshana – signs of pregnancy
क्रमेण तु व्यक्तगर्भायाः कुक्षिमात्रगौरवं क्षामनेत्रस्वरता योनिरोमसंलुलनं निद्रा जृम्भगं मूर्च्छा छर्दिररुचिः पादशोफोऽम्लेऽभिलाषस्तेषु तेषु चोच्चावचेषु भावेष्विति ॥४॥
Gradually, with pregnancy becoming patent, there will be the heaviness of the abdomen, diminution of the eye (indrawing) and voice, movements of the vagina and public hairs (hairs standing on their ends ), sleeping, yawning, fainting, vomiting, loss of appetite, swelling of the feet, desire for things which are sour and also for good or bad foods and activities. (4)
तस्याश्च रजोवाहिनां स्त्रोतसां वर्त्मान्युपरुध्यन्ते गर्भेण । तस्मात्ततः परमार्तवं न दृश्यते । ततस्तदध: प्रतिहतमपरमपरं चोपचीयमानमपरेत्याहुः । जरायुरित्यन्ये । स्थिते रक्ते रोमराजि: प्रादुर्भवति ॥५॥
Then afterwards, the channels of menstrual blood get blocked by the foetus, so there will be no flow of menstrual blood. Thus getting blocked in the downward path, it goes into the formation of the apara (placenta); some others say it forms jarayu (chorion). With the cessation of menstrual flow (commencement of pregnancy to be more appropriate), there will be the appearance of lines of hairs (on the abdomen). (5)
जरायुशेषं चोर्ध्वमसृक् प्रतिपद्यते । तस्मात् पीनकपोलपयोधरता कृष्णौष्ठचूचुकत्वं च । स्तनाश्रयमेव च कफोपरञ्जितं स्तन्यतामुपगतं प्रसूतायाः पुनराहाररसेनाप्यायते ॥६॥
The blood remaining after the formation of the jarayu (chorion) moves still up and makes for an increase in size of the cheeks and breasts and black colouration of the lips and nipples. Getting localised in the breasts and associating with kapha, it helps in the production of breast milk which gets nourished by the food the woman takes after delivery.
Notes: Apara or placenta in modern parlance, is the soft, thick, round pad that develops inside the uterus and serves as the medium for blood circulation between the mother and the foetus.
Jarayu or chorion is the thick membrane which acts as the protective covering for the foetus. It also gets formed simultaneously with the placenta. The description that the artava rakta (menstrual blood) moving up, getting transformed into apara and jarayu, increasing the size of the cheeks and breasts and conferring black colour to the lips and nipples is to be taken as allegorical and not actual. It has now been established that all these activities are due to different hormones and that the menstrual blood is not concerned with these changes.
Garbha vruddhi krama – foetal development
तत्र प्रथमे मासे कललं जायते । द्वितीये घनः पेश्यर्बुदं वा तेभ्यः क्रमात् पुंस्त्रीनपुंसकानि । तृतीये पञ्चधा प्ररोहति । तद्यथा सक्थिनी बाहू शिरश्च । सक्थ्यादिप्ररोहककालमेव च सर्वमङ्गावयवेन्द्रियाणि युगपत्सम्भवन्त्यन्यत्र जन्मोत्तरकालजेभ्यो दन्तादिभ्यः । क्रमेण तु स्फुटीभवन्ति । एषा प्रकृतिः । विकृतिरतोऽन्यथा ॥७॥
In the first month ( of pregnancy) there will be formation of kalala (jelly mass). During the second (month) it will be ghana (solid) pesi or arbuda (tumor like) for the future child to be male, female or eunuch respectively. In the third (month) there will be five branching in the foetus, such as the two for the legs, two for the arms and one for the head. Simultaneously with the formation of the five branching all the other parts of the body and sense organs also get formed, except, those that develop after birth such as teeth etc. Gradually all the parts become well defined. This is the normal manner (of development of the foetus); any thing different from this is abnormal. (7)
यथास्वं च गर्भस्य पुंस्त्रीनपुंसकान्यतमलिङ्गानुरूपा भावा मनसि शरीरे च सन्तिष्ठन्ते । वैशैषिकलिङ्गसङ्करे तु यतो भूयस्त्वं ततोऽन्तरा भावाः ॥८॥
The factors which bring about the characteristic features of both the mind and body of the male (inasculine), female (feminine) and enuch (neuter) are present in the developing foetus itself. Whichever specific features become predominant during the course of development, the future child will be of that sex. (8)
तद्यथा । क्लैब्यं भीरुत्वमवैशारद्यं मोहोऽनवस्थानमधोगुरुत्वमसंहननं शैथिल्यं मार्दवं गर्भाशयबीजभागस्तथायुक्ताश्चापरे स्त्रीकरा भावाः । ततो विपरीताः पुंस्कराः सङ्कीर्णा नपुंसककराः ॥९॥
Lack of valour, fearfulness, innocense, improper understanding, unsteadiness, heaviness (thickness) of the lower body, poor physique, flabbiness (looseness), softness, presence of parts of the seed responsible for producing the uterus and other female sex organs – these are features (qualities, factors) which go into the formation of the female (child). The opposites of the above are factors which produce a male (child); mixture of both (in equal proportion) will produce a eunuch. (9)
तदा चास्य वेदना प्रव्यक्ता भवति । ततश्च तत्प्रभृति स्पन्दतेऽभिलाषं पञ्चेन्द्रियार्थेषु करोति ॥१०॥
Then after (during the third month), the feelings of the foetus become clearer, then onwards it makes movements and expresses desires in the objects of the five senses. (10)
मातृजं ह्यस्य हृदयं तद्रसहारिणीभिर्धमनीभिर्मातृहृदयेनाभिसम्बद्धं भवति । तस्मात्तयोस्ताभिः श्रद्धा सम्पद्यते । तथा च द्विहृदयां नारीं दौहृदिनीत्याचक्षते । अन्ये तु पक्षत्रयात् । प्रभृत्यापञ्चमान्मासाद्दौहृदकालमाहुः ॥११॥ –
Then its (foetus) heart which is maternal in origin, develops becomes connected with the heart of the mother through the dhamanis ( arteries), carrying rasa (bloodplasma); hence there develops a faith ( trust, affection, attachment between them (mother and foetus). From now on, the mother is called “dauhrdini” – one who has two hearts.
Other authorities say that the period of dauhrdini commences after the first three forthnights and continues till the fifth month. (11)
Notes : The term ‘dauhrda’ also means the various desires-good or bad-the woman develops during early pregnancy (also known as longings or cravings) and the term ‘dauhrdini’ is to designate such a woman; and also to call “woman with two hearts.
प्रार्थनायां च तीव्रायां काममहितमप्यस्यै हितोपसंहितं दद्यात् । दौहृदविमाननाद्धि वायुः प्रकुपितोऽन्तशरीरमनुचरन् गर्भस्य विनाशं वैरूप्यं वा कुर्यात् । लब्धदौहृदा तु वीर्यवन्तं चिरायुषं च पुत्रं प्रसूते ॥ १२ ॥
Desires which are very strong should be fulfilled, even though they are bad (unhealthy) such unhealthy ones should be combined with good ones and the lady kept satisfied. By not complying such desires vata gets increased, moves inside the body (abnormally), causing either destruction or deformity of the foetus. The woman who gets all her desires fulfilled will beget a son endowed with valour and long life. (12)
चतुर्थेऽङ्गप्रत्यङ्गविभागः प्रव्यक्तो गर्भश्च स्थिरो भवति । पञ्चमे मनः प्रतिबुद्धतरं भवति मांसशोणितोपचयश्च । षष्ठे केशरोमनखास्थिस्त्राय्वादीन्यभिव्यक्तानि बलवर्णोपचयश्च । सप्तमे सर्वाङ्गसम्पूर्णता ॥१३॥
During the fourth month, all the major and minor parts of the body become more clear and the foetus becomes stable. During the fifth month, the mind becomes well active, the muscles and blood get increased. In the sixth (month), hairs on the head and on the body, nails, bones, tendons, etc. become patent and there will be an increase in strength and colour. In the seventh month, the development of all the parts will be complete. (13)
अष्टमे गर्भश्च मातृतो गर्भतश्च माता रसहारिणीभिर्वाहिनीभिर्मुहुर्मुहुरोजः परस्परमाददाते । तस्मात्तदा गर्भिणी मुहुर्मुदिता भवति मुहुर्लाना तथा गर्भः । एवं गर्भस्य जन्म व्यापत्तिमत्तदा भवति । ओजसोऽनवस्थितत्वात् । तथा ह्यस्य निष्क्रमणोन्मुखस्य परिवर्तनादीन्यनुभवत एवौजसा वियोगः । यद्यपि च किञ्चित्कालमस्योच्छ्वसनं स्यात्तच्छिन्नस्येवाङ्गस्यौजस्संस्कारानुवृत्तिकृतम् । जनन्यास्तु स्थिरौजस्कतयैकदेशेन रसे सङ्क्रान्ते ग्लानिरेवेति ॥१४॥
During the eighth month, ojas begin to move frequently from the foetus to the mother and from the mother to the foetus, through the channels which transport rasa; so during this month the mother will sometimes become cheerful and some other times exhausted. So also the foetus. Because of the instability of ojas, delivery of the foetus may become abnormal. During the course of its movement outwards, it may assume difficult postures (positions) due to the absence of ojas or it may come out, breathe only for a short time due to the activity of the ojas and then die just like the movements seen in a severed limb. The pregnant woman will only undergo exhaustion because the ojas is unstable and moves between her body and the foetus along with the rasa. (14)
Notes – The monthwise development of the foetus described so far is not only very brief but even inaccurate some points. With the idea providing correct information on this subject, the following facts collected from modern treatises on human embryology are furnished:
Foetal Development – End of first month of pregnancy – Embryo is about 1 cm long and weighs about 1 gm, the rudiments of the eyes, ears and nose are visible, and buds corresponding to the limbs are distinct. The umbilical cord is short and thick.
End of second month – Embryo is 2.5. to 3 cm long and weighs about 4 gms, fingers and toes begin to appear, and a Head portion is disproportionately large due to the development of the brain. External genitals are seen but sex is not differentiated in them; face and external ear begin to develop.
End of third month – Foetus is about 8 cm long and weighs about 30-45 gms, Fingers and toes can be seen distinctly and are having nails. Centres of ossification have appeared in most of the bones. There is a beginning of sex differentiation. The foetus can be moved inside by a gentle tap on the sides of the abdomen of the mother (allotment), the face is well formed, and lip movements typical of sucking appear.
End of the fourth month – Foetus is about 16 cm long and weighs about 100 gms, sex is now distinctly differentiated. Lanugo (soft hair) has appeared on the skin, the umbilical cord is thin, long and exhibits twisting. Placenta is well-formed.
End of fifth month – Foetus is about 25 cm long and weighs about 300 gms, skin is covered with vernix caseosa (fatty material on the skin) a few hairs appear on the head.
The child, if born alive, may live for 5 to 10 minutes only, with strong heartbeats. Foetus makes movements causing a slight flutter in the lower abdomen (quickening) of the mother.
End of the sixth month – Foetus is about 30 cm long and weighs about 680 gms, the nails are distinct, eyebrows and eyelashes are formed; the child, if born alive, may live for some hours. It can’t be reared by artificial means since its respiratory, digestive and assimilatory organs are underdeveloped. Foetal movements are apparent and even visible in some women.
End of the seventh month – Foetus is about 35 cm long and weighs about 1100 gms, the eyes are open; the child if born alive has a feeble cry, and makes vigorous movements but seldom survives as the lungs are not developed adequately for respiration. The heart sounds can be distinctly heard and the heart rate varies between 120 to 140 pm.
End of the eighth month – Foetus is about 40 cm long and weighs about 1570 gms bones of the head are soft and flexible.
End of the ninth month Foetus is about 45 cm and weighs about 2.5 kg. Respiratory, digestive and circulatory organs are well developed, and skin is smoothened by deposition of fatty substances. The cartilage of the nose is distinct, ears are soft. The child can survive without any difficulty.
End of the tenth month – Foetus is about 50 cm long and weighs 3.5 kg, hairs on the head more, nails project over the finger tips. There is urine in the bladder and meconium (excreta in the lower bowel). Skin is pink, body plump and covered with fat.
अन्ये पुनराहुः । नैर्ऋतभागत्वात्तत्र गर्भस्य मरणम् । तस्मात् प्रसवप्रतिषेधार्थं स्त्रीं स्त्राता शुचिर्ब्रह्मचारिणी देवताराधनपरा स्यात् । मांसौदनबलिं चात्र निर्वपेत् । तस्मिन्नेकदिवसातिक्रान्तेऽपि प्रसवकालमाहुरासंवत्सरात् । अतः परं विकारी भवति ॥१५॥
Some others say that the death of the foetus (born during eight month is due to influence of Nirrtti (evil spirit). Hence in order to prevent delivery, the pregnant lady should take bath every day, maintain cleanliness, abstain from sexual activities and engage herself in the worship of gods, offer oblations of meat and rice.
Even one day after the completion of the eighth month, is the normal delivery time, till the end of one year. Afterwards, it will be again abnormal. (15)
गर्भस्तु मातुः पृष्ठाभिमुखो ललाटे कृताञ्जलिः सङ्कुचिताङ्गो गर्भकोष्ठे दक्षिणपार्श्वमाश्रि – त्यावतिष्ठते पुमान् । वामं स्त्री मध्यं नपुंसकम् । तत्र स्थितश्च गर्भो मातरि स्वपन्त्यां स्वपति प्रबुद्धायां प्रबुध्यते । परतन्त्रवृत्तेश्च गर्भस्य । निषेकात् प्रभृति गर्भाशयोपस्नेहोपस्वेदौ वर्तनम् ॥१६॥ –
The foetus lies inside the uterus facing the mother’s back, keeping both its hands on the forehead, with its body contracted, and localised on the right side of the uterus if it is a male; if it is female it lies to the left side and if a eunuch, just in the centre of the uterus.
Stationed there (inside the uterus) it sleeps when the mother sleeps and is awake when she is awake, the activities of the foetus is not independent, from the time of conception it is dependent for its moistness and dryness (upon the food of the mother). (16)
ततो व्यक्तीभवदङ्गप्रत्यङ्गस्यास्य नाभ्यां प्रतिबद्धा नाडी नाड्यामपरा तस्यां मातृहृदयम् । ततो मातृहृदयादाहाररसो धमनीभिः स्यन्दमानोऽपरामुपैति । ततः क्रमान्नाभिम् । ततश्च स पुनर्गर्भस्य पक्वाशये स्वकायाग्निना पच्यमानः प्रसादबाहुल्याद्धात्वादिपुष्टिकरः सम्पद्यते । तथारोम-कूपैरुपस्नेहो रस एव च पयोभूतः ॥१७॥
Next, when all the organs and parts of the foetus become well developed, a tube connects the umbilicus (of the foetus) with the apara (placenta) which is in turn gets connected with the mothers heart. The nutrient portion of the food travels from the mothers heart carried through the dhamanis ( arteries) and reaches the apara (placenta) and from there to the nabhi (umbilicus of the foetus). Then it ( nutrient portion of food) goes to the pakvasaya (large intestines) where it undergoes further digestion by the kayagni (digestive activity). Comprised mainly of nutritive materials it (rasa) nourishes all the tissues. It (rasa) also oozes out through the hair follicles to form the water (fluid inside the uterus). (17)
अजातस्य साक्षादन्नपानाननुप्रवेशादमलत्वाच्च रसस्य गर्भस्य स्थूलमलासम्भवः । एवं जठरस्थो गर्भो जन्मकाले तु प्रसूतिमारुतयोगात् परिवृत्यावाशिरा निष्क्रामत्यनु चापरा च्युता मातृहृदयात् । एषा प्रकृतिः । विकृतिरतोऽन्यथा ॥१८॥
Because of non-entry of food and drinks directly into the unborn (child) and also become the rasa does not contain any waste materials the foetus does not produce solid waste products (faeces etc perceptible quantity).
The foetus thus resides inside the abdomen (of the mother); with the onset of the time of birth, it turns upside down by the action of the vata responsible for birth, comes out (of the uterus) with its head first, followed by the placenta, which gets disconnected from the mothers heart. This is normal (mode of child birth). Any mode other than this is abnormal. (18)
Garbha lingabhijnana – knowledge of sex of the foetus
तत्र या दक्षिणं पादं पूर्वमभिसरति दक्षिणश्च बाहुर्बलवांस्तेन चेष्टते तत्स्तने च प्राक् पयो दृश्यते अभ्युन्नतदक्षिणकुक्षिः परिमण्डलगर्भा पुन्नामदर्शनस्पर्शनप्रश्नदौहृदाभिरता पुन्नामधेयांश्च स्वप्नान् पश्यति प्रसन्नमुखवर्णा तीक्ष्णक्षुदूर्ध्वरोमराजिः पुरुषानभिलाषिणी च सा पुत्रं प्रसूते तद्विपर्यये कन्यां सङ्करे च नपुंसकम् । प्रश्नकाले नारी यल्लिङ्गमङ्गं बाह्यद्रव्यं वा परामृशति तल्लिङ्गमस्या गर्भमादिशेत् ॥१९॥
The woman who walks keeping her right leg first, whose right arm is stronger, and so used prominently for work; in whose right breast watery fluid appears first, whose lower abdomen is bulging out more on the right side and is round evenly all over; who has longings for seeing, touching and enquiring about things which are masculine in nature; sees only masculine things in her dreams, who is very cheerful, has fine colour and complexion, who has very great hunger (appetite), prominent lines of hairs (on the abdomen) and who does not desire her husband (either for sex or for company) gives birth to a male child; the woman exhibiting features opposite of the above gives birth to a female child; and she, who has a mixture of both these features to a eunuch.
At the time of enquiring (the physician or the person for the sex of the child) whichever the gender of the part of the body or any external object which the pregnant woman examines intently, it should be presumed, that she would give birth to a child of the same gender. (19)
Vikrita garbhotpatti – abnormalities
यदा तून्मार्गगो वातो गर्भस्य रसवाहीनि स्त्रोतांसि शोषयति तदा वातरोगी हीनाङ्गो वा जायते । बहूनि वा वर्षाणयुदरे तिष्ठति ||२०||
यदा स्त्रीपुंसयोः सममेवार्थो निष्पद्यते बीजं वा तयोः समांशं संमुखं च यदा च बीजं भागे दुष्यति तदा द्विप्रकृतिर्द्विरेता नपुंसकं भवति ॥२१॥
When vata, develops upward movement (which is abnormal) and dries up the channels of rasa in the foetus, the future child will be either a patient of vata roga (nervous diseases) or one born with deficient/poorly developed parts; or it (the foetus) may even remain inside the abdomen for many years. (20)
When both the woman and man attain sexual satisfaction (orgasm) and discharge the seeds simultaneously, then both the (seeds) will be of equal strength and normal (in their respective qualities). If the seeds are partially vitiated, the future offspring will be Dviprakriti dviretanapumsaka (eunuch with double sexual characteristics). (21)
Notes: The first part of the statement posits that sukra (male seed) and artava (female seed) will be normal and capable of producing either a normal male of female child when they are discharged concurrently from both the partners and that is normal. But their discharge at different times will lead to birth of an abnormal child. The second part explains the birth of a child which is neither typically male nor typically female but possesses the features of both sexes, physically (constitution) as well as sexually. Such a child, if a male possesses feminine features also (such as softness and configuration of the body) softness of voice, absence of moustaches and beard, the typical mode of walking and other activities etc, incapacity to act as male during coitus (due to undeveloped penis, non-erection, presence of rudimentary vagina etc ). If it is a female it possesses masculine features such as hard build and body configuration, the harshness of voice, the appearance of moustaches and beard, mode of walking and other activities and incapacity to act as a female during coitus (due to the absence of improperly developed vagina or presence of rudimentary penis etc). Such children are to be known as dvireta napumsaka (hermophrodites).
यदा स्त्री प्रथमं कृतार्था भवति ततः पुरुषेण पश्चाच्छुक्रमुत्सृष्टं हर्षानवस्थितचेतसः स्त्रिया वातो विगुणीकरोति पुंस्त्ववाहीनि स्त्रोतांसि चोपहन्ति तदा वातेन्द्रियं भवति । तन्मैथुने वातमेवोत्सृजति ॥२२॥
When the woman reaches the orgasm first and the man later, then the sukra (male seed) is deposited into (the uterus of ) that woman who is now not attentive (to its reception), due to ecstasy of happiness (pleasure of coitus); then vata (which has undergone increase) brings about abnormalities in it as well as in its channels, leading to the birth of a Vatendriya person, he will discharge only air (through the penis) during coitus. ( 22 )
यदा तु कार्येन नोपहन्ति अनुपघ्नन्नेव वा स्त्रोतोमुखं पिधत्ते तदा संस्कारवाह्यं भवति । तत्र संस्कारो वाजीकरा बस्तयोऽभ्यवहारश्चेतोहर्षणानि च । तानि हि शुक्रे बलमादधानानि स्त्रोतांस्यस्याप्यायन्तीति ॥२३॥
When the sukra is not vitiated greatly by vata but its channels are obstructed though, then there will be the birth of a Samskara vahya person (one who is to be strengthened with aphrodisiacs). Samskara here means the aphrodisiac enemas, foods (and drinks) and activities which bring about cheerfulness of the mind, these will not only strengthen the sukra but also nourish its channels. ( 23 )
यदाल्पबीजोऽल्पबलः पुमानुद्वेगः स्त्रीद्वेषयुक्तोऽन्यकामो वा नार्या व्यवायप्रतिघातं करोति तद्विधा वा नारी पुंसः तदाऽऽसेक्यं नाम भवति । तच्शुक्रास्वादाद्ध्वजोच्छ्रायं लभते ॥ २४॥
When a man who has little (quantity) of seeds and is of poor strength, who has an aversion to women or who is desirous of some thing else, discontinues the sexual intercourse in the middle; similarly a woman doing likewise with the man then, there will be birth of an Asekya person. He will attain erection only by licking the semen. (24)
यदा पुनरुभावपि भवतः स्त्रीपुंसौ तद्विधौ तदा वक्रध्वजो भवति । तस्य नैव ध्वजः स्तभ्यते ॥२५॥
When both of them (man and woman) are of the same nature (poor in seeds and strength) and do likewise (discontinue coitus in the middle) then there will be the birth of a Vakradhvaja person. His penis will never become stiff. (25)
यदा पूतियोन्याः स्त्रिया गर्भो भवति तदा सौगन्धिकाख्यः स योनिध्वजगन्धेन बलं लभते ॥२६॥
When a woman of putiyoni (a disease of the vagina) conceives, she will give birth to a person called Saugandhika. He will obtain strength (for coitus) by the smell of either the vagina or the penis. (26)
यदा त्वीर्ष्याभिभूतौ मन्दहर्षो संसृज्येते तदेर्ष्यारतिसंज्ञम् । तस्य परं मिथुनीभूतं दृष्ट्वा मैथुनप्रवृत्तिर्भवति ॥२७॥
Partners who are jeolous (of each other) and deficient in pleasure (of love) produce a person called Irsyarati. He achives the capability of coitus only after seeing the coitus of others. (27)
यदा पुरुषस्य गर्भस्य वाय्वग्निदोषाद् वृषणनाशस्तदा वातषण्डकाख्यं भवति । एताः कर्मवैचित्र्यादष्टौ षण्डयोनयोऽसङ्कीर्णाः कथिताः ॥ २८ ॥
If the testes of the male foetus get destroyed by the abnormal Vata and agni (pitta then there will be birth of a person called Vatasandaka. Each one of the above eight kinds of impotent persons (eunuchs) are said to be the result of actions of past lives. (28)
Vikrita Garbhotpatti – developmental abnormalities of the foetus
यदा तु स्त्रियाः शोणितगर्भाशयौ दोषाः किञ्चित् प्रदूषयन्ति तदा यो गर्भो भवति तस्य गर्भस्य यस्य यस्य मातृजस्यावयवस्य बीजे बीजांशे वा दोषः प्रकोपमापद्यते तं तमवयवं विकृतिराविशति ॥२९॥
When the doshas vitiate the sonita (menstrual blood/female seed) and the garbhasaya (uterus) of the woman slightly, the foetus that gets formed will be having disorders in those organs which are maternal in origin. This is due to the (effect of the abnormal) doshas causing vitiation of the seed or parts of it, which produce such organs. (29)
यदा ह्यस्याः शोणिताख्ये बीजे गर्भाशयस्थे निर्वर्तकं बीजं प्रदुष्यति तदा वन्ध्यां जनयति । यदा तस्यावयवस्तदा पूतिप्रजाम् । तस्या जातं जातं म्रियते ॥३०॥
When the parts of the seed known as sonita (menstrual blood/ovum) which is responsible for producing the uterus become vitiated, then there will be the birth of females who will be sterile when the other parts (of the seed) gets affected, there will be birth of weak offspring; all such offspring die. (30)
यदा पुनः सोऽवयवः स्त्रीकराणां च शरीरसंश्रयाणामधोगुरुत्वादीनां निर्वर्तका ये बीजांशास्तेषामेकदेशः तदा स्त्र्याकृतिप्रायामस्त्रियं वार्तां नाम जनयति । तां स्त्रीव्यापद – माचक्षते ॥३१॥
When the parts (of the seed) which are responsible for producing the feminine characteristics, such as heaviness ( stout build) of the lower body etc., get vitiated independently, then the woman will give birth to a female known as Varta, who has feminine features predominant but still, not a woman. She is called an abnormal woman. (31)
एवमेव पुंसो यदा शुक्राख्ये बीजे बीजं प्रदुष्यतीत्यादि योजयेद्वन्ध्यं पूतिप्रजं तथा पुरुषाकृतिप्रायमपुरुषं तृणमुखिनं नाम जनयतीत्येतेन मातृजागां पितृजनां चावयवानां विकृतिर्व्याख्याता ||३२॥
Similarly in case of man, the abnormalities of the parts of the seed which are responsible for the production of masculine features and paternal organs will lead to the birth of weak offspring or to a male known as Trnamukha who has masculine features predominantly but is still not a man. Thus the abnormalities of the maternal and paternal organs have been described. (32)
अनेन सात्म्यजानां रसजानां सत्त्वजानां चावयवानां विकृतिर्व्याख्याता भवति । यस्य यस्याङ्गावयवस्य बीजे बीजांशे वा उपतप्तिर्भवति तस्य तस्याङ्गावयवस्य विकृतिरुपजायते । नोपजायते ऽनुपतापात् ॥ ३३ ॥
By the above description, even the abnormalities of the organs (or features) arising from satmya (accustomed foods and activities) rasa (plasma) and satva (mind ) are also explained. The abnormalities of such of the parts of the seed, which are responsible for genesis of those respective organs will also bring about abnormalities in them. If they ( parts of the seeds) are not abnormal, there will not be any abnormalities (of the organs). (33)
Notes: The description so far given, establishes beyond doubt, that ancient authorities of Ayurveda, had clear ideas of the minute parts of the spermatozoon and the ovum, now known as ‘genes’ which are responsible for the genesis of different parts and features of the body and also the abnormalities produced by such parts.
यदा च लब्धगर्भाऽन्वक्षमेव वातलान्यासेवते तदास्या वायुः प्रकुपितः शरीरमनुसर्पन् गर्भाशयेऽवतिष्ठमानो गर्भस्य जडबधिरमूकमिन्मिणगद्गदखञ्जकुब्जवामनहीनाङ्गाधिकाङ्गत्वान्यन्यं वा वातविकारं करोति । तथा वायुवत् पित्तमपि खलतिपलितश्मश्रुहीनतात्वड्नखकेशपैङ्गल्यादीनि । श्लेष्मा तु कुष्ठकिलाससदन्तत्त्वादीनि । त्रिवर्गो मिश्रान्विकारान् ॥ ३४॥
If the pregnant woman indulges constantly in foods and activities which cause an increase of Vata, then vata getting increased abnormally travels all over her body and also in the uterus, and produces many diseases of vata origin in the child; the child may become inactive, deaf, mute, of nasal speech, stammering, lame, hunch-back, dwarf, of deficient organs (in number) or of extra organs or any other vata diseases.
Just like vata, even pitta (undergoing increase) will produce baldness, grey hairs, absence of mustache and beard, and brown colour of the skin, nails and hairs etc., Similarly (an increase of) Kapha will produce leprosy and other skin diseases, leucoderma, teeth even at birth etc. An increase of all the three doshas together will produce diseases of mixed origin. (34)
अपि च । दृष्टिभागमप्रतिपन्नं तेजो जात्यन्धत्वम् । तदेव वातानुगतं विकृतरूक्षारुणाक्षम् । पित्तानुगतं पिङ्गाक्षम् । श्लेष्मानुगतं शुक्लाक्षम् । रक्तानुगतं रक्ताक्षमिति ॥३५॥
Further, tejas (fire-like factor responsible for vision) not reaching the site of vision in the foetus) will produce a person blind by birth. The same (tejas) associating with vata will lead to abnormal, dry and crimson-coloured eyes; associated with pitta it (tejas) produce brown-coloured eyes; associated with kapha, white-coloured eyes, and with rakta blood) red coloured eyes. (35)
Garbhini rakshana – care of the pregnant woman
गर्भसमानयोगक्षेमा हि गर्भिणी भवति । तस्माद्विशेषतस्तां प्रियहिताभ्यां गर्भोपधातकरेभ्यो रक्षेत् यथा यथा च गर्भो वृद्धिमाप्नोति तथा तथा भाराहारानादानादाहाररसापहाराच्च स्त्रिया बलक्षयः । तत्रेमे गर्भोपघातकराः । तद्यथा व्यवायव्यायामकर्शनाभिघातातिमात्रसङ्क्षोभियानयानरात्रिजागरणदिवास्वप्नवेगविधारणाजिर्णातपाग्निक्रोधशोकभयोत्नासोपवासोन्कटकविषमकठिनासनश्वभ्रकूपप्रपाताप्रियावलोकनश्रवणादाय: | समासतः सर्वमतिगुरूष्णतीक्ष्णरूक्षमन्त्रपानं दारुणाश्च चेष्टाः ॥३६॥
The care of the pregnant woman is similar to that of the foetus. So the pregnant woman should be looked after carefully with all pleasant and suitable things, protecting her from all factors which cause abnormalities (disorders) of the foetus. As the foetus goes on developing, there will be reduction in strength of the pregnant woman due to weight (of the foetus ), non-intake of food, and diversion of the essence of food.
Garbhopaghatakara bhava – factors causing disorders of pregnancy
The following are the factors which bring about disorders of the pregnancy; sexual intercourse, exertion by exercise, assault (trauma) journey in vehicles which is very strenuous, keeping awake at night, sleeping during the day, suppression of the urges of the body, indigestion or ingestion of uncooked foods, exposure to sunlight and fire, anger grief, fear ( getting frightened suddenly), fasting, abnormal postures, such as sitting on one’s heels and on uneven, hard seats (for long periods), gazing the sky and peeping into deep wells, ravines (valleys) seeing and hearing of unpleasant things and sound etc., In brief, all kinds of foods and drinks which are very hard (to digest), hot (heat producing), penetrating ( into the tissues) and dry ( moistless) and activities are very strenuous. (36)
Garbhini charya – regimen for the pregnant woman
तथा देवतारक्षोऽनुपचयपरिरक्षणार्थं न रक्तानि वासासि धारयेन्न यानमधिरोहेन्न मद्यमांसमश्रीयात् । यच्चान्यदपि वृद्धस्त्रियो ब्रूयुः । प्रततोत्तानशायिन्याः पुनर्गर्भस्य नाभ्याश्रया नाडी कण्ठमनुवेष्ट्य व्यापत्तिं करोति । विवृतशया नक्तचारिणी चोन्मत्तं जनयति । कलहशीलापस्मारिणम् । व्यवायशीला दुर्त्रपुषमहीकं स्त्रैणं वा । शोकनित्या भीरुमपचितमल्पायुषं वा । अभिध्यायिनी परोपतापिनमीर्ष्यालुं स्त्रैवं वा । स्तेना त्वायासबहुलमभिद्रोहिणमकर्मशीलंवा अमर्षणा चण्डमौपधिकं वा । स्वप्नशीला निद्रालुमबुधमल्याग्निं वा । मद्यनित्या तृष्णालुमल्पस्मृतिमनवस्थितं वा । गोघामांसनित्याश्मरिणं शनैर्मेहिनं वा । बराहमांसनित्या रक्ताक्षं क्रथनमतिपरुषरोमाणं वा । मत्स्यमांसनित्या चिरनिमेषं स्तब्धाक्षं वा । मधुरनित्या प्रमेहिणं मूकमतिस्थूलं वा । अम्लनित्या रक्तपित्तिनं त्वगक्षिरोगिणं वा । लवणनित्या शीघ्रवलीपलितं खलतिकं वा । तिक्तनित्या शोषिणमबलमपचितं वा । कटुकनित्या दुर्बलमल्पशुक्रमनपत्यं वा । कषायनित्या श्याममानाहिनमुदावर्तिनं वा । यच्च यच्च यस्य व्याधेर्निदानं तत्तदासेवमानान्तर्वत्नी स्त्री तत्तद्विकारबहुलमपत्यं जनयति । एतेन पितृजा अपि शुक्रदोषा व्याख्याताः ॥३७॥
Further, to avoid the wrath of gods and also the risk of non-development of the foetus, the pregnant woman should not put on red coloured cloth, ride in vehicles, eat meat or drink wine. Any other thing which the elderly women forbid.
If the pregnant woman lies constantly on her back, the cord attached to the umbilicus (of the foetus) surrounds the neck of the foetus and produces troubles (to it);
the woman who sleeps with her mouth wide open and who roams about in the nights, will beget a child affected with insanity (psychosis etc); a woman who is always quarrelling begets an epileptic; she who is crazy of sexual intercourse begets a child of bad physique, shameless or one desirous of a woman (sensual);
she who is afflicted with grief for long, brings up a child who will be a coward, underdeveloped in the body or of short life-span; she who is afflicted with many worries constantly will beget a child who will harm others, jealous or desirous of woman (sensuos); she who is in the habit of stealing begets a child who gets tired quickly, deceives others or does bad acts;
a woman who is greedy begets a child who is obstinate/stubborn/garrulous or a cheat. She who sleeps constantly begets a child who is always sleepy, unintelligent and of poor digestive power; she who drinks wine daily, begets a child who is always thirsty, of poor memory or unsteady mind. She who partakes the meat of godha (iguana lizard) daily, begets a child suffering from either urinary stones or of eliminating large quantities of urine frequently; she who indulges daily in meat of pig, begets one whose eyes are red, who snores or who has rough hairs on the body; she who partakes fish daily begets a child who winks leisurely or has no movements of the eyes.
She who indulges in sweet foods daily, begets a child afflicted with diabetes, who is mute or who is very obese; she who takes sour foods begets a child who suffers from raktapitta (haemorrhagic diseases), skin diseases or disorders of the eyes; she who takes more salt daily begets a child who quickly gets wrinkles of the skin, grey hairs or baldness; she who indulges daily in bitter foods brings up a child who is afflicted with consumption, who is of poor strength and poor physique; she who indulges daily in pungent foods brings up a child who is weak, of deficient semen or who does not beget children; she who indulges in astringent foods daily begets a child of blue-black colour who suffers from flatulence or from the upward movement of vata inside the abdomen.
The pregnant woman who indulges more in the different causes (foods and activities) enumerated under specific diseases, will beget children who will be predominantly suffering from those specific diseases. By this (above description) even the abnormalities resulting from sukra of the father also stand explained. (37)
Garbhini chikitsa – treatment of the pregnant woman
तस्मात् प्रजासम्पदमिच्छन्तौ साध्वात्मानमुपाचरेताम् । विशेषेण नारी । व्याधींश्चास्या मृदुमधुरशिशिरसुखैरौषधाहारविहारैरुपाचरेत् । न चास्या वमनादीनि प्रयोजयेत् । न रक्तावसेचनम् । केवलं त्वष्टममासमुपादायास्थापनमनुवासनं वा । वमनादिसाध्येषु पुन – र्विकारेषु मृदुभिस्तदर्थकारिभिर्वोपक्रमेत् पूर्णमिव तैलपात्रमसंक्षोभयद्गर्भिणीमुपाचरेदिति । भवन्ति चात्र ॥ ३८ ॥
Hence, those (couple) who are desirous of healthy progeny should follow good regimen and protect themselves, especially so the woman.
All her ailments should be treated with drugs, food and activities which are mild, sweet, cold (in potency) and comforting. She should not be administered therapies such as emesis etc, nor bloodletting; with the commencement of the eighth month she should be treated only with either decoction-enema or oil-enema; those diseases which require emesis etc, for cure, should be treated with those therapies very mildly or adopt those other measures which subserve that purpose.
The pregnant woman should be protected just like a vessel filled with oil to its brim is protected, without any shaking. (38)
Some verses herein.
इत्यनात्ययिके व्याधौ विधिरात्ययिके पुनः । तीक्ष्णैरपि क्रियायोगैः स्त्रियं यत्नेन पालयेत् ॥ ३९ ॥
The above measures are for ordinary conditions; in case of diseases producing emergency, the lady is to be saved even by drastic therapies (if they are required). (39)
स्त्री हि मूलमपत्यानां स्त्री हि रक्षति रक्षिता । सर्वाश्रमाणां प्रथमं गृहस्थत्वमनिन्दितम् ॥४०॥
The woman, is the chief cause for progeny, if she is protected even the progeny is protected. Among all the stages of life, that of the householder is the most important and sacred. (40)
जरायुणा मुखे छन्ने कण्ठेत्र कफेवष्टिते । वायोर्मार्गनिरोधाच्च न गर्भस्थ प्ररोदिति ॥४१॥
The foetus residing in the uterus does not cry because its mouth is covered jarayu (chorionic membrane), its throat is coated with kapha and the channels of are closed. (41)
॥ इति द्वितीयोऽध्यायः ॥
Thus ends Ashtanga Sangraha Sharira sthana Second chapter.