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Ashtanga samgrahaPRAKRITI  BHEDIYA SHARIRA - Types of human constitution - Ashtanga Sangraha sharira...

PRAKRITI  BHEDIYA SHARIRA – Types of human constitution – Ashtanga Sangraha sharira sthana Chapter 8

We will now expound Ashtanga sangraha sharira sthana chapter 8 – Prakriti  bhediya sharira – different kinds of human constitutions; thus said Atreya and other great sages. (1)

अथात: प्रकृतिभेदीयं शारीरं व्याख्यास्यामः । इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥ १ ॥

Sapta Prakriti  – seven physical constitutions

सप्त प्रकृतयो दोषैः पृथक् संसर्गेण साम्येन च भवन्ति । तत्र शुक्रार्तव गर्भाशयकालेषु मातुश्चाहारविहारयोरेकोऽनेकोवा यो दोषो भवत्याधिक्येन तेनामरणाद्विषवल्यामिवोत्पद्यमानस्य कृमेर्विषेण सविषकृमेरिव वृश्चिकादेराशीविषस्येव वा स्वविषेण प्रकृतिर्जायते ॥२॥

Seven kinds of constitutions get formed from the doshas; three from each of them seperately, (three) in combination (of two) and (one) from their normalcy (all the three together). At the time (union of) sukra (male reproductive element) and artava (female reproductive element) and their stay in the uterus, one or more of the doshas which get increased by the foods and activities of the mother, gives rise to the constitution which persist till death; just as worms which are born in a poisonous plant, or poisonous creatures from poison or just as the posion in the bodies of scropion and snake, the human body also gets its constitutions formed from its own posion (the doshas). (2)

तस्मात्तन्मयतया शुक्रार्तवयोर्देहस्य भावितत्वात् प्राकृतत्वाच्च तावता तेन दोषेण न विहन्यते । तद्गुणैरेव चास्यशरीरमुपस्क्रियते ।

ततश्च तद्गुणप्रतिपक्षैः सहसा न बाध्यते । तस्यां त्ववस्थायां विकृतिमति दोषे उल्बणेनैव गर्भः सम्भवति ।

सम्भव एव वा विपद्यते । विकृतो वा भवति ॥ ३ ॥

Because the sukra and artava which are the causes for the future body, and are full of them (doshas) and being natural to the body, they (doshas) do not harm the body; by their identical qualities (of foods and activities) they help the body, even by use of their opposite qualities (of foods and activities) they do not harm the body suddenly.

If the doshas have become abnormally increased at that stage (time of union of sukra and artava) there will be no formation of the embryo at all; or if it gets formed it dies or becomes abnormal. (3)

तथा च केचिदाहुः । द्विविधा वातादयः प्राकृता वैकृताश्च । तत्र प्राकृताः सप्तविधायाः प्रकृतेर्हेतुभूताः शरीरैकजन्मानः ।

ते शरीरधारणाद्धातुसंज्ञाः । दोषाख्यानां विकृतानां बीजभूताः । मुमूर्षो: स्वरूपाच्चलन्ति ।

सर्वेष्वपि च देहे सन्निहितेषु प्रकृतावुल्बणेन व्यपदेशः ॥४॥

Hence, some others say – vata and other doshas are of two kinds, viz normal and abnormal, the normal ones (doshas) are the cause for the formation of seven kinds of constitutions and also the chief causes for the formation of the body, they are called as Dhatus because they support the body; they are also the seeds for the abnormal ones known as vikrta doshas, and are not dieing (present till death); though all of them (doshas) are co-existing in the body, the constitutions is named after that ( dosha) which is predominant. (4)

Notes: The predominance of the dosha at the time of the union of sukra and artava is not to be taken as an abnormal condition. During their normalcy the doshas are even called as dhatus, it is the same doshas which become abnormal and are designated by the term ‘doshas’ in the real sense. The dosha which is predominant at the time of union of sukra and artava, bestows its characteristic features and effects to the body throughout its life.

वैकृतास्तु गर्भादभिनिस्सृतस्याहाररसस्य मलाः सम्भवन्ति । प्राकृतेष्ववरोहन्ति ।

ते कालादिवशेन स्वप्रमाणवृद्धिक्षययोगाद्देहमनुगृह्णन्ति दूषयन्ति च ।

तद्वदोजोऽपि परं हृदयस्थमष्टबिन्दुप्रमाणमाधारः प्रासृतिकस्य रसात्मकस्यौजसः क्षयवृद्धिभाजः ॥५॥

The abnormal ones (doshas) are produced in the body as the waste materials of the essence of food after coming out from the uterus; they get nourished and grow from the normal ones, they (doshas) undergoing increase or decrease in their own quantity by the effect of season etc, sustain the body (maintain its health) and also vitiate it.

Similarly the Para-ojas, present in the heart, of eight drops in quantity, is the substrate for the rasa-ojas which is of one prasrta in quantity and which undergoes increase or decrease. (5)

Notes: The doshas are produced by the body even after birth, during the process of digestion of food in the alimentary tract and also during metabolism in the tissues, they are also the waste products, as has been described earlier in chapter 6. They undergo increase and decrease due to the effect of improper use of sense organs, activities of body, mind and speech and effect of normal and abnormal seasons. The greatly increased doshas bring about abnormalities in the tissues and lead to many diseases.

Vata prakriti

अथ स्वदोषगुणानुरोधाद्वातप्रकृतिस्तनुरूक्षस्तब्धाल्पाङ्गदन्तनखरोमनेत्रस्वरः शीतद्विडुद्वद्धपिण्डिकः सशब्दसन्धिगामी शीघ्रारम्भक्षोभग्रहणविस्मरणश्चलधृतिमतिगतिदृष्टिस्वभावसौहार्दस्तेनोऽनार्यो मत्सर्यजितेन्द्रियः प्रियगान्धर्वेतिहासहासविलासकलहमृगयोद्यानयात्रः स्निग्धोष्णमधुराम्ललवणान्नपानकाङ्क्षोपशयश्च भवति ॥६॥

अपि च । अल्पवित्तबलजीवितनिद्रः क्षामवाग्धमनिसन्ततगात्रः । दुर्भगोऽतिबहुभुग्बहुभाषी नास्तिकः स्फुटितकेशकराङ्घ्रिः ॥७॥ किञ्चिदुन्मिषितदुर्मुखसुप्त स्त्रस्यति क्रथति खादति दन्तान् । शुष्करूक्षविषमासु सरित्सु व्योम्नि शैलशिखरेषु च याति ॥८॥

So, in accordance with the qualities of the doshas, the characteristic feature of (a person of) Vataprakriti  (constitution formed by predominance of vata) are the following :the body is thin and dry; teeth, nails, body-hairs, eyes and voice are rough, small (less in movement, number and pitch); dislikes cold; calf muscles are small in size and hard, joints make sound during walking; quick in getting into activity and out of it, understanding and forgetting; unsteady in courage, intellegence, gait, sight, habits, and cordiality; indulges in stealing and uncivilised behaviour; has jealousy and no control over the senses; fond of music, stories, humor, luxury, quarrel, hunting and walking in gardens; desirous of comfort from these; fond of foods and drinks which are unctous, hot, sweet, sour, salty and derives comfort from these.

Further; he is of little weaith, strength, lifespan and sleep; has feeble voice, prominant network of veins in the body; is ugly, eats too much and too often; is very talkative, is an atheist; his hairs, hands and feet are cracked, sleeps with his eyes and mouth slightly open, gets frightened, snores and grinds the teeth during sleep, dreams of travelling in reservoirs of water which are dry, uneven and irreregular; in the sky and on moutain peaks. (6-8)

Pitta prakriti

पित्तप्रकृतिरुष्णगौरगात्रस्ताम्रनखनयनजिह्वौष्ठपाणिपादतलः शिथिलसन्धिबन्धमांसः करभकपिलविरलमृदुकेशरोमा मध्यबलायुरल्पशुक्रव्यवायापत्यः शूरो ऽभिमानी शीघ्रवलीखलतिपलितपिप्लुव्यङ्गक्षुत्पिपासो मेधावी दुर्भगः स्वादुतिक्तकषायशीताभिलाषोपशयश्च भवति ॥ ९ ॥

अपि च । दयितमाल्यविलेपनमण्डनः सुचरितः शुचिराश्रितवत्सलः । विभवसाहसबुद्धिबलान्वितो भवति भीषु गतिर्द्विषतामपि ॥ १० ॥

घर्मद्वेषी स्वेदनः पूतिगन्धिर्भूर्युच्चारक्रोधपानाशनेर्ष्यः । सुप्तः पश्येत् कर्णिकारान् पलाशान् दिग्दाहोल्काविद्युदर्कानलांश्च ॥११॥

The person of Pitta prakriti  has his body warm and white; nails, eyes, tongue, lips, palms and soles are coppery-red; joints and muscles are loosely knit; hairs on the head and on the body are curved, tawny, sparse and soft; he is of medium strength and life-span, with little of semen, sexual capacity and offspring; is brave, proud, develops wrinkles of the skin, baldness and greying of hairs quickly, has moles and pigmented patches (of the skin); quick to get hunger and thirst, highly intellegent; is ugly, desirous of sweet, bitter, astringent and cold foods and drinks and finds comfort with them.

Further; he is very fond of women, garlands, anointing and make up with perfumes; is of cultured behaviour, intellegence and strength; protects the frightened (persons) though an enemy; dislikes sunlight, perspires heavily; has bad smell, high pitched voice, great anger, great desire for drinking and eating; is very jealous, sees red-coloured flowers like karnikara and palasa, forest fires, meteors, lightnings, blazing sun and flaming fire etc. in dreams. (9-11)

Kapha prakriti  

कफप्रकृतिस्तु दूर्वेन्दीवरशरकाण्डान्यतमवर्णः समसुविभक्तस्निग्धस्थिरसुकुमारश्लिष्टमांससन्धिबन्धः परिपूर्णचारुगात्रो महाललाटोरुबाहुर्व्यक्तसितासितप्रसन्नायतविशालपक्ष्मलाक्षः सिंहमृदङ्गघनघोषः क्षुत्पिपासोष्णसहिष्णुर्बह्रोजोबलशुक्रव्यवायापत्यश्चिरशोषमाल्यानुलेपनो दृढप्रच्छन्नवैर: पेशल: सत्यवादी स्मृतिवान् धृतिमानलोलुपो बाल्ये ऽप्यरोदनः कटुतिक्तकषायोष्णरूक्षेच्छोपयशयश्च भवति ॥१२॥

अपि च ।

अल्पव्याहारक्रोधपानाशनेहः प्राज्यायुर्वित्तो दीर्घदर्शी वदान्यः । श्राद्धो गम्भीर: स्थूललक्षः क्षमावानार्यो निद्रालुर्दीर्धसूत्रः कृतज्ञः ||१३|| ऋजुर्विपश्चित्सुभगः सलज्जो भक्तो गुरुणां दृढसौहृदय्यः । स्वप्ने सपद्मान् सविहङ्गमालांस्तोयाशयान् पश्यति तोयदांश्च ॥१४॥

The person of kapha prakriti  will be of the colour of durva, indivara, sarakanda and such others (slight green, blue and black ) ; his body is proportionate, well divided, unctous (greesy ) , stable, tender with well knit muscles and joints, all parts fully developed; is good looking, with broad forehead, long legs and arms; eyes with distinct white and black areas, beautiful, broad, wide and with good eye-lashes; voice resembles that of lion or a drum; is capable of withstanding hunger, thirst, and heat; possesses good amount of ojas (valour), strength, semen, sexual capacity, and off-spring; on whose body garlands and ungents dry slowly; has strong and concealed enimity; is skillful (dextrous ) speaks truth; is of good memory, courage and not atached too much (to any thing); not crying even during childhood, desirious of pungent, bitter astringent, hot and dry (foods, drinks etc ) and finds comfort with them.

Further, he is less in talk, anger, drinking, eating and physical activity but great in life-span and wealth; is farsighted, speaks kindly; is faithful, dignified, very generous, pardons others, highly cultured; sleeps more; is perseverant, grateful; possesses straight thoughts and intellegence; is good looking, bashful, devoted to teachers; very cordial and friendly with all, dreams of seeing ponds, and rivers full of water, lotus, lines of brids and clouds. (12-14)

Samsarga and sama dosha prakriti

उभयलक्षणसङ्करे तु संसर्गप्रकृतिः । सर्वगुणसमुदितः समदोषप्रकृतिः । तत्राद्यास्त्रयो नित्यातुरा: दोषानुशयितप्रकृतित्वात् । विशेषतश्च द्वन्द्वप्रकृतयः । तेषु हि गुणमिश्रविकारकारिषु क्षुत्पिपासादिष्विवारोग्यव्यपदेशः। तस्माद्विपरीतगुणेन विधिना दोषोपक्रमणीयोक्तेन तानुपाचरेत् । समसर्वरसेन सात्म्येनान्त्यं यथर्तुविहितेन च ॥ १५ ॥

Presence of features of two doshas will be seen in constitutions formed by two doshas and of all the three doshas in constitutions formed by the three doshas in equal proportion. Among these (constitution) person of the first three (formed by each dosha seperately) are always sickmen because of the predominance of doshas (requiring treatment always), especially those constitutions formed by two doshas together (are also sickmen), in them the mixture of two doshas produces disorders of mixed features and their health is related to their hunger, thirst and other (daily happenings and activity), hence they have to be treated (with difficulty) using drugs and therapies of dissimilar or opposite qualities and properties as described in Dosopakramaniya (chapter 21 of sutrasthana); the last kind (persons belonging to the constitutions formed from all the three doshas in equal proportion) can be managed with accustomed foods of all the tastes and with regimen as prescribed for each season. (15)

Manasika prakriti  – psychological constitutions

दोषवच्च गुणैरपि सत्त्वादिभिः सप्त प्रकृतयो भवन्ति । तास्तदभिनिर्वृत्तैरेव यथोक्तैः शौचादिभिर्जानीयात् ॥१६॥

Just as from the (tri) doshas even from the (tri) gunas such as satva etc, seven kinds of constitutions get formed; they can be recognised from features and behaviour such as cleanliness etc, which are found in such persons. (16)

Notes: The seven constitutions formed by the three gunas are; three from the predominance of each guna seperately (satvika, rajasa and tamasa) three from the combination of any two gunas (satva and rajas; satva and tamas; and rajas and tamas) and one from the combination of all three gunas is equal proportions; persons of these constitutions exhibit the characteristic features of that guna or gunas which is predominant, these are concerned more with mind and its function (psychological temperaments).

Jatyadi prakriti  – constitutions of caste etc.

तथा पुनः सप्त प्रकृतयो जातिकुलदेशकालवयोबलप्रत्यात्मसंश्रयाः । दृश्यन्ते हि पुरुषाणां जात्यादिनियतास्ते ते भावविशेषाः ॥१७॥

Again, seven more constitutions are noticeable, arising out of (related to) jati (caste), kula (family), desa (habitat), kala (time), vaya (age), bala (strength) and pratyatma niyata (individual pecularity); the typical features of each of these factors are seen specifically in such persons. (17)

सत्त्वादीनां च तरतमयोगाच्छरीरविशेषेभ्यश्चान्योन्यानुविधायित्वाच्च भेदाश्रयमसंख्येयं भवति ।

शरीरमपि सत्त्वादीननुरुध्यते । सत्त्वादयोऽपि शरीरम् ॥१८॥

Different combination of less or more degrees of the qualities like satva and others, each of them intermingling with the features of the body, give rise to innumerable kinds of personalities. The body also requires the presence of satva and other qualities, so also the satva and other gunas (require) the body ( to express themselves). (18)

सत्त्वाद्यसंख्यभेदावेशाच्च रूपस्वरचरितानुकरणमप्यनूकशब्दवाच्यमसंख्यभेदं भवति ।

तदावेशस्त्वनन्तरजन्माभ्यासवासनया जन्यते ।

तस्माद्देवमानुषतिर्यक्प्रेतनारकाणां तत्तद्विशेषाणां च यथायथमेवानूकं परुषस्यान्ववेक्षेत ॥१९॥

From the emergence of innumerable constitutions from innumerable combinations, there sppears similarity and resemblences in respect of appearance, voice, activity (behaviour, conduct etc) with other beings (divine, human, demonic, animal etc.); such possibalities are born from the vasana (residual impressions) of another life (previously had).

Hence people are seen to resemble, different beings – divine, human animal, spirits of the dead and beings of the hell – etc, which has to be recognised. (19)

Notes: Both Charaka and Susruta samhitas have enumerated sixteen kinds of kaya or psychological temperaments (constitutions) of human beings; seven under satva predominant, six under rajas predominant and three under tamas predominance which include divine, human, animal, spirits of the dead, spirits of vegetation etc; for details refer chapter 4 of sharirasthana in both the texts.

Trividha Vaya – three kinds of age

वयस्त्रिविधं बालं मध्यं वृद्धं च । तत्राषोडशाद्वर्षाद्बालम् । आ षष्टेर्मध्यम् । ततो वृद्धम् । तेष्वपि स्तन्याहारोभयवृत्त्या बालं त्रिविधम् । तस्मिन् देहप्रमाणवृद्धिः श्लेष्मोद्रेकश्च । तेन बालस्य स्नेहमार्दवसौकुमार्याल्पक्रोधत्वसौभाग्यानि भवन्ति ॥ २० ॥

Vayas (age) is of three kinds namely; Bala ( childhood), Madhya (middle age ) and Vrddha (increased, advanced or old age); childhood is upto sixteen years, upto sixty years it is middle age and then after it is oldage. Further, childhood is again of three divisions, viz, the first that of feeding on only breast milk, the second feeding on both breast milk and solid food and the third, feeding on only solid food. During the period (childhood) there will be increase in the size of the body and also increase of kapha; because of these, children will be having smoothness, softness and tenderness (of the body), little of anger and good deal of charm (beauty, grace). (20)

मध्यमपि त्रिविधं यौवनं सम्पूर्णत्वमपरिहानिश्च । तस्मिन् पित्तोद्रेकः ।

तेन दीप्ताग्निता प्रज्ञाधिक्यपरिपाकौ व्यवस्ायश्च। तत्रात्रिंशतो यौवनमाचत्वारिंशतः सर्वधात्विन्द्रियबलवीर्यपौरुषस्मरणवचनविज्ञानप्रश्रयगुणसम्पूर्णत्वमतः परमपरिहानिः ॥ २१ ॥

Middle age is also of three divisions :- youth, completeness and non-depletion; during this (middle age) there will be increase of pitta, from that will ensue intensity (keerness) of digestion, increase of capacity for correct understanding, maturity, (perfection) and resolve (determination), industriousness, ( engaging in trades, occupations); upto thirty years it is youth, upto forty five years it is completelness in respect of all the tissues, sense faculties, strength, valour, vigour (sexual prowess), memory, speaking, knowledge of science, modesty (respectful behaviour) and other virtues; further on it is non-depeletion (maintanance without either increase or decrease). (21)

वृद्धं तु शश्वत् क्षीयमाणधात्विन्द्रियादिगुणं वलीखलतिकासश्वासाग्निसादादिभिरभिभूयमानं जीर्णं भवनमिवाभिवृष्टमवसीदति ।

तस्मिन्मारूतोद्रेकः । तेन श्लथसारमांससन्ध्यस्थिता त्वक्पारुष्यमवनामः कायस्य वेपथुः कास: श्वास: श्लेष्मसिङ्ग्राणकोदीरणं धातुक्षयश्च ॥२२॥

Oldage is a period of continuous depletion of tissues, sense acuities and other qualities, associated with appearance of wrinkles of the skin, baldness, cough, dyspnoeapoor digestion etc, slowly collapsing like a old house drenched by rain; during this period there is increase of maruta (vata), from that results loss of strength, flabbiness of musclesjoints and bones; roughness of the skin, bending of the body, tremors (shaking), coughdyspnoea, increase of slesma (sputum) and singhanaka (nasal secretion) and decrease of the tissues. (22)

अन्ये पुनराहुः ॥

बाल्यं वृद्धिः प्रभा मेधां त्वक्शुक्राक्षिश्रुतीन्द्रियम् । दशकेषु क्रमाद्व्येति मनस्सर्वेन्द्रियाणि च ॥२३॥

Others again say –

Childhood, growth, complexion (radiance of colour), ingenity, skin, semen, eyes, ears, mind and all sense acuities decline ( diminish) in successive decades (period of ten years) respectively. (23)

Notes: After the first decade childhood diminishes or ceases; after the second, the growth of the body; after the third, the complexion especially on the face; after the fourth ingenity of intellect; after the fifth the health of the skin; after the sixth the quantity of semen vis a vis sexual activity; after the seventh, the capacity of vision; after the eighth the capacity of hearing; after the ninth, the capacity and functions of the mind and after the tenth the function of all the sense organs and motor organs.

Ayus pramana – duration of life

एवं वर्षशतमायुषः प्रमाणमस्मिन् काले । सन्ति पुनः कर्मविशेषादूनाधिकवर्षशतजीविनो मनुष्याः । तेषां यथोक्तैः प्रकृतिविशेषैरायुषः प्रमाणमुपलभ्य वयस्त्रिधा विभजेत् ॥२४॥

In this manner, the duration of life in this age (aeon) is one hundred years; there are persons who live for more or less than this period due to the effect of actions (of previous and present lives). In them, the divisions of age into three parts, has to be done by noting the features of constitutions described earlier. (24)

अपि च । वर्षं वर्षं क्षयं याति नृणां याते शते शते । आयुषोऽपुण्यबाहुल्याद्यदा यन्मानमिष्यते ॥२५॥

Further on

With the passing of every hundred years (in each aeon) there will be a decrease of one year in the life-span of human beings due to increase of unrighteousness (sin-ful conduct), whatever be the scheduled span of life in any aeon. (25)

Trividha Bala – three kinds of strength

बलमपि त्रिविधं भवति । सहजं कालकृतं युक्तिकृतं च । तत्र सहजं देहसत्त्वयोः प्राकृतम् । कालकृतंमृतुविभागजं वयः कृतं च । युक्तिकृतं पुनराहारविहारोत्थमूर्जस्करयोगजं च । तद्वृद्धिकरास्त्विमे च भावा भवन्ति । तद्यथा | बलवत्पुरुषे देशे जन्म तद्विधे च काले सुखश्चकालयोगो बीजक्षेत्रगुणशरीराहारसत्त्वसम्पत्तयः स्वमावो यौवनं व्यायामो हर्षश्च ॥ २६ ॥

Bala (strength) also is of three kinds Sahaja (inherent, in-born, natural), Kalakrta (seasonal) and Yuktikrta ( artifically induced ). Sahaja is the natural one, of both of the body and mind; kalakrta is due to seasons and age; yuktikrta is due to indulgence in foods and activities which cause increase of vigour and vitality; the following are some factors which bring about such a increase; birth in regions where people are strong, in that season which makes men strong, normalcy of the season, excellence of quality of the seed (reproductive element) and the field (womb), of the body, of the food, of the mind, of the natural disposition (innate quality), youth, excerise and happiness. (26)

Asthavidha Sara – eight kinds of excellence

तथा साराण्यष्टौ त्वग्रक्तमांसमेदोऽस्थिमज्जशुक्रसत्वात्मकान्युत्तरोत्तरवराणि बलमानज्ञानार्थमुपदिश्यन्ते । अपि च ।

न मुह्येद्देहमात्रदर्शनादेव भिषगयमुपचयेन महाशरीरत्वाद्वा बलवानयं कृशत्वादल्पशरीरत्वाद्वाल्पबल इति ।

तच्चोभयमप्यन्यथा दृष्टं गजसिंहे ॥२७॥

Sara (excellence, perfectness, strength) is described as of eight kinds in relation to skin, blood, muscles, fat, bone marrow, semen, and mind; each succeeding one, better than its preceeding and helpful in determining the degree of strength; further, the physician should not commit the mistakes of deciding any person as strong or weak by merely looking at the good hefty build or weak thin build of the body respectively as both of them might be otherwise, as (seen ) in the case of the elephant and the lion. (27)

तत्र सवैः सारैरुपेतो भवत्यतिबलः परमगौरवयुक्तः क्लेशक्षमः सर्वारम्भेष्वात्मनि

प्रत्याशावान् कल्याणाभिनिवेशी स्थिरशरीरः सुसमाहितगतिः सानुनादस्निग्धगम्भीरमहास्वरः

सुखैश्वर्यवित्तोपभोग सम्मानभाक्मन्दजरामयः प्रायस्तुल्यगुणविस्तीर्णापत्यो दीर्घायुश्च । तद्विपरीतस्त्वसारः । मध्यो मध्य गुणः ॥२८॥

The person who is endowed with all types of excellences, will be very strong, with very stable physique, capable of withstanding strain, having full self-confidence in the result of all his activities, benovalent in all his deeds, possesses a strong body, balanced gait, has vibrating, polite, dignified and loud voice, enjoys happiness, wealth, money, luxuries, and respect ( from all); oldgae and disease approach him slowly; is endowed with many children of similar qualities and enjoys long life. The opposite of these qualities are the features of a person of poor strength, and the possessor of medium qualities of medium strength. (28)

Sharira pramana physiometry

प्रमाणं पुनः स्वाङ्गुलैः पादाङ्गुष्ठप्रदेशिन्यौ द्व्यङ्गलायते तिस्रोऽन्याः क्रमेणोत्तरोत्तरं पञ्चमभागहीनास्तन्नखहीना वा ।

चतुरङ्गुलायताः पृथक् प्रपदपादतलपार्ष्णयः । षट्पञ्चचतुरङ्गलविस्तृताश्चतुर्दशैवायामेन पादश्चतुर्दशैव परिणाहेन ।

तथा गुल्फौ जङ्घामध्यं च । चतुरङ्गुलोत्सेधः पादः । अष्टादशायामा जङ्घा ऊरुश्च । चतुरङ्गुलं जानु ।

त्रिंशदङ्गुलपरिणाह ऊरुः षडायामेन ॥२९॥

Next, the measurement of the body in ones own angula (fingers’ breadth) are as follows the big toe and toe next to it are two angula each in length, the other three toes are less by one – fifth part succeesively, excluding the nails; the forefoot, sole and heels are four angula each in length, the foot is fourteen angula in length and also in circumference; similary also the ankles and centre of the fore-leg; foot is four angula in height, the fore-leg and thigh, are eighteen angulas each in length; knee is four angula in length, the thigh is thirty angula in circumference and six angula in width (thickness). (29)

मुष्कमेद्रावष्टपञ्चपरिणाहौ। षोडशविस्तारा कटी पञ्चाशत्परिणाहा । दशाङ्गुलं बस्तिशिरः । द्वादशाङ्गलमुदरम् ।

दशविस्तारे द्वादशायामे पार्श्वे । द्वादशोत्सेधं त्रिकम् । अष्टादशोत्सेधं पृष्ठम्। द्वादशकं स्तनान्तरम् । द्व्यङ्गुलं स्तनपर्यन्तम् ।

चतुर्विंशत्यङ्गुलविशालं द्वादशोत्सेधमुरः । द्व्यङ्गलं हृदयम् । अष्टकौ स्कन्धे कक्षे च । षट्कावंसौ । षोडशकौ प्रबाहू ।

पञ्चदशकौ प्रपाणी । द्वादशाङ्गलौ पाणी । तत्रापि पञ्चाङ्गला मध्यमाङ्गुलिः । ततोऽर्धाङ्गुलहीने प्रदेशिन्यनामिके ।

सार्धत्र्यङ्गुलौ कनिष्ठिकाङ्गुष्ठौ ॥३०॥

The scrotum and penis are eight and five angula in circumference respectively; the waist is sixteen angula in width and fifty in circumference; the head of the bladder is ten angula (in length); the abdomen twelve angula (in length), the flanks are each ten angula, in breadth and twelve in length; the trika (root of the shoulders) is twelve angula in thickness (length); the back is eighteen angula in thickness (length), distance between the two breasts (nipples) is twelve angulas; the sides (width) of the breasts is two angula; the chest is twentyfour angula in breadth and twelve angula in thickness (length) the heart is two angula (in length); the upper edge of the shoulders and axillae are eight angula (in length), the shoulders are six angula (in length) the arm is sixteen angula (in length), the fore-arm fifteen and the hand is twelve angula in length; the middle finger is five angula in length, the first and third fingers each are half-angula less than (five angulas), the little finger and the thumb each are three and half angula. (30)

चतुरङ्गुलोत्सेधा द्वाविंशतिपरिणाहा शिरोधरा । द्वादशोत्सेधं चतुर्विंशतिपरिणाहमाननम् । पञ्चाङ्गुलमास्यम् ।

चतुरङ्गुलंपृथक् चिबुकौष्ठनासादृष्ट्यन्तरकर्णललाटम् । त्रिभागाङ्गलविस्तारा नासापुटमर्यादा । द्व्यङ्गुलायतमङ्गुष्ठौदरविस्तृतं नेत्रम् ।

तत्र शुक्लात्तृतीयांशं कृष्णम् । कृष्णान्नवमांशा मसूरदलमात्रा दृष्टिः । षडङ्गुलोत्सेधं द्वात्रिंशत्परिणाहं शिर इति ।

सर्वं पुनः शरीरमङ्गलानि चतुरशीतिः । तदायामविस्तारसमं सममुच्यते । तत्र यथोक्तपरिमाणमिष्टमनिष्टं हीनमधिकं वा ।

तथा ह्रस्वदीर्घगौरकृष्णरोमारोमस्थूलकृशं चेति ॥३१॥

The neck is four angula in height (length) and thirtytwo angula in circumference; the face is twelve angula in height (length), and twenty-four angula in circumference; the mouth is five angula (in length) the chin, lips, nose, space between two eyes (pupils), the ears and forehead are each four angula (in length); the size of the nostrils is one-third of a angula (in width); the eye is two angula in length and of the width the middle of the thumb in width; the black portion (cernea) is one-third of the white portion (sclera); the portion of sight (pupil) is one-ninth part of the black portion (cornea) and the size of a cotylindon of a pea; the head (skull) is six angula in height and thirty two angula in circumference; the entire body is thus eightyfour angula in length; it is equal both in length and breadth; the sizes mentioned so far of each part of the body is desirable (normal); whereas the less or more of these is undesirable (abnormal).

Further, the body which is (very) short or (very) tall, (very) white or (very) black, (very) hairy or with no hairs at all on the body, (very ) stout (obese, big in size) or (very) emaciated • are all undesirable ( abnormal). ( 31 )

Notes: The measurements mentioned above are to be understood as ideal. Variations are seen in respect of sex and constitution, hence the use of the term’in ones own dngula’. One angula is equalent to 3/4 “or 1.65 cm. Physiques such as very tall, very short, very white, very black, very hairy or hairless, very stout and very thin – are called by Charaka as Asthanindita sharira – the eight despisable/undesirable/unhealthy – body (vide chapter 21 as sutrasthana). and are due to abnormalities of the hormones.

Angavayava lakshana physiognomy

इष्टं पुनर्महाशरीरदर्शनवदनहनुस्तनाग्रपृष्ठस्वरमुपचितोरुस्फिक्कटीवक्षोग्रीवातालुकमुभयगुणपाणिपादचिबुककर्णललाटम्। सूक्ष्मास्थिदन्तनखाङ्गुलिपर्वकेशम् । दीर्घाङ्गलिसक्थिबाहूच्छ्वासेक्षितनेत्रजिह्वम् । विस्तीर्णास्याधरौष्ठजिह्वाललाटकर्णपीठवक्षोऽल्पमेढ्रग्रीवाकेशम् । स्निग्धत्वक्कचकरजनयनस्वनम् । स्थिरेन्द्रियत्वङ्नखकेशपार्श्वम् । गम्भीरनाभिसन्धिस्वरम् । गूढजत्रुपृष्ठवंशदन्तमूलम् । रक्तताल्वोष्ठनखनेत्रान्तमाताम्रजिह्वाहस्तपादतलम् । कृष्णकेशभ्रूनेत्रपक्ष्मतारकम् । शुक्लशुक्लमण्डलदशनचरितमुन्नतचित्तरकन्धललाटोदरमुखनखपादम्। नीचैर्बद्धकर्णस्तननासाग्रचङ्क्रमणम् । घनस्कन्धकन्धरादन्ताङ्गलित्वक्सौहार्दम् । तनुनखमध्यजिह्वम् । वृत्तस्फिग्ग्रीवानखम् । समपृष्ठदन्तललाटेक्षितम् । तथानुपूर्ववृत्तावूरू । दक्षिणावर्तनाभिः । प्रकृष्टान्तरौ स्तनौ भ्रुवौ च । कूर्माकृतयो नखाः पादौ च । ऋज्वास्यं नासावंशश्च । अनुल्बणे हनू वेषश्च । श्लक्ष्णं तालु जिह्वा च । नातिस्थूलकृशावोष्ठौ देहबन्धश्च । सस्पन्दं हृदयं शङ्खौ मन्ये च । सोष्मतालुपादोदरं निश्वासश्च । पृष्ठतोऽवनतौ रोमशौ च कर्णौ । ईषत्प्रलम्बिन्यौ भुवौ । वलिनं सुश्लिष्टसन्ध्यर्धचन्द्राकृतिललाटमातपत्रोपमं शिरः । नैकमूला मृदवः केशाः । दृढं गूढं सिरास्थिसन्धि । प्रकृतियुक्तानि वातमूत्रपुरीषगुह्यानि हसितरुदितानि चचेष्टितानि । तथा स्नातानुलिप्तमधः प्रसृतानुपूर्व्या शुष्यदिष्टं शरीर मिति । भवति चात्र ॥ ३२ ॥

The following are the desirable (normal) features of the various organs :- the body in general, the face, the lower jaw, tip of the breast, (nipples), the back and voice should be big (prominent, large, high pitched); the thighs, buttocks, waist, chest, neck, and palate, should be well developed (nourished); the bones, teeth, nails, joints of fingers (and toes) and hairs should be small (thin); fingers, thighs, arms, inspiration, sight (eyes) and tongue should be long; mouth, lower lip, tongue, forehead, and pinna of the ears and chest should be broad (wide); penis, neck and hairs, should be small; skin, hairs on the head, nails, eyes and sound (voice) should be unctous (smooth, pleasant); sense organs, skin, nails, hairs of the head and the flanks should be stable (tight, tout); umbilicus, joints and voice should be deep; shoulders, vertebral column and roots of teeth should be concealed; palate, lips, nails, angles of the eyes should be red in colour, and the tongue, palms and soles should be coppery in colour; hairs of the head, brows, eyelashes, and star of the eye (cornea) shold be black; the white portion of the eye (sclera), teeth and conduct of the person should be white (pure, faultless); the mind (thinking) shoulders, forehead, abdomen, face, nails and feet and walking, should be slightly bent (down); the neck, shoulders teeth, fingers, skin and generosity should be solid (firm, longlasting); nails, the middle part of the body (waist) and tongue should be thin; buttocks, neck and nails be round; the back, teeth and forehead and sight should be even (straight); the thighs should be round from below upwards; umbilicus should have a left sided whirl; the breasts (nipples) and brows should be wide apart; the nails and feet should have the shape of the tortoise (shell); the mouth and nasal bridge should be straight; the lower jaw and the dress of the person should not be very prominant; the palate and tongue should be smooth; the lips and joints of the body should not be either too big or too thin; the heart, temples and sides of the neck should be pulsating; the palate, feet, abdomen, and expiration should be warm; the ears should be bent backwards and hairy; the brows should be slightly bent down; the forehead should be with folds, well knit, and resemble half-moon (semi circular); the head should resemble an umbrella, the hairs having only one root and soft; the veins and bony joints should be strong and concealed; flatus, urine, faeces, and genital organs should be normal and so also laughing, weeping and other activities; the body which dries the fragrant pastes and such other unguents anointed to the skin after bath, from above downwards should be considered as desirable (normal). (32)

Further on :

उत्तरोत्तरसुक्षेत्रं गर्भाद्भवति नीरुजम् । आयामज्ञानविज्ञानैर्वर्धमानं शनैश्शुभम् ॥३३॥

That human body which develops slowly, steadily and without any discomfort, from the time of its life in the womb, through all its succeessive stages, similar to the crop in a fertile field, should be considered as very auspicious. (33)

इति सर्वगुणोपेते शरीरे शरदां शतम् । आयुरैश्वर्यमिष्टाश्च सर्वे भावाः प्रतिष्ठिताः ॥३४॥

In such a body endowed with all good features, a life of hundred years, wealth and all desires are fully guaranteed. (34)

अनुत्सेकमदैन्यं च सुखं दुःखं च सेवते । सत्ववास्तप्यमानस्तु राजसो नैव तामसः ॥३५॥

The person of Satvika temperament enjoys happiness and unhappines without jealosy and humility respectively; the person of Rajasa temperament enjoys happiness and unhappiness with little amount of jealossy and humility; and the person of Tamasa temperament does not enjoy happiness and unhappiness at all. (35)

दानशीलदयासत्यब्रह्मचर्यकृतज्ञताः । रसायनानि मैत्री च पुण्यायुर्वृद्धिकृद्गणः ॥३६॥

Charity (generosity), chasity, kindness, truthfulness, celibacy (or indulging in disciplined behaviour), gratefulness, use of rejuvinators (tonics etc) and friendliness (with all) form the group which enhances both virtue and life-span. (36)

॥ इति अष्टमोऽध्यायः ॥ Thus ends Ashtanga Sangraha sharira sthana Eighth chapter.


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