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Ashtanga samgrahaVIKRITI VIJNANIYA - Knowledge of fatal signs - Arishta Lakshana - ...

VIKRITI VIJNANIYA – Knowledge of fatal signs – Arishta Lakshana – Ashtanga Sangraha Sharira sthana Chapter 9

अथातो विकृतिविज्ञानीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥१॥

We will now expound VIKRITI VIJNANIYA – Knowledge of fatal signs – Arishta Lakshana – Ashtanga Sangraha Sharira sthana Chapter 9 – knowledge of abnormals/ fatal signs; thus said atreya and other great sages. (1)

Arishta lakshana – fatal signs

स्वस्थानामातुराणां वा पुरुषाणां देहान्तराभिलाषिणामौषधविषयमतीता: सकलशरीरव्यापिनो दोषा घनाऽघना इव वर्षमायुषः क्षयं सूचयन्तोऽकस्मात्स्वभावविपर्यासं जनयन्ति । तत्समासतो रिष्टमित्याहुः ॥२॥ –

In persons who are healthy, diseased or going to die, the doshas which have surpassed the action of drugs (or therapies due to profound increase) and which have spread to the entire body, cause the appearance of paradoxical signs, accidently (without any apparant reason), indicative of loss of life, just as the occurance of rain with or without thick clouds; these are in brief, known as Rista ( fatal signs). ( 2 )

Varna – colour of the body

तत्र गौर: श्यामः कृष्णो गौरश्यामः कृष्णश्याम इति देहप्रकृतिवर्णाः । तद्भेदाश्च पद्मगौरादयः ।

नीलश्यामताम्रहारिद्रशुक्लादयस्तु विकृतयः । तत्र प्रकृतिविकृतिवर्णी युगपदङ्गे ङ्गैक देशे वा मरणाय ।

एतेन ग्लान्युपचयशोकहर्षरौक्ष्यस्त्रेहादयस्तथा प्रकृतिभेदीयोक्तानां महदुपचयसूक्ष्मदीर्घाणां

सर्वेषां च दोषादिभागेन प्रतिनियतानां भावानामनिमित्ततोऽन्यथात्वमुक्तं भवति ॥३॥

White, blue, black, whitish-blue, blackish-blue – these are the normal varna (colour) of the body, so also their other variations such as reddish white, etc. Blue, black, coppery, deep yellow and white etc. are abnormal. Appearance of both normal and abnormal colours simultaneously in the entire body or in any part of it indicates death. In the same way manifestation of tiredness, pulmpiness, grief, happiness dryness, unctuousness, profound growth, thinning, lengthening, and such others mentioned in the prakriti  bhediya chapter (previous chapter), all the features which are charactoristic of each of the doshas – all these appearing without any reason (apparant cause) or undergoing change to the opposite, are also included in the above category (indicate on-coming death). (3)

Chaya – shades of colours

छायास्तु शरीरे पञ्च । तत्र खादमलखड्गाकाशनीलनिर्मला सस्नेहा सप्रभेव ।

वातात् पांसुभस्मरूक्षा रजोऽरुणा श्यावा निष्प्रभा स्वेदमलगन्धिः । तेजसो हुतहुताशनविद्युत्तप्ततपनीयरक्ता दृष्टिसुखा ।

अम्भसो वैडूर्येन्द्रनीलविमला घना सुस्निग्धा । भुवो रुचिराभा घना स्थिरा स्निग्धा शुद्धा श्यामा श्वेता च ।

तासां वायव्या विनाशाय क्लेशाय चातिमहते । शेषास्तु सुखादयाः ॥४॥

Chaya is of five kinds:- that which is related to kha (akasha bhuta) is like the clear blue colour of the sky, transperent, unctous and radiant; that related to vayu (bhuta) resembles sand or ash in colour, dry, full of dust, of crimson or blue in colour, lustreness and the body emits smell of sweat and other waste products; that related to tejas (bhuta) resembles the red colour of burning fire, lightning or molten gold and pleasant to look at; that related to amohas ( apbhuta) is clear like a vaidurya (beryl gem ) or indranila (marine blue gemstone) thick and very unctous, and clear; that related to bhu (prithvi bhuta) is beautiful, thick, stable, unctous, bluish or white in colour. Among these, the vay (related to vayu bhuta) is the cause for either death or severe distress, the remaining are for increase of happiness. (4)

Prabha – radiance of colours or complexion

सप्त प्रभा रक्ता पीता पाण्डुरा सितासिता श्यावा हरिता च । ताः स्निग्धा विकासिन्योऽमला: शुभाः । विपरीतास्त्वशुभाः ॥५॥

Prabha are seven such as red, yellow, yellowish-white, whitish-black, blue-black, and green; those which are unctous (beautiful), radiant and transperent are auspicious, those of opposite qualities are inauspicious. (5)

तयोर्विशेषाः । छायावर्णमाक्रामत्यासन्ना च लक्ष्यते पञ्चभूतात्मिका च ।

प्रभा तु वर्णं प्रकाशयति विप्रकृष्टाल्लक्ष्यते तेजः प्रभवैव च ॥६॥

The difference between these two is that Chaya (shade) invades (covers) the colour, perceptable at close range and arises from each of the panchabhutas (elements), whereas prabha (radiance, brilliance) exposes the colour, perceptable even from a distance and arises out of tejas bhuta only. (6) a

-Praticchayadyarista bad prognostic signs of images, shadow etc.

यस्य दृष्टौ प्रतिच्छायामयी कुमारिका न दृश्यते स परासुः ॥७॥

He who does not see his own image in the eyes (of others) should be considered as a person going to die. (7)

यस्यातपादर्शादिष्वकस्मात् प्रतिच्छाया छिन्ना भिन्ना हीनाधिकाकुला नष्टा जिह्याऽवाशिरा विशिरा द्विशिरा विस्तृताऽन्यथा वा विकृता वा दृश्यते । यस्य ललाटं न स्विद्यति यस्य केशरोमाण्यनभ्यक्तान्यभ्यक्तवद् दृश्यन्ते । नयने चातिप्रविष्टे निर्गते विस्तृते संक्षिप्ते संक्षिप्तभुणी विनतभुणी जिो विषमे विभ्रान्तदर्शने हीनदर्शने नकुलाभे कपोताभे अलातवर्णे नीलादिविकृतवर्णे अतिचले स्तब्धस्त्रस्ते प्रस्तुते अत्युन्मिषिते अतिनिमिषिते लुलितपक्ष्मणी वा । नासिका वातिविवृतातिसंवृता कुटिला स्फुटिता पिटकाचिता शुष्का वा स गतायुः ॥८॥

He whose image, in either sunlight or in a mirror, appears, without any reason, as cut, torn, less or more (in size or number ), overlapping, lost, irreregular, with the head bent down, headless or with two heads; wide or unusual in any other way; whose forehead does not sweat, whose hairs of the head and of the body appear as though anointed with oil even though not done so; whose eyes have gone very deep inside or have bulged out, widened or constricted; brows constricted similar to that of a mungoose or a dove; whose eyes are having the colour of lac or any other abnormal colour such as blue etc; which have increased movement, drooping down, full with tears, with too much of opening and closing of the lids; or with loss of eyelashes; whose nostrils are very wide open or very narrow, the nose is curved (irreregular), cracked, studded with eruptions or dried up-is going to die soon. (8)

यस्याधोधरौष्ठो यात्युत्तरौष्ठश्चोर्ध्वमुभौ वा पक्क जम्बूनीलौ । दन्ता वातिरूक्षास्ताम्राः श्यामाः पङ्किताः पुष्पिता: सशर्करा वा सहसा वा पतन्ति । जिह्वा वा जिह्या स्तब्धा सुप्तावलिप्ता गुर्वी श्यावा शूना शुष्का विसर्पिणी कण्टकाचितेव वा । यस्य गण्डललाटहनुबन्धानि स्थानाच्युतानीव स्त्रस्तानि । यस्य न धत्ते शिरः शिरोधरां पृष्ठं वा स्वभारम् । हनू वा पिण्डमास्यस्थम् । यस्योत्सिक्तं मेद्रमतिनिस्सृतौ वा वृषणावतो विपर्ययो वा । यस्य मूत्रमत्युष्णम् । यस्य विषदोषाद्विना खेभ्यः सरोमकूपेभ्यो रक्तं प्रवर्तते । यस्यानिमित्तङ्गान्यतिलघून्यतिगुरूणि वा स्युः समुमूर्षः ॥९॥

He whose lower lip, upper lip or both have blue colour like a ripe fruit of jambu, whose teeth are very dry, coppery-red or blue in colour, covered with dirt, studded with flowers (scars) or tartar, many of them falling off suddenly; whose tongue is irregular, stiff (without movement), without any sensation, coated with fur, heavy ( thick), blue, swollen, dry, protruding out or studded with thorns; whose cheeks, forehead, lower jaw are drooping down as though displaced; whose head, neck or back are unable to bear their own weight; lower jaw is locked up with the mouth; whose penis is either pushed very high, hangs down like the scrotum or the opposite of these signs seen; whose urine is very hot; from whose hair-follicles blood comes out, without any kind of posion present in the body; whose body parts become either very light or very heavy without any apparant cause-is to be considered as nearing death. ( 9 )

यस्यैकोऽनेको वा स्वरो गद्गदोऽव्यक्तः क्षामो दीनो वा सहसा लक्ष्यते । यो वा विवक्षुर्मुह्यति । यस्य वा वदतो भृशमूर्ध्वमुरो रुजति । यस्योच्छ्वासोऽतिदीर्घोऽतिहस्वः पूतिगन्धिः सुगन्धिर्वा । यस्याङ्गुलय आयम्यमाना न स्फुटेयुः। यस्यान्योऽन्योऽपि क्षुतगतमूत्रणादिषु स्वभावातीतः शब्दः । यस्येष्टोऽनिष्टो वा माल्यफलचन्दनकुणपादिगन्धो देहमुखमलव्रणवस्त्रादिषु । यस्य शरीरं वैरस्यात्सौरस्याद्वात्यर्थं यूकामक्षिकादयस्त्यजन्ति भजन्ति वा यस्य सततोष्मस्वङ्गावयवेषु शैत्यं शीतेषु वा कुमुदोत्पलानुकार्यतिशैत्यमतिस्वेदो ऽतिस्वेदोऽतिस्तम्भो विगतमांसशोणितेष्विव च स्रंसः । यस्य च योगोतियोगो वा शरीरे युगपन्महाभूतानां दृश्यते । सर्वे ते कालपक्का इति । भवति चात्र ॥१०॥

He whose voice is either single or multiple, is jerky, inaudible, feeble or timid, these features, manifesting suddenly; who is unable to bring our words though intent on speaking; who feels severe pain in the chest while talking; whose expiration is very long or very short, associated with bad smell or sweet smell; whose fingers do not produce sound when pulled outwards; who makes more sound than others do normally while sneezing, belching, urinating etc; who emits pleasant or unpleasant smell of garlands (flowers), fruits, sandal wood, dead-body etc through his body ( skin), mouth, faeces, wounds, clothing etc; whose body the creatures like lice, files, etc desert or invade due to unpleasant and pleasant taste respectively; such of the parts of the body which are normally warm always becoming cold or those which are normally cold becoming extremely cold like that of a lotus bud or lilly bud; which have large quantity of sweat, which are very stiff, which have lost all their muscles and blood and droop down; in whose body there appears, too much of increase or decrease of qualities of mahabhutas (primary elements) simultaneously-all these are the signs of a person digested by time ( death). ( 10 )

Some more verses here:

यस्यापूर्वास्सिरालेखा बालेन्द्वाकृतयोऽपि वा। ललाटे बस्तिशीर्षे वा षण्मासान्न स जीवति ॥११॥

He, in whose forehead or in the (region of ) the head of the urinary bladder, (prominent) veins appear unusually, either in straight line or curved lines resembling the young moon, doesnot survive more than six months. ( 11 )

पद्मिनीपत्रवत्तोयं शरीरे यस्य देहिनः । प्लवते प्लवमानस्य षण्मांस तस्य जीवितम् ॥१२॥

He, on whose body, water floats just like it floats on a leaf of lotus (without moistening it), his life is only of six months. (12)

हरिताभा: सिरा यस्य रोमकूपाश्च संवृताः । सोऽम्लाभिलाषी पुरुषः पित्तान्मरणमश्नुते ॥ १३ ॥

The person, whose veins have become green, whose hair follicles have closed and who craves for sour things, is going to die due to (increase of) pitta. (13) यस्य गोमयचूर्णाभं चूर्णं मूर्ध्नि मुखेऽपि वा । सस्नेहं मूर्ध्नि धूमो वा मासान्तं तस्य जीवितम् ॥१४॥

He, whose head and face become covered with dirt resembling the powder of dry cowdung, mixed with oil or resembling smoke, lives only till the end of a month. (14)

मूर्ध्नि भ्रुवोर्वा कुर्वन्ति सीमन्तावर्तका नवाः । मृत्युं स्वस्थस्य षड्रात्रात्त्रिरात्रादातुरस्य तु ॥१५॥

If in the hairs of the head or in the eyebrows, furrows (seperating lines) or whirls get formed afresh, death is sure within six days, if the person is healthy or within three days if he is sick. (15)

यस्य स्नातानुलिप्तस्य पूर्वं शुष्यत्युरो भृशम् । आर्द्रेषु सर्वगात्रेषु सोऽर्धमासं न जीवति ॥१६॥

If in a person, the unguent (paste of sandal – wood or other fragrant things) applied over the body after bath, if dries up quickly over the chest, while on the other parts it is still wet, such a person will not live even for half a month. (16)

उरस्यूष्मा भवेद्यस्य जठरे चातिशीतता | भिन्नं पुरीषं तृष्णा च यथा प्रेतस्तथैव सः ॥१७॥

He, whose chest is very warm but the abdomen is very cold and who has diarrhoea and thirst, is almost like a cadaver. (17)

मूत्रं पुरीषं निष्ठ्यूतं शुक्रं चाप्सु निमज्जति । निष्ठ्यूतं बहुवर्णं वा यस्य मासात्स नश्यति ॥ १८ ॥

The person whose urine, faeces, sputum, and semen sink in water and the sputum is of many colours, dies within a month. (18)

स्वरस्य दुर्बलीभावं हानिं वा बलवर्णयोः । रोगवृद्धिमयुक्त्या च दृष्ट्वा मरणमादिशेत् ॥ १९ ॥

Voice becoming weak or completely lost, decrease of strength and color (and complexion) and unexpected exacerbation of the disease – noticing these – death is to be predicted. (19)

अपस्वरं भाषमाणं प्राप्तं मरणमात्मनः । श्रोतारं चास्य शब्दस्य दूरतः परिवर्जयेत् ॥ २०॥

He, who proclaims in bad voice that he has felt his own death or hears such a talk spoken by others, should be abandoned from a distance. ( 20 )

ऊर्ध्वश्वासं गतोष्माणं शूलोपहतवङ्क्षणम् । शर्म चानधिगच्छन्तं बुद्धिमान् परिवर्जयेत् ॥२१॥

A wise physician should also avoid the patient who is having upward breathing associated with loss of temperature, severe pain in the groins and not finding comfort in any thing (drug or therapy). (21)

यो जातशीतपिटक: शीताङ्गो वा विदह्यते । उष्णद्वेषी च शीतार्तः स प्रेताधिपगोचरः ॥२२॥

He, who has developed eruptions on the skin which are cold, and feels burning sensation though the body is cold; and hates warm things though suffering from cold, is being seen by the king of the dead. (22)

यस्य रज्जुरिच्छाया कण्ठे सक्तोपलक्ष्यते । अवश्यं कृष्यते जन्तुः सोऽचिराद्यमकिङ्करैः ॥२३॥

He, who feels a rope-like image stuck up in his neck is sure to be pulled out, by the attendants of yama (god of death) very quickly. ( 23 )

॥ इति नवमोऽध्यायः ॥

Chapter 9

Thus ends Ashtanga sangraha sharira sthana chapter 9 – Arishta Lakshana.


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