अथात अनस्वरुपविज्ञानीयं नामाध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । इति ह स्माऽहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥१॥
We will now expound the chapter called Annasvarupa (knowledge of nature of food materials). Thus said Atreya and great sages. (1)
Sukadhanya Varga – group of corns with spike, cereals
रक्तो महान् सकलमस्तूर्णकः शकुनाहृतः । शारामुखो दीर्घशूको लोध्रशूकः सुगन्धिकः ||२|
पुण्ड्रः पाण्डुः पुण्डरीकः प्रमोदो गौरशारिवौ । काञ्चनो महिषः शूको दूषकः कुसुमाण्डकः ॥३॥
लाङ्गला लोहवालाख्याः कर्दमाः शीतभीरूकाः । पतङ्गस्तपनीयाश्च ये चान्ये शालयः शुभाः ॥४॥
स्वादुपाकरसाः स्निग्धा वृप्या बद्धाल्पवर्चसः । कषायानुरसाः पथ्या लघवो मूत्रला हिमाः ॥५॥
Rakta, Mahan, Kalama, Turnaka, sakunahrta, Saramukha, Dirghasu-ka, Lodrhasuka, Sugandhika, Pundra, Pandu, Pundarika, Pramoda, Gaurasariva, Kancana, Mahisa, Dusaka, Kusumandaka, Langala, Lohavala, Kardama, Sitabhiruka, Patanga, Tapaniya these and other good varieties of Sali (rice ) are good, suitable as food. They are sweet in taste and at the end of digestion; unctous, aphrodisiac, produce constipation and little quantity of faeces, have astringent as their secondary taste, good for health, easily digestible, diuretic and cold in potency. ( 2-5)
शुकजेषु वरस्तत्र रक्तस्तृष्णात्रिदोषहा | महांस्तं चानु कलमस्तं चाप्यनु ततः परे ॥६॥
Among the varieties of Suka dhanyas (grains which have sharp spike (bristle) at their front ) the rakta (red) variety is best, it relieves thirst and mitigates all the three dosas; next inferior to that is Mahan variety, next to that is Kalama and so on in that order. (6)
यवका हायनाः पांसुवाप्यनैषधकादयः । स्वादूष्णा गुरवः स्त्रिग्धाः पाकेऽस्ला: लेप्मपित्तलाः ॥७॥
सृष्टमूत्रपुरीषाश्च पूर्वं पूर्वं च निन्दिताः
Yavaka, Hayana, Pamsuvapya and Naisadha and other varieties (of rice) are sweet, hot in potency, hard to digest, unctous, sour at the end of digestion, increase kapha and pitta, help elimination of urine and feces easily. These are bad (unsuited as food) in their reverse order (of enumeration). (7)
षष्टिको व्रीहिषु श्रेष्ठो गौरश्चसितगौरतः । ततः क्रमान्महाव्रीहिकृष्णवीहिजतूमुखाः ॥९॥
कुक्कुटाण्डकलाबाक्षपारावतकसूकराः । वरकोद्दालकोजालचीनशारददर्दुराः ।।११।।
गन्धनाः कुरुविन्दाश्च गुणैरल्पान्तराः स्मृताः । स्वादुरम्लविपाकोऽन्यो व्रीहिः पित्तकरो ॥
रा गुरुः ॥११
easily digestible, Sastika (the paddy which matures in sixty days) in best among the paddys, is unctous, constipating, easily ble, sweet, mili militages the all the three dosas, stays long inside the body (alimentary tract), cold in potency; it is of two kinds gaura APALIGEN ESS IST NOPIRK and asita gaura (blackish-white). Next inferior to Sastika is Mahavrihi, next to that is Krsnavril and the others such as Jatumukha, Kukkutandaka, Lavaksa, Paravataka, Sukara, Varaka, Uddalaka, Ujjala, Cina, Sarada, Dardura, Gandhana and Kuruvinda. (8-10)
The other varieties of rice (mentioned above) are sweet in taste and sour at the end of digestion, It cause increase of pitta and are hard to digest.
बहुमूत्रपुरीषोष्मा त्रिदोषस्त्वेव पाटलः ।
Patala kind of rice makes for increased quantity of temperature of the body and of all the quantity of urine, faeces, dosas. (12 a).
Notes:- The different varieties of rice mentioned here are either not clearly recognised new kinds,or even hard to find as majority ty of them have been replaced by new kind has a regional character and so not grown uniformly throughout the country. The kind g sweet taste and pleasant se and pleasant smell has to be of rice which is easily digestible, having for daily use.
श्यामाकतोयश्यामाकहस्तिश्यामाकशिल्विकाः । शिशिरोद्दालनीवारवरूकबरकोत्कटाः ।। १३ ॥
मधूलिकान्तनिर्गण्डीवेणुपर्णीप्रशान्तिकाः । गवेधुकाण्डलौहित्यतोयपर्णीमुकुन्दराः ।।१४।।
कफपित्तहरा रूक्षाः कषायमधुरा हिमाः । वातला बद्धविण्मूत्रा लघवो लेखनात्मकाः ॥ १५ ॥
Kangu Kodrava Jurnahva Gadi, Varunapadika, Syamaka, Toyasyamaka Hastisyamaka, Silbika, Sisiroddala, Nivara, Varuka, Varakotkata, Madhulika, Antanirgandi Venuparni, Prasantika, Gavedhu, Kandalauhitya Toyaparni Mukundara – all these mitigate kapha and pitta; are non-unctous, astringent-sweet in taste, cold in potency, increase vata, bind the urine and faeces, are easily digestible and scarifying. (12-15)
भग्नसन्धानकृत्तत्र प्रियङ्गुर्गृहणी गुरुः । कोरदूषः परं ग्राही स्पर्शे शीतो विषापहः ॥१६॥
उद्दालकस्तु वीर्योष्णो नीवारः श्लेष्मवर्धनः शीतवीर्या विशेषेण स्निग्धा वृप्या मधूलिका ॥ १७॥
Of them, Priyangu, especially helps in the unification of broken parts (fractures of bones), makes the body stout and is hard to digest; Koradusa efficiently stops discharge of fluids from the body, cold to touch and antipoisonous; Uddalaka is hot in potency, Nivara increases kapha, Madhulika is cold in potency specially, unctous and aphrodisiac. (16-17)
Notes:- Priyangu is also known as Kangu and Koradusa as Kodrava, Except one or two like Jurnahwa (Jawar) all others grains are of secondary importance as food. The use of some of them has long been discontinued as staple foods. They are being used to prepare some menu occasionally now-a-days.
रूक्षः शीतो गुरुः स्वादुः सरो विड्वातकृद्यवः । ब वृप्य: स्थैर्यकरा; मूत्रमेदः पित्तकफान् जयेत् ॥ १८॥
Yava is dry, cold in potency, hard to digest, sweet, helps easy movement of faeces and flatus, aphrodisiac, gives stamina, reduces the urine, body fat, pitta and kapha. (18)
पीनसश्वासकासोरुस्तम्भकण्ठत्वगामयान् । गुणैर्न्यूनतरा ज्ञेया यवादनुयवाह्वयाः ॥१९॥
Anuyava is inferior in qualities to Yava, cures nasal catarrh, dyspnoea, cough, stiffness of the thighs, diseases of the throat and skin. ( 19 )
उष्णाः सरा वेणुयवाः कषाया वातपित्तलाः ।
Venu Yava is hot in potency, helps movements of fluids inside the body, astringent and increases vata and pitta (191 / 2 )
वृप्यः शीतो गुरुः स्निग्धो जीवनो वातपित्तहा ॥२०॥ सन्धानकारी मधुरो गोधूमः स्थैर्यकृत् सरः ।
पथ्या नन्दीमुखी शीता कषाया मधुरा लघुः ॥२१॥ इति शूकधान्यवर्गः ।
Godhuma is aphrodisiac, cold in potency, hard to digest, unctous, nourishing, mitigates vata and pitta, unites the broken parts (fractures), sweet in taste, gives strength and helps movement inside. (20 a)
Nandimukha is good for health, cold in potency, astringent, sweet in taste and easily digestible. (21)
Thus ends the group of grains which have spike.
Notes: Yava and Anuyava are the big and small varieties of barley. Venuyava is the seeds of bamboo tree which used rarely as food. Godhuma or wheat is the chief staple food especially in North India. Nandimukha is a variety of wheat.
Simbidhanya Varga – group of legumes
शिम्बिजा मुद्रमङ्गल्यवनमुद्रमकुष्ठकाः । मसूरकफलाढक्यश्चणकाचपृथग्विधाः ||२२||
कषायस्वादुलघवो विबन्धाध्मानकारिणः । रूक्षा बद्धमला: शीता विपाके कटुका हिताः ॥२३॥
पित्तासृक्कफमेदस्सु सूपालेपादियोजनात् ।
Mudga, Mangalya, Vanamudga, Makustaka Masuraka phala, Adhaki and Canaka and their many varieties belong to the group called Simbijadhanya (those which come out of pods or legumes).
Generally they are astringent – sweet in taste, easily digestible, cause constipation and flatulence, non-unctous (dry ), binding the stools, cold in potency, pungent at the end of digestion, suited for the tratment of disorders of pitta, rakta, kapha and medas (fat accumulation) to be used in the form of soup, application on the skin etc. (22-24 a)
सूप्यानामुत्तमा मुद्द्रा लघीयांसोऽल्पमारुताः ||२४||
हरितास्तेष्वपिवरा मकुष्ठाः क्रिमिकारिणः । वर्ण्याः परं प्रलेपाद्यैर्मसूरा ग्रहणो भृशम् ||२५||
Out of the above, Mudga is best for soup, easily digestible, cause mild increase of vata, the green coloured variety is best (than the other black variety).
Makustaka produces worms (intestinal parasites). Masura used as application over the skin improves the colour but used internally it is a powerful binding agent (stops discharge of faeces and fluids from the body). (24-25)
राजमाषो गुरुर्भूरिशकृद्र्क्षोऽतिवातलः । कषायस्वादुरूक्षोप्णाः कुलत्था रक्तपित्तलाः ॥२६॥
पीनसश्वासकासार्शोहिध्मानाहकफानिलान् । प्रान्ति शुक्राश्मरीं शुक्रं दृष्टिं शोफं तथोदरम् ||२७||
ग्राहिणो लघवस्तीक्ष्णा विपाकेडम्ला विदाहिनः । निष्पावस्तु सरो रूक्षः कषायमधुरो गुरुः ॥२८॥
पाकेऽम्लो वातविष्टम्भी स्तन्यमूत्रास्रपित्तकृत् । उष्णो विदाही दृक्च्छुक्रकफशोफविशापहः ॥२९॥
माष: स्निग्धो बलश्लेप्ममलपित्तकरः सरः गुरूप्णोऽनिलहा स्वादुः शुक्रवृद्धिविरेककृत् ॥ ३०॥
फलानि गुणवद्वियात् काकाण्डोलात्मगुप्तयोः । कुशाम्रशिम्बी मधुरा वातपित्तहरा हिमा ॥३१॥
Rajamasa is not easily digestible, produces non-unctous and causes great increase of large amount of faeces, is vata. Kulattha is astringent sweet, dry, hot in potency and cause increase of rakta, and pitta; cures nasal cararrh, dyspnoea, cough, haemorrhoids, hiccup, distention of abdomen, mitigates kapha and vata, destroys stones formed from semen and the semen itself, also the vision, the swellings and enlargement of the abdomen, stops the discharge of fluids, easily digestible, penetrating, sour at the end of digestion and causes heartburn.
Nispava helps movement of faeces and other materials inside, is non-unctuous, astringent-sweet in taste, hard to digest, sour at the end of digestion, obstructs the flatus, increases breast milk, urine, blood and pitta; hot in potency, produces burning sensation in t of vision, semen, kapha, cures swellings and poison. (29) MATER the j chest, loss 10 490 *Masa is unctuous, increases strength, kapha, faeces and pitta, helps CENEY, D60 movement of materials insided the body, hard to digest, hot in potency, mitigates vata, is sweet, causes increase of semen and purgations. M Fruits (seeds) of Kakandola (katabhi), and Atmagupta are similar in properties with that of masa. Kusamra is sweet, mitigates vata and pitta and cold in potency. (30-31)
मधुरा: शीतला गुर्व्या बलघ्यो रूक्षणात्मिकाः । स्नेहादया बलिभिर्भोज्या विविधाः शिम्बिजातयः ॥ ३२॥
sweet in taste, cold inable All other kinds of legumes, are to digest, decrease the strength of the body, cause dryness, for use by those who have too much of fat in the b body and who are strong. (32) hard
स्निग्धोष्णतिक्लकटुकः कषायमधुरस्तिलः मेध्यः केश्यो गुरुर्वर्ण्यः स्पर्शशीतोऽनिलापहः ॥३३ अल्पमूत्रः कटुः पाके मेधाग्निकफपित्तकृत् । कृष्णः प्रशस्तसमनु bird ring शुक्लस्तमनु चारुणः ॥३४॥ Tila is unctuous, hot in potency, bitter, pungent, astringent and sweet s hard to digest, in taste, good for increasing intelligence and hairs; improves colour, cold to touch, mitigates vata, produces less quantity of urine, is pungent at the end of digestion, increases intelligence, digestion, kapha and pitta. Black coloured one is best, next inferior is the white one and least is the crimson (pale red)
स्निग्धोमा स्वादुतिक्तोष्णा कफपित्तकरी गुरुः । दृक्च्छुक्रहत् कटुः पाके तद्वत् बीजं कुसुम्भजम् ॥ ३५॥
माषोऽत्र सर्वेप्ववरो यवकः शूकजेषु च । नवं धान्यमभिष्यन्दि सेक्यं केदारजं च यत् ॥ ३६॥
लघु वर्षोषितं दग्धभूमिजं स्थलसम्भवम् । शीघ्रजन्म तथा सूप्यं निस्तुषं युक्तिभर्जितम् ॥३७॥ इति शिम्बिधान्यवर्गः ।
Seeds of Uma is unctuous, sweet – bitter in taste, hot in potency, causes increase of kapha and pitta, hard to digest, destroys vision and semen, pungent at the end or digestion; the seeds of Kusumbha is also similar to those of Uma.
Masa (black gram) in the group of Simbija (legumes) and Yavaka (small barley) in the group of Sukaja ( cereals) are very inferior; fresh grains (just-harvested) and those grown in wet lands are abhisyandi (cause excess exudation from tissue pores and block them); those grown by help of scanty rain-water, in parched and dry lands, and which mature very quick, are all easily digestible. Similarly also the soups prepared by mudga etc. after removing their husk and judiciously fried. (36-37)
Thus ends the group of Simbi dhanyas (legumes)
Kritanna Varga – group of prepared foods
मण्डपेयाविलेपीनामोदनस्य च लाघवम् । यथापूर्वं शिवस्तत्र मण्डो वातानुलोमनः ॥ ३८॥
तृङ्ग्लानिदोषशेषघ्नः पाचनो धातुसाम्यकृत् । स्त्रोतोमार्दवकृत् स्वेदी सन्धुक्षयति चानलम् ॥३९॥
Manda, peya vilepi and odana are more easily digestible in their preceding order of enumeration. Out of them, Manda is best for causing easy movement of faeces and flatus; relieving thirst and exhaustion; removal of residue of dosas (which might have remained over even after purificatory therapies), it helps digestion, restores the normalcy of the tissues, causes softness of the channels (and tissue pores) perspiration and kindles the digestive activity. (38-39)
Notes:- Manda, peya, vilepi and odana are preparations of rice or other grains cooked in water. The thin fluid resembling water drained out immediately after boiling is known as Manda; slightly thicker than Manda but still only liquid is peya; the next stage with more of solid grains and less of fluid is called Vilepi and the last stage which is solid the odana is easily without only fluid portion is known as odana. The solid one – digestible, its earlier one the vilepi – is more ealily digestible, its previous onepeya – is stll more and the first one the Manda – is still better digestible than peya.
क्षुत्तृष्णाग्लानिदौर्बल्य कुक्षिरोगज्वरापहा । मलानुलोमनी पथ्या पेया दीपनपाचनी ॥४०॥
Peya relieves hunger, thirst, exhaustion, debility, diseases of abdomen and fevers, it causes easy elimination of faeces, good for all, kindles appetite and helps digestion. (40)
विलेपी ग्राहिणी हृद्या तृष्णाघ्नी दीपनी हिता ।
व्रणाक्षि रोग संशुद्धदुर्बलस्नेह पायिनाम् ॥४१॥
Vilepi withholds discharge of faeces and fluids from the body; good for the heart, relieves thirst, kindless appetite, ideal for all, especially for those suffering from ulcers, eye diseases, those who have been administered purificatory therapies, who are weak and who have been given oil for drinking. (41)
सुधौतः प्रस्रुतः स्विन्नस्त्यक्लोष्मा चौदनो लघुः । यश्चाग्नेयौषधक्काथसाधितो भृष्टतण्डुलः॥४२॥
विपरीतो गुरुः क्षीरमांसाद्यैर्यश्च साधितः । इति द्रव्यक्रियायोगमानाद्यैः सर्वमादिशेत् ॥४३॥
Odana prepared with grains which have been washed well, in which the entire water has evaporated and which is devoid of hot fumes is easily digestible; likewise that prepared along with addition of decoction of medicinal substances of hot potency or that prepared with fried grains are also easily digestible; the opposite of these, that prepared with addition of milk, mutton etc., is not easily digestible. Digestibility depends upon the nature of the grains, kind of processing, its quantity and other aspects. (42-43)
शुष्यतां व्याधिमुक्तानां शुद्धानां शुद्धिकाङ्क्षिणाम् । कृशक्षामक्षतोरस्कक्षीणधात्विन्द्रियौजसाम् ॥४४॥
दृष्टिश्रवणवह्रयायुर्बल वर्णस्वरार्थिनाम् । भग्नाविश्लिष्टसन्धीनां व्रणिनां वातरोगिणाम् ॥ ४५ ॥
हृद्यः पथ्यः परं वृष्यो बृंहणः प्रीणनो रसः ।
Mamsa rasa (meat soup) is best suited for those who are emaciated, convalescent, who have undergone or desiring to undergo purificatory. therapies; who are thin, wasted, having injuries in the chest, who have been losing the tissues, acuity of sense organs and ojas (strength) for those desirous of good vision, hearing, digestive capacity, long life, strength, colour ( and complexion) and voice; who are suffering from fractures, dislocation of joints, ulcers and diseases caused by vata; it is good for the heart, ideal for health, best aphrodisiac, nourishing and satisfying food. (44-46 a)
मौद्रस्तु पथ्यः संशुद्धव्रणकण्ठाक्षिरोगिणाम् ॥ ४६॥
Mudga supa (soup of green gram) is good for health, for those who have undergone purificatory therapies and for those suffering from ulcers, diseases of the throat and eyes. (46)
वातानुलोमी कौलत्थो गुल्मतूनिप्रतूनिजित् ।
प्रभूताभ्यन्तरमलो मापसूपः परं स्मृतः ॥४७॥ खलकाम्बलिकौ हथौ च्छेदिनौ स्वौषधानुगौ ।
पिशितेन रसस्तत्र यूपो धान्यैः खलः फलैः ||४८॥
Kulattha supa (soup of horse-gram) causes free movement of faeces and urine and cures tumors of the abdomen, pains of the urinary bladder.
Masa supa (soup of black gram) causes production of large quantity of internal wastes (like feces etc.).
Khala and Kambalika are both good for the heart (or the mind) and in association with medicines, they split up hard materials. (47-481/2)
ज्ञेयाः कृताकृतास्ते तु स्नेहादियुतवर्जिताः ॥४९॥
अल्पमांसादयः स्वच्छा दकलावणिकाः स्मृताः । विद्याद्यूपे रसे सूपे शाके चैवोत्तरोत्तरम् ॥५०॥
गौरवं तनुसान्द्राम्लस्वादुप्वेषु पृथक् तथा । तिलपिण्याकविकृतिः शुष्कशाकं विरूढकम् ॥५१॥ चाण्डाकीवटकं दृघ्नं दोषलं ग्लपनं गुरु ।
Soup prepared from meat is known as Rasa, that prepared from grains is Yusa; that prepared from fruits is Khala; that prepared from roots, sesamum seeds and then made sour (with juice or pomegranate, lemon etc.) is known as Kambalika.
They are called krtayusa, if they are processed with addition of oil, salt, spicies etc., and fried; that without such processing are called as Akrtayusa.
Those prepared with very little quantities of meat and spices, which are clear (like water) are known as Dakalavanika.
Yusa, Rasa, Supa and Saka are hard to digest in their order of succession; likewise their digestibility with their thinness or thickness; sour and sweet tastes also.
Notes Soups which are thin are easily digestible than the thick; sweet ones than sour ones etc.
तिलपिण्याकविकृतिः शुष्कशाकं विरूढकम् ॥५१॥ चाण्डाकीवटकं दृघ्नं दोषलं ग्लपनं गुरु ।
पर्पटा लघवो रुच्या लघीयान् क्षारपर्पटः ॥५२॥
Those prepared from paste of oilcake of tila, dried leafy vegetables, sprouted (germinated) grains, and the Candaki vataka are harmful for vision, make for increase of all the dosas, fatigue and difficult digestion;
Parpata is easily digestible and taste promoting; Ksara parpata (parpata with addition of alkalies) is more easily digestible. (50-52)
Notes:- Candaki vataka are small boluses prepared with mixture of parched rice and spices, parpata (pappad) are thin round cakes made from blackgram flour and spices. Both are dried in the sun and preserved. They are fried in oil when required and used as condiments.
ह्रद्या वृप्या रुचिकरा गुरवो रागषाडवाः । प्रीणना भ्रमतृच्छर्दिमदमूर्छाश्रमच्छिदः ॥ ५३॥
Raga and Sadava are good for the heart (or the mind) are aphrodisiacs, improve taste, hard to digest, satisfying; relieve giddiness, thirst, vomitting, toxicity, fainting and fatigue. (53)
तट्च्छर्दिश्रमनुन्मन्थः शीतः सद्योबलप्रदः ।
प्रमेहक्षयकुष्ठानि न च स्युर्मन्थपायिनः ॥५४॥
Mantha relieves thirst, vomitting, fatigue; is cold in potency, gives strength immediately; diabetes, consumption and leprosy do not develop in those who are habituated to Mantha drinking. (54)
रसाला बृंहणी वृप्या स्रिग्धा बल्या रुचिप्रदा । श्रमक्षुत्तृट्क्लमहरं पानकं प्रीणनं गुरु ||५५|| विष्टम्भि मूत्रलं हृद्यं यथाद्रव्यगुणं च तत् ।
Rasala makes the body stout, is aphrodisiac, unctuous, strengthening and promotes taste.
Panaka relieves exhaustion, hunger, thirst and fatigue, gives satisfaction, is hard to digest, stays long in the stomach; diuretic and good to the heart (or the mind). Its properties are same as that of the material from which it is prepared. (55-55 1/2)
Notes: All the above are thick sweet liquid puddings; Raga is prepared from sugar and honey; Sadava is from juice of sour fruits and sugar; curds churned with addition of pepper powder and sugar is called Rasala; panaka is syrup made from fruits and fragrant plants etc.
लाजास्तृट्च्छर्यतीसारमेहमेदःकफच्छिदः ॥५६॥ कासपित्तोपशमना दीपना लघवो हिमाः ।
Laja (parched or fried paddy) relieves thirst, vomitting, diarrhoea, diabetes, obesity; mitigates kapha, cough, pitta, increases appetite, easily digestible and cold in potency.
पृथुका गुरवो बल्याः कफविष्टम्भकारिणः ॥ ५७॥
Prthuka (parboiled and flaked rice) is hard to digest, strengthening, increases kapha, cause indigestion by staying long in the stomach. (57)
धाना विष्टम्भिनी रूक्षा तर्पणी लेखनी गुरुः । कण्ठनेत्रामयक्षुत्लृक्षमछर्दिव्रणापहा ॥५८।।
Dhana (fried paddy and other grains) stays long in the stomach causing indigestion, is non-unctuous, satisfying, scarifying, hard to digest, cures diseases of the throat, and eye; relieves hunger, thirst, exhaustion, vomitting and ulcers. (58)
सक्लवो लघवः पानात् सद्य एव बलप्रदाः । निचयात् कठिना गुर्वी प्रोक्ता पिण्डी मृदुर्लघुः॥५९॥
Saktu (fried corn flour, groates) are easily digestible taken as a drink, gives strength immediately, made into a hard ball known as Saktupindi, it becomes hard to digest, its soft bolus is easily digestible. (59)
Notes :- Laja is prepared by frying paddy, prthuka is prepared by boiling paddy for a short while and pounding it with pestle in a morter; Dhana is made by frying paddy which is soaked in water and saktu is flour either raw or fried, mixed with water and consumed.
सक्तूनां द्रवतायोगाल्लघीयस्यवलेहिका । शप्कुलीमोदकादीनां व्याख्यातैवं च कल्पना ॥६०॥
Saktu mixed with water and made into a semisolid mass is known as Avalehika; flour is likewise made into Saskuli, modaka etc., by different methods. (60)
नोदकान्तरिताभ द्विर्न निशायां न केवलान् ।
न भुक्का न द्विजैश्छित्वा सक्तूनयान वा बहून् |॥६१।।
They should not be eaten without drinking water in between, not twice in a day, not at nights, not solely (without other kinds of foods), not after meals, not by cutting with teeth and not too much in quantity. (61)
कर्कन्धुबदरादीनां श्रमतृष्णाक्लमच्छिदः ।
सक्लवोऽम्लरसा हृद्या यथाद्रव्यगुणाश्च ते ॥६२॥
The preparations of flour mixed with fruits of karkandhu and badara are sour in taste, relieves exhaustion, thirst, debility and good to the heart (or the mind); other varieties of this, possess the propertics of the source material. (62)
Notes :- Many tasty eatables are prepared from flour of rice and other cercals. horsegram, bengal gram and other legumes; with addition of spices, sour and fragrant substances. Some of them are boiled in water, some are steamed, some are fried in oil etc., various vegetables like onions, brinjals, banana etc., are also added in some preparations. These are usually consumed as side-dishes or as snacks in between meals. However in view of their hard digestibility, some warnings have been enumerated above.
पिप्ण्याको ग्लपनो रूक्षो विष्टम्भी दृष्टिदूषणः । वेशवारो गुरुः त्रिग्धो बलोपचयवर्धनः ||६३||
Pinyaka produces giddiness, dryness, indigestion and vitiates vision; Vesavara is not easily digestible, is unctuous, increases strength and builds the body, that prepared from mudga and others is hard to digest and possess propreties similar to the material from which it is prepared.
Notes:- Pinyaka is the residue of sesamum, groundnut and other oil seeds, after taking out the oil from them. Vesavara is meat cut into minute bits, added with spices like pepper, ginger etc., and roasted or fried. Vegetable vesavara is prepared with flour grams of various kinds, added with spices etc.
मुद्गादिजास्तु गुरवो यथाद्रव्यगुणानुगाः । कुकूलकर्परभ्राष्टकन्द्वङ्गारविपाचितान् ।
एकयोनीन् लघून्विद्यादपूपानुत्तरोत्तरम् ||६४|| इति कृतान्नवर्गः ।
Eatables cooked by steaming, baked on hot mud pan or iron pan, in a vessel kept over a oven, inside a hearth or by placing on burning coal directly are easily digestible in the successive order of their enumeration. Similarly the eatables prepared from any one kind of grain by any of these methods of cooking.
Thus ends the group of prepared foods.
Notes: Eatables prepared by steaming them is easily digestible, that baked on hot pan is more easily digestible, that cooked in a vessel kept on a stove or oven is still better, that prepared by placing inside a oven and closed is still more better and that baked by placing on burning coal is most easily digestible than all others. That prepared by any one kind of grain, in any one of these methods is easily digestible than a similar one prepared from another kind of grain.
Mamsa Varga – group of meats
हरिणैणकूरङ्गर्श्यगोकर्णमृगमातृकाः । कालपुच्छकचारुप्कवरपोतशशोरणाः ॥६५॥
वदंष्ट्ररामशरभकोहकारकशम्बराः । करालकृतमालौ च पृषतन्च मृगाः स्मृताः॥६६॥
1) Harina, 2) Ena 3) Kuranga 4) Rsya 5) Gokarna 6) Mrigamatrka 7) Kalapuchaka 8) Caruska 9) Varapota 10) sasa 11) Urana 12) Swadamstra 13 ) Rama 14) Sarabha 15 ) Kohakaraka 16 ) Sambara 17) Karala 18) Krtamala and 19 ) Prsata. These belong to the group called Mrga. (65-66)
Notes:- Except sasa (rabbit) and Urana ( sheep) the rest are all different kinds of deer, antelope and bucks. Some of them are having horns, some are hornless, all of them are herbivorous and live in dry regions especially shrubby forests. In olden days they were being hunted mainly for food.
लाववार्तिकवर्तीररक्लवर्त्मककर्कराः । कपिञ्जलोपचक्राख्यचकोररुरुबाहवः ||६७ ||
वर्तको वर्तिका चेति तित्तिरिः क्रकरः शिखी । ताम्रचूडाख्यवरकगोनर्दगिरिवर्त्तिकाः ॥६८॥ तथा शारपदेन्द्राह्ववारटाश्चेति विष्किराः ।
1) Lava 2) Vartika 3) Vartira 4) Raktavartmaka 5) Karkara 6 ) Kapinja – la 7) Upacakra 8) Cakora 9) Ruru bahava 10) Vartaka 11) Vartika 12 ) Tittiri 13) Krakara 14) Sikhi 15 ) tamracuda 16) Varaka 17) Gonarda 18) Girivaritika 19) Sarapada 20) Indrahwa 21) Varata
These (twenty one) belong to the group of birds known as Viskira (birds which scratch the ground with their beak or claws and pick up their food).
शतपत्रो भृङ्गराजः कोयष्टी जीवजीवकः॥६९॥
खञ्जरीटकहारीतदुर्नामारिकृशाग्रहाः । लट्वा लडूषो वटहा गोक्ष्वेलो डिण्डिमाणवः॥७०।। ।
कलविङ्कः परभृतः कपोतोऽङ्गारचूडकः ॥७२॥
जटी दुन्दुभिपार्कारलोहपृष्ठकुलिङ्गकाः मञ्जरीयकदात्यूहगोधापुत्रप्रियात्मजाः पारावत: पाणविक इत्युक्ताः प्रतुदा द्विजाः ।
1) Satapatra 2) Bhrngaraja 3) Koyasti 4) Jivajivaka 5) Khanjaritaka 6) Harita 7) Durnamari 8) Krsa 9) Grha 10) Latva 11) Ladusa 12) Vataha 13) Goksvela 14) Dindimanava 15) Jati 16) Dundubhi 17) Parkara 18) Loha prstha 19) Kulingaka 20) Sarika 21) Suka 22) Sarnga 23) Ciritika 24) Kuyastika 25) Manjariyaka 26) Datyuaha 27) Godhaputra 28) Priya”tmaja 29) Kalavinka 30) Parabhrta 31) Kapota 32) Angaracuduka, 33) paravata 34) Panavika
These birds belong to the group called Pratuda. (69-73 a)
Notes:- Pratuda are those which make use of their beak to hold their food and swallow. Some of them are fruitivorous, some others are insectivorous.
श्वेतः श्यामचित्रपृष्ठः कालकः काकुली मृगः ॥७३॥
भेकचिल्लटकूचीका गोधाशल्यकशाण्डकाः । वृषाहिकदलीश्वाविन्नकुलाद्या बिलेशयाः॥७४॥
1) Sveta Kakulimrga 2) syama Kakulimrga 3) Citraprstha Kakulimrga 4) Kalaka Kakulimrga 5) Bheka 6) Cillata 7) Kucika 8) Godha 9) Salyaka 10) Sandaka 11) Vrsahi 12) Kadali 13) Svavit 14) Nakula and other animals belong to the group called Bilesaya (living in burrows) (73-74)
गोखराश्वतरोष्टाश्वद्वीपिसिंहर्क्षवानराः । मार्जारमूषिकव्याघ्रवृकबभ्रुतरक्षवः ।।७५ ॥
शशघ्नीभासकुररगृध्रवेश्यकुलिङ्गकाः ॥७६ ॥
धूमिका मधुहा चेति प्रसहा मृगपक्षिणः ।
1) Go, 2) Khara, 3) Asvatara, 4) Ustra, 5) Asva, 6) Dvipi, 7) Simha, 8) Rksa, 9) Vanara, 10) Marjara, 11) Musaka, 12) Vyaghra, 13) Vrka, 14) Babhru, 15) Tarksu, 16) Lopaka, 17) Jambuka, 18) Syena, 19) Casa, 20) Uluka, 21) Sva, 22) Vayasa, 23) Sasaghni, 24) Bhasa, 25) Kurara, 26) Grdhra, 27) Vesya, 28) Kulingaka, 29) Dhumika, 30) Madhuha, these and other animals and birds belong to the group known as Prasaha (which catch the food by their teeth, tear the food and eat. (75-77 a)
महिषन्यङ्कुरोहीतवराहरुरुवारणाः ॥७७॥ सृमरश्चमरः खड्गो गवयश्च महामृगाः ।
1) Mahisa 2) Nyanku 3) Rohita 4) Varaha 5) Ruru 6) Varana 7) Srmara 8) Camara 9) Khadga 10) Gavaya and others are known as Mahamrga ( animals of huge body). (77)
मृणालकण्ठचक्राह्वबलाका रक्तशीर्षकाः । उत्क्रोशपुण्डरीकाक्षशरारीमणितुण्डकाः ॥७९॥
काकतुण्डघनारावमद्गुक्रौञ्चाम्बुकुक्कुटाः । नद्यास्योमल्लिकाद्याश्च पक्षिणो जलचारिणः ॥८०॥
1) Hamsa 2) Sarasa 3) Kadamba 4) Baka 5) Karandava 6 ) Plava 7) Mrnalakantha 8) Cakrahva 9) Balaka 10) Rakta sirsaka 11) Utkrosa 12) Pundarikaksa 13) Sarari 14) Manitundaka 15) Kakatunda 16) Ghanarava 17) Madgu 18 ) Kraunca 19 ) Ambukukkuta 20) Nadyasya 21) Mallikasya and other birds are known as Jalacari (aquatic birds). (78-80)
मत्स्या रोहितपाठीनकूर्मकुम्भीरकर्कटाः । शुक्लिशङ्कोद्रुशम्बूकशफरीवर्त्मिचन्द्रिकाः ॥८१॥
बुलूकीनक्रमकरशिंशुमारतिमिङ्गलाः । राजी चिलिचिमायाश्च मांसमित्याहुरष्टधा || ८२||
1) Rohita 2) Pathina 3 ) Kurma 4 ) Kumbhira 5 ) Karkata 6) Sukti 7) Sankha 8) Udru 9) Sambuka 10) safari 11) Varmi 12) Candrika 13) Buluki 14) Nakra 15) Makara 16 ) Simsumara 17) Timingala 18) Raji 19) Cilicima and others belong to the group of Matsya (fishes) (81-82)
Thus eight kinds of ( sources of) Mamsa are enumerated. (82) योनिष्वजावी व्यामिश्रगोचरत्वादनिश्चिते ।
Goat and sheep are not included in any particular group because of their mixed heridity and living in all types of lands.
आद्यान्त्या जाङ्गलानूपा मध्यौ साधारणौ स्मृतौ ॥ ८३॥
Out of these eight groups mentioned above the first three (Mrga,Viskira and Pratuda) are also known as Jangala; the last three (Maha“mrga, Jalacara and Matsya) are also called anupa. The middle two (Bilesaya and Prasaha) are also known as Sadharana.
The term ‘Viskira’ refers to the habit of the birds of this group “to scratch the ground by their legs, scatter the food and then pick them with their beak. (83-84a)
तत्र बद्धमला रुच्या मांसानामुत्तमाः हिमाः ||८४॥
कषायस्वादुविशदा लघवो जाङ्गला हिताः । पित्तोत्तरे वातमध्ये सन्निपाते कफानुगे ॥८५॥
Flesh of Jangala animals cause constipation, improves taste, best among meats, cold in potency, astringent sweet in taste, non-unctous, easily digestable, suitable for mitigating sannipata having great increase of pitta, moderate increase of vata and mild increase of kapha. (84b-85).
ताम्रोऽत्र हरिणः कृष्णस्त्वेणो हृयास्त्रिदोषजित् ।
लघीयान् षड्रसश्चासौ ग्राही रूक्षो हिमः शशः ॥८६॥ कटुपाकोऽग्निकृत् पथ्यः सन्निपातेऽनिलावरे |
Harina is coppery red in colour and Ena is black. The flesh of both are good to the heart, mitigate the three dosas, easily digestable, possess all the six tastes.
Flesh of sasa is water absorbent, causes dryness, cold in potency, pungent at the end of digestion, kindles digestive power, best suited in sannipata with mild increase of anila (vata). (86-87a)
तद्वल्लावोऽप्यरूक्षस्तु किञ्चिदूक्षः कपिञ्जलः ||८७||
पारावता: कपोताच तद्वद्वन्या: सुपूजिताः । ईषदुष्णगुरुस्निग्धा बृंहणा वर्तकादयः ||८८॥
बरो मेधाग्निबलशुक्रकृत् । ग्राही वर्ण्योऽनिलोद्रिक्लसन्निपातहरः परम् ॥८९॥ धन्वानूपविचारित्वात् स्निग्धोष्णगुरुबृंहणः ।
Flesh of lava is similar (in properties with that of sasa) but causes dryness. Flesh of paravata, kapota etc living in forests are more suitable. Flesh of vartaka etc is slightly hot in potency, hard for digestion, unctous, and stoutening; amoung these, that of Tittiri is best, it augments intellegence, digestive power, strength and semen, is water absorbent, improves colour (complexion), especially mitigates sannipata where in anila (vata) is greatly increased; since it (bird) moves about both in arid and marshy regions, its flesh is unctous, hot in potency, hard for digestion and is stoutening. (87b-90a)
नातिपथ्यः शिखी पथ्यः श्रोत्रस्वरवयोदृशाम् ।।९० ॥
तद्वच्च कुक्कुटो वृष्यो ग्राम्यस्तु श्लेष्मलो गुरुः । मेधानलकरा हृद्याः क्रकरा: सोपचक्रका ॥ ९१॥
गुरुः सलवणः काणकपोतः सर्वदोषकृत् ।
The flesh of sikhi is not very good generally but good for the ears
(hearing), voice, ageing (to slow down ageing) and eyes (vision). Flesh of kukkuta is similar to that of sikhi, that of the demesticated fowl increases kapha and hard to digest. Flesh of krakara increases intelligence, and digestion, is good for the heart (or the mind); similar is the flesh of upacakraka; that of kanakapota is hard to digest, slightly saltly and increases all the dosas (90-911/2)
गुरूष्णस्निग्धमधुरा वर्गाश्चातो यथोत्तरम् ॥ ९२॥
मूत्रशुक्रकृतो बल्या वातघ्नाः कफपित्तलाः ।
Flesh of animals of the next succeeding group (bilesaya) are hard to digest, hot in potency, unctuous and sweet, increase urine and semen, is strengthening, mitigates vata and increases kapha, and pitta. (92)
शीता महामृगास्तेषु क्रव्यादाः प्रसहाः पुनः ॥९३॥
चक्षुप्याः सृष्टविण्मूत्रा मांसलाः कटुपाकिनः । जीर्णोर्शोग्रहणीदोषशोषार्तानां परं हिताः ॥ ९४ ।।
Flesh of mahamrgas is cold in potency, generally; of them, the flesh of carnivorous animals is good for the eye (vision), help elimination of feces and urine, develops the muscles of the body and pungent at the end of digestion, ideally suited for persons suffering from long standing haemorrhoids, duodenal disorders and consumption. (93-94)
गोधा नियछति विषं मूषिकः शुक्रवर्धनः । शुष्ककासश्रमात्यग्निविषमज्वरपीनसान् ।।९५॥
कार्यकेवलवातांश्च गोमांसं सन्नियच्छति । चटका: श्लेष्मला: स्निग्धा वातघ्नाः शुक्रलाः परम् ॥९६॥
गुरूप्णो महिषः स्निग्धः स्वप्नदाढर्थबृहत्वकृत् । तद्वद्वराहः श्रमहा रुचिशुक्रबलप्रदः ॥ ९७।।
Flesh of godha is anti-poisonous and that of musika increases semen. Gomamsa (flesh of bull, bullock and cow) cures dry cough, exhaustion, excess of hunger, intermittent fevers, nasal catarrh, emaciation, and diseases caused by increase of vata independently.
Flesh of cataka increases kapha, is unctuous, mitigates vata and increases semen specially.
Flesh of mahisa is hard to digest, unctuous, produces sleep, strength and stoutness of the body.
Flesh of varaha is similar ( to that of the mahisa), relieves fatigue, increases taste, semen and strength. (95-97)
हंसः स्वरकरः पित्तरक्लजिन्मेदुरो हिमः । कफपित्तकरा मत्स्याः परं पवननाशनाः ।।९८।।
प्रतिस्रोतोविचारित्वादाकाशप्लवनेन च । रोहितः प्रवरस्तेषां परं चिलिचिमोऽवरः ।।९९।।
अगोचरविचारित्वात् सर्वदोषकरो हि सः । कुलीर परमं वृप्यो बृंहणः प्रीणनो गुरुः ॥१००॥
Flesh of hamsa is good for the voice, mitigates pitta and rakta, is very fatty and cold in potency.
Fish in general tend to increase kapha and pitta and is efficient in mitigating vata; Among them, rohita fish is the best because of its nature of moving against the current of water and flying into the air fron underneath the water; cilicima fish is the worst in this group for it tends to incrase all the three dosas because of its nature, invisiblity (among weeds and slush); kulira fish is aphrodisiac especially, makes the body stout, gives satisfaction, and is hard to digest. (98-100)
नातिशीतगुरुस्निग्धं मांसमाजमदोषलम् । शरीरधातुसामान्यादनभिष्यन्दि बृंहणम् ।।१०१।। विपरीतमतो ज्ञेयमाविकं बृंहणं तु तत् ।
Flesh of Aja (goat) is not vary cold in potency, is not hard to digest, not unctuous, does not cause increase of the dosas because of identical qualities of the tissues of the human body; it maintains the health of the tissues and makes the body stout; the flesh of Avi(sheep) is opposite to the above but makes the body stout.(101-101 1/2)
अतिमेयं त्यजेन्मांसं हतं व्याधिविषोदकैः ॥१०२ ॥
स्वयं मृतं धूमपूर्णमगोचरभृतं कृशम् । सद्योहतं वयस्थं च शुद्धं सुरभि शस्यते ॥ १०३।।
Flesh of animals which are dead by diseases, poisons, drowning in water, old age, or by suffocation by smoke, of those which are rared in unknown place and of those which are emaciated should not be eaten. Flesh of animals just killed (for the purpose of eating), of animals which have all their organs and parts in tact, not contaminated (with mud, etc.) and that which smells sweet are ideal for food. (102-103)
एणः कुरङ्गो हरिणः शशो लावः कपिञ्जलः । तित्तिरिः क्रकरो गोधा श्वाविप्रो मृगाधिपः ॥ १०४॥
तथैव शारिका न्यङ्ङ्कुहँसो रोहितकच्छपौ । वर्मी चाग्रयाः स्ववर्गेषु प्रवरास्तेष्वपि स्मृताः ॥१०५॥
लावैणगोधाः सिंहाश्च- निन्दितो गौः सदर्दुरः । ऋश्यः काणकपोतश्च शेषमुक्तं यथायथम ||१०६॥
Ena Kuranga Harina, Sasa, Lava, Kapinjala, Tittiri, Krakara, Godha, Svavid, Grdhra, Mrgadhipa; Marika, Nyanku, Hamsa, Rohita, Kaccapa and Vartmi are the chief ones (ideals); in their respective groups; even among these Lava, Godha and Simha are the best in each group. Go, Dardura, Rishya, Kanakapota are very bad ones in their own groups. The rest are as they are in qualities (generally good). (104-106)
Notes:- Ena, Kuranga, Harina and Sasa belong to the group of Mrgas; Lava, Kapinjal. Tittiri and Karkara belong to Viskira group; Godha, and Swavid belong to Bilesaya group; gridhra and mrigadhipa belong to prasaha group; sarika belongs to pratuda group. Nyanku to the Mahamrga, Hamsa to the Jalacara birds; Rohita, Kacchapa and Varmı belong to the Matsya group; the flesh of these is good as food. Among the bad ones go belongs to Prasaha group, Dardura to Bilesaya group, Rsya to. Mrga group, and Kanakapota to the ramaining group.
गुरूण्यण्डानि बालानां कषायमधुरं पलम् । वृद्धानां स्रायुभूयिष्ठमबल्यं गुरुदोषलम् ||१०७ ||
Eggs of birds are not easily digestible; flesh of young animals is astringent sweet in taste, that of aged animals, that which has more of tendons are not going to give strength, are hard to digest and cause increase of the dosas. (107)
पुंस्त्रियोः पूर्वपश्चार्धे गुरुणी गर्भिणी गुरुः । लघुर्योषिच्चतुप्पात्सु विहङ्गेषु पुनः पुमान् ॥१०८॥
Flesh obtained from half the body (the parts above the umbilicus) of male animals and from half the body (the parts below the umbilicus of female animals) that obtained from the pregnant animal are all hard to digest.
Among the quadrupeds, the flesh of female species is easily digestible but among the birds it is of the male species.
शिरस्कन्धोरुपृष्ठस्य कट्याः सक्थ्नोश्च गौरवम् ।
तथामपक्काशययोर्यथापूर्वं विनिर्दिंशेत् ॥ १०९ ।।
Flesh obtained from the head, neck, thighs, back, waist, forelegs, stomach and intestines are hard to digest in the reverse order of enumeration. (109)
शोणितप्रभृतीनां च धातूनामुत्तरोत्तरम् । मांसात् गरीयो वृषणमेद्रवृक्कयकृतगुदम् ॥ ११० ।। इति मांसवर्गः ॥
The tissues of the animal such as blood and others are hard to digest in their successive order. Testicles, penis, kidneys, liver and rectum are hard to digest than the flesh. (110)
Thus ends the group of flesh.
Notes: In ancient India, hunting was very common both for the sake of food and for recreation.
It is difficult to correctly identify some of the animals, birds and fishes named herein.
Some of them might have become even extinct. Among the animals and birds belonging to different kinds and nature some were found suitable as food but some were not. Present day names of animals and birds enumerated so far are furnished at the end of this book for better recognition.
Saka Varga – leafy vegetables
शाकं पाठाशटीश्रूषासुनिषण्डसतीनजम् । त्रिदोषघ्नं लघु ग्राहि सराजक्षववास्तुकम् ॥ १११॥
सुनिषण्डोऽग्निकृद्धृप्यस्तेषु राजक्षवः परम् । ग्रहण्यर्शोविकारघ्नो वर्चोभेदी तु वास्तुकः || ११२॥
Sakas (leafy Vegetables) are ( 1 ) Patha, (2) Sati, (3) Srusa (4) Sunisanda (5) Satina (6) Rajaksavaka(7) Vastuka in general, mitigate all the three dosas, are easily digestible and binding (stop elimination of faeces and fluids from the body); Sunisanda increases hunger and is aphrodisiac, Rajaksava is a better aphrodisiac; Vastuka cures duodenal disease and haemorrhoids and breaks the hard faeces. (111-112)
हन्ति दोषत्रयं कुष्ठं वृष्या सोष्णा रसायनी ।
काकमाची सरा स्वर्या चाङ्गेर्यम्लाऽग्निदीपनी ॥११३॥
ग्रहण्यर्शोऽनिलश्लेष्महितोष्णा ग्राहिणी लघुः ।
(8) Kakamaci mitigates the three dosas, cures leprosy and other skin diseases, is aphrodisiac, hot in potency, rejuvinator, causes easy movement of faeces and other materials inside the body and is good for voice.
(9) Cangeri is sour in taste, kindles digestion, good for duodenal disease, haemorrhoids, and for increased vata and kapha; hot in potency, withhold elimination of faeces and other fluids and is easily digestible. (113)
वेत्राग्रबृहतीवासाकुन्तलीतिलपर्णिकाः । मण्डूकपर्णीकटकारवेल्लकपर्पटाः।।११५॥
नाडीकलायगोजिह्वावार्त्ताकवनतिक्लकम् । करीरं कूलकं नन्दी कुवेला शकुलादनी ॥११६ ॥
कठिल्लं केम्बुकं शीतं सकोशातककर्कशम् । तिक्लं पाके कटु ग्राहि वातलं कफपित्तजित् ॥११७॥
(1) Patola (2) Saptala ( 3 ) Arista (4) Sarngestha ( 5 ) Avalguaja ( 6 ) Amrta (7) Vetragra (8) Brhati (9) Vasa (10) Kuntali, Tilaparnika (12) Mandukaparni (13) Karkota (14) Karavella (15) Parpata (16) Nadikalaya (17) Gojihwa (18) Vartaka (19) Vanatiktaka (20) Karira (21) Kulaka (22) Nandi (23) Kuvela (24) Sakuladani ( 25 ) Kathilla (26) Kembuka (27) Sita (28) Kostaka (29) Karkasa- these are cold in potency, bitter in taste, pungent at the end of digestion, binding (withhold the movement of faeces and fluids), increase vata and mitigate kapha and pitta. (114-117)
हृयं पटोलं क्रिमिनुत् स्वादुपाकं रुचिप्रदम् । पित्तलं दीपन भेदि वातघ्नं वृहतीद्वयम् ॥ ११८ ।।
वृषं तु वमिकासघ्नं रक्तपित्तहरं परम् । कारवेल्लं सकटुकं दीपनं कफपित्तजित् ॥ ११९ ॥
वार्त्ताकं कटुतिक्लोष्णं मधुरं कफवातजित् । सक्षारमग्निजननं हृद्यं रुच्यमपित्तलम् ।।१२०।।
करीरमाध्मानकरं कषायं स्वादुतिक्लकम् । कोशातकावलगुजको भेदिनाबग्निदीपनौ ॥ १२१॥
Patola is good for the heart (or the mind) destroys worms, sweet at the end of digestion, and improves taste.
The two Brhatis increase pitta, promote hunger, break the hard faeces. Vrsa cures vomitting, cough and especially haemorrhagic disease.
Karavella is bitter in taste, kindles digestion and mitigates kapha and pitta.
Vartaka is pungent, bitter, hot in potency, sweet, mitigates kapha and vata.
Karira is alkaline, does not increase pitta, kindles digestion, good for the heart, promotes taste, produces flatulnce, astringent, sweet and bitter in taste.
Kosataki and Avalguja break the hard faeces and kindle digestion. (118-121)
श्यामाशाल्मलिकाश्मर्यभञ्जीकर्णकयूथिकाः । वृक्षादिनी क्षीरवृक्षबिम्बीतनिकवृक्षकाः ।।१२२।।
लोध्रः शण: कच्छुदार: सशेलुविषमुष्टिका । भल्लातकः कोविदारः कमलोत्पलकिंशुकम् ॥ १२३॥
पटोलादिगुणं स्वादु कषायं पित्तजित् परम् ।
(1) syama (2) Salmali ( 3 ) Kasmarya (4) Bhanji (5) Karnaka (6) Yuthika (7) Vrksadani (8) Ksiravrksa (9) Bimbi ( 10 ) Tanika vrksaka ( 11 ) Lodhra (12) sana (13) Kacchudara (14) Selu (15) Visamustika ( 16 ) Bhallataka (17) Kovidara (18) Kamala (19) Utpala (20) Kimsuka — all these are similar to patola (in properties), sweet, astringent and especially mitigate pitta (122-124a)
बद्धमूत्रा सरा भञ्जी करीरं स्यादभीरुजम् ॥ १२४॥
सतिक्तं लघु चक्षुप्यं वृष्यं दोषत्रयप्रणुत् । तण्डुलीयो हिमो रूक्षः स्वादुपाकरसो लघुः ||१२५॥
मदपित्तविषास्रघ्नो मुञ्जतं वातपित्तजित् । स्त्रिग्धं शीतं गुरु स्वादु बृंहणं शुक्रकृत् परम् ॥१२६॥
पालक्या पिछिला गुर्वी श्लेष्मला भेदिनी हिमा । मदघ्युपोदका चुचुर्ग्राही तौ पूर्ववत्तथा ||१२७||
विदारी वातपित्तघ्नी मूत्रला स्वादुशीतला | जीवन्ती बृंहणी कण्ठ्या गुर्वीवृष्या रसायनी ॥ १२८॥
चक्षुष्या सर्वदोषघ्नी जीवन्ती मधुरा हिमा । शाकानां प्रवरा न्यूना द्वितीया किञ्चिदेव तु ॥ १२९॥
वातपित्तहरा भण्डी पर्वणी पर्वपुष्पिका ।
Bhanji suppresses the urine and causes movement of bowels; Abhiruja Karira is bitter, easily digestible, good for the eyes, aphrodisiac and mitigates all the three dosas.
Tanduliya is cold in potency, dry, sweet in taste and also at the end of digestion, and easily digestible.
Munjata cures intoxication, pitta, poison and disorders of blood, mitigates vata and pitta, unctuous, cold in potency, hard to digest, sweet, makes the body stout and especially increases semen.
Palakya is slimy, hard to digest, increases kapha, breaks the hard faeces and cold in potency.
Upodika relieves intoxication, and Cuncu is binding (withholds elimination of faeces and fluids) and both have properties similar to that of Palakya.
Vidari mitigates vata and pitta, is diuretic, sweet in taste and cold in potency; Jivanti prolongs life (by giving strength), makes the body stout, good for the throat, hard to digest, aphrodisiac, rejuvinator, good for the eyes, mitigates all the three dosas, is sweet in taste and cold in potency, and is best among all the leafy vegetables. Its another variety (which is not sweet) is slightly inferior in properties. (124b-129)
Bhandi, Parvani and Parvapuspi all mitigate vata and pitta.
तथा त्रपुसचीनाकचिर्भिटं कफवातकृत् । भेदि विष्टम्भ्यभिप्यन्दि स्वादुपाकरसं गुरु ॥ १३१॥
(1) Kusmanda ( 2 ) Tumba (3) Kalinga (4) Karkaru (5) Urvaru (6) Tindisa ( 7 ) Trapusa (8) Cinaka and (9) Cirbhata — all cause increase of kapha and vata, breaks the hard faeces, stays long without digestion, causes more exudation from the cell pores, sweet in taste and at the end of digestion and not easily digestible. (130-131)
बल्लीफलानां प्रवरं कूष्माण्डं वातपित्तजित् । बस्तिशुद्धिकरं वृष्यं त्रपुसं त्वतिमूत्रलम् ||१३२॥
तुम्बं रूक्षतरं ग्राहि कालिङ्गोर्वारुचिर्भिटम् । बालं पित्तहरं शीतं विद्यात् पक्कमतोऽन्यथा ॥१३३॥
शीर्णवृन्तं तु सक्षारं पित्तलं कफवातजित् । तु राचनं दीपनं हृद्यमठीलानाहनुल्लघु ॥ १३४॥
Kusmanda is best among the fruits of creepers, mitigates vata and pitta; cleanses the urinary bladder and is aphrodisiac; Trapusa (Cucumber) is a powerful diuretic.
Tumba is very dry, (non-unctuous ) binding (withholds elimination of facces and fluids from the body); Kalinga, Urvaru and Cirbhita when tender mitigate pitta and are cold in potency but when ripe, are opposite in qualities; that which is overripe and separated from its attachment, will be alkaline in taste, increases pitta, mitigates kapha and vata, improves taste and appetite, good for the heart, cures enlargement of the prostate, distention of abdomen and is easily digestible. (132-134)
मृणालबिसशालूकशृङ्गाटककशेरुकाः । नन्दीमाषककेलूटक्रौञ्चादनकलोड्यकम् ॥ १३५॥ सतरूढं कदम्बं च रूक्षं ग्राहि हिमं गुरु ।
(1) Mrnala (2) Bisa (3) Saluka (4) Srigataka (5) Kaseruka (6) Nandi masaka (7) Keluta (8) Krauncadana (9) Kaloodyaka ( 10 ) Tarudha and (11) Kadamba are dry, binding (withhold elimination of feces and fluids), cold in potency and hard to digest. (135)
चिल्लीलट्वाकनिष्पावकुरूटकगवेधुकाः यातुका सालकल्याणी श्रीपर्णी पीलुपर्णिका ॥१३७॥
कुमारी जीवलोणीका यवशाकसुवर्चलाः । कुष्माण्डनीलिनी स्वर्चा वृकधूमकलक्ष्मणा ॥१३८॥
आलूपानि च सर्वाणि तथा सूप्यानि लक्ष्मणा । जीवन्तिक का श्रुचुपर्णीप्रपुन्नाटकुबेरकम् ।।१३९।।
स्वादु रूक्षं सलवणं वात श्लेष्मकरं गुरु । शीतलं सृष्टविण्मूत्रं प्रायो विष्टभ्य जीर्यति ॥१४०॥
स्वित्रं निप्पीडितरसं स्रेहाढ्यं नातिदोषलम् ।
(1) Kalambu (2) Nalika (3) Marsa (4) Kathinjara (5) Kutumbaka (6) Cilli (7) Latvaka (8) Nispava (9) Kurutaka (10) Gavedhuka (11) Yatuka (12) Salakalyani (13) Sriparni (14) Piluparnika (15) Kumari (16) Jivalonika (17) Yavasaka (18) Suvarcala (19) Kusmanda (20) Nilini ( 21 ) Swarca (22) Vrkadhumaka (23) Laksmana (24) all the varieties of alupa (25) all the supyas (leaves of mudga. etc. mentioned earlie under simbidhanya varga) (26) Laksmana ( madhuyasti ) ( 27 ) jivantika (28) Curicuparni (29) Prapunnata and (30) Kuberakam are all sweet, dry, slightly salty, increase vata and kapha, not easily digestible, cold in potency, help elimination of urine and faeces, stay long in the stomach and then undergoes digestion. If these are cooked in steam, juice is taken out and mixed with oils, they will not be very bad. (136-1401/2)
लघुपत्रा तु या चिल्ली सा वास्तुकसमा मता ॥ १४१॥
तक्कारी वरणं स्वादु सतिक्लं कफवातजित् । वर्षाभ्वौ कालशाकं च सक्षारं कटु तिक्ककम् ॥ १४२॥
दीपनं भेदनं हन्ति गरशोफकफानिलान् । दीपनाः कफवातघ्नाश्चिरिबिल्वाङ्कुराः सराः ॥१४३॥
लघुरूष्णा सरा तिक्ला सोरुपूका च लाङ्गली | वातलौ कटुतिक्लाम्लौ भेदिनौ तिलवेतसौ ॥१४४||
तद्वत् पञ्चाङ्गुलो वंशकरीरास्तु विदाहिनः । वातपित्तकरा रूक्षाः कटुपाकाः कफापहाः ॥१४५॥
Cilli which has small leaves is similar in property with Vastuka. Tarkari and varana are sweet and slightly bitter and mitigate kapha and vata.
The two kinds of Varsabhu and Kalasaka are alkaline, pungent and bitter, improves digestion, breaks the hard faeces and cure artificial poisoning, oedema, kapha and vata.
The tender sprouts of Cirabilva increases appetite, mitigates kapha and vata and cause easy movement of bowels.
Urupuka and Langali are easily digestible, hot in potency, move the bowels and bitter in taste.
Tila and Vetasa cause increase of vata, pungent, bitter and sour in taste and break up the hard feces; Pancangula is also similar. Vamsakarira (tender shoots of bamboo) causes heartburn and increase of vata and pitta, lry, pungent at the end of digestion and mitigate kapha. (145)
बिल्बरास्राबलाशाकं वातघ्नमतिसारजित् । वायुं वत्सादनी हन्यात् कफं गण्डीरचित्रकौ ॥ १४६ ॥
पत्तूरो दीपनस्तिक्तः प्लीहार्श : कफवातजित् ।
Leaves of Bilva, Rasna, Bala mitigate vata and control diarrhoea. Vatsadani mitigates vata; gandira and citraka mitigate kapha. Pattura kindles digestion, is bitter, cures enlargement of spleen, haemorrhoids and mitigates kapha and vata. (146-147a)
क्रिमिकासकफोत्क्लेदान् कासमर्दो जयेत् सरः ॥ १४७॥
रूक्षोष्णमम्लं कौसुम्भं गुरु पित्तकरं सरम् । सक्षारं मधुरं स्निग्धमुष्णं गुरु च सार्षपम् ॥ १४८॥ शाकानामवरं बद्धविण्मूत्रं सर्वदोषकृत् ।
Kasamarda cures disease caused by worms, cough and increase of kapha and moves the bowels. (147b).
Kausumbha is dry, hot in potency, sour, hard to digest, increases pitta and makes the bowels to move free.
Sarsapa is alkaline, sweet in taste, unctuous, hot in potency and hard to digest, inferior of all the varities of leafy vegetables, binds the faeces and urine and causes increase of all the three dosas. (148b-149a)
यद्बालमव्यक्तरसं किंचित्क्षारं सतिक्लकम् ॥ १४९ ॥
तन्मूलकं दोषहरं लघु सोप्णं नियच्छति । गुल्मकासक्षयश्वासव्रणनेत्रगलामयान् ।। १५० ।।
स्वराग्निसादोदावर्तपीनसांश्च महत् पुनः । गुरूष्णकटुकं स्वादुविपाकं सर्वदोषकृत् ॥ १५१||
गुर्वभिप्यन्दि च स्त्रिग्धसिद्धं तदपि वातजित् । वातश्लेष्महरं शुष्कं सर्वमामं तु दोषलम् ||१५२।।
Mulaka when tender and not having any definite taste, it is slightly alkaline and bitter, mitigates the dosas, easily digestible, hot in potency and cures abdominal tumors, cough, dyspnoea, ulcers, diseases of the eyes, throat, hoarseness of voice, dyspepsia, udavarta (upward movement inside the abdomen) and rhinitis.
Mulaka when big in size ( ripened ) is hard to digest, hot in potency, pungent in taste but sweet at the end of digestion, increases all the three dosa; cooked with fats, it becomes hard to digest, causes excess exudation and obstruction of the tissue pores and mitigates vata; the dried one mitigates vata and kapha. All of them, if uncooked causes increase of the dosas (149-152).
कटूष्णो वातकफहा पिण्डालुः पित्तवर्धनः ।
कुठेरशिग्रुसुरससुमुखासुरिभूस्तृणाः धान्यतुम्बुरुशैलेययवानीशृङ्गिवेरकाः ।।१५३।। ।
पर्णासो गृञ्जनोऽजाजी जीरकं गजपिप्पली ॥१५४॥
फणिर्जार्जकजम्बीरखराह्वाकालमालिकाः । दीप्यकः क्षवकद्वीपिबस्तगन्धादि बद्धविट् ||१५५॥
रसे पाके च कटुकं दोषोत्क्लेशकरं लघु । विदाहि रूक्षनीक्ष्णोष्णं दृक्शुक्रक्रिमिनाशनम् ||१५६॥
वर्गो हरितकाख्योऽयमुपदंशेषु युज्यते । वासनो व्यञ्जनानां च हृयो दीपनरोचनः ||१५७॥
Pindalu is pungent, hot in potency, mitigates vata and kapha but increases pitta.
(1) kuthera (2) sigru ( 3 ) surasa (4) sumukha (5) asuri (6) bhutrna ( 7 ) dhanya (8) tumburu (9) saileya (10) yavani (11) Srngaverika (12) parnasa (13) grnjana (14) ajaji (15) jiraka (16) gajapippali ( 17 ) phanija ( 18 ) arjaka (19) jambira (20) kharahva (21) kalamalika (22) dipyaka ( 23 ) ksavaka (24) dvipi (25) bastagandha etc.
These are pungent both in taste and at the end of digestion, cause increase of the dosas, are easily digestible but cause heartburn, are dry, penetrating, hot in potency harmful to the eyes, and semen, and destroy worms.
This group of (leafy) vegetables is known as Haritaka varga because these are all used in their green state only, to prepare condiments and side dishes and to impart pleasing smell to them. Thus they are good for the heart (or the mind), stimulate digestion and appetite (taste). (153-157)
हिध्माकासविषश्वासपार्श्वरुक्पूतिगन्धहा । सुरसः सुमुखः शोफगन्धहा धानका पुनः।। १५८।।
कषायतिक्कमधुरा मूत्रला न च पित्तकृत् । खराह्रा बस्तिशूलङ्गी चित्रको दीपनः परम् ||१५९॥
Surasa cures hiccup cough, poison, dyspnoea, pain in the flanks, bad smell (from the mouth, nose etc.)
Sumukha relieves swelling and bad smell. Dhanaka is astringent, bitter and sweet in taste, diuretic and does not increase pitta.
Kharahwa cures pain of the urinary bladder.
Citraka is a good stomachic (produces hunger) (158-159)
पत्रे सक्षारमधुरो मध्ये मधुरपिच्छिलः । तीक्ष्णोष्णो लशुनः कन्दे कटुपाकरसः सरः ||१६०॥
हृयः केश्यो गुरुर्वृप्यः स्निग्धो रोचनदीपनः । भग्नसन्धानकृत् बल्यो रक्तपित्तप्रदूषणः ॥ १६१॥
किलासकुष्ठगुल्मार्शोमेहक्रिमिकफानिलान् । सहिध्यापीनसश्वासकासान् हन्ति रसायनम् ॥ १६२।।
Leaves of Lasuna are alkaline sweet at their tip, in their middle portion sweet and slimy. The bulb (tuber) of Lasuna is penetrating, hot in potency, pungent at the end of digestion, makes the bowels to move, good for the heart (or the mind) and hairs; hard to digest, aphrodisiac, unctuous, improves taste and digestion; helps union of fractures, gives strength, vitiates the blood and pitta, cures leucoderma, leprosy (and other skin diseases), abdominal tumors, haemorrhoids, diabetes, worms, diseases caused by kapha and vata, hiccup, nasal catarrh, dyspnoea and cough. It is a rejuvenator of the body. (160-162)
पलाण्डुस्तद्गुणैर्न्यूनो विपाके मधुरस्तु सः । कफं करोति नो पित्तं केवलानिलनाशनः ॥ १६३||
Palandu is inferior in the above qualities, is sweet at the end of digestion, increases kapha but not the pitta, and mitigates vata, not associated with other dosas.
दीपन: सूरणो रुच्यः कफप्नो विशदो लघुः ।
विशेषादर्शसां पथ्यो भूकन्दस्त्वतिदोषलः ॥१६४।।
Surana kindles digestion, improves taste, mitigate kapha, is non-unctuous, easily digestible and especially good for haemorrhoids; Bhukanda causes increase of all the dosas to a great extent. (163 164)
पत्रे पुष्पे फले नाले कन्दे च गुरुता क्रमात् । वरा शाकेषु जीवन्ती सार्षपास्त्ववराः परम् ||१६५॥ इति शाकवर्गः
Leaves, flowers, fruits (unripe), tubular leaves and tubers are difficult to digest in their successive order; jivanti is the best and sarsapa the worst among the leafy vegetables. (165)
Notes:- About 174 kinds of vegetables have been described in these verses. Some of them are recognisable while some others are not. Some of them were in use in olden days but not so nowadays. Some are available only in forest and fields while some others are cultivated. All are not found or used in all the parts of the country; It is also difficult in some cases to know the particular part of the plant used as food, because the term Saka is not specific and is applied to mean vegetables in a general sense. It can be presumed that leaves, tender sprouts, flowers, shoots, fruits (unripe), stalks of tubers, tubers and seeds were being used. Most of them and most of the times were being consumed well cooked but some were eaten uncooked also. Many varieties of soups, curry and side-dishes are prepared with them, chiefly as adjuvants to the staple food, to increase appetite. They are consumed in small quantities only, but should not be substituted for the staple food.
Many of the vegetables which are common now-a-days are not found in the above list. For example: tomato, cabbage, cauliflower, beetroot, etc. Their qualities and properties can be understood by repeated usage and carefully recognising their effects in the body. It should also be borne in mind that all vegetables will not produce the same effect to the same degree in all persons, as the constitution of every person is different. A vegetable which may cause constipation in one person may not do so in the other. So every person should take note of the good or bad effects of every vegetable he uses and become accustomed to those which do not harm him and avoid those which cause harm. Using them well cooked is always good and those which are used raw should be cleaned well with good water, and outer skin removed. It is ideal to use only fresh vegetables.
Phala varga (group of fruits):
द्राक्षा फलोत्तमा वृप्या चक्षुप्या सृष्टमूत्रविट् । स्वादुपाकरसा स्निग्धा सकपाया हिमा गुरुः ||१६६॥ निहन्त्यनिलपित्तास्रतिक्लास्यत्वमदात्ययान् । तृष्णाकासज्वरश्वासस्ववरभेदक्षतक्षयान् ॥ १६७॥
Draksa is the best among fruits, is aphrodisiac, good for the eyes, helps elimination of urine and faeces, sweet in taste and at the end of digestion, unctuous, slightly astringent, cold in potency, hard to digest, cures diseases of vata, pitta and rakta, bitter taste, intoxication, thirst, cough, fever, dyspnoea, hoarseness of voice, injury to the chest (lungs) and tuberculosis; (166-67).
उद्रिक्लपित्तान् जयति त्रिदोषान् स्वादु दाडिमम् । पित्ताविरोधि नात्युष्णमम्लं वातकफापहम् ।। १६८॥ सर्वं हृयं लघु स्निग्धं ग्राहि रोचनदीपनम् ।
Dadima mitigates the greatly increased pitta in particular and also the tridosha, and is sweet; the sour variety is also not going to increase pitta, not very hot in potency and mitigates vata and kapha.
All varieties of dadima are good to the heart (or the mind), easily digestible, unctuous, binding (the elimination of faeces fluids), stimulate appetite and digestion. 168-81/2).
आम्राततालकाश्मर्यराजादनमधूकजम् । सौवीरबदराङ्कोलफल्गुश्लेप्मातकोद्भवम् ।। १७०।।
वातामाभिषुकाक्षोडमुकूलकनिकोचकम् । ऊरुमाणं प्रियालं च बृंहणं गुरु शीतलम् ।। १७१।।
दाहक्षतक्षयहरं रक्तपित्तप्रसादनम् । स्वादुपाकरसंस्निग्धं विष्टम्भि कफशुक्रकृत् ।। १७२।।
(1) moca (2) kharjura (3) panasa (4) nalikera (5) parusaka (6) amrataka (7) tala (8) kasmarya (9) rajadana ( 10 ) madhuka (11) sauvira (12) badara (13) ankola (14) phalgu (15) Slesmataka (16) vatama ( 17 ) abhisuka (18) aksoda (19) mukulaka (20) nikocaka (21) urumanam and (22) priyala make the body stout, not easily digestible, cold in potency, relieve burning sensation, injury to the chest (lungs), consumption, mitigate rakta and pitta, sweet in taste and also at the end of digestion, unctuous, stays long in the stomach without digestion, increase kapha and semen (169-172).
नालिकेरं गुरु स्रिग्धं पित्तघ्नं स्वादु शीतलम् । बलमांसकरं हृद्यं बृंहणं बस्तिशोधनम् ।। १७३।।
मोचं स्वादुरसं प्रोक्तं कषायं नातिशीतलम् । रक्तपित्तहरं वृष्यं रुच्यं श्लेष्मकरं गुरु ॥ १७४॥
Nalikera is hard to digest, unctuous, mitigates pitta, sweet in taste, cold in potency, increases strength and develops the muscles, good for the heart (or the mind), makes the body stout and cleanses the urinary bladder (173)
मोचं स्वादुरसं प्रोक्तं कषायं नातिशीतलम् ।
रक्तपित्तहरं वृष्यं रुच्यं श्लेष्मकरं गुरु || १७४||
Moca sweet and astringent in taste, not very cold in potency, cures bleeding diseases, is aphrodisiac, improves taste, increases kapha and not easily digestible. (174)
स्त्रिग्धं स्वादु कषायं च राजादनफलं गुरु । फलं तु पित्तलं तालं सरं काश्मर्यजं हिमम् ॥१७५॥
शकृन्मूत्रविबन्धघ्नं केश्यं मेध्यं रसायनम् । मधूकजमहृद्यं तु बदरं सरणात्मकम् ||१७६॥
वातामायुष्णवीर्यं तु कफपित्तकरं सरम् । परं वातहरं स्निग्धमनुष्णं तु प्रियालजम् ||१७७॥
प्रियालमज्जा मधुरो वृष्यः पित्तानिलापहः । कोलमज्जा गुणैस्तद्वत्तृछर्दिः कासजिच्च सः || १७८॥
Fruit of Rajadana is unctuous, sweet and stringent and hard to digest.
Fruit of Tala increases pitta and moves the bowels.
Fruits of Kasmarya is cold in potency, relieves the obstruction of faeces and urine, good for the hairs, increases intelligence, and is a rejuvinator.
good for the heart (or the mind) Badara fruit is laxative; Vatama fruit is hot in potency, increases kapha and pitta, is laxative.
Priyala mitigates vata effectively, is unctuous, cold in potency; its marrow is sweet, aphrodisiac, mitigates pitta and vata.
Kola majja is similar in properties with priyala majja, relieves thirst,vomitting and cough. (175-178)
तिन्दुकाश्मन्तकासीनफलिनीबिम्बितोदनम् । टङ्काश्वकर्णबकुलगाङ्गेरुधवधन्वनम् ।।१७९॥
श्वेतपाककपित्थानि सिञ्चतीभव्यजाम्बवम् । क्षीरिवृक्षभवं बीजं पौष्करं कफपित्तजित् ॥१८०॥
कषायमधुरं रूक्षं शीतलं गुरु लेखनम् । विबन्धाध्मानजननं स्तम्भनं वातकोपनम् ।। १८१॥
(1) tinduka (2) asmantaka (3) asina (4) phalini (5) bimbi (6) todanam (7) tanka (8) asvakarna (9) bakula (10) gangeru (11) dhava (12) dhanvana (13) svetapaka (14) kapittha (15) sincati (16) bhavya (17) jambava (18) seeds of trees which have milky sap and (19) pauskara bija all these generally mitigate kapha and pitta, astringent, sweet, dry, cold. in potency, hard to digest, scarificient, produce constipation and flatulence withhold elimination of fluids and increase vata. (179-181)
कपित्थमामं कण्ठघ्नं कषायाम्लं त्रिदोषकृत् । पकं रुच्यं कषायाम्लं स्वादु हिध्यावमिप्रणुत् ॥ १८२ ।।
दोषघ्नं षाडवारिष्टरागयुक्तिषु पूजितम् । विष्प्रमुभयं ग्राहि कपित्थान्येवमादिशेत् ।। १८३॥
Amakapittha (unripe kapittha) is bad to the throat, astringent- sour in taste and increases the three dosas. pakva kapittha (ripe fruit) improves taste, astringent sour and sweet in taste, relieves hiccup, vomitting and mitigates all the dosas; it is ideal to prepare sadava, arista and raga (fermented beverages); both are antipoisonous and withhold elimination of faeces, and fluids. (182-183)
बृंहणं वातपित्तघ्नं स्निग्धं सिञ्चतिकाफलम् । भव्यं विशदमम्लं च जाम्बवं त्वतिवातलम् ॥ १८४॥
विष्टम्भकृदकण्ठ्यं च साम्लं तु क्षीरिवृक्षजम् । पित्तश्लेष्मघ्नमम्लं च वातलं चाक्षकीफलम् ॥ १८५ ॥
बालं कषायकटूवम्लं रूक्षं वातास्रपित्तकृत् । संपूर्णमाम्रमम्लं तु रक्तपित्तकफप्रदम् ॥१८६॥
स्वादु साम्लं गुरु स्निग्धं मारुतघ्नमपित्तलम् । हृयं पर्यागतं लेप्ममांसशुक्रबलप्रदम् ॥१८७॥
सहकाररसो हृद्यः सुरभिस्निग्धरोचनः । दीपनः पित्तवातघ्नः शुक्रशोणिशुद्धिकृत् ॥ १८८॥
Sincitika phala makes the body stout, mitigates vata and pitta, is unctuous;
Bhavya phala is non-viscid and sour.
Jambava phala causes great increase of vata specially.
Fruits of trees which have milky sap cause indigestion by staying long in the stomach, bad for the throat (voice) and slightly sour in taste.
Amra (tender, unripe mango ) is astringent bitter and sour, non-unctuous, increases vata, rakta and pitta;
Apurna amra (half ripened mango) is sour, increases rakta, pitta and kapha;
paryagata amra (well ripened mango fruit ) is sweet and sour, hard to digest, unctuous, mitigates vata, does not increase pitta, good for the heart (or the mind), increases kapha, muscles, and semen and gives strength; Sahakara rasa (mango juice processed with honey, sugar etc) is good for the heart (or the mind), has a pleasing smell, unctuous, improves taste and digestion, mitigates pitta and vata and purifies the semen and blood. (184-188a)
Fruit of Aksaka mitigates.pitta and kapha, is sour, and vata.
कषायं रोचनं हृयं वातलं लवलीफलम् । गुर्वग्निसादकृद्वित्वं दोषलं पूतिमारुतम् || १८९ ॥
पक्कं बालं पुनस्तीक्ष्णं पित्तलं लघु दीपनम् । वातश्लेष्मघ्नमुष्णं च स्निग्धं ग्राह्युभयं परम् ॥ १९०॥
वृक्षाम्लं ग्राहि रूक्षोप्णं लघु दीपनरोचनम् । वात श्लेप्महरं किञ्चिदूनं कोशाम्रजं ततः ।। १९१॥
फलं करअं विष्टाम्भि पित्तश्लेप्माविरोधि च । गुरुप्णमधुरं रूक्षं केशघ्नं च शमीफलम् ॥ १९२।।
Lavali phala is astringent in taste, improves taste, is good for the heart (or the mind) and increases vata.
Bilva phala when it is pakva (ripe) is hard to digest, diminishes digestion, aggravates the dosas and the bad smell (of belching, flatus, feces etc);
when it is ama (unripe) it is penetrating,increases pitta, easy to digest, kindles digestion, mitigates vata and kapha and is hot in potency; both (ripe and unripe) are unctuous and especially binding (constipating).
Vrksamla fruit is binding (withhold elimination of fluids), dry, hot in potency, easily digestible, improves hunger and taste.
Kosamra fruit is slightly inferior to Vrksamla.
Karanja fruit causes indigestion by staying long in the stomach, not antagonistic to pitta and kapha.
Samiphala is hard to digest, hot in potency, sweet, dry and destroys the hairs. (188-192)
कटुपाकरसं पीलु तीक्ष्णोष्णं भेदि पित्तलम् । क्रिमिगुल्मोदरगरप्लीहार्शःकफवातजित् ।।१९३॥
सतिक्तं स्वादु यत् पीलु नात्युप्णं तत्रिदोषजित् । नीपं शताक्षिकं प्राचीनागरं तृणशूल्यजम् ॥१९४॥, अस्मादल्पान्तरगुणमैङ्गुदं सविकङ्कतम् ।
Pilu is pungent in taste and also at the end of digestion, penetrating, hot in potency, breaks the hard faeces, increases pitta; cures worms, abdominal tumors, enlargement of abdomen, artificial poison; enlargement of spleen, haemorrhoids and mitigates kapha and vata; that variety of pilu which has bitter sweet taste is not very hot in potency and mitigates all the three dosas.
Fruits of Nipa, Sataksika, Pracinagara, Trnsulya, Inguda, and Vikankata are slightly inferior in properties to those of pilu (193-195)
त्वक्लिक्लकटुका स्निग्धा मातुलुङ्गुस्य वातजित् ॥ १९५॥
बृंहणं मधुरं मांसं वातपित्तहरं गुरु । लघु तत्केसरं कासश्वास हिध्मामदात्ययान् ।।१९६॥
आस्यशोषानिलश्लेप्मविबन्धच्छर्यरोचकान् । गुल्मोदरार्श: शूलानि मन्दाग्नित्वं च नाशयेत् ॥ १९७॥
The skin of Matulunga fruit is bitter and pungent, unctuous and mitigates vata; its fleshy part makes the body stout, swect in taste, mitigates vata and pitta, not easily digestible; its filaments are easily digestible, cure cough, dyspnoea, hiccup, intoxication, dryness of the mouth, disorders of vata and kapha; constipation, vomiting, loss of taste, abdominal tumor, enlargement of the abdomen, haemorrhoids, colic and dyspepsia. (195b-197)
भल्लातकस्य त्वांसं बृंहणं स्वादु शीतलम् । तदस्थ्यग्निसमं मेध्यं कफवातहरं परम् ॥ १९८॥
The outer rind and fleshy part of Bhallataka fruit, makes the body stout, sweet in taste, cold in potency; its seed is just like fire in properties, increases intelligence and effectively mitigates kapha and vata. (198)
स्वादुम्लं शीतमुष्णं च द्विधा पारावतं गुरु | रुच्यमत्याग्निशमनं रुच्यं मधुरमारुकम् ।। १९९॥
पक्कमाशु जरां याति नात्युप्णं गुरु दोषलम् । द्राक्षापरूषकं चार्द्रमम्लं पित्तकफप्रदम् ॥ २०० ।।
गुरूष्णवीय वातघ्नं सरं सकरमर्दकम् । तथाम्लं कोलकर्कन्धुलिकुचाम्रातकारुकम् ॥२०१॥
ऐरावतं दन्तशठं सतूदं मृगलण्डिकम् । नातिपित्तकरं पक्कं शुष्कं च क़रमर्दकम् ॥२०२॥
दीपनं भेदनं शुष्कमम्लिकाङ्कोलयोः फलम् । तृष्णाश्रमक्लमच्छेदि लध्विष्टं कफवातयोः ॥ २०३ ॥
फलानावरं तत्र लिकुचं सर्वदोषकृत् । इति फलवर्गः ॥
Among the two varieties of Paravata fruit (sweet and sour) that of sweet taste is cold in potency while that of sour taste is hot; both are hard to digest, improve taste and mitigate excess digestive activity.
aruka fruit improves taste, sweet, ripened fruit undergoes digestion quickly; not very hot in potency, some times hard to digest and increases the dosas.
Draksa and Parusaka in their moist state are sour, and increase pitta and kapha; when well ripe are hard to digest, hot in potency, mitigate vata, help easy movements of faeces etc.
Karamardaka is not easily digestible, hot in potency, mitigates vata and is laxative.
Kola, karkandhu, likuca, amrataka, arukam, airavata, dantasatha, tuda and mrgalandika all are sour and similar in properties.
Karamardaka fruit ripened and dried does not cause great increase of pitta (causes mild increase).
Fruits of Amlika and Ankola improve digestion, break the hard faeces, cure thirst, fatigue, weakness, are easily digestible and mitigate kapha and vata (199-203).
Likuca phala is inferior among all the fruits and increases all the dosas (203-1/2).
Thus ends the group of fruits.
Notes:- Majority of the fruits enumerated so far, are in use even now while a few may not be so. Some new kinds of fruits such as the Pineapple, Sapota, Tomato etc. are also in use nowadays. The qualities and properties of such new ones can be understood by repeated use. Botanical names and other details of vegetables, fruits etc. are furnished at the end of this book for better recognition.
जन्तुजुष्टं जले मग्रमभूमिजमनार्तवम् । अन्यधान्ययुतं हीनवीर्यं जीर्णतयाऽति च ॥ २०५॥
धान्यं त्यजेत्तथा शाकं रूक्षसिद्धमकोमलम् । असञ्जतासं तद्वच्छप्कं चान्यत्र मूलकात् ॥२०६॥
प्रायेण फलमप्येवं तथामं बिल्ववर्जितम् ।
Grains which have been contaminated by frost, heavy breeze, hot sunlight, polluted air, and saliva of snakes and other reptiles; infested with worms, remained under water for long time, not grown in the field meant for it (in fields meant for other kinds of grains); which are unseasonal, mixed with other grains, and which have lost their properties having become very old-should be rejected.
Similarly also with the vegetables, the foods (dishes) prepared from them without addition of any fatty material (oil or ghee) which are very hard even after cooking, should be avoided.
Tender vegetables which have not developed their normal taste and which are dry should not be used except Mulaka; so also the fruits, except Bilva (204-207a).
शूकशिम्बिजपक्कानमांसशाकफलाश्रयैः || २०७॥
वर्गैरन्नैकदेशोऽयं भूयिष्ठमुपयोगवान् । निर्दिष्टो रसवीर्याद्यैर्यथास्वं कर्मसाधने || २०८॥
न शक्यं विस्तरेणापि वक्तुं सर्वं तु सर्वथा । हिताहितत्वेऽप्येकान्तनियमोऽस्मादनिश्चितः ।। २०९।।
मात्रायोगक्रियादेशकालावस्थादिभेदतः । ततस्ततो यतो दृष्टास्ते ते भावास्तथा तथा ॥ २१० ॥
So far were described, many of the articles of food which are in common use, along with their properties like taste, potency etc., from among the group of grains, legumes, prepared foods, meat, vegetables and fruits, generally for using them as food. It is not possible to describe their suitability or otherwise to the health of all of them in detail. Their qualities, properties, suitability or unsuitability depend upon various. factors such as quantity, admixture, the process of preparation, place of living, time (the day and season), stage (of age, constitution ) and others. Hence, the properties of food materials are to be determined appropriately. (207b-210)
Matradi Prakarana – peculiarities of food
मात्रया सेवितं मद्यं हन्ति रोगास्तदुद्भवान् । निषेव्यमाणं तिलशो विषमप्यमृतायते ॥२११॥
हीनातिमात्रमशनं मरुनिचयकोपनम् । भजतो विपरूपत्वं तुल्यांशे मधुसर्पिपीः ॥२१२||
क्षारोऽम्लरससंयोगे मधुरीभवति क्षणात् । उत्तुण्डक्यास्तिन्दुकेन तिक्तता मधुरायते ।।२१३।।
हिङ्गुगैरिकसिन्धूत्थं गन्धवर्णरसाधिकम् । पूगताम्बूलशङ्खेभ्यो वर्णगन्धरसोद्भवः ॥२१४॥
Wines (alcholic beverages) used judiciously in suitable doses cures the diseases which have developed by its own (excess and unjudicious use); even poison consumed in very little quantity acts like nectar.
Food taken in very little quantity makes for increase of vata whereas taken in large quantity it causes increase of all the three dosha.
Mixture of honey and ghee in equal proportion attains the properties of poison.
Alkalies combined with sour will immediately become sweet. The bitterness of Uttundaki changes into sweetness when combined with Tinduka.
The combination of hingu (asafoetida), gairika (red ochre) and saindhava will enhance the smell, colour and taste of each of them.
The combination of puga, tambula and lime of conch will produce a new colour, smell and taste (not present in any one of them).(211-214).
कोद्रवो हन्त्यसृक्पित्तं करोत्येव विदाहिभिः । कुष्ठं तत्कार्यपि तिलो हन्ति भल्लातकैः सह ॥ २१५॥
कर्तानिसदस्य स हिनस्त्यभयादिभिः | तृप्यत्यग्नेः समदनं सर्पिरप्युपदिश्यते ||२१६ ||
जीवनीयमपि क्षीरं विषलेशेन मृत्यवे । गुडः तुल्ये अपि हतोऽन्योऽन्यं विषे स्थावरजङ्गमे ||२१७॥
सक्लवो वातला रूक्षाः पीतास्ते तर्पयन्ति तु । विनापि चोपयोगेन मणिमन्त्रादि कार्यकृत् ।। २१८॥
आर्द्रकाज्जायते शुण्ठी संस्कारेण लघीयसी । लघुभ्योऽपि हि सक्नुभ्यो गुरवः सिद्धपिण्डिकाः ॥ २१९॥
भृष्टः क्षुण्णोऽपिपृथुको रक्तशालेर्लघोर्गुरुः । शालिः पिष्टो गरीयस्त्वं गोधूमादपि गच्छति ||२२० ॥
Kodrava used alone cures haemorrhagic disease but in combination with others cause heartburn during digestion, and will produce the same disease (haemorrhagic disease)
Tila produces leprosy (and other skin diseases) when used alone but used in combination with Bhallataka it cures that disease.
Guda (jaggery molasses) used alone causes reduction of digestive power but combined with Abhaya and others, it does not do so.
Sarpi (ghee, butter- fat) though a producer of hunger is prescribed. along with madana (bees wax) for persons suffering from thirst and excessive digestive activity.
Ksira (milk) though a rejuvenator kills the person who has poison in his body, when it gets combined with visalesa (residue of poison).
Sthavara (vegetable) and jangama (animal) poisons though similar in properties and qualities, each one destroy the other.
Saktu (groat made of corn flour) though non-unctuous and increase vata, taken as a beverage it gives satisfaction to the body.
Mani (precious stonesamulets), Mantra (sacred syllables, chants, etc) and others though not used just like herbs, still are effective in curing diseases (merely by wearing, repeating etc).
Sunthi is produced from Ardraka (green ginger) itself, even then it is easily digestible (in contrast to green ginger) because of the different processes (of cooking).
Siddha pindakas (balls of flour prepared by addition of jaggery etc.) are not easily digestible though prepared from easily digestible flour.
Prthuka (fried and flattened paddy) though prepared from easily digestible red rice and though cooked and pounded by the pestle, yet becomes more hard to digest, than even red rice.
Sali (rice), when converted into flour becomes hard to digest even more than wheat. (215-220)
लघु पित्तहरा लाजा व्रीहितो गुरुपित्तलात् । सङ्ग्राहिणो लघोर्मुद्गात् कुल्माषो भेदनो गुरुः ||२२१॥
आमं ग्राहितरं तक्रं नागरीकृतमार्द्रकम् । गुडात्तोयाच्च सुतरां मूत्रलं गुरु पानकम् ||२२२||
गरीयो गुडदध्युत्था रसाला चातिशुक्रला । दण्डाभिमथनाइनो गुरुणश्चतिशोफदात् ||२२३॥
अनुद्धृतस्नेहमपि तक्रं शोफहरं लघु । सर्पिः स्निग्धतरं हन्ति नार्दितं नवनीतवत् ||२२४॥
Laja (fried paddy) is easily digestible and mitigates pitta though prepared from rice which is hard to digest and increases pitta.
Kulmasa prepared from mudga (green-gram cooked in steam) breaks the hard faeces and becomes hard to digest even though prepared from mudga which is easily digestible and constipating.
Takra (butter-milk) not-cooked is very efficient in withholding the discharge of faeces and fluids from the body than the cooked one; likewise is dry ginger formed from green ginger.
Panaka (syrup) is a better diuretic and hard to digest than either jaggery or water from which it is prepared.
Rasala (sweet cheese) prepared from curds and jaggery is hard to digest and greatly increases semen though neither curds nor jaggery possesses these properties.
Takra (butter milk) cures oedema and is easily digestible even though fat has not been separated from it.
Sarpi (ghee) though more fatty (unctuous, lubricant) than butter does not cure facial paralysis like butter. (221-224)
चक्षुष्योऽपि हि गोधूमस्तैलपक्कस्तु दृष्टिहा । मूलकं दोषजननं सिद्धं तु तददोषलम् ।।२२५।।
उष्णं विषीभवत्येव विषघ्नमपि माक्षिकम् । दुर्भाजनस्था द्राक्षाम्ला दोषला च प्रजायते ।।२२६।।
लक्ष्णशुष्कघनो लेपश्चन्दनस्यापि दाहकृत् । त्वग्गतस्योप्मणो रोधाच्छीतकृत्त्वन्यथाऽगुरोः ||२२७||
मेध्यस्तिलः स्पर्शशीतो मेध्यं तैलं खलो हिमः । तस्यैव श्लेष्मकारित्वं न तैलस्य खलस्य वा ॥ २२८||
Godhuma (wheat) though good for the eyes destroys vision if cooked with sesamum oil.
Mulaka (raddish) by itself (without cooking, raw) causes increase of dosas but when cooked and processed it does not cause the increase of dosas.
Maksika (honey) which is antipoisonous by nature becomes poisonous if heated.
Juice of Draksamla (wine) kept in a bad tvessel (brass, copper etc.) causes increase of the dossas.
A smooth, thick and dry paste applied over the skin, though made of chandana (sandal wood) will produce burning sensation, by obstructing the heat of the skin, whereas an application of paste of Aguru applied thin and moist will produce cold sensation only.
Tila (sesamum) is the promoter of intelligence and cold to touch so also its oil, and its khala (an eatable prepared from sesamum) is cold in potency.
Only sesamum has the property of increasing kapha but not the other two, though all three have properties similar to kapha. (225-228)
दध्नि श्वयथुकारित्वं न तक्रनक्नीतयोः । भूमिसात्म्यं दधिक्षीरकरीरं मरुवासिषु ||२२९।।
क्षारः प्राच्येषु मत्स्यास्तु सैन्धवेष्वश्मकेषु तु । तैलाम्लः कन्दमूलानि मलये कोङ्कणे पुनः ॥ २३०॥
पेयामन्थ उदीच्येषु गोधूमोऽवन्तिभूमिषु । बाल्हीका बाल्हवाश्वीनाः शूलिका यवनाः शकाः ॥२३१॥
The property of causing swelling is present only in dadhi (curds) but not either in buttermilk or butter (though produced from it).
Dadhi (curds), Ksira (milk) and karira are geographically suitable to people living in desert regions;
Ksaras (alkalies) to people of Pracya (eastern countries),
fish to people of Saindhava;
for those of Asmaka country oils and sours;
to the people of Malaya, the tubers and roots;
to those of Konkana the peya (thin gruel);
to the people of Udicya, the mantha (sweet groat prepared from corn flour);
wheat for the people of Avanti;
mutton, wheat, beverage prepared from grapes are suitable for the people of Bahlika, Pahlava, Cina, Sulika, Yavanas and Sakas; these are also suitable who are worriors and who have very strong digestive ability. (229-232)
देहसात्म्यं घृतं क्षीरं मद्यं मासं च कस्यचित् ॥ २३२॥
पेया यूषो रसोऽन्यस्य गोधूमोऽन्यस्य शालयः | अहितैरपि तेषां च तैरेवोपहितं हितम् ||२३३॥
Ghee, milk, wines, meat are suited to some persons, gruel, soup and meat-soup to some others; wheat for some, rice for some else. It is advisable to prescribe diets prepared from such accustomed foods only during the treatment of diseases (of such persons) even though such foods may not be good for those diseases. (233)
अन्नपानौषधं दोषमात्राकालायपेक्षया । सात्म्यं ह्याशु बलं धत्ते नातिदोषं च बह्वपि ॥२३४॥
स्रंसनं सत् पयो गव्यं भवति ग्राहि कस्यचित् । मन्दोऽग्निर्भवति प्रायः कफवातोत्तरे हिमे ॥ २३५ ॥
विषघ्नेनापि पयसा देहेऽहेर्द्धते विषम् । स्थूलस्थविरबालादौ वमनादि निषिध्यते ॥२३६॥
तक्रमामं कफं कोष्ठे हन्ति कण्ठे करोति तु । वातहत्त्वेऽपि मृद्वीकाखर्जूरं कोष्ठवातकृत् ||२३७||
Accustomed foods, drinks and drugs will give immediate strength, when administered appropriate to the dosas, their degree of aggravation, season, etc.; even if administered in large dosas inappropriate to the dosas, they do not cause great increase of dosas.
Cow’s milk is, in general, a laxative but in some it causes constipation.
During cold season though there is predominance of vata and kapha, there will be poor digestion generally.
Milk though antipoisonous makes for the increase of poison in the body of the snake.
Therapies like Vamana (emesis) are contraindicated for the obese, very old, children and others (though necessary for treatment of particular diseases).
Unboiled/uncooked buttermilk mitigates kapha inside the stomach but increases it in the throat;
mardvika and kharjura (fruits) though mitigate vata generally, yet cause its increase in the ailmentary tract (234-237)
नातिपथ्यः शिखी पथ्यः श्रोत्रस्वरवयोदृशाम् । दृष्टे स्पर्शहिमं द्रव्यं श्रोत्रस्योष्णं तु पूजितम् ||२३८॥
पयः स्वादु सरं शीतं विपरीतं ततो दधि | कालेन जायते तस्मात् क्षीरवच्च पुनर्घृतम् ॥ २३९॥
पयो दधि च वातघ्नमजातं वातलं तु । तक्रं ग्राहि कषायाम्लमम्लमेव तु भेदनम् ॥ २४०॥
धातकीगुडतोयानि कारणं मद्यशुक्लयोः । शीते न तु तदाद्यन्ते स्निग्धाम्ललवणा हिताः |॥२४१॥
उदमन्थदिवास्वप्नौ ग्रीष्मादन्यत्र गर्हितौ । समयोगेsपि धर्माद्या वातादिचयहेतवः |॥ २४२॥
Meat of peacock is not very good for health generally but it is ideal for hearing, voice, age and vision.
Substances which are cold to touch are ideal for the eyes whereas to the ears hot ones only.
Milk is sweet, laxative and cold in potency; curds is opposite of all these but ghee is similar to milk these variations are due to the time factor.
Milk and curds mitigate vata generally but the curds, not well formed, will cause increase of vata; butter-milk which is both astringent and sour is constipating wheraas that which is only sour is purgative.
Flowers of dhataki, jaggery and water are the causes (raw materials) for both madya (wines) and sukta but skuta is not madya (because it gets formed after the formation of wine).
Foods which are fatty, sour and salty though said to be good during cold season, are not so at the beginning and end of that season.
Udamantha (a drink prepared by stirring cornflour in large quantity of water and sweetened with sugar or honey) and sleeping during day, are not good except in grisma rtu ( summer).
The Rtus (seasons) such as grisma and others though normal in their usual features, will still cause mild increase of vata and other dosas. (238-242)
ऋतुप्वन्यो रसेप्वन्यो रौक्ष्ये स्स्रेहे बले क्रमः ।
The pattern of dryness, unctuousness, and strength varies from season to season and taste to taste. (242 1/2)
रसायनं काकमाची सद्यः पर्युषिता विषम् ॥ २४३॥
Kakamaci when used fresh is a rejuvinator but used after some days it is poison. (243)
मूलकं दोषजिद्वालं विपरीतं तु कन्दवत् ।
Mulaka when tender, mitigates the dosas whereas when it ripens it is also like any other tuber (which increase of dosas) (2431/2)
Notes:- So far (verses from 211 and with 243) were described the various exceptions, fallacies, differences, variations etc., of the general principles, properties, mode of processings and usage, seasonal effects, etc., of many articles of diet. The purpose of enumerating them is to warn the layman and the physician alike, that they should not simply go by the general principles alone but should also think of the different variations during their use due to various reasons. Careful consideration of these will help in the promotion of health and the prevention of diseases.
ज्वरे पेया कषायाश्च सर्पिः क्षीरं विरेचनम् ॥ २४४॥ षडहं षडहं युञ्ज्याद्वीक्ष्य दोपबलाबलम् ।
In fevers, thin gruel, decoction of drugs, ghee, milk and administration of purgatives should be resorted to for six days each in succeeding order, after taking into consideration the strength or otherwise of the dosas. (244)
Notes: During the course of treatment for fevers, the normal procedure is to administer only a thin gruel for the first six days, decoction of drugs for the next six days and so on. The reason for mentioning it here is to point out that the physician, need not be very rigid about the specific duration of time but can either discontinue that regimn beyond six days depending upon the strength of the abnormality of the dosas. It is his own correct judgement of the condition of the dosas which should become the criterion of prescribing.
छर्दिहृद्रोगगुल्मार्ते वमनं च चिकित्सिते ||२४५।।
For persons suffering from vomitting, heart diseases and abdominal tumors, emesis is prescribed in treatment, though it is contra-idicated; so also the enemas in persons suffering from haemorrhoids and leprosy. (245)
Notes :- While enumerating the persons unsuitable for emesis and enema therapics, persons suffering from the above diseases have been encluded in the list but in chapters describing the general line of treatment of these diseases such therapies have been prescribed. Hence this mention here to clear the confusion of the physician and to prescribe them in case of their necessity.
निषिद्धमपि निर्दिंष्टं बस्तिरर्शसकुष्ठिनोः । ज्वरे तुल्यर्तुदोषत्वं प्रमेहे तुल्यदूष्यता ||२४६|| रक्तगुल्मे पुराणत्वं सुखसाध्यत्वहेतवः ।
In Jvara (fevers), the similarity of the rtu (season ) and the dosas; in Prameha (diabetes) the similarity of the dusyas (dhatus and malas) with the dosas; in Raktagulma (uterine tumors) the chronicity are the reasons for their easy curability (246-247).
Notes:- Generally in all diseases, if the dosas producing the disease and the dosa predominant during that particular season are one and the same, the diseases will be difficult to cure or even incurable. Fever is an exception to this rule, because the treatment is for only one dosa; In all other diseases, if the dosas producing the disease and the dusya (dhatus and malas) affected are of similar qualities, diseases will be very difficult to cure. Diabetes is an exception to this rule because the same drugs and therapics will be suitable for both the dosas and dusyas. All diseases which become chronic by lapse of time are generally incurable where as uterine tumor is otherwise, For the reason that possible doubt of pregnancy will have been cleared by the tenth month and effective treatment can be done for the tumor.
आश्च्योतनमभिप्यन्दे युञ्जीतोर्ध्वं दिनत्रयात् ||२४७॥
अञ्जनं पक्कदोषस्य प्रतिश्याये च नावनम् । नातिप्रवृद्धे तिमिरे सिरामोक्षो विधीयते ||२४८॥
दुष्टास्रसम्भवेऽपीष्टो नास्रपित्ते सिराव्यधः । अपथ्यं पथ्यमप्यन्नं निशायां नेत्ररोगिणाम् ||२४९॥
Ascotana (bathing the eye with fluids) though prescribed in abhisyanda (ophthalmia) should be done only after the first three days of onset; similarly Anjana (application of collyrium) to the eyes; Nasya (nasal drops) in case of pratisyaya (nasal catarrh) and Siramoksa (venesection) in case of undeveloped timira (blindness) will have to be planned suitably.
Siravyadha (venesection) is not to be done in Rakta pitta (bleeding disease) even though it is produced by vitiated blood, though that therapy is indicated (for dseases) caused by vitiated blood).
For persons suffering from diseases of the eyes, taking foods at nights is harmful, even though the food is good for health (249).
अहिताः सक्लवः शुष्का हितास्ते तु प्रमेहिणः ।
गुल्मिनः क्षीरदध्यादि हपुषाद्यैर्युतं हितम् ||२५० ।।
Flour which are dry are generally bad for health but are ideally suited for persons suffering from diabetes. Similarly milk, curds and others added with hapusa etc., are good for persons suffering from tumors in the abdomen. (250)
वातलं वातकोपेऽपि वर्षासु मधु शस्यते । तदेव मद्यं मद्यस्य विषस्य तु विषान्तरम् ।। २५१॥ घृतमानूपदेशोत्थं हेमन्ते च बलाधिकम् ।
आलस्यगौरवे रूपं वातजेऽपि ज्वरे पुरः || २५२।।
Honey, though tends to increase vata is again useful in varsa rtu though season. Likewise wines are best in vata is predominant during that diseases caused by alcoholic intoxication, and poison is best for removing poison.
Ghee of marshy places (prepared from the milk of animals of marshy region) is very strengthening especially during hemanta.
Lassitude and feeling of heaviness are found in the prodromal symptoms of fever caused even by vata.
The burning sensation caused by drinking beverages containing garlic is relieved by hot fomentation. (248-252)
स्वेदैर्याति शमं दाहः प्रायो लशुनपानजः । दिवास्वप्नाज्जरां याति भुक्तमन्येयुरद्य न ||२५३॥
कोष्ठे रुद्धोऽग्निकृद्वायुर्मेदसार्शोभिरग्निहृत् । दुप्पानं दुर्जरं सर्पिर्दीपनं च पयोऽन्यथा ||२५४॥
सर्पादिशवकोथेभ्यो वृश्चिकानां समुद्भवः । ते तैरेव पुनर्दष्टाः सयो जहति जीवितम् ॥ २५५॥
स्वयमेव विषं तीव्रं तान् पुनर्नातिबाधते । सर्वाङ्गव्यापि तेषां च शुक्रवत् संसृतं विषम् ||२५६॥
तन्मांसमुपयोगाय मांसवर्गे च पठ्यते । छर्दिघ्नी मक्षिकाविट् च मक्षिकैव तु वामयेत् ॥ २५७||
The food that has been consumed in the previous day undergoes digestion by sleeping in the afternoon (of the next day) but not that food which is eaten just then.
Vata getting increased and localised inside the alimentary tract kindles the digestive activity in others while in persons suffering from obesity (accumilation of fat) and haemorrhoids, it destroys the digestive activity. Drinking wines improperly (in execess) becomes hard for digestion, where as (drinking ) ghee promotes hunger but ( drinking) milk acts otherwise (decreases hunger and is hard to digest).
Scorpions are born out of the dead bodies of snakes and others of that kind, even then the snakes die immediately when stung by scorpions; though the snakes have within them a powerful poison, they do not suffer from it. Though the poison is present all over their body like semen, the use of snake flesh as food was included in the group of meats.
The excreta of flics (honcy) cures vomiting whereas the flies themselves cause vomitting (when swallowed inadvertently). (253-257)
कफे लङ्घनसाध्येऽपि कर्तरि ज्वरगुल्मयोः । तुल्येऽपि देशकालाढौ लङ्घनं न समं मतम् ।। २५८॥
सर्वथा दोपजित्तक्रं ग्रहण्यां दोषकृद्धणे । पीनसश्वासकासाठी सिद्धमेव प्रशस्यते ॥ २५९ ॥
Though Jvara (fever) and Gulma (abdominal tumors) are both caused by kapha, though fasting is the therapy for it (kapha) and though the place of living and season are also similar in nature, fasting therapy cannot be the same (effective) in the treatment of the above diseases.
Butter milk always mitigates the dosas in the disease of the grahani (duodenum), but in ulcers it causes the increase of the dosas; in cases rhinitis, dyspnoea, cough and others, buttermilk processed with spices etc., only is ideal (not the bland one). (251-259)
इत्येतेऽन्ये च बहवः सूक्ष्मा दुर्लभहेतुकाः । धर्मा विचित्रा भावेषु किञ्चित्तेषां निदर्शितम् ॥ २६॥
दिशानया शेषमपि स्वयमूहेत बुद्धिमान् । न शास्त्रमात्रशरणो न चानालोचितागमः || २६१॥
इति मात्रादिप्रकरणम् इत्यन्नस्वरूपविज्ञानीयो नाम सप्तमोऽध्यायः
There are thus numerous variations, exceptions, etc., which are very subtle, reasons for which are difficult to understand. The qualities of things are peculiar, out of which only a few were mentioned so far. By knowing these, the intellegent person will be able to guess the others also, by himself.
No one should stick on rigidly to the texts only nor should (totally).
इति सप्तमोऽध्यायः ॥
Thus ends the seventh chapter.