अथातोऽन्नरक्षाविधिमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥ १ ॥
We will now expound the chapter called Annaraksa-vidhi (methods of protection of foods); thus said Atreya and other great sages.
Pranacarya – the royal physician
ईश्वराणां वसुमतां विशेषेण तु भूभुजां प्रायेण मित्रेभ्योऽप्यमित्रा भूयांसो भवन्ति । ततस्तत्प्रयुक्ताः समासन्नवर्तिनोऽनपानादिषु विषं प्रयच्छन्ति । स्त्रियश्च तत्प्रणिधिप्रयुक्ताः सौभाग्यलोभेन । तस्माद्राजा कुलीनं स्त्रिग्धमाप्तमास्तिकमार्यमार्यपरिग्रहं दक्षं दक्षिणं निभृतं शुचिमनुद्धतमनलसमव्यसनिनमनहङ्कृतमकोपनमसाहसिकं वाक्यार्थावबोधकुशलं निष्णातम यथाम्नायमायुर्वेदे सुविहितयोगक्षेमं सन्निहितागदादियोगं सात्म्यज्ञं च प्राणाचार्यं परिगृह्णीयात्। तमर्थमानाभ्यां यथाकालं गुरुमिव शिष्यः पितरमिव पुत्रः पूजयेत् । प्रतिकूलमपि तद्वचः साम्प्रतं मतमिति प्रतिमन्येत । न हि भद्रोऽपि गजपतिर्निरङ्कुशः श्लाघनीयो जनस्य । तस्मात्तदायत्तमाहारविहारं प्रति चात्मानं कुर्यात् । उपात्तमपि खलु जीवितमुपायबलेन स्वयमधितिष्ठति ॥२॥
Lords, wealthy persons and especially the kings, will usually have more number of foes than friends. Instigated by such enemies, persons who are close to the king, poison him through his food, drinks etc. Even women do so, inspired by false belief of obtaining goodluck. So the king should appoint a Pranacarya-protector of life (physician) who comes from a reputed family, who is affectionate, friendly, who has belief in god, is cultured and having cultured kin, is efficient, polite with all, faithful ( loyal), clean, obedient, not lazy, not sorrowful, not egoistic, not getting angry, not embarking upon adventure; intelligent to grasp the intention of speech, well versed in all the eight branches of Ayurveda, who possesses good knowledge of security of life, who has with him efficacious recipes, (medicines) and who knows all the things accustomed to (by the king). He should be propitated with money and honour, like a desciple worshipping his preceptor and a son his father. His advice shold be adhered to even though it is inconvenient (unpleasant). An elephant, though having a good pedigree is not praisworthy, if it is not controlled by the hook (of its driver). So the king should resort to the foods and other activities as prescribed by the physician. Though life has been bestowed providence, it needs to be protected in many ways. (2)
अपि च बहुपरिग्रहा नरपतयः । सन्ति चाशुकारिणः शूलसन्यासादयः । प्रतिक्षणं प्रत्यवेक्षणीयावस्थाश्च रोगिणो विशेषेण राजानः । ते हि प्रमादपरिगता दुःखासहिष्णवश्च स्वयमप्यपथ्यरुचयः सन्निहिताहितप्रियवचनप्रायपरिचारकाश्च। तस्माद्भिषजो राजा राजगृहा सचे निवेशनं कारयेत् । तथा हि सर्वोपकरणेषु नृपतिशरीरोपयोगिप्वपरोक्षवृत्तिर्भवति ॥३॥
And also, the king will have a large retinue. Some diseases like pain in the abdomen, loss of conciousness etc., might kill the patient (persons) quickly. All patients especially, the king are to be carefully protected every minute, and at every stage. Because they (kings) are likely to indulge in risky activities; are incapable of tolerating misery, by nature they are towards unhealthy activities or resort to them (willfully); by the appealing sweet words of those who are always nearby. So the king should arrange for the residence of physician very near to his palace, so as to facilitate him to keep watch directly overall the articles used by the king. (3)
Notes: Poisioning was one of the important methods of killing enemies. this was very common among the kings and wealthy persons in ancient times. Poison was being administ ed through articles of food, drink, dress, cosmetics etc., with the connivance of the persons who are very close to the kings. Hence, it was necessary to test all the materials. Methods to detect poison had been developed and appropriate measures to treat diseases caused by poisons were planned. All these were the duties of the physician and so the kings always appointed an efficient physician to protect him from the danger of poisoning. Hence, the dire necessity of a royal physician.
स सम्यक्सम्पन्नमन्नं सुपरीक्षितं विशुद्धमयादिषु प्रागुपनीतं शिखिना दृष्टमभिप्रोक्षितं प्रोक्षणैः पुरः स्थितो राजानं हस्तबद्धौषधिरत्नं भोजयेत् ॥ ४॥
The physician should make the king take the food in his presence;
the food which has been properly prepared, tested by fire, shown to the peacock and sprinkled with water sanctified by holy chants; the hand of the king being adorned with potent herbs and precious stones. (4)
Notes: The food shold be accustomed, prepared well with different processes so as to be tasty. Putting the food into fire, showing it to the peacock are methods to test for any admixture of poison; sprinkling of holy water and wearing of herbs and gems are meant to remove other evil effects. The presence of the physician will help him to observe the likes and dislikes, the quantity and mode of eating of food by the king and advise him suitably. It will also assure the king that his food is good, well-tested and safe and that immediate help is available, if any thing goes wrong.
भुञ्जनस्य चास्य दुन्दुभीनगदप्रलिप्तान् वादयेत् ॥५॥
The kettle drum which has been smeared with antitoxic recipes be beaten (sounded) at the time of the king, taking his food. (5)
Notes:- Antipoisonous herbs were made into a thin paste, smeared over the leather tied to the kettle drum and allowed to dry. The drums were being beaten very near to the dining room. The vibrations caused by the beating would then scatter the fine powder of the herbs all around. This helped to drive awary flying insects and bacteria and also ward off bad smell from outside. The rythmic pleasant sound of the drum also helped in preventing other unpleasant sounds at the time of taking food.
Visajusta anna – charactorestics of poisioned foods
तत्र सविषमन्नं स्राव्यमाणमविस्राव्यं भवति, चिरेण पच्यते, पक्कं च संद्यः पर्युषितामिव निरूप्म स्तब्धं च जायते, यथास्ववर्णगन्धरसैर्व्यापद्यते, प्रक्लियते, चन्द्रकाचितं च भवति ॥६॥
Foods which would flow natually cease to flow when mixed with poison, require long time to cook; cooked ones become stale, losing their (good) fumes and becomes hard; undergo change in respect of their normal colour, smell and taste; become very moist and appear to be full of glistening particles. ( 6 )
व्यञ्जनानामाशु शुष्कत्वं भवति । क्वाथः ध्यामता श्यामता हीनातिरिक्लविकृतानां चात्रच्छायानां दर्शनमदर्शनमेव वा, फेनपटलसीमन्तोर्ध्वविविधराजितन्तुबुद्बुदप्रादुर्भावो, विशेषेण लवणो ल्बणेषु फेनमाला, रसस्य मध्ये नीला राजिः, पयसस्ताम्रा, मद्यतोययोः काली, दध्नः श्यावा, तक्रस्य नीलपीता, मस्तुनः कपोताभा, धान्याम्लस्य कृष्णा, द्रवौषधस्य कपिला, घृतस्य कपिलाभा, क्षौद्रस्य हरिता, तैलस्यारुणा, बसागन्धश्च ॥ ७ ॥
Condiments mixed with poison become dry very quickly. The fumes coming out during boiling will be dark coloured, black or blue; the image (of the observer) in the water will be found distorted with less or more of the (natural) features, or images might not appear at all; accumulation of foam, appearance of dividing lines, different kinds of striae, threads and bubles show up. In those which have predominance of salt, lines of foam appear especially; the appearance of blue lines in meat soup, coppery red lines in milk, black lines in wines and water, blue lines in curds, bluish-yellow in buttermilk, lines resembling the colour of the peigon (grey) in whey, black lines in sour gruel prepared from grains, brown lines in medicinal decoctions, light-brown in ghee, green lines in honey, light-red lines in oils and also the smell of muscle-fat (in all the above). (7)
फलानामामानां पाकः, पक्कानां प्रकोथः, द्रव्याणामार्द्राणां सहसा म्लानत्वमुत्पक्कभावः, शुष्काणां श्यावता वैवर्ण्य वा, कठिनानां मृदुता, मृदूनां कठिनत्वं, माल्यस्य म्लानता गन्धनाशः स्फुटिताग्रत्वं, आस्तरणप्रावरणानां ध्याममण्डलता तन्तुरोमपक्ष्मशातनं च, लोहमणिमयानां पङ्कमलोपदेहः, स्नेहरागगौरवप्रभावर्णस्पर्शनाशश्च ॥८॥
Unripe fruits ripen (very quickly), ripe fruits undergo putrefaction, green ones lose their shining and attain the features of the cooked ones, the dry ones become black or discoloured, hard ones become soft and soft ones become hard.
The flowers of the garland fade, lose their smell, their edges get cracked.
The bedsheets, and coverings will have black patches; their threads, wool and stitches fall off.
Articles made out of metals and precious stones appear as coated with dirt, lose their smoothness, lustre, heavyness, brilliance, colour and feel. (8)
Visada – person administering poison
विषदस्तु स्वदोषशङ्कया त्रस्तो, भीतः, स्वेदवेपथुमान्, शुष्कश्याववत्रः समन्तात् सोद्वेगं विलक्षोऽभिवीक्षते । यत्र चानेन विषं प्रयुक्तं तद्विशेषेण । तथा स्रस्तोत्तरीयः स्तम्भकुड्यादिभि रात्मानमन्तर्धत्ते । स्खलितगतिर्दीनो लज्जावानस्थानहासी पृष्टोऽप्यसम्बन्धमुत्तरं ददाति । नैववा विवक्षुर्मुह्यति, अङ्गुली: स्फोटयति, ग्रीवामालभते, शिरः कण्डूयति, ओष्ठौ परिलेढि, जृम्भते, भुवं बिलिखति, क्रियासु त्वरते, विपरीतमाचरति स्वभूमौ च नावतिष्ठते ॥९॥
Visada (person who admiministered the poison) is afraid of being detected, appears miserable, freightened, sweating, shivering; his mouth is dry and face dark; looks into that substance in which he has mixed poison. His upper garments often fall off, he hides himself behind pillars and walls. He is unsteady in his walk, becomes timid and shy, laughs at improper times, gives irrelevant answers even without questioning or when questioned keeps silent; says that he has forgotten; makes sounds with his fingers, touches his neck often, scratches his head, licks his lips, yawns, scratches the ground, does all his actions in haste or in the wrong manner and does not remain in his own (usual) place. ( 9 )
Pariksa – methods of detection
नृपाज्ञात्वरयापि केचिदपराधान्तराद्वाऽनवस्थितस त्वाः समाचरन्त्येवम् । तस्मादग्र्यादिष्वपि परीक्षेत ।
वह्निस्तु सविषमन्नं प्राप्यैकावर्तो रूक्षमन्दार्चिरिन्द्रायुधवदनेकवर्णज्वालो भृशं चटचटायते । कुणपगन्धी धूमश्वास्य
मूर्च्छाप्रसेकरोमहर्षशिरोवेदनापीनसदृष्टायाकुलतां जनयति ॥१०॥
Some-times, some weak minded persons and others who are guilty of different kinds of crime also exhibit the above feature, out of fear of royal command and out of urgency. So the food suspected to have been poisioned should be tested by fire and other methods.
When poisoned food is thrown over the fire, it burns with single point flame (not with normal spreading flames), inturrupted, and slow; emits flame of different colours like a rainbow and gives out cracking sound The smoke that emerges will be smelling like that of a dead body, causes fainting, watering of the eyes, nose and mouth; horripilations, headache,running in the nose and disturbances of vision. (10)
तत्र नलदकुष्ठलामज्जकैः क्षौद्रद्रुतैर्नस्यमञ्जनं च कुर्यात् । धूममेव वापामार्गविडङ्गबलाद्वयचित्र कमेषशृङ्गिपुष्पसुमनःक्षारकद्राक्षाघृतगुडकृतं पिबेत् ||११॥
Persons affected by such smoke should be treated quickly with nasal drops and eye drops prepared from nalada, kustha, lamajjaka and honey. Inhalation of smoke of apamarga, vidanga, bala dvaya (the two balas) citaka, flowers of mesasrngi, sumanaksaraka (ash of the entire plant of sumana) draksa mixed with ghee and mollases (jaggery) can also be given. ( 11 )
स्नेहलवणयोगादपि चाग्निरित्थं स्यात् । अतो वयोभिः परीक्षेत । तत्र विषजुष्टाहाराभ्यवहारा काका: क्षामस्वरा भवन्ति । मक्षिकाः सविषानें न निलीयन्ते । निलीनाश्च व्यापद्यन्ते । दृष्ट एव चास्मिंस्तु चकोरस्याक्षिणी विरज्येते । कोकिलस्य स्वरो विकृतिमेति । हंसस्य गतिः स्खलति । कूजति भृङ्गराजः । माद्यति क्रौञ्चः । विरौति कृकवाकु: । विक्रोशति शुकः शारिका च । छर्दयति चामीकरः । अन्यतो याति कारण्डवः । म्रियते जीवञ्जीवको, ग्लायति वा । हृष्टरोमा भवति नकुलः । शकृद्विसर्जति वानरः । रोदिति पृषतः । हृष्यति मयूरः । दर्शनादेव चास्य विषं मन्दतामुपैति ॥ १२॥
The fire may react similarly when it comes contact with foods which are having more of oils and salts. So foods are to be tested with birds.
After consuming poisoned foods, the crows lose their voice; flies do not sit on such foods and if by chance, they sit they die; the eyes of the cakora bird become red by the sight of poisoned foods; the voice of kokila (cuckoo) undergoes change; the gait of the swan gets altered; brngaraja bird ( shrike ) begins to cry; kraunca bird (domoiselle cra ne ) become excited (toxic), krikavaku (cock) hoots loudly, suka (green parakeet) and sarika ( mynah) make long, loud souds; camikara vomits; karandava birds (white breasted goose ) fly away; jivanjiva (peacock pheasant) bird either dies or faints; nakula (mangoose) gets horripilations, vanara ( monkey) eliminates faeces, prsata (spotted deer) weeps; mayura (peacock) gets elated and by its mere look, the poison becomes weak. (12)
Visadhuma – poisonous fumes
विषदूषितस्य पुनराहारस्योष्मा मयूरकण्ठाभोऽभ्युदेति । तद्वाप्पेणापि धूमवन्मूर्छादयः । तेषां तद्वदेव साधनम् । हस्तेन स्पृष्टमनं विषवद्दाहशोफस्वापनखशातान् करोति । तस्य श्यामेन्द्रगोपसोमोत्पलैर्लेपः ॥१३॥
The fumes coming out of poisoned food will have colour of the neck of the peacock (blue); even from the fumes, fainting and other symptoms, enumerated under (inhalation of) smoke, might develop. The treatment for them is the same (as that of inhalation of smoke).
Visa in the mouth – poison in the mouth
अभ्यवह्रियमाणं त्वोष्ठचिमिचिमान्तर्वक्रदाहजिह्वामूलगौरवहनुस्तम्भदन्तहर्षलालाः करोति रसापरिज्ञानं च ।
तत्र धूमोक्तं दन्तकाष्ठोक्तं च कर्म ।
Ingestion of poisoned food will cause tingling sensation in the lips, burning sensation inside the mouth, hardness at the root of the tongue, lockjaw, tingling sensation in the teeth, more salivation and loss of sensation of taste. For this condition, the regimen indicated for (inhala. tion) smoke and of the tooth-brush should be adopted.
Visa in amasaya – poisoned food in the stomach
आमाशयगतं स्वेदमदमूर्छाछर्दिवैवर्ण्याध्मानरोमहर्षदाहारुचिदृष्टिहृदयोपरोधान् बिन्दुभिश्चाचय मङ्गानां करोति ॥१४॥
Poisoned food reaching the stomach produces perspiration, toxicity, fainting, vomitting, discolouration, distention of abdomen, horripilations, burning sensation, loss of taste (or appetite), obstruction to vision and the working of the heart, and appearance of spots (rashes) all over the body. (14)
तत्र मदनफलालाबुबिम्बीकोशातकिफलैर्दधिमधुयुक्तमाशु वमनं दद्यात्, निष्पावाम्बुभिर्वा ।
ततः स्निग्धशरीरं विरेचयेत् । त्रिफलात्रिकटुनागपुप्पमधुकबर्हिणपर्णीबृहतीद्वयचूर्ण सिंहव्याघ्र
वृकतरक्षुद्वीपिमार्जारसृगालमृगगोधानामन्यतमपित्तरससंयुक्तं सक्षौद्रं पानमेष जीवनो नामागदः परं सर्वविघौषधम् ।
तस्मिन् जीर्णे श्यामाव्योषातिविषासिद्धेन पयसा घृतेन वोपस्तम्भितां यवागूं पाययेत् ।
परिणतायां च तस्यां त्रिकटुकसिद्धेन मुद्गयूषेण किंचिल्लवणेन ससर्पिष्केण मुद्द्रोदनं भोजयेत् । मधुकशिरीषचन्दनैश्चैनमालिम्पेत्
॥१५॥ Then, the person should be made to vomit immediately by administration of either fruits of madana or alabu, bimbi, kosataki mixed with curds and honey or the decoction of nispava. After vomitting, the patient should be given oleation therapy as well as the purgation therapy. Next, he should be given an antipoisonous recipe, consisting of triphala, trikatu nagapuspa, madhuka, barhina parni, the two brhatis- all powdered and mixed with the bile of any one of the animals such as lion, tiger, wolf, hyena, leapord, cat, jackal, deer, or lizard and also honey. This recipe known as Jivana Agada is an excellent antidote for all kinds of poison. After the medicine gets digested the person should be given a yavagu (gruel) processed with syama (gandhapriyangu) vyosa, ativisa mixed with milk and ghee. After the gruel also gets digested he can be given soft, boiled rice along with the soup of mudga prapared by processing it with trikatu, little of salt and ghee. His body should be annointed with the paste of madhuka, sirisa and candana. (15)
Visa in pakvasaya – poisoned food in the intestines
पक्काशयगतं तृड्दाहमूर्च्छातीसाराटोपतन्द्रेन्द्रिय विकृतिबलभ्रंशकार्यपाण्डुत्वोदराणि जनयति ।
तत्र नीलिनीफलयुक्तेन सर्पिषा विरेचनं समाक्षिकं च दूषीविषारिं दध्ना पाययेत् ।
Poisoned food inside the pakvasaya (intestine) produces thirst, burning sensation, fainting, diarrhoea, gurgling noise in the abdomen, stupor, disorders of sense perception, loss of strength, emaciation, pallor and enlargement of the abdomen.
In that condition the patient should be administered a purgative with fruits of nilini mixed with ghee and honey. He should next be given Dusivisari (Agada) along with dadhi (curds).
Notes: Treatment of symptoms of inhalation smoke of poisoned food described earlier was instilling of juice of plants like nalada, kustha etc., to the nose and eyes. The treatment for ailments arising from using a poisoned tooth brush will be described further on. Both are to be done for symptoms developing in the mouth. When poisoned food has been ingested it is very necessary to bring it out by administration of vamana (emetics) and virecana (purgatives). After thus removing the food, antipoisonous recipes are administered. Only then it will be effective. Durivisari Agada has been described later in chapter 40 of Uttarasthana.
Visajusta dantakasta – poisoned tooth brush
दन्तकाष्ठप्रयुक्ते तु विषे कूर्चकविशरणमौषधगन्धो रूक्षता तालुदन्तजिह्रोष्ठमांसशोफश्च।
तत्र प्रच्छाय धातकीपुष्पजाम्बवास्थिहरीतकीचूर्णैः सक्षौद्रैः सप्तच्छदकल्केन वा प्रतिसारणं कुर्यात् ।
दाडिमकरमर्दभव्याम्रातककोलबदररसक्षौद्रयुक्तं गण्डूषम् । अनेन जिहानिर्लेखनकवलगण्डूषा व्याख्याताः ॥१६॥
If poison has been administered through the tooth-brush, the bristles of the tooth-brush fall out, it emits the smell of the poison and causes dryness and swelling of the palate, teeth, tongue and lips. In such a condition the parts of the mouth are to be scraped with sharp instruments so as not to cause bleeding) and then powder of the following drugs applied flowers of dhataki, seeds of jambu and haritaki mixed with honey or with the paste of saptachada and honey. The mouth should be smeared with paste prepared from the juices of dadima, karamarda, bhavya, amrataka, kola and badara mixed with honey. The above treatments are applicable in cases where the poison is administered with the tongue scrapper and with water for gargling the mouth. (16)
Visajusta anjana – poisoned collyrium
अञ्जनप्रयुक्तेऽश्रुदूषिकोपदेहरागवेदनादृष्टिविभ्रमा भवन्त्यान्ध्यं च । तत्र सर्पिप्पानं योज्यम् ।
शृतेन पयसा सप्तकृत्वः पिप्पलीर्भावयेत् । ततस्तत्कल्केन सर्पिर्विपकं नेत्रतर्पणम् ।
कपित्थमेषशृङ्गीभल्लातकानां पुष्पैर्वरणनिर्यासेन वाञ्जनं बृहतीशिरीषबीजप्रपौण्डरीकनागवला चूर्णं सप्तकृत्वो मधुना भावयेत् ।
तच्च स्रोतोऽञ्जनसुवर्णचूर्णयुक्तमञ्जनं देयम् ।
If poison is administered throug eye-salves there will be accumulation of dirt in the eyes, redness, pain, distortions of visions and even blindness. In such a condition the person should be made to drink ghee; pippali is boiled in milk for seven times, drying the pippali after each boiling; it is then made into paste, mixed wth ghee and a medicated ghee prepared in the usual way. This ghee should be put put into the affected eyes. Next anjana is to be applied into the eyes with any one of the following flowers of kapittha, mesasrngi and bhallataka; macerated with the resin of varana or powder of brhati,sirisabija, prapaundarika and nagabala all powdered and macerated for seven times in honey. Small quantity of this, along with srotonjana and powder of gold are mixed together and applied to the eyes.
Visajusta nasyadhuma – poisoned snuff and smoke
नस्यधूमप्रयुक्ते शिरोरुक्कफास्रावः खेभ्यो रुधिरागमनमिन्द्रियवैकृतं च । तत्रातिविषाश्वेताकाक माचीमदयन्तिकाकल्के क्षीरसिद्धं सर्पिर्भस्ये पाने च विदध्यात् ॥ १७॥
If poison has been adminstered through snuff and smoke, there will be headache, discharge of kapha (watery fluids), bleeding through the orifices (nose, eyes, mouth) and disorder of sensory perception. Such persons are to be given ghee prepared with the paste of ativisa, sweta ( girikarnika) kakamachi, madayantika, and milk, both for drinking and for instilling into the nose. (17)
Visajusta tailadi – poisoned oil etc
अभ्यङ्गप्रक्ते त्वग्दाहस्वेदपाकस्फोटावदरणानि । तत्र शीताम्बुपरिषिक्तस्य चन्दनतगरोशीरकुष्ठ वेणुपत्रिकामृतासोमवल्लीश्वेतापद्मकालेयकैरनुलेपनम् । एतान्येव च सकपित्थरसगोमूत्राणि पानम् । गिरिकार्णिका श्वेतमूलप्रियङ्गुसारिवामधुकसर्पसुगन्धामृगोर्वारुकतकमूलानि शेलुकाथ पिष्टानि प्रलेपः । अनेनोद्वर्त्तनघर्षणपरिषेकानुलेपनभूषणयानशय्यास्तरणवस्त्रकवचपादुकोपा नत्पादपीठा व्याख्याताः ॥
If poison is mixed with the oil used for oilbath, it will produce burning sensation on the skin, perspiration, ulcers, blebs and lacerations. The person is bathed in cold water and anointed with paste of candana, tagara, usira, kustha, venuupatrika (hingupatri), padma, kaleyaka (raktacandana). The juice of all the above along with juice of kapittha and cow’s urine should be given to drink. Roots of girikarnika, sveta mula (punarnava) priyangu, sariva, madhuka, sarpasugandha (nagadamani) mrgorvaru (gavaksi) and kataka are all macerated together with the decoction of selu (slesmataka) made into a fine paste and applied cold on the skin.
The above line of treatment applies generally even to conditions caused by administration of poison through material used for massaging and kneading of the body, bathing water, scents and cosmetics; ornaments, vehicle, bed and drappings, dress, armour, footwear, pillow, footrest etc. (17)
विशेषतस्त्वाभरणकृते विकारेऽश्वगन्धापामार्गकिणिहीखदिरशिरीषकल्कैर्गोपित्तयुक्तैः प्रदेहः । पादपीठकृते श्लेष्मातकसर्पसुगन्धाम्रकल्को मधुयुक्तः । छत्रप्रयुक्ते वेदनास्फोटानां क्षिप्रपाकानां पकजाम्बवप्रकाशानां प्रादुर्भावः । तत्र मधुकपाटलाकशेरुकलोध्राञ्जनकुष्ठसर्पसुग न्धाखदिरशिरीषकल्कैः सर्वगात्रप्रदेहः । अनेन चामरव्यजने व्याख्याते ॥१८॥
Special treatments are the following – for disorders caused by wearing poisoned ornaments it should be a warm application of the paste of asvagandha, apamarga, kinihi ( grirkarnika) khadira, and Sirisa mixed with oxgall; –
For disorders caused by the use of poisoned foot-rest, application of paste of slesmataka, sarpasugandha (nagadamani) and amra along with honey.
If poison is administered through the umbrella, there will be the appearance of boils on the body which are painful, suppurating quickly and resembling the ripe fruit of jambava. For this condtion, a warm application of the paste of madhuka, patala, kaseruka, lodhra, anjana, kustha, sarpasugandha (nagadamani), khadira and sirisa should be done all over the body. Similar is the treatment for disorders produced by the use of poisoned chowris (fly whisks) and fans. (18)
शिरोऽभ्यङ्गप्रयुक्ते शिरोवेदना ग्रन्थिजन्म केशच्यवनं च । तत्र श्यामापालिन्दीतण्डुलीयकचू घृतर्क्षपित्तैः सुभावितया कृष्णमृदा प्रलेपः । गोमयमालतीमूषिककर्ण्यन्यतमरसो वागारधूमो वा श्लेष्मातकत्वक्पाटलाशिरीषमधुकहरिद्राद्वयैरजाक्षीरालोडितैः परिषेकः । अनेन शिरःस्त्रा नोदककङ्कतस्रगुष्णीषा व्याख्याताः ॥ १९॥ If the oil used for bathing the head is poisoned, it produces headache, appearance of nodules and falling of hairs. This is to be treated with the application of paste of syama (priyangu), palindi, (trivrt), tanduliyaka, ghee, bile of the bear and black mud applied cold, over the head; or the application of the juice of cowdung, malati, musikakarni ormsuch others along with chimney soot. The head is to be washed with water boiled with the bark of Slesmataka, patla, sirisa, madhuka, the two haridra and mixed with goat’s milk. The above line of treatment is also applicable to poisoned water for bathing the head, comb, garland and head- dress. (19)
कर्णपूरणप्रयुक्ते शोफशूलपाकाः श्रोत्रवैगुण्यं च । तत्र बहुपत्रास्वरसो घृतक्षौद्रसंयुक्तः प्रतिपूरणं सोमवल्करसो वा सुशीतः । मुखालेपप्रयुक्ते मुखश्यावता पद्मकण्टका भवन्त्यभ्यङ्गजाश्च विका राः । तत्र मधुकपयस्याबन्धुजीवभञ्जीपुनर्नवचन्दनैः सघृतैर्लेपो, मधुसर्पिषी पानम् । सविषपु प्याटाणाच्छिरो व्यथा साश्रुनेत्रत्वं गन्धाज्ञानं च। तत्रानन्तरोक्को विधिर्बाप्पोदितवेति ॥ २० ॥
If poison is mixed with fluids (oils) used for instilling into ears, it will produce swelling, pain, ulcers and defects of hearing. For these conditions the ears are to be filled with cold fresh juice of bahupatra (brhati) mixed with ghee and honey or with the juice of somavalka (katphla).
If poison is administered through materials used for applying over the face, there will be black discolouration, appearance of padmakantaka (pustules) and other features described under poisoned oil-bath; such a condition is to be treated with application of paste of madhuka, payasya bandhujivaka (putranjiva), bhanji (bharngi), punarnava, candana and ghee, over the face and drinking of honey and ghee.
By smelling flowers which are poisoned, headache, tears in the eyes and loss of sensation of smell will develop. The treatment for this is the same as described earlier under materials use for face and that caused by inhalation of poisonous smoke. (20)
फलमूलच्छदादीनां दयात्प्रक्षालनोदकम् । भाजनव्यञ्जनानां च तथा कुर्यादतन्द्रितः ॥ २१ ॥ प्रेयाणि प्रापयित्वा तु स्पृश्यान् संस्पृश्य तानपि । प्रतीवापं ततो दत्वा प्रतीक्ष्यैवैकनाडिकाम् ||२२|| ततो विज्ञाय शुद्धिं च भाजनस्योदकस्य च ।
आहारमुपयुञ्जीत यथावद्वसुधाधिपः ||२३||
Some more further :
The physician should carefully scrutinise (inspect) the washing of fruits, roots, leaves, water for washing and other articles (such as vessels, plates, spoons etc.) used for preparing the food; examine by smelling those which can be smelt, touching those which can be examined by touch, sprinkle poison detectors over them, and reexamine them after a period of one nadika (24 minutes). Having confirmed the purity of the vessels, water and other materials he should arrange for cooking of the food for the king. (21-23)
मन्दं तीक्ष्णविषाभ्यासाद्विषमुत्क्षीयते भृशम् ।
तस्मात्तीक्ष्णविषं हस्ते बनीयात्कुशलो भिषक् ॥ २४॥ विषसंधारणं धन्यं रक्षोघ्नं प्रीतिवर्धनम् ।
Weak poisons become further weakened quickly in the presence (or nearness) of powerful poisons. So the wise physician should wear a powerful poison (on his body). Such wearing of a poison brings good luck, destroys raksasas (evils or harmful creatures) and helps earn affection from others. (24-241/2)
Bhesajagara – drug stores
सापिधानघटीमूटफलकस्थापितौषधम् ॥२५॥ प्रागुदीच्योर्दिशोर्गुप्तं भेषजागारमिप्यते ।
The drug stores should be located either in the eastern or northern quarter, in a secret place and equipped with pots, lids, bags, racks and almirahs in which drugs are to be stored. (25-26)
Notes: The drug stores was being located very near to the kitchen and it served as the office room of the physician, who had to supervise the kitchen. Raw drugs were being stored in earthen pots with lids and bags, whereas prepared ones were usually kept in bottles, made of silver etc. drugs required were being collected at the appropriate season and stored so that the physician could get it immediately and not run in search of it.
Mahanasa – kitchen
उच्चैः प्रशस्तदिग्देशं बहुवातायनं महत् ||२६||
महानसं सुसंमृष्टं विश्वास्यजनसेवितम् । सवास्स्थाधिष्ठितद्वारं कक्ष्यावत्सुवितानकम् ||२७|| सुधौतदृढकुम्भादि परिशुद्धजलेन्धनम् ।
The kitchen should be located in an elevated place, in auspicious direction, having many large windows, well equipped, where persons of confidence are working, gaurded by a faithful person (holding a staff) at the door. It should have separate rooms and other arrangements for storing materials.
The pots and others (equipments) should be well cleaned and strong; pure water and good fuel being stored in sufficient quantity. Suda (cooks):
स्वकर्मकुशला दक्षा: सूदास्तत्राप्रमादिनः ॥२८॥
क्लृप्तकेशनखाः पित्र्या राज्ञः कृत्यैरसङ्गताः । तेषामधिपतिर्विप्रः कुलजः सुपरीक्षितः ॥ २९॥
संविभक्तश्च भक्तश्च शुचिर्वैद्यवशानुगः । सर्वेऽपि भूभृदासन्नाः शस्ताः सततमीदृशाः ||३०॥
मिथो विग्रहसङ्घातरहिता भूभृते हिताः । तान् वैद्यो गुणवानेको मनसा प्रतिजागृयात् ॥३१॥
The cooks should be skilled in their work, efficient and not indulging in risky acts, having their hairs and nails cut close, who have fatherly affection towards the king and who are not interested in the deeds of the king. The superintendent of cooks (chief cook) should be brahmin of a reputed family, who has been tested for his skill, efficiency and reliability in inany ways, who is dignified, faithful, clean and obedient to the physician. All others who are near to the king should be also of these qualities, always free from personal jealousies and quarrels and doing only good the the king constantly. The physician should be ever vigilant even with such good attendants. (28b-31)
Sena Vaidya – army physician
अथाभ्यमित्रं व्रजतो जिगीषो यः सुसज्जौषधशस्त्रयन्त्रः ||३२|| तुङ्गध्वजाख्यातनिवासभूमि र्युद्धागतं योधजनं चिकित्सेत् ॥३३॥
The Physician, while attending to the protection of the person and paraphernalia of the king, should also treat the soldiers who follow the king and fight against his enemies, by staying in a tent which has a flag flying high, equipped with medicines, instruments and appliances. (33)
Notes :- The physician was an important member of the kings’s army. He remained very near to the king’s aprartments, and served all those who needed his help irrespective of the rank of the person in the army. His work involved administration of medicines, surgical operations, examination of water, food etc., used by the army for detection of poison and adoption of suitable remedial measures. He was being accomodated in an apartment readily recognisable from a high flying flag.
पन्थानमुदकं छायां भक्तं यवसमिन्धनम् ।
दूषयन्त्यरयो यस्मात्तान् विद्याच्छोधयेत च ॥ ३४॥
The road, reservoirs of water, shade, food, fodder and fuel are also liable to be poisoned by the enemies; so these are to be tested and purified (before use). (34)
प्रस्थानं वा निवेशं वा नाविज्ञाय प्रयोजयेत् । भूवारितृणकाष्ठाश्ममार्गोन्मार्गवनस्पतीन् ॥३५॥
The king should not embark upon a journey without prior knowledge (of the route) and not establish his army camp without the knowledge of the region, reservoirs of waters, grasses (crops), forests, rocks, open roads, secret roads, trees and herbs. (35)
Visajusta bhumi – poisoned land
विषेणोपहता भूमिः कचिद्दग्धेव लक्ष्यते । प्रम्लानतृणगुल्मादिमृतकीटसरीसृपा ॥३६॥
विशीर्यन्ते खुरनखा दाहकण्डूरुजान्विताः । छर्दिर्मूर्छा ज्वरो मोहः शिरोदुःखं च जायते ॥३७॥
तत्र सौभञ्जनान्मूलं सोमवल्लीमुशीरकम् । मातुलुङ्गरसं हिङ्गु पाययेद्दधिमात्रया ॥३८॥
मूत्राण्यजाविहस्तिभ्यो मांसानि रुधिराणि च । सर्वगन्धैः समं योज्य पचेत्पके च निक्षिपेत् ॥३९॥
सोमराजीं सुनन्दाख्यां सरलं गन्धनाकुलीम् । चारटीं त्रायमाणां च प्रोक्षयेत्तेन तां भुवम् ॥४०॥
The region of land which has been poisoned appears as though burnt from fire, the grass and bush will be found faded and drooping down; insects and crawling animals lying dead, the hoofs and nails (of horse etc.) become cracked and fall off, may develop burning sensation, itching and pain, men and animals may develop vomitting, fainting, fever, delusion and headache.
In such a condition, the roots of sobhanjana, somavalli, usira, juice of matulunga, hingu are to be made into a drink mixed with little amount of curds and administered to all (men and animals ).
The urine, flesh and blood of goat, sheep and elephants added with all the fragrant drugs are to be boiled well in water and that water sprinkled all over the poisoned land; like-wise, water boiled with somaraji, sunanda ( rasna ), sarala (trivrt), gandhanakuli, carati, padmaca-rini and trayamana should be sprinkled all over the land. (26-40)
Visajusta jala – poisoned water
सविषं विरसं तोयं कवोष्णं राजिभिश्चितम् । फेनिलं गुरु विच्छिन्नं खगैरनभिनन्दितम् ॥४१॥
मृताकुलितमत्स्यं च स्पर्शाद्रुक्शोफकण्डुमत् । ओदनः साधितस्तेन भुक्तमात्रोऽपि दह्यते ॥४२॥
विदग्धः पच्यते कृच्छ्रात्पको मूर्छाज्वरप्रदः । दर्शयेत्सर्वतो नीलपीतकर्बुरलोहितम् ॥४३॥
तत्र शिग्रेवादिमगदं भूमिदोषोदितं पिबेत् । अजशृङ्गीं विशालाख्यां विषघ्नीमुत्तमारणीम् ॥४४॥
फणिज्जकं प्रतिविषां दग्ध्वा तद्भस्म गालयेत् । बहुशो गालितं तच्च पाचयेत्तत्र च क्षिपेत् ॥ ४५ ॥
कल्कयित्वा प्रतीवापं सरलं रजनीद्वयम् । एलामुदीच्यं मञ्जिष्ठां सुनन्दां बाकुचीमपि ॥४६॥
पात्यन्ते बिन्दवस्तस्माद्यत्र तन्निर्विषीभवेत् । पाटलापारिभद्राश्वकर्णशम्याकसिघ्रकान्॥४७॥ कलशान्तर्गतान् दग्ध्वा प्रक्षिपेत्सविषेऽम्भसि ।
The waters of the reservoirs ( ponds, lakes, rivers) which has been poisoned, will have bad taste, slight warmth, full of long streaks (lines) and foam, heavy (hard to digest) and broken up (curdled); rejected by the birds and shoals of dead dish floating. It produces pain, swelling and irritation on touch. Rice cooked in that water causes burning sensation immediately after eating, undergoes digestion after a long time, causing burning sensation, producing fainting and fever after digestion and appearance of colours like blue, yellow, brown or red all over the body.
In such a condition, the Sigrvadi agada described under purification of land, should be given to drink. Ajasrngi, visala ( gavaksi), visaghni ( guduci), uttamarani (padmacarini) phanijjaka and prativisa are all to be burnt and made into ash. This ash is dissolved in water and filtered many times. It is then boiled adding to it a paste prepared from sarala, (trivrt), the two rajanis, ela, udicya, manjistha, sunanda and bakuci. (afterwards the water is reduced a little by boiling, it is taken out for use) whereever drops of this water fall those parts become depoisoned.
Patala, paribhadra ( nimba ), aswakarna, samyaka and Sidhraka (sinduvara) are all put into a pot, set on fire and the mouth of the pot closed with the lid. The ash, taken out later, is sprinkled over the poisoned water (of the reservoirs to detoxicate it). (41-48a)
Visajusta vayu – poisoned air
शीते धर्मो हिमचोष्णे मारुतो विषसंयुतः ॥४८॥ भ्रममूर्छादिकारी चशिग्रूवादिस्तत्र चेप्यते ।
देवदारुनतानन्तामधुकार्जुनगैरिकम् ॥४९॥ वज्रकन्दं लतां लोनं विकिरेच्छ्रलक्ष्णचूर्णितम् । वृक्षाग्रेषु पताकासु दूष्येषु सुमहत्सु च ॥५०॥
सर्वतचूर्णसंपर्कान्निर्विषो जायतेऽनिलः । विकृता भवति छाया पादपे विषदूषिते ॥५१॥
निर्गन्धमतिगन्धं वा तत्पुष्पं हच्छिरोरुजम् । कुर्यात्, फलपलाशादि कण्डूपाकातिसारकृत् ॥५२॥
भूमिमुद्दिश्य यत्प्रोक्तं तत्सर्वं तत्र चेप्यते ।
The air that has been poisoned will be cold during summer and hot during winter, causes giddiness, fainting and other symptoms. In this condition the Sigrvadi agada (described earlier) is to be made use of. Fine powder of devadaru, nata, ananta (durva) arjuna, gairika, (red ochre) vajrakanda (sudha), lata (priyangu) and lodhra is to be sprinkled over the top of the trees, flagposts, tall pillars, gabels of tall houses, etc. By coming in contact with this powder everywhere, the poisoned air becomes detoxicated.
The shade of the trees which have been poisoned is found to be abnormal, the flowers of such trees, might either lose their fragrance or become more fragrant than usual, may cause itching, ulcerations and diarrhoea. The treatment for these conditions is all those which were prescribed for purifying the land. (48-52b)
Visa kanya – poisoned woman
न च कन्यामविदितां संस्पृशेदपरीक्षिताम् ॥ ५३॥
विविधान् कुर्वते योगान् कुशलाः खलु मानवाः । आजन्मविषसंयोगात् कन्या विषमयीकृता ॥५४॥
स्पर्शोच्छ्वासादिभिर्हन्ति तस्यास्त्वेतत्परीक्षणम् । तद्धस्तकेशसंस्पर्शान्ग्लायते पुष्पपल्लवैः ॥५५॥
शय्यायां मत्कुणैर्वस्त्रे यूकाभिः स्नानवारिणि । जन्तुभिम्रियते ज्ञात्वा तामेवं दूरतस्त्यजेत् ॥५६॥
No unknown woman should be touched nor one who has not been examined. Intelligent men invent many plans (to kill others). By administering small quantities of poison daily even from the day of birth, they make the body of a woman to become poisonous. Persons die by touching her, by her breath and such other contacts. Hence she is to be tested before hand. The flowers and flower buds held in her hand or worn in her hairs fade away; the bugs in the bed, the lice in the cloth and insects in the bathing water used by her will be found dead. By noting this, such a woman should be kept away. (53-56)
नाप्रोक्षितं नाविदितं भिषजा नानवेक्षितम् । नाप्राशितं च सूदाद्यैः किञ्चिदप्याहरेन्नृपः ॥५७॥
The king should not eat any food which has not been sprinkled with water (sanctified by antipoisonous chants, prayers, drugs, etc.), which is not known, which is not tested by the physician and which is not test eaten, earlier by the cooks and attendants. (57)
धन्यं सर्वार्थसिद्धाख्यं पापरक्षोविषापहम् ।
परं चक्षुष्यमायुष्यं शत्रुघ्नं वक्ष्यतेऽञ्जनम् ॥ ५८ ॥
Further on, shall be described the preparation of any eye-salve called “Sarvarthasiddhi Anjana”, which brings good luck, protects from sins and poison, very good for the eye, confers long life and destroys the enemies. (58)
अथ शुक्लपक्षे पुण्येऽहनि पुष्यपुनर्वसुहस्तचित्रामृगशिरःश्रवणरेवतीशतभिषक्प्राजापत्योत्तरा णामन्यतमेन नक्षत्रेण योगमुपगते भगवत्यौषधिपतौ प्रशस्ते मुहूर्ते सिन्धुस्रोतःसमुत्थंस्निग्धं सप्रभं गन्धवर्णच्छदैर्नीलोत्पलाभमञ्जनमाहरेत् । तस्याष्टौ भागाः कनकरजतोदुम्बराणामेकैको भागः । तत्सर्वं मूषायां प्रक्षिप्य बलिमङ्गलपूर्वकमग्निमुपसमाधाय खदिरकदर धवस्यन्दनानाम न्यतमदारुभिगोंमयैर्वा प्रज्वालयेत् । ततश्चार्यावलोकितेश्वरमार्यतारां ब्रह्मदक्षाविरुद्वेन्द्रादि मवरुणवैश्वानरवायुविष्णुजनकभरद्वाजधन्वन्तरिसुश्रुतभव्यसुकन्यास्कन्दश्चयवनवैनतेयान न्यांश्च यथाविध्युक्तदेवताः सुमनोऽक्षतलाजस्वस्तिक संयावनिस्तुषयवसंस्कृतगुडघृतमिश्रपाय सैरर्चयित्वावृद्धवैद्यब्राह्मणांश्च शुक्लवाससो महतीभिर्दक्षिणाभिः पूजयित्वा तस्मिन्नग्नौ तदञ्जनं ध्मातं ध्यातमावृत्य पृथक्पृथनिषेचयेत् । गोशकृद्रसमूत्रघृतदधिक्षौद्रवसामज्जतैलमद्यसर्वग न्धाम्बुशर्करोदकेक्षुरसेषु तथा हरीतक्यामलकबिभीतककाश्मर्यमृद्धीकाशृङ्गाटककशेरु कोत्पल नलिनसौगन्धिकमृणालिककायेषु तथा लावकपिअलैणशशहरिणकुलीररसेषु तथा मधुकचन्द नकालानुसार्यनलदपद्मकोशीरमञ्जिष्ठानन्तागैरिककुङ्कुमोदकेषु । ततः शुक्ले वाससि बध्वा द्वादशरात्र मान्तरिक्षेऽम्भसि वासयेत् । ततश्छायायां विशोष्य स्फटिकमुक्लाप्रवालकालानुसार्या प्रतीवापं पुनरपि बलिमङ्गलपूर्वकमहतवाससा कन्यया दृषदि पेषयित्वासुवर्णरजतताम्रशङ्कशैल द्विरदरदनगवयशृङ्गवैडूर्यस्फटिकमेषशृङ्गयसनसारान्यतमघटितायामञ्जनिकायां निधापयेत् । अथ पूर्ववत्पुनरपि कृतस्वस्त्ययनं सावित्रेण कर्मणा सर्ववित् द्विजन्मा विधिवत्तदभिसंस्कुर्यात् । ततो गजस्कन्धमारोप्य पाण्डुरच्छत्रचामरबालव्यजनैरनुगतं तथा शङ्खदुन्दुभिस्वनैर्द्विजातिवरप्र युक्तैश्च वेदवादमिश्रैः पुण्याहघोषैः कृतपुष्पोपहारं वैद्यगृहानायकगृहमनुप्रवेशयेत् । अनन्तरं च तेन विदेहाधिपोपदिष्टेन सर्वार्थेषु सिद्धेनाञ्जनेन यथोक्लानामेवाञ्जनभाजनद्रव्याणामन्यत मया शलाकया गोब्राह्मणपूजापूर्वकं शुचिः सनियमो भूत्वा धारणीमिमां विद्यामधीयानः पूतः पूर्वमक्षि दक्षिणमञ्जयेत् ॥ ५९॥
अत्र मन्त्रः नमश्चक्षुः परिशोधनराजाय तथागतायार्हते सम्यक्सम्बुद्धाय । तद्यथा ओं चक्षुः प्रज्ञाचक्षुर्ज्ञानचक्षु र्विज्ञानचक्षुर्विशोधय स्वाहा ||६०||
ततः परं च तामेव धारिणीमनुस्मरन् सायम्प्रातः प्रत्यहमेतत्परमं पवित्रमारोग्यकरमूर्जस्करं सर्वविषघ्नमञ्जनमश्विभ्यामिन्द्रस्य वृत्रवधाभ्युद्यतस्य प्राक्कल्पितम्। तस्मोदतद्राज्ञां राजमहा मात्राणां च महीं विजगीषमाणानां च ब्राह्मणानां च वेदाध्ययनमन्यद्वा महच्छास्त्रमवगाहमा नानां प्रसन्नमना भिषक्प्रकल्पयेदिति । भवन्ति चात्र श्लोकाः ॥६१ ॥
In the bright half of the month, on an auspicious day when stars like Pusya, Punarvasu, Hasta, Chitra, Mrgasira, Sravana, Revati, satabhisak, Prajapati, Uttara and others from a Yoga (union) with the lord of Osdhis (Soma or moon), at such an auspicious time, the person (physician ) should go to the river Sindhu, and collect from the river bed, the smooth, shining, blue coloured stones of anjana (sauviranjana) having good smell, colour and brilliancy. To it, is added one-eighth of its weight of equal quantities of gold, silver and copper. This mass is kept in a cruicible which is placed on the fire, after worshipping the fire with offering and prayers. The fire is then kindled with the wood of khadira, kadara, dhava, syandana and such others or with heaps of cowdung. Arya Avalokitesvara, Arya Tara, Brahma, Daksa, Asvinis, Rudra, Indra, Adityas, Soma, Varuna, Vaisvanara, Vayu, Visnu, Janaka, Bharadvaja, Dhanvantari, Susruta, Bhavya, Sukanya, Skanda, Cyavana, Vainateya and such other gods and divinities are worshipped in the prescribed manner, with offerings of auspicious aksata (coloured rice), laja (fried paddy); drawing the sign of swastika on the floor, and offering payasa (milk pudding) prepared from dehusked barley, jaggery and ghee; next, elderly physicians and brahmanas who have put on white cloths are also worshipped, and presented with large amount of money.
The combination of Anjana and metals, which has by this time become liquid is stirred and poured into separeate vessels containing solution of cowdung, cows urine, ghee, curds, honey, muscle-fat, bone-marrow, oil, wine, solution of different kinds of fragrant substances, solution of sugar and juice of sugarcane; decoction of haritaki, amalaka, vibhitaka, kasmarya, mrdvika, srigataka, kaseruka, utpala, nalina, saugandhika and mrnalaka; soup of meat of lava (bursted quail) kapinjala (black partridge) ena (fawn, deer) sasa and also in the decoction of madhuka candana, kalanusari, nalada, padmaka, usira, manjista, ananta, gairika and kumkuma (kesara) in order of succession separately. It is then tied in a white cloth and kept immersed in rain water for twelve days. Next it is dried in shade and mixed with sphatika, mukta, pravala, and kalanusari (saileya). The gods are worshipped again with prayers and offerings and a maiden (virgin) who has put on a dress which is not torn, is asked to grind the above mixture (into a nice powder) and fill it into a special container of collyrium made of gold, silver, copper, conch, stone, teeth of ruminating animals, horns of bison, vaidurya stone, sphatika(rock crystal) inesasrngi, pith of asana and any such material.
The gods are again worshipped, as before; the learned brahmanas should then consecrete it specially with chants of Savitri (sun). The container is then mounted on an elephant which is adorned with flowers and taken in procession from the physicians house to the palace of the king, accompanied by white coloured umbrelas, whiskers, fans, sounds of conch and drums ete, preceded by reputed brahmanas chanting Vedic hymn and auspicious prayers. After establishing the eye-salve container in the palace at a convenient place, the physician shall begin to use this ‘Sarvarthasiddhi Anjana’ (collyrium bringing success in all respects) as prescribed by the king of Videha. The eye salve may be applied with the help of a rod prepared from any one of the materials suggested for preparing the container. Before applying, the physician should take bath and become clean, worship cows and brahmanas, observe vows, chant the following Dharini (sacred hymn) and apply the salve to the right eye first and next to the other eye.
“I pray un to the Lord who protects the eyes, to the Tathagata, Arhata and Samyak Sambuddha; Om, purify the (seeing) eye, the eye, the eye of wisdom, the eye of knowledge, the eye of supreme knowledge;” I pray repeating the above hymn;- the collyrium should be put into both the eyes, every day, both in the morning and evening. It is very sacred, promotes health, vigour, destroys all kinds of poisons,; it was formulated long back by the Asvinis for the sake of Indra, to kill the demon Vrtra; it is thus suitable to the kings, nobles, and those who vish to conquer the land; to the brahmanas who are eager to master the Vedas or other difficult sciences and those who have a controlled and pleasant mind. (59-61)
भवन्ति चात्र श्लोकाः ।
Some more verses hereunder;
अथ योगाः प्रवक्ष्यन्ते बृहस्पतिकृताः शिवाः । यान् सेवमानो नृपतिः शत्रुभ्यो नैति पञ्चताम् ॥ ६२||
बिल्वाढकीयवक्षारपाटलीबाल्हिकोषणाः । श्रीपर्णीसल्लकीयुक्ता निष्काथः प्रोक्षणः परम् ॥ ६३॥
सविषं प्रोक्षितं तेन सद्यो भवति निर्विषम् । यबसेन्धनपानीयशस्त्रशय्यासनोदकम् ||६४॥
कवचाभरणच्छत्रबालव्यजनवेश्म च । शेलुपाटल्यतिविषाशिग्रुगोपीपुनर्नवम् ॥६५॥
सहदन्तशठं तद्वत् प्रोक्षणं विषनाशनम् ॥६६॥
लाक्षाप्रियङ्गुमञ्जिष्ठासमङ्गालहरेणुकाः । यष्ट्याह्नमधुसंयुक्ता बभ्रुपित्तेन कल्किताः ॥६७||
निखनेगोविषाणस्थाः सप्तरात्रं महीतले । ततः कृत्वा मणिं हेना बद्धं हस्तेन धारयेत् ||६८।।
संस्पृष्टं सविषं तेन सद्यो भवति निर्विषम् । मनोह्वालशमीपुप्पत्वनिशाश्वेतसर्षपाः ।।६९।।
कपित्थकुष्ठमञ्जिष्ठाः पित्तेन लक्ष्णकल्किताः । शुनो गो: कपिलायाश्च सौम्याख्योऽयं वरोऽगदः ॥७०॥
विषजित्परमं कार्यो मणिरत्नं च पूर्ववत् । मूषिकाजरुहा वापि हस्तबद्धा विषापहाः ॥ ७९ ॥
Anya yoga – some other antipoisonous recipes
Further on will be described some beneficient receipes formulated by Brhaspathi, by the use of which the king cannot be killed by the enemies.
A decoction of bilva, adhaki ( tuvari), yavaksara, patali, balhika, Usana ( marica), Sriparni ( kasmarya) and sallaki.
This decoction sprinked over poisoned materials such as fodder, firewood, drinking water, weapons, cots and furniture, reservoirs of water, armour, ornaments, umbrella, whisks, fans, dwelling appartments and others, make them poison-free.
Selu, patala, ativisa, sigru, gopi (sariva), punarmava, samanga (manjista). vrsamula twak (bark of roots of vasa) kapittha, vrsa sonitam (raktacandana) and dantasata all made into a decoction will act likewise, on sprinkling.
Laksa, priyangu, manjista, samanga, harenuka, yasti and honey are all made into a nice paste with the bile of mangoose, and filled into the hollow of a cow’s horn, sealed well and buried under the ground for seven days. It is taken out later, filled into a fillet of gold and tied to the hand as an amulet. Any poisoned material touched by that hand immediately becomes poison-free.
Manohva, ala, flowers and bark of sami, nisa, svetasarsapa, kapittha, kusta are all made into a fine paste with the bile of a dog or a brown coloured cow, acts in the same way as the above when worn as an amulet. This recipe konwn as Saumya Agada is a very efficient antipoisonous recipe.
The amulet of the plant musika (an antipoisonous herb) or ajaruha tied to the hand removes the poison. (62-71)
हरेणुमांसीमञ्जिष्ठारजनीमधुकं मधु । अक्षत्वक्सुरसं लाक्षा वपित्तं पूर्ववन्मणिः ॥७२॥
वादित्राणि पताकाश्च पिष्टैरेभिश्च लेखिताः । श्रुत्वा दृष्ट्वा समाघ्राय सद्यो भवति निर्विषम् ॥७३॥
Harenu, mamsi, manjista, rajani, madhuka, madhu, bark of aksa, surasa,laksa (lac) made into a paste with the bile of a dog and worn as an amulet as above acts similarly. This paste applied to poisoned musical instruments, flagstaff, incense holder make them poisonfree by their sound, sight or smell (respectively). (72-73)
त्र्यूषणं पञ्चलवणं मञ्जिष्ठां रजनीद्वयम् । सूक्ष्मैलां त्रिवृतां पत्रं विडङ्गानीन्द्रवारुणीम् ॥७४॥
मधुकं चेति सक्षौद्रं गोविषाणे निधापयेत् । तस्मादुष्णाम्बुना मात्रां प्राग्भक्तं विनियोजयेत् ॥७५॥
विषं भुक्तं जरां याति निर्विषेऽपि न दोषकृत् । जतुसर्जरसोशीरसर्षपा पत्रवालकैः ॥७६॥
सबेल्लारुष्करपुरैः कुसुमैरर्जुनस्य च । धूपो वासगृहे हन्ति विषं स्थावरजङ्गमम् ||७७||
न तत्र कीटाः सविषा नोन्दुरा न सरीसृपाः । न कृत्या कर्षणा द्याश्च धूपोऽयं यत्र दह्यते ॥७८॥
Tryusana, panca lavana, manjista, the two rajani suksmaila vidanga, indravaruni, madhuka and honey are all mixed together and filled into a cow horn. It is administered in small doses along with hot water before food. By this, the poison which has been ingested will become digested. It does not produce any harm even though no poison is present inside.
Jatu (silajatu) sarjarasa, usira, sarsapa, patra, valaka, vella, aruskara, pura and flowers of arjuna, all mixed together and used so as toproduce smoke inside the places of dweling, removes the poison of both the vegetable kingdom and the animal kingdom. In such a house where this smoke is present, poisonous insects, rats and reptiles will not survive and acts of witchcraft sorcery will also become nullified. (74-78)
शिखिपिञ्छं बलाकास्थि सर्षपाश्चन्दनं घृतम् । धूपो विषघ्नः शयनवसनासनगेहगः ।।७९।।
विशालाव्योषमञ्जिष्ठायष्टीलवणपञ्चकम् । द्विनिशापत्रवेलैलात्रिवृचूर्ण समाक्षिकम् ॥८॥
गोशृङ्गे निहितं योज्यं स्त्रानीयेऽम्भसि भूपतेः । पूर्वोक्लत्र्यूषणादिं च स्त्रानीयेऽम्भसि योजयेत् ॥८१ ॥
क्वाथोऽथवार्ककुसुम श्वेतापामार्गसर्षपैः । सदध्याज्यः कृतो युक्तैः कतकानाकुलीद्वयैः ||८२॥
कल्को वा चन्दनक्षीरिपलाशद्रुमवल्कलैः । मूर्वैलावालुसुरसनाकुलीतण्डुलीयकैः ॥८३||
क्वाथः सर्वोदकार्थेषु काकमाचीयुतैर्हितः । रोचनापत्ननैपालीकुङ्कुमैतिलकान् वहन् ।।८४।। विषैर्न बाध्यते स्याच्च नारीनरनृपप्रियः ।
The smoke of plumes of the peacock, bones of the balaka bird (crane) sarsapa, candana and ghee removes the poison from dwelling, and sleeping and sitting apartments.
The powder of visala, vyosa, manjista, yasti, the five salts, the two nisa, patra, vella, ela and trivrt are all made into a paste with honey and preserved in a cows horn. It should be mixed with the bathing water of the king. The mixture of tryusana etc., described earlier can also be used in this manner.
The decoction of flowers of arka, sweta, apamarga, sarsapa mixed with curds and ghee or the paste of kataka and nakuli or decoction of candana ksiri bark of palasa tree, murva, elavaluka, suras, nakuli tanduliyaka and kakamaci is useful for all kinds of water (to remove the poisonous effect).
Rocana, patra, nepala (manassila) and kumkuma made into a fine paste and worn on the forehead as a Tilaka (long mark) makes the person (king) unaffected by poison and attracted by women. (79-85a)
दिग्धं निर्विषतामेति गात्रमित्याह गौतमः । नस्यपानाञ्जनालेपैर्युञ्ज्यात् सञ्जीवनात्मकान् || ८६॥
अगदान् विषभुक्तस्य तीक्ष्णानि वमनानि च । पिप्पलीमधुकक्षौद्रशर्करेक्षुरसैः सह ||८७||
द्विनिशापत्रवेल्लैलात्रिवृच्चूर्णं समाक्षिकम् । विरेचनं सिरामोक्षं प्राप्तं विस्रावणं यदि ||८८॥
हृदयावरणं कार्यं प्रागेवामित्रमध्यतः । पिबेद्घृतमजेयाख्यममृतं वाप्यमुक्तवान् ॥ ८९ ॥
सर्पिः क्षौद्रं दधि क्षीरमन्ततः शीतलं जलम् । सितामधुकपालिन्दीकल्कवन्मांसमिप्यते ॥९०॥
गोधाहरिणबभ्रूणां सकणाशुण्ठिपार्षतम् । सनागरं सातिविषं शिखिनः ससितोपलम् ।।९१॥
सुशीताः सघृताचैषां यथास्वं कल्पिता रसाः । विषपीताय दद्याच्च शुद्धायोर्ध्वमधस्तथा ॥९२||
सूक्ष्मं ताम्ररजः काले सक्षौद्रं हृद्विशोधनम् । शुद्धे हृदि ततः शाणं हेमचूर्णस्य दापयेत् ।।९३॥
न सज्जते हेमपाने पद्मपत्रेऽम्बुवद्विषम् । जायते विपुलं चायुर्गरेऽप्येष विधिः स्मृतः ॥९४॥
इत्थं गरविषादिभ्यो रक्षेद्वैयो नरेश्वरम् । स्यादुच्छेदस्तदुच्छेदात्प्रजानां सर्वकर्मणाम् ॥ ९५॥
Powder of haridra, manjista, kinihi, kana and nimba applied to the body makes it poison-free, thus said Gautama For a person who has partaken poisoned food, the antidote known as Sanjivini agada should be administered in the form of nasal medication, drink, eye-salve, and anointing for the body; powerful emetics should be administered along with pippali, madhuka, honey, sugar, and sugar-cane juice; the two nisas, patra, vella, and trivrt all made into a powder and used with honey will be a good purgative. If letting out the blood is needed, venesection should be done.
The procedure of hrdayavarana (protecting the heart) should be done first for the king who is in the midst of enemies. He should drink the ghee known as Ajeya ghrita or Amrta ghrita (described in chpater 40 of uttara tantra) before taking food.
Ghee, honey, curds, milk and cold water should be used in that order. Meat of lizards, antelope and mungoose can be used mixed with sugar, madhuka, and paste of palindi; the meat of prssata (spotted deer) with kana and sunthi; that of the peacock with nagara, ativisa and sitopala (sugar candy).
For persons who have been given poisoned drinks, meat soup mixed with ghee and cooled can be given.
Persons who have been administered poison, should be given purificatory therapy both of the upper parts and lower parts of the body. After such purification, fine powder of copper mixed with honey should be given, at the proper time, to purify the heart; after purifying the heart in this way, the person should be given one sana (about 3 grams) of fine powder of gold to lick. Poison does not adhere to the parts of the body of the person who has licked gold, just as water does not adhere to the leaf of the lotus plant. His duration of life also gets enhanced greatly.
Even for gara (artificial poisons, homicidal poisoning) the same treatment holds good.
By these methods the physician should protect the king from homicidal poisoning, beacuse the death of the king leads to cessation of all the activities of the people also. (85b-95)
Vaidya Vrtta – conduct of the royal physician
आज्ञाधैर्यक्षमात्यागा मानुषत्वेऽप्यमानुषाः । यद्राज्ञः कर्मभिस्तस्मादाराध्योऽसावतीन्द्रियैः ॥ ९६॥
यत्र साक्षनृपस्तत्र विज्ञातः प्रविशेद्धिषक : न सम्मंतोऽप्यनुचितं यानस्थानासनं भजेत् ॥ ९७ ॥
उचिते पुरतो राज्ञस्तिष्ठेद्वाक्यं च नाक्षिपेत् । अहीनकालं राजार्थं स्वार्थं प्रियहितैः सह ॥९८।।
देशे काले परार्थं च बदेद्धर्मार्थसंहितम् । नानुशिष्यादपृच्छन्तं महदेतद्धि साहसम् ।।९९।।
नाचरेदहितेनैनं मूलच्छेदकरं हि तत् । अनुकूलं हितं वाच्यमहिताद्वारयेन्मिथः ।।१००।।
उदारैः सान्त्वयन् वाक्यैर्दोषश्चेत्तदुपेक्षया । तूष्णीं वा प्रतिवाक्ये स्याद्वर्जयेद्वेप्यसङ्कथाम् ॥ १०१॥
विपश्चिदप्यचित्तज्ञो बालिशोऽपि तु भाववित् । अतिप्रियोsपि द्वेप्योsपि यात्याशु विपरीतताम् ॥ १०२॥
निवेद्य राज्ञे कुर्वीत कार्याणि सुलघून्यपि । न यायान चिरं तिष्ठेत् कोशस्थानावरोधयोः ॥ १०३॥
स्वल्पेऽपि दर्शयेत्तुष्टिं लाभेऽनुद्धतमानसः । मिथः कथनमन्येन कौलीनं द्वन्द्ववादिताम् ॥ १०४ ॥
वस्त्रादि राज्ञा सदृशं राजलीलां च वर्जयेत् । दत्तं यत्तु नृपेणैव तद्धार्यं तुष्टिवृद्धये ॥१०५॥
हसितव्ये स्मितं कुर्यात् प्रभोरेवानुवृत्तितः । उच्यमानेऽवलम्बेत परमर्मणि मूकताम् ||१०६॥
स्वमर्मणि तु बाधिर्यं धैर्यमाधुर्यसौष्ठवान् । अत्यायासेन नात्मानं कुर्यादतिसमुच्छ्रितम् ॥१०७॥
पातो यथा हि दुःखाय नोच्छ्रायः सुखकृत्तथा ।
The kings, by virtue oftheir soverignity, (commanding) bravery, forgiveness and sacrifice, sometimes become superhuman though born as human. So the kings should be served with greatest care and caution.
The physician should announce his coming before actually going to the presence of the king; he should not sit on a seat which is improper even though approved but should remain standing, should not interfere in the middle while the king speaks, take sufficient time to explain to the king anything beneficial to him but take very little time to say anything of himself, that too in the presence of the loved and good persons, at appropriate place and time; he should speak only that which is agreeable to the ethical discipline; should not instruct the king unless asked for; otherwise it becomes an adventure (risk).
The king should not be served with bad conduct, as such conduct would lead to total destruction. The speech should be comforting to him and unpleasant words should be avoided.
Words which are generous and comforting are to be used and mistakes of speech avoided. If the king’s speech is contradictory, the physician should remain silent and thus avoid unpleasantness and argument.
Persons, who have not understood the mind of the king, though scholars, and the liked, do not earn the affection of the king whereas others (who have understood the mind of the king), will earn his affection even though they are children and the disliked.
Any work however minor, should be undertaken only after obtaining. due permission; the physician should not visit places such as the treasury and harem (without permission) and should not remain there too long (having gone there on request).
He (the physician) should express satisfaction even for small gifts, should not show his indignation with others; neither reveal the affairs of the (kings) household to others nor indulge in spreading rumours.
He should not imitate the king either in dress or any other act; should wear the dress presented by the king only for pleasing him.
He should only smile when the king laughs loudly, that too after him. When the king is speaking out the secrets of others, he (physician) should remain silent and when he speaks out the secrects of him (the physician) he (the physician) should remain deaf, courageous, pleasing and calm.
He should not spend large amount of money with great effort (on any pretext) because any such spending always leads to one’s fall and misery and not to one’s prosperity or happiness. (97-107)
आसन्नसेवा नृपतेः क्रीडाशस्त्राहिपावकैः ।।१०८।।
कौशलेनातिमहता विनीतैः सा निरुध्यते । प्राप्य दुष्प्रापमैश्वर्यं बहुमानं च भूपतेः ॥ १०९॥
यथोपभुञ्जीत चिरं तथा स्यादप्रमादवान् । विदध्यात्परितः शय्यां रक्षामन्त्राभिमन्त्रिताम् ॥ ११०॥
रात्री सिद्धार्थकान् भूतिमक्षतैरन्वितां शुचिम् | रक्षाशक्तिं तथोर्चे सयवाङ्कुरयावकाम् ।।१११॥
सदूर्वं पूर्णकलशं सपुष्पफलपल्लवम् । उपहारं च सन्ध्यायां भुक्वा चान्ते निशासु च ॥ ११२॥
एतत्स्वस्त्ययनं कर्म कर्तव्यं शुचिना शुचेः । आयुष्यं पौष्टिकं भूतविषकार्मणपाप्मजित् ।। ११३॥
Those who partcipate with the king in sports, in the use of weapons, in handling snakes (or other wild animals) and fire should do so sportively, with tact, skill and humility and restrain the king (without injuring him in any way).
Having obtained improper wealth or honour from the king, he (the physician) should not exhibit it too much nor behave in such a manner that a gift is everlasting.
The king should sleep on the bed at nights only after it is made safe by protective spells, auspicious grains and ash sanctified by sacred hymns.
The image of the goddess (Sakti) should be kept near the head of the cot, a pot filled with sacred water adorned with flower should be worshipped in the evenings, just after food and at the time of going to bed. This kind of worship should be done by the king who is clean and helped by the physician who is also clean. This svastyayana (benovalent ritual) confers long life, prosperity and destroys evil-spirit, poison and other bad effects of sin. (112-113)
सङ्क्षेप एष विषपालनसाधनाय प्रोक्तस्तु विस्तरविधिः पुनरुत्तरे तु ।
आलोच्य सम्यगखिलं मतिपूर्वकारी युञ्जीत तं परिविकल्प्य विकारचिह्नम् ।। ११४।।
So far, the methods of counteracting poisons were described in brief and more if it, will be said later in the Uttara sthana; knowing all these the physician should adopt apt measures recognising the abnormal symptoms by his intellegence and skill. (114)
इति विषगररक्षोक्षणायोपदेशं भजति नरपतिर्यो नित्यमेवाप्रमत्तः ।
निजपररिपुवृन्दैरप्रधृष्यो महात्मा जनयति जनतायाः क्षेमयोगौ चिराय || ११५॥ इत्यन्नरक्षाविधिर्नामाष्टमोऽध्यायः ।
The king who understands and follows the instruction regarding protection from natural poisons and artificial (homicidal) poisons, daily, without neglegence, becomes invincible from enemies, within his own kingdom and outside – attains the status of a benefactor (noble soul) always caring for the welfare of the people at large. (115)
Thus ends the eighth chapter.
Notes:- In this chapter the different methods adopted by enemies to kill the king and nobles by poisoning them and remedial measures to get over that are described. The practice of homicidal poisoning was very common in ancient times, chiefly among the rich people, though even ordinary men were not exempt form this bad practice. Most of the times the poison was a synthetic product prepared by mixing plants, plant products, products which were considered as poisonous. From the symptoms of poisoning mentioned in this chapter, we are led to presume that in most of the cases there was no instantneous death and so the poisons were not very toxic but produced certain diseases. The techniques adopted to detoxicate the poisoned materials and methods of treatment of the symptoms of poisoning were the best known at that time. Removal of poison from the body quickly by inducing vomittings, purgations, letting out the blood, administration of known antidotes are the treatments of poisoning even now. Difference is only in the drugs and better techniques.
One should not think that the risk of poisoning was a thing of the past and the present day is free form it. Even with great progress in civilisation and way of life, man has not been able to cast off some of his vices such hatredness, craze for superiority, supermacy and so on. Rivalry between one nation and the other, still continues to exist. The progress in the different fields of science is being utilised more for destructive purposes than constructive. The rapid increase in the production of lethal weapons of nuclear energy by wealthy nations holds out a great threat of destruction for the entire world. The hazards of radiation already experienced makes people shiver in their spines. The present day battles become a universal phenomena though at the commencement it might be between two countries. Invention of weapons of mass destruction has rapidly replaced the old method of direct combat in the battle field. Poisoning of air with poisonous gases and harmful bacteria which produce many diseases, contamination of water by deadly chemicals – known as the gas war, bacterial war, chemical war etc., are being envisaged. The increasing stock piling of all these hazardous weapons of mass destruction, has been pushing the present civilisation to the brink of its extinction.
Even in his daily life, modern man is running this risk. Industrialisation in the present century has given rise to many kinds of health hazards. The atmosphere is being polluted by harmful smoke, fumes and dust, emanating from factories. The waste water and other effluents are being allowed into rivers and other reservoirs of water making the water unsafe for men and animals. Some of the chemical issed as pesticides are proving dangerous to man and animals. Even some chemical and these are detectable in the grains, fruits, vegetables etc., which are in daily use; use of powerful acids, alkalies, flames, laser and other kinds of rays, are all hazardous to human health.
Needless to say, that unscrupulous and malevalent men exist in the society always. Such people by their mad desire to become rich quickly and easily pollute many things of daily consumption by adding undesirable things to them. Adulteration of articles of food such as sugar, butter, milk, oil, ghee and what not-is on the increase day after day. This activity has even entered the field of medicine and we find many life saving drugs being spurious; many of them produce diseases instead of curing them.
So the hazard of pollution and consequent poisoning is as great even now as in the past or even more. When such is the hinderance to health, all care and caution has to be taken maintain it normally. There is thus, on urgent need to avoid polluting all things, and to adopt and adhere rigidly to a code of right conduct by one and all, in view of their own good health.