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Ashtanga samgrahaDRAVADRAVYA VIJNANIYA ADHYAYA - Knowledge of liquid substances - A.S.S Chapter 6

DRAVADRAVYA VIJNANIYA ADHYAYA – Knowledge of liquid substances – A.S.S Chapter 6

अथातोद्रवद्रव्यविज्ञानीयं नामाध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । इति हस्माऽहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ।।१।।

We will now expound the chapter called Drava dravya vijnaniya (knowledge of liquid materials), thus said Atreya and other great sages.

Gangambu – rain water

जीवनं तर्पणं हृद्यं ह्लादि बुद्धिप्रबोधनम् । तन्वव्यक्तरसं मृष्टं शीतं शुच्यमृतोपमम् ॥ २॥

सूर्योद्धृतप्रमुक्तत्वाल्लघु वातकफापहम् । शैत्यजीवनसौम्यत्वैः पित्तरक्तविषार्लिजित् ॥ ३॥

गङ्गाम्बु नभसो भ्रष्टं स्पृष्टं त्वर्केन्दुमारुतैः । हिताहितत्वे तत् भूयो देशकालावपेक्षते ।।४।।

Enlivining, satiating, pleasing to the mind, refreshing, stimulating the mind, thin, not having any perceptable taste, sweet by nature, cool, clear, nectar-like in property, easily digestible because it is first abso rbed and later released by the sun, mitigating vata and kapha, curing diseases of pitta, rakta and visa (poison) by its cold, enlivining and coolant properties, are the qualities of Gangambu (rain water) which has fallen from the sky coming in contact with sunlight, moonlight and Hom wind. Its good or bad (suitability or unsuitability) depends chiefly upon the region and season. (2-4) ring med

anNotes: The properties described above can only be attributed to the rain water collected in a clean vessel, a little time after the commencement of rain. It will be still good if there is good sunlight or moonlight during such a collection. It can be stored only for a day and used. It increases the moisture of the body, and thus strengthens it, relieves exhaustion and provides a sense of comfort. Compared to other kinds of pure water, it is very cool. It is easily digestable after coming in contact with sunlight. Rainwater is not good and suitable to health in all the seasons of the year and at all places. It is good during sarad rtu (autumn mid sent to mid nov.) and at places of moderate climate (Sadharana desa). Once rain water has fallen on the grond, it acquires the properties of the land and becomes healthy or unhealthy depending on the nature of the land.

In olden days, rain water used to be pure. But now a days with the increasing industrialisation, the atmosphere has become contaminated with poisonous gases etc., that rain water coming down from the clouds gets polluted to a great extent. Because of this we hear of salty rain, acid rain, crimson rain and so on occasionally. It is harmful to make use of such rain water for drinking without boiling it.

येनाभिवृष्टममलं शाल्यनं राजतस्थितम् । अक्लिन्नमविवर्णं वा तत् पेयं गाङ्गमन्यथा ॥५॥ सामुद्रं तन पातव्यं मासादाश्वयुजाद्विना ।

Only that rain water which neither makes the cooked sali rice kept rice kept in a clean silver plate too moist (slimy) nor change its colour is to be considered good for drinking. All other kinds of water are called as Samudra (sea water) and should not be used for drinking except during Asvayuja month. (5-51/2)

Notes:- Good rain water collected in a clean silver vessel, if poured over the cooked rice and allowed to stand for a few minutes should not alter the normal bright white colour of rice. This was the test being carried out in olden days to determine the suitability of rain water for drinking. Water which did not stand this test was considered bad just as sea water and so categorically named as such, even though it is not got from the sea directly. Such water is allowed for drinking only during the month of asvayuja (mid-: september) because of the presence of the star ‘Agastya'(Conopus) which detoxicates poisons) but not in other seasons.

Bhumista jala – terrestrial water

खातधौतशिलापृष्ठवस्त्रादिभ्यश्च्युतं जलम् ||६||

Rain water collected by burowing the earth, or from a pit in a stone which has been washed well, or collected through a clean cloth into a vessel made of gold or mud kept undisturbed should always be made use of for drinking. (6)

हेममृन्मयपात्रस्थमविपनं सदा पिबेत् । तदभावे च भूमिष्ठमान्तरिक्षानुकारि यत् ॥ ७॥ In the absence of such water (good rain water), water from the earth which resembles it (having qualities similar to rain water) should be used. (7)

Notes:- Burrowing the earth should be done a little deep and water collected after a few minutes. If it is intended to collect water from pits in rocks, it is necessary to clean the rock pit before the rains. Water should be filtered through a clean cloth into the vessel, which should be kept undisturbed for some time to allow sediments, to settle down at the bottom of the vessel. As it is difficult to obtain such pure rain-water all through the year, any pure water collected from other sources such as rivers, lakes, ponds or wells, having qualities similar to rain water can be used for drinking.

श्वेते कषायं तत्स्वादु कृष्णे तिक्तं च पाण्डुरे । नीले कषायमधुरं देशे लवणमूषरे ॥८॥

सक्षारं कपिले मिश्रं मिश्रेऽथाम्बुगुणाधिके । मधुरं लवणाम्लं तु भवेत्भूमिगुणाधिके ॥९॥

तेजोधिके तिक्लकटु कषायं पवनाधिके । दिव्यानुकारि त्वव्यक्तरसत्वात् खगुणाधिके ॥१०॥ शुचिपृथ्वसित श्वेते देशे चार्कानिलाहतम् ।

Water of the earth (terrestrial) from a place having white soil will be astringent in taste, in a place of black soil it will be sweet, in light yellowish soil it will be bitter, in blue soil it is astringent-sweet; in alkaline soil, it will be salty, in brown soil it will be alkaline, at place of mixed soil it will be of mixed taste;

If the region of the land is having the qualities of Ap bhuta predominantly, the water of that region will be sweet, if the region is predominant in the qualities of Prthvi bhuta, the water will be salt and sour; in regions which are predominantly Taijasa, the water will be bitter and pungent, in regions predominant of qualities of Vayu bhuta the water will be astringent; in regions which possess the qualities of Akasa bhuta predominantly, the water will be tasteless and resembles rain water in all respects; The water from a clean place having black or white soil and fully exposed to sun-light and wind is also similar to rain water. (8-11a)

Notes: Even though the earth is made up of all the Pancabhutas (elements) their proportion varies from one region to the other. Because of this, there is variation in the colour and qualities of the soil, the nature of climate, flora and fauna, constitution and temperament of the people. etc. Hence the suitability or otherwise of water of different regions of the earth. People living for long periods in a particular region will have become accustomed to the kind of water of that region and the water of other regions will not be suitable for them. water of any region well exposed to sunlight and air will be more suitable to health than the one which is not so exposed.

Ashtavidha jala – eight kinds of water

कौपसारसताटाकचौण्डप्रास्रवणौद्भिदम् ॥ ११॥

वापीनदीतोयमिति तत् पुनः स्मृतमष्टा सक्षारं पित्तकृत् कौपं दीपनानातिवातलम् ॥१२॥

सारसं स्वादु लघु च ताटाकं गुरु वातलम् । चौण्डं तु पित्तलं दोषहरं प्रास्रवणोदकम् औद्भिदं स्वादु पित्तघ्नं स्वादु वापीजल लघु ।

नादेयं वातले रूक्ष क कटुक ॥ १३॥ तदादिशेत् ॥१४॥

धन्वानूपमहीघ्राणां सामीप्यात् गुरुलाघवम् ।

It (terrestrial water) is again of eight kinds such as that of Kupa (deep d well), Sarasa (natural lake), Tataka (artificial pond/lake), Caunda (water collected in pits of rocks), Prasrvana (flowing down from mountains) Audbhida (water from natural springs), Vapi (well with flights of steps all around ) and Nadi (river). De 6

Kaupa- the water from deep well is alkaline and increases Pitta; Sarasa-water from natural lakes improves digestion, does not increase Vata greatly (but may but may make for its n mild increase) is sweet in taste and easily digestible; Tadaga- watef of of artificial ponds or lakes is hard to digest, and eauses increase of Vata, Caunda-water from pits pits in rocks increases Pitta; Prasravanodaka-water flowing down the mountains mitigates all the three dosas, audbhida-water from springs,is sweet and mitigates Ny pitta; Vapijala-water from well with flight of steps is sweet and easily digestible; Nadeya-water from rivers increases Vata, is dry (non-greasy) and pungent.

The (easy or difficult) digestibility of water is dependent on its source being located n near desert, swamp or mountain regions. (11-15a) Notes: If the reservoir of water is in arid or desert region the water from that source is easily digestible, if the source is near mountains it is still more easily digestible; if the source is near swamps which are water logged always, the water will be hard to digest. Digestibility was the criteria to decide the potability of water in ancient times in contrast to the present day criteria of hardness or softness. Soft water is easily digestible while hard water is hard to digest.

पश्चिमोदधिगाः शीघ्रवहा याश्चामलोदकाः ॥ १५॥

पथ्याः समासात्ता नद्यो विपरीतास्ततोऽन्यथा । उपलास्फालनाक्षेपविच्छेदैः खेदितोदकाः ॥१६॥

हिमवन्मलयोद्भूताः पथ्यास्ता एव च स्थिताः । क्रिमिश्लीपदहृत्कण्ठशिरोरोगान् प्रकुर्वते ॥१७॥

Rivers which flow into the western sea, are swift and have clean water, such water is good for health; those of the opposite direction (eastern) are opposite in qualities also, hence not good for health; water from rivers arising from the Himalaya and Malaya mountains (western ghats of Karnataka and Kerala States) undergoing constant swirlings, lashing against rocks, falling from heights and dispersed into minute drops etc., will also be good for health; the same water (river water) stagnated for long is not good and will produce parasitic diseases, filariasis, diseases of the heart, throat and head. (15b-17)

प्राच्यावन्त्यपरान्तोत्था दुर्नामानि महेन्द्रजाः । उदर लीपदातङ्कान् सह्यविन्ध्यभवाः पुनः । ॥ १८ ॥

कुष्ठपाण्डुशिरोरोगान् दोषघ्न्यः पारियात्रजाः बलपौरुषकारिण्यः सागराम्भस्त्रिदोषकृत् ॥ १९ ॥

Water of rivers of the countries such as Pracya, Avanti, Aparanta and those arising in Mahendra mountains produces diseases like piles, enlargement of abdomen and filariasis; water of rivers arising from Sahya and Vindhya mountains produce leprosy (and other skin diseases), anaemia and diseases of the head; rivers arising from Pariyatra mountains mitigates all the dosas, improve strength and valour; water from the sea tend to increase all the three dosas.(18-19)

Notes: Pracya country or Gauda desa comprise of central part of Bengal and parts of Orissa; Awanti or the Malwa country was round about the modern city of Ujjain, Aparanta is the modern Konkan comprising of Goa, north Kanara and Karwar districts of Karnataka; Mahendra mountains are the northern part of Western ghats; Sahya are the mountains from which river Godavari arises, Vindhyas are mountain ranges in central India, Pariyatras are the Western part of Vindhya mountains.

Duhsta jala – contaminated water

कीटाहिमूत्रविट्कोथतृणजालोत्कराविलम् । पङ्कपङ्कजशैवालहठपर्णादिसंस्तृतम् ||२०||

सूर्येन्दुपवनादृष्टं जुष्टं च क्षुद्रजन्तुभिः | अभिवृष्टं विवर्णं च कलुषं स्थूलफेनिलम् ॥ २१ ॥

विरसं गन्धवत्तप्तं दन्तग्राह्यतिशैत्यतः । अनार्तवं च यदिव्यमार्तवं प्रथमं च यत् ||२२||

लूतादितन्तुविष्मूत्रविषसंश्लेषदूषितम्। तत् कुर्यात् स्रानपानाभ्यां तृष्णाध्मानोदरज्वरान्॥२३॥

कासाग्निसादाभिष्यन्दकण्डूगण्डादिकानतः । तद्वर्जयेदभावे वा तोयस्यान्यस्य शस्यते ||२४||

Water which has been contaminated with the urine, excreta and decomposed dead body of insects and snakes; which is having a net-work of weeds (grass) and rubbish, thick with presence of silt, plants growing in silt, algae, rootless plants; leaves covering the entire surface, sunlight and air not reaching the water at all; water full of insects, worms, etc., water which is fresh but not fallen from the sky; water which is discoloured, dirty, with big bubbles coming out of it; of bad taste and fqul smell, that which causes chills in the teeth being very cold; rain water which is unseasonal, fresh rain water even of proper season, water that is polluted with urine, excreta and poisnous matter from spiders and other insects all these kinds of water are unfit for bathing or drinking. They will produce, if used, thirst, distention and enlargement of the abdomen, fever, cough, weak digestive capacity, ophthalmia, itching and boils on the skin, hence such contaminated water should be rejected. If their use is unavoidable due to nonavailability of good water, they should be purified in the following ways and then made use of.

Jala Sodhana – purification of water

घनवस्त्रपरिस्रावैः क्षुद्रजन्त्वभिरक्षणम् । व्यापन्नस्यास्य तपनमग्र्यर्कायसपिण्डकैः ॥ २५ ॥

पर्णीमूलबिसग्रन्थिमुक्ताकतकशैवलैः । वस्त्रगोमेदकाभ्यां वा कारयेत्तत्प्रसादनम् ॥ २६॥ पाटलाकरवीरादिकुसुमैर्गन्धनाशनम् ।

Polluted water should be filtered through thick cloth to remove insects and worms, heated by fire, exposure to sunlight or by immersing red-hot iron balls into it; it should be made clear by putting into it parnimula (a kind of grass which has the property of diluting the water), knots (tubers) of lotus plant, pearls, seeds of kataka, algae, thick cloth or gomedaka (dolomite stone); its bad smell being removed by putting into it the flowers of patala, karavira and such other sweet smelling ones. (20-261/2)

Notes:- In ancient times methods of purification of water were (a) filteration through thick cloth, (b) boiling (c) making it clear with addition of some herbs and (d) removing its bad smell by putting into it some fragrant flowers.

पानीयं न तु पानीयं पानीयेऽन्यप्रदेशजे ॥ २७॥ अजीर्णे कथितं चाऽऽमे पके जीर्णेऽपि नेतरत् ।

शीते विधिरयं तप्ते त्वजीर्णे शिशिरं त्यजेत् ॥ २८ ॥

Once a particular kind of water has been used for drinking another different kind of water should not be used till the first kind of water has been digested well; if uncooked water taken previously has not been digested, cooked water should not be taken over it and vice versa : This applies even to cold water; if cooked water taken first has not been digested well, un-cooked water should not be drunk over it again. (27-28)

Notes: If water of a natural lake has been used as drink earlier, the water from a deep well becomes a dissimilar or different kind of drink, which should be avoided. Likewise all other kinds of water are dissimilar to each other. Any one kind of water is to be used constantly. Alternate use of un-cooked and cooked water also should be avoided.

Jala anivaryata – unavoidability of water

पानीयं प्राणिनां प्राणा विश्वमेव च तन्मयम् । अतोऽत्यन्तनिषेधेन न कचिद्वारि वार्यते ॥२९॥

आस्यशोषाङ्गसादाद्या मृत्युर्वा तदलाभतः । न हि तोयाद्विना वृत्तिः स्वस्थस्य व्याधितस्य वा ॥३०॥

Water is the sustainer of life of all living beings, the entire world is full of it; so absolute avoidance of water is impossible. Dryness of the mouth, weakness of the body etc., or even death might result if it (water) is not available; without water, there is no activity in both the healthy and the sick (persons.) (29-30)

Notes:- Life itself is impossible without water Nearly 80% of the animal body is water and for all the activities of the body, water is required. So total abstinence from water leads to death within a few days. So every person whether healthy or sick should drink water as much as needed by the body.

Matraya jalapana – drinking water in appropriate quantity

केवलं सौषधं पक्कमाममुष्णं हितं च तत् । समीक्ष्य मात्रया युक्तममृतं विषमन्यथा ॥३१॥

Water does not become a remedy or good for use, merely by being either cooked or uncooked or only being hot or cold; used judiciously in appropriate quantity it acts like nectar or acts as poison when used otherwise. (31)

Atijala pana – drinking large quantity of water

अतियोगेन सलिलं तृप्यतोऽपि प्रयोजितम् । प्रयाति श्लेष्मपित्तत्वं ज्वरितस्य विशेषतः॥३२॥

वर्धयत्यामतृग्निद्रातन्द्राध्मानाङ्गगौरवम् । कासाग्निसादहृल्लासप्रसेकश्वासपीनसान् ॥३३॥॥

Drinking large quantities of water, even when thirsty, leads to increase of kapha and pitta; it is so especially, in persons suffering from fever, making for increase of ama (undigested materials) thirst, sleep, stupor, flatulance, feeling of heavyness of the body, cough, poor digestive capacity, nausea, salivation, difficulty in breathing and nasal catarrah (32-33)

Ushnajala – warm water

पाके स्वादु हिमं वीर्ये तदुष्णमपि योजितम् । तस्मादयोगपानेन लाघवान वियोजयेत् ॥३४॥

Water undergoes svadu vipaka (sweetness at the end of digestion) and cold in potency even though used hot. So injudicious use o of hot water (either less or more than required) does not cause much change in digestion. (34)

आमविष्टब्धयोः कोष्णं निप्पिपासोऽप्यपः पिबेत् । यावत्यः क्लेदयन्त्यन्नमतिक्लेदोऽग्निनाशनः ।। ३५॥

विबद्धः कफवाताभ्यां मुक्कामाशयबन्धनः । पच्यते क्षिप्रमाहारः कोष्णतोयद्रवीकृतः ॥ ३६॥

In conditions of Ama (ajirna) and Vistabdha (ajirna), the patient should drink warm water even though not thirsty, just enough to moisten the food and make it liquid. Large quantities of water will destroy the digestive capacity; the obstruction in the stomach caused by accumulated kapha and vata will be released and so the food liquified by hot water undergoes quick digestion. (35-36)

Notes:- Amajirna and VistabdaJirna are the two kinds of indigestion caused by the increase of kapha and vata respectively. In both, the digestive power will be very poor and so unable to digest the food. To aid proper digestion the food has to be made liquid by drinking some quantity of hot water, which kindles digestion, makes for normal peristalitic movements of the alimentary tract, and helps digestion of food quickly. Care should be taken not to drink large quantitites.

Apakva jala – uncooked water

अनवस्थितदोषाग्नेर्व्याधिक्षीणबलस्य च । नाल्पमप्याममुदकं हितं तद्धि त्रिदोषकृत् ॥३७॥

For persons who have anvasthita dosas (mild increase of dosas which are moving from place to place); those who have poor digestive capacity and those who have become weak after illnesses, even little quantity of un-cooked water will not be good, as it will cause increase of all the three dosas. (37)

Notes: The dosas, after undergoing increase do not continue to stay in their normal places but begin to spread to other places also. This is the stage of commencement of disease. At such time un-cooked water, however small in quantity, will cause further increase of dosas and so should be avoided.

Jala varjana – avoidance of water

तेजसः प्रतिपक्षत्वान्मन्दाग्निर्वर्जयेज्जलम् । सर्वमेव तथा स्यन्दप्लीहविद्रधिगुल्मिनः ॥३८॥

पाण्डूदरातिसारार्शोग्रहणीशोषशोफिनः । काममल्पमशक्लौ तु पेयमौषधसंस्कृतम् ॥३९॥ ऋते शरनिदाघाभ्यां पिवेत्स्वस्थोऽपि चाल्पशः ।

Water, being the antagonist of tejas (fire), persons suffering from poor digestive activity should avoid drinking water, as far as possible; likewise, also those suffering from ophthalmia, enlargement of spleen, abscess, abdominal tumor, anaemia, enlargement of the abdomen, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, duodenal disease, consumption and oedema. If such persons desire water inevitably, they may drink a small quantity of medicated water. Even healthy persons should drink little quantities of water daily, except during Sarat and Nidagha rtus (summer). (38-391/2)

Notes: Medicated water is prepared by boiling it with drugs suitable for the treatment of particular diseases prescribed in the texts. During sarat and nidagha (grisma) Ritus (summer) the climate being hot, drinking more quantities of water will not harm the body but will help maintain the water balance.

Jalapana Kala – time of drinking water

भक्तस्यादौ जलं पीतमग्निसादं कृशाङ्गताम् ॥४०॥

अन्ते करोति स्थूलत्वमूर्ध्वं चाऽमाशयात् कफम् । मध्ये मध्याङ्गतां साम्यं धातूनां जरणं सुखम् ॥४१॥

Drinking of water just before the commencement of meals causes weakness of digestion and emaciation of the body; taken at the end of the meals it makes for obesity and accumulation of kapha in the parts above the stomach; taken at the middle of the meals it maintains the normalcy of the tissues and helps easy digestion. (40-41)

Notes: Water taken before meals dilutes all the digestive juices making for poor digestion which in turn leads to inadequate nourishment and consequent wasting of the body; the same immediately after meals produces increase of kapha, which leads to lazyness, excessive sleep and consequent accumulation of more fat in the body. Hence, it is advised to avoid drinking of water at these two times and drink moderate quantity of water during meals itself which is ideal for maintainance of health.

Sita jala – cold water

शीतं मदात्ययग्लानिमूर्छाछर्दिश्रमभ्रमान् ।

तृष्णोष्णदाहपित्तासृग्विषाणि च निहन्ति तत् ॥४२॥

Cold water cures alcoholism, exhaustion, fainting, vomiting, fatigue, giddiness, thirst, burning sensation, disorders of pitta, rakta (blood) and of visa (poison.)(42)

Kvathita jala – boiled water

क्षीणपादत्रिभागार्धं देशर्तुगुरुलाघवात् । कथितं फेनरहितमवेगममलं हितम् ॥४३॥

Water boiled and reduced to one-fourth, one-third and half of the original quantity depending upon the region, season and hard or easy for digestion; which is not having any foam, which does not cause any unpleasantness and which is clear- is the ideal one for drinking.(43)

Notes: – It was stated in the previous chapter that in different seasons water undergoes changes due to climate and so is not the same all through the year in its digestibility; so also, in respect of land region. For example water during rainy season and from water logged regions are not easily digestible where as water during autumn or spring seasons and from desert lands is easily digestible. Hence boiling the water has been described as of three standards viz., (a) if the water is thought to be very hard for digestion, it should be boiled and reduced to half of original quantity, (b) if it is moderately hard it should be reduced to two-thirds of the original quantity, (c) if it is slightly hard for digestion, it should be boiled and reduced to three fourth of the original quantity. Water boiled by the above standards will become easy for digestion and good for health.

हिध्माध्मानानिल श्लेष्मतृट्कासश्वासपीनसे । पार्श्वशूलाममेदस्सु सद्यः शुद्धौ नवज्वरे ॥४४॥

दीपनं पाचनं कण्ठ्यं लघु बस्तिविशोधनम् । पाषाणरूप्यमृद्धेमजतुतापार्कतापितम् ॥४५॥

पानीयमुष्णं शीतं वा त्रिदोषघ्नं तृडर्तिजित् । लघ्वरूक्षं क्लमघ्नश्च तोयंकथितशीतलम् ॥४६॥

संसर्गे पित्तकफयोः सन्निपाते च शस्यते। तोयं वन्हिगुणभ्रष्टं पाकेऽम्लं सर्वदोषकृत् ॥४७॥ भवेत् पर्युषितं तच्च

Boiled water cures hiccup, distention of the abdomen, disorders of vata and kapha, thirst, cough, difficulty in breathing, nasal catarrh, pain in the flanks, accumulation of fat; it is best suited for those who have undergone purificatory therapies and those suffering from early stages. of fevers; hot water stimulates digestion, cooks the undigested materials, is good for the throat, easy to digest and purifies the urinary bladder (tract).

Water made warm by immersing into it heated balls of stone, silver, mud, gold and bitumen or by exposing it to sunlight, used for drinking either warm or cold, allieviates all the three dosas and quenches the thirst.

Boiled and cooled water is easily digestible and removes fatigue; it is ideal in disorders of combination of pitta and kapha and also in disorders of all three dosas.

Boiled water kept unused for a period of one day and night, loses all the good effects of boiling, becomes sour after digestion and causes the increase of all the three dosas.(44-48a)

Notes Generally boiled water is prescribed for those who are suffering from diseases, though it is good even for the healthy. Water should be boiled in a clean vessel and reduced to the appropriate quantity. It should be used either hot, warm, lukewarm or cooled by allowing it a short time, as per the liking of the person. Boiled water which has become stale should not be used. Boiled water should not be made cool quickly by keeping it in a refrigerator or by any other means. It should be allowed to cool by itself slowly and then used.

Himakarajala – water from hail stones

तोयं हिमकरोद्भवम् ।अतिशैत्यगुरुस्थैर्यसंघातै कफवातकृत् ॥४८॥

Hail stones being very cold, heavy, hard and solid, the water derived from them possesses the same properties and causes increase of kapha and vata. (48)

Candrakanta jala – water from marble

चन्द्रकान्तभवं रक्षोविषपित्तज्वरापहम् । दृष्टिमेधावपुस्थैर्यकरं स्वादु हिमं लघु ॥४९॥

Water exuding from candrakanta stones (white marble) removes evil spirits (harmful bacteria, insects, worms etc), poison, mitigates fever caused by pitta, improves vision, intelligence and strength of the body; is sweet, cold and easily digestible.(49)

Notes:- Water obtained by melting of ice is very cold to touch and not easily digestible. As such it is not good for the teeth and general health. Refrigerator being found nowadays in almost every home, the habit of using food products made by cold process is becoming very common. As can be guessed, very cold foods and drinks tend to increase the moisture of the body, lower the temperature temporarily for short periods and decrease the digestive juices in the alimentary tract. All these have a deleterious effect on the 1 natural resistance of the body. Persons desirous of good health should avoid frequent use of very cold foods and drinks, however pleasant they may be. White marble stones do not melt and become water. Ancient Indians attribute antitoxic, bactericidal and health promoting properties to this kind of stone and any water coming through it or coming in contact with it was believed to derive such properties. Based on this belief, there was the practice, in olden times of keeping a piece of white marble, immersed in water for purifying it. White marble is found in north India at a few places only and in some river beds, such as the Narmada.

Nalikerodaka – cocoanut water

नालिकेरोदकं स्निग्धं स्वादु वृष्यं हिमं लघु | तृष्णापित्तानिलहरं दीपनं बस्तिशोधनम् ॥ ५० ॥

Cocoanut water is unctous (lubricant), sweet, aphrodisiac, coolant, easily digestible; removes thirst, mitigates pitta and vata, stimulates digestion and cleanses the urinary bladder (tract).(50)

Notes:-Cocoanut water is a very favourite drink in this country. It is a very tasty and refreshing beverage and especially during summer. If the nut is very unripe, the water will be slightly salty but more in quantity. Water of a well ripened nut is very sweet but its quantity will be less. Hence, it is ideal to select a nut which is half ripe and drink its sweet water in moderate quantity. Instrument used for choping the nut should be clean and sharp enough to cut through the fibres quickly. Water inside is quite sterile (free from any bacteria) and it should not be contaminated with dirty materials. It should be used immediately, it is not good to use it after along time.

दिव्यं वारि बरं वर्षे नादेयमवरं परम् । इति तोयवर्गः ।

Rain water is the best (ideal drinking), during Varsa rtu (rainy season) where as river water is not good (during that season) (50). Thus ends the group of waters.

Ksira Varga – group of milks and milk products

स्वादुपाकरसं स्निग्धमोजस्यं धातुवर्धनम् । वातपित्तहरं वृष्यं श्लेष्मलं गुरु शीतलं ॥५१॥ प्रायः पय::

Generally, milk is sweet both in taste and at the end of digestion; unctous, improves the Ojas, promotes growth of tissues, mitigates vata and pitta; is aphrodisiac, increases kapha, hard to digest and coolant. (51)

Notes: The above are the properties common to all kinds of milk. Ojas is the essence of all the tissues of the body and is responsible for the maintenance of physical strength and natural resistance of the body and so considered an essential element for life.

Goksira – cows milk

अत्र गव्यं तु जीवनीयं रसायनम् ।

क्षतक्षीणहितं मेध्यं बल्यं स्तन्यकरं सरम् ॥५२॥

श्रमभ्रममदालक्ष्मीश्वासकासातितृक्षुधः ।

जीर्णज्वरं मूत्रकृछ्रं रक्तपित्तं च नाशयेत् ॥५३॥

Out of them, Cow’s milk is sustainer of life, rejuvinator, good for persons suffering from injuries to the chest and emaciation; it improves intelligence, strength, makes for increase of breast milk; laxative, cures fatigue, giddiness, toxicity, inauspiciousness, (sorcery, witchraft) difficulty in breathing, cough, excessive thirst and hunger, fever of long duration, difficulty in micturition and bleeding disease. (52-53)

Mahisa ksira – buffalos milk

हितमत्यग्न्यनिद्रेभ्यो गरीयो माहिषं हिमम् ।

Buffalo’s milk is good for those who are having greatly incerased digestive activity and loss of sleep; it is hard for digestion and is coolant. (53 1/2)

Ajaksira – goats milk

अल्पाम्बुपानव्यायामकटुतिक्काशनैर्लघु ॥ ५४॥ आजं शोषज्वरश्वासरक्तपित्तातिसारजित् ।

Goat’s milk is easily digestible because the goat drinks very little of water, does good lot of exercise, eats plants and leaves which are pungent and bitter; goats milk cures consumption (tuberculosis) fevers, dyspnoea, bleeding disease and diarrhoea.(54)

Notes:- Indu opines that the purpose of mentioning the causes for easy digestibility of goat’s milk is to suggest that milk of other animals which have activities similar to those of the goat, are also easily digestible. Goat’s milk is especially valuable for persons suffering from tuberculosis because goats are immune to that disease; hence such a patient is advised to live in or very near to a goatshed, drink a little quantity of its urine daily, make use of its milk and flesh as food and so on (Chikitsasthanachapter-7). (107-111)

Austra ksira – camel milk

ईषद्रक्षोष्णलवणमौष्ट्रकं दीपनं लघु ॥ ५५ ॥

शस्तं बातकफानाहक्रिमिशोफोदरार्शसाम् ।

Camel’s milk is slightly dry (non-sticky, non-unctuous ) heat producing, salty, stimulator of digestion and easily digestible; it is ideal for those suffering from diseases of vata and kapha; distention of the abdomen, internal parasites, oedema, enlargement of the abdomen and piles (haemorrhoids) (551/2 )

Manusaksira – human milk /breast milk

मानुषं वातपित्तासृगभिघाताक्षिरोगजित् ॥५६॥ तर्पणाश्च्योतनैर्नस्यैः

Human milk cures diseases of the eyes caused by vata, pitta, asrk (blood) and injury; being used either as tarpana, asotana or nasya. (56)

Notes:- Tarpana is method of treatment in which a small well is constructed with blackgram flour around the eyes, filled with a liquid which is allowed to stand for a prescribed length of time; Ascotana is pouring liquids in a continuous stream into the eye; Nasya is droping liquids into the nose.

aviksira – ewes milk

Ewe’s milk is bad to the heart, heat producing, cures diseases of vata but produces hiccough, dyspnoea and encrease of pitta and kapha. (57)

Hastini Ksira – elephant milk

अहृद्यं तूष्णमाविकम् । वातव्याधिहरं हिघ्माश्वासपित्तकफप्रदम्

हस्तिन्याः स्थैर्यकृत् बाढं- उष्णं त्वैकशफं लघु । शाखावातहरं साम्ललवणं जडताकरम् ॥५८॥

Elephant’s milk strengthens the body greatly. Milk of animals of single hoof (such as the ass, horse etc ) is easily digestable, cures the diseases of vata localised in the tissues of the body, slightly sour and salt in taste and produces lazyness. (58)

Apakva ksira – uncooked milk

पयोऽभिप्यन्दि गुर्वामं युक्तया भृतमतोऽन्यथा |

भवेत् गरीयोऽतिशृतं धारोष्णममृतोपमम् ॥५९॥

Uncooked milk is abhisyandi (causes exudation of moisture from tissue pores) and hard to digest; judiciously cooked it is easily digestible, if over-cooked it becomes undigestible; warm fresh (nascent) milk (directly from the udder) is just like nectar. (59)

Notes:- All kinds of milk except human are used as food of adults and occasionally as medicine. Human milk is mainly used as food for infants, but its use as medicine for diseases of the eye is special. Milk that are to be used by adults as food has to be boiled before use. Boiling should be done for a few minutes but not for a long time. Boiling destroys the disease-producing bacteria that are likely to be present in the milk. Now-a-days the method of pastuerisation (boiling the milk and cooling it suddenly) is resorted, to destroy the harmful bacteria. Drinking fresh warm milk squeezed from the udder of the cow immediately was an ancient practice and has been discontinued now-a-days as not suitable to health.

पिण्याकाम्लाशिनीनां तु गुर्वभिप्यन्दि तत् भृशम् । अचेष्टया च प्रादोषात् गरीयः स्मृतमौषसम् ॥६०॥

व्याख्यातस्तेन लघिमा चेष्टावत्प्रकृतिष्वपि । ह्रस्वेषु चातिदेहेभ्यो मांसेप्वप्येवमादिशेत् ।।६१।।

Milk of animals which are fed on oil-cake of sesamum and sour materials is hard to digest and abhisyandi (causes more exudation of moisture from the tissue pores). The milk drawn in the morning is hard to digest than the one drawn in the evening because of inactivity (of the animal at nights); this is applicable to the size and contitution of the animal; milk of animals which are small in size and very active by nature is easily digestible than that of animals which are of large size and not very active; this principle also applies to the flesh of the animals. (60-61)

Notes:- Pinyaka (oil-cake) is the residue obtained after the oil has been taken out from seasmum (til). Such residue of seeds of ground-nut (peanut), cotton, etc.. are good food to cows. They, however, alter the properties of the milk to a slight degree, hence this indication here. Animals like goat, being small in size are very active; cows and buffaloes being of medium size are of moderate activity; camels, elephants and others of huge size and heavy body are lazy and very inactive. The milk and flesh of animals of small, medium and large size are easy, hard and very difficult for digestion respectively.

Dadhi – coagulated milk

अम्लपाकरसं ग्राहि गुरूष्णं दधि वातजित् । मेदः शुक्रबल श्लेष्मपित्तरक्लाग्निशोफकृत् ॥६२॥

रोचिष्णु शस्तमरुचौ शीतके विषमज्वरे । पीनसे मूत्रकुछ्रे च रूक्षं तु ग्रहणीगदे ॥६३॥

नैवायान्निशि नैवोष्णं वसन्तोष्णशरत्सु न । नामुद्द्रसूपं नाक्षौद्रं नाघृतं

नासितोपलम् ॥६४॥ न चानामलकं नापि नित्यं नो मन्दमन्यथा ।

ज्वरासृक्पित्तवीसर्पकुष्ठपाण्ड्वामयप्रदम् ।।६५।।

Dadhi (coagulated milk) is sour both in taste and at the end of digestion; is constipating, hard to digest, heat producing, mitigates vata, produces fat, semen, strength, kapha, pitta, rakta, agni (digestive activity) and oedema; helps for good taste and so ideal in loss of taste, in visama jwara (intermittant fevers) preceded by rigors, nasal catarrh and dysurea. Removed of its fat, it is useful in the disease of duodenum. it should not be eaten at nights, made hot, in vasanta, usna (grisma), and sarat seasons without the addition of soup of green gram, honey, ghee, sugar, candy or amalaka fruits nor it should be eaten daily, nor the Manda (one which has not yet become sour) otherwise fever, haemorahagic disease, visarpa (herpes), leprosy (and other skin diseases) and anaemia will develop by partaking it. (62-65)

Notes:- Dadhi is popularly known as curds in India. Curds become sour, after fermentation it is not good for health, Inspite of it, it is a popular item of diet, hence the above warning regarking its use; forbidding its use at nights should not be presumed that it can be partaken during day, even during day it should not be used daily; if it is to be done so it should be mixed with sugar, honey, ghee, soup of green-gram or goose berry. Curds which has not yet become sour and solid is known as Mandaka which is also unfit for use and should be rejected.

Takra – butter milk

तक्रं लघु कषायाम्लं दीपनं कफवातजित् । शोफोदरार्शोग्रहणीदोषमूत्रग्रहारुचीः ॥६५॥

गुल्मप्लीहघृतव्यापद्गरपाण्ड्वामयान् जयेत् । तद्वन्मस्तु सरं स्रोतश्शोधि विष्टम्भजिल्लघु ॥६६॥

Takra (butter-milk ) is easily digestible, astringent and sour, kindles digestion, mitigates kapha and vata, cures oedema, enlargement of the abdomen, haemorrhoids, duodenal disease, suppression of urine, loss of appetite, abdominal tumors, enlargement of spleen, bad affects of drinking too much of ghee, artificial poison and anaemia.

Similar is the case with Mastu (whey), in addition it is laxative in action, it cleanses the pores of the tissues and relieves indigestion. (65-66)

Notes: Butter-milk is prepared by churning the curds adding water to make it a thin liquid. It will then become fit to be used daily along with other foods. It is an ideal diet in the diseases mentioned above. All Ayurvedic texts extol its good properties, to the extent of saying that “Takra is not available even to Sakra (Indra), at the heaven”, It forms important item of daily diet in every Indian home. It is a nutritious and inexpensive item. Mastu (whey) is the clear water obtsained by filtering curds or butter-milk through a thick cloth.

Navanita – butter

शीतं स्वादु कषायाम्लं नवनीतं नवोद्धृतं । यक्ष्मार्शोर्द्दितपित्तासृग्वातजिद् ग्राहि दीपनम् ||६७||

क्षीरोद्भवं तु सङ्ग्राहि रक्तपित्ताक्षिरोगजित् ।

Navanita (butter) prepared fresh, is coolant, sweet, astringent and sour in taste, cures tuberculosis, heamorrhoid, facial paralysis, disorders caused by pitta, rakta and vata; is constipating and kindles digestion.

Butter prepared by churning milk, is also constipating and bleeding disease and diseases of the eye.(67) cures

Ghrita – butter- fat / ghee

शस्तं धीस्मृतिमेधाग्निबलायुःशुक्रचक्षुषाम् ।।६८।।

बालवृद्धप्रजाकान्तिसौकुमार्यस्वरार्थिनाम् । क्षतक्षीणपरीसर्पशस्त्राग्निग्लपितात्मनाम् ॥६९॥

वातपित्तविषोन्मादशोषालक्ष्मीज्वरापहम् । स्नेहानामुत्तमं शीतं वयसः स्थापनं घृतम् ॥ ७० ॥

सहस्रवीर्यं विधिभिः शृतं कर्मसहस्रकृत् । मदापस्मारमूर्छायशिरःकर्णाक्षियोनिजान् ॥ ७१॥

Ghrta ( ghee / butter- fat) is best suited for those desirous of (more) intelligence, memory, ingenuity, keen digestive power, long life, sexual vigour and good eye sight; for children and old people, for those desiring offspring, good complexion, softness of the body and good voice; for those suffering from injury to the chest, emaciation, visarpa (herpes) insanity, tuberculosis, inauspicusness (sorcery/witchcraft and fevers; it is the best among fatty materials (useful for lubrication therapy), coolant, retards senility (postpones the onset of oldage); possesses a thousand good qualities and does a thousand actions, when, used with proper process. (68-71)

पुराणं जयति व्याधीन् व्रणशोधनरोपणम् ।

पूर्वोक्तांश्राधिकान् कुर्यात् गुणांस्तदमृतोपमम ॥७२॥ तद्वच्च घृतमण्डोऽपि रुक्षस्तीक्ष्णस्तनुश्च सः ।

Purana ghrta (old ghee) cures diseases such as intoxication, epilepsy, fainting, diseases of the head, ears, eyes and vaginal tract; it cleanses and heals ulcers; it possesses all the qulities and does the functions ascribed to fresh ghee in greater measure and so similar to nectar. (72)

Even ghrta manda-(supernatant fluid of ghee) is also similar, it is dry (non-sticky), (capable of) penetrating deep and thin in consistence. (73a)

Notes: Ghee of more than one year is to be called Purana or old (Bhavamisra); ghee of ten years duration is known as Kaumbha (cakapanidatta);ghee of one hundred and ten years is known as Mahaghrta and is useful in the treatment of diseases caused by evil spirits, chronic diseases caused (by Vata) and for healing of chronic ulcers.(72)

Kilata – milk product

कीलाटदधिकूचीकातक्रपिण्डकमोरटाः ॥७३॥ सक्षीरशाकपीयूषा रोचना वह्रिसादनाः ।

शुक्रनिद्राकफकरा विष्टम्भिगुरुदोषलाः ॥७४ ॥

Kilata, Dadhikucika, Takrapinda, Morata, Ksirasaka and Piyusa-all stimulate the appetite but weaken the digestion, increase the semen, sleep and kapha; are constipating, hard to digest and cause abnormalities of the dosas. (73-74)

Notes: The products mentioned above are prepared either from curds or butter-milk either by heating or by other methods. Kilata is the soid portion obtained after boiling curds or buttermilk; the thick milky liquid is dadhikucika; the thin watery portion is Morata; Ksirasaka is curds or buttermilk processed without heating; Takrapinda is the solid portion of buttermilk after draining whey; Piyusa is the milk of the cow which has just given birth to a calf starting from the first day till such time the milk gets the normal thinness and becomes clear.

विद्याइधिघृतादीनां गुणदोषान् यथा पयः । गव्ये क्षीरते श्रेष्ठे निन्दिते चाऽविसम्भवे ॥७५॥ इति क्षीरवर्गः ।

The good or bad of curds, ghee etc., are similar to those of milk; cows,s milk and ghee are the best and those of the ewe are worst. (75) Thus ends the group of milks.

Iksu varga – group of sugar canes

इक्षोः सरो गुरुः स्निग्धो बृंहणः कफमूत्रकृत् ॥७६॥

वृष्यः शीतः पवनजित् भुक्ते वातप्रकोपनः । रक्तपित्तप्रशमनः स्वादुपाकरसो रसः ॥७७॥

Sugarcane juice is laxative, hard to digest, unctous, strengthening, increases kapha and urine; is aphrodisiac, coolant, mitigates vata but increases it if taken immediately after meals; mitigates bleeding disease, sweet in taste and also at the end of digestion. (76)

सोऽग्रे सलवणो दन्तपीडितः शर्करासमः ।

मूलाग्रजन्तुजग्धादिपीडनान्मलसङ्करात् ॥ ७८ ॥

किश्चित् कालविधृत्या च विकृतिं याति यान्त्रिकः । विदाही गुरु विष्टम्भी तेनासौ

Juice from the top portion of the cane is slightly salty, juice obtained through crushing machines becomes abnormal quickly due to the crushing of the root tip and worm-infested cane and contamination by dirt. etc., it causes burning sensation inside the stomach, difficulty in digestion and constipation. (78b-79a)

तत्र पौण्ड्रकः । शैत्यप्रसादमाधुर्याद्वरस्तमनुवांशिकः ॥७९॥

शातपर्वककान्तारनैपालाद्यास्ततः क्रमात् । सक्षारा: सकषायाश्च सोष्णाः किञ्चिद्विदाहिनः ॥ ८०॥

The juice of Paundraka variety of cane being very coolant, pleasing and sweet is the best; next inferior is that of the Vamsika variety, followed by Sataparvaka, Kantara, Naipala and others; they are slightly alkaline, astringent, heat producing and cause burning sensation in the abdomen. (79-80)

Notes :- New hybrid varieties of sugarcane have replaced the old varieties mentioned here. The sweetness of the juice varies from region to region and from one variety to that of other. The properties mentioned above are of the unadultarated fresh juice. The present day habit of adding ice cubes, lemon juice or salt to the sugar-cane juice alters its original properties. Sugarcane juice is an ideal drink during summer but not so during other seasons. Persons suffering from diabetes mellitus etc. should not drink it.

Iksurasa vikrtis – products of sugar cane juice

फाणितं गुर्वभिप्यन्दि चयकृन्मूत्रशोधनम् । नातिश्लेष्मकरो धौतः सृष्टमूत्रशकृत् गुडः ॥ ८१ ॥

प्रभूतक्रिमिमज्जासृङ्ग्रेदोमांसकफोऽपरः । हृद्यः पुराणः पथ्यश्च नवः श्लेष्माग्निसादकृत् ।।८२।।

Phanita (half-cooked mollasses) is hard to digest, makes the tissue proes to exude more, causes mild increase of dosas, and cleanses the urine; Dhauta guda (purified molasses or jaggery) causes mild increase of kapha and elimination of urine and faeces; the other kind (unpurified treacle) causes great increase of intestinal worms, bone marrow, blood, fat, muscle and kapha; purana guda (old jaggery, treacle) is good to the heart and suitable for health while fresh jaggery causes increase of kapha and weakness of digestion. (81-82)

वृष्याः क्षीणक्षतहिता रक्तपित्तानिलापहाः ।

मत्स्यण्डिकाखण्डसिताः क्रमेण गुणवत्तमाः ||८३॥

Matsyandika (crude sugar) Khanda (sugar candy) and Sita (white fine sugar) are good, better and best respectively and are aphrodisiac, good for those suffering from injury to the lungs, bleeding disease and mitigate vata.(83)

तद्गुणा तिक्कमधुरा कषाया याषशर्करा | त्रिदोषघ्नी सिता काशेषुदर्भच्छदसम्भवा ॥८४॥

asa sarkara (sugar prepared from the plant yasa) is also similar in properties, slightly bitter, sweet and astringent in taste. Sugar prepared from kasa and darbhachada mitigates the three dosas. (84)

दाहतृच्छर्दिमूर्छासृक्लिपत्तघ्नः सर्वशर्कराः । शर्करेक्षुविकाराणां फाणितं च बरावरे ॥८५॥

Generally all sugars relieve burning sensation, thirst, vomiting, fainting and bleeding disease.

Out of all the products of sugarcane juice, the best is sugar and worst the half-cooked mollasses. (85)

Notes: In ancient times sugar was being prepared from the plant ‘Yasa’ and kinds of grasses like Kasa, Darbha etc. This industry has long been discontinued and so these varieties of sugars are not available now.

Madhu – honey

चक्षुष्यं च्छेदि तृद्श्लेष्मविषहिध्मास्रपित्तनुत् । कुष्ठमेहकृमिच्छर्दिश्वासकासातिसारजित् ॥८६॥

व्रणशोधनसन्धानरोपणं वातलं मधु । रूक्षं कषायमधुरम् तत्तुल्या मधुशर्करा ॥८७॥

उष्णमुष्णार्तमुष्णे च युक्तं चोष्णैर्निहन्ति तत् । विषान्वयत्वेन विषपुप्पेभ्योऽपि यतो मधु ॥८८ ॥

कुर्वते ते स्वयं यच्च सविषा भ्रमरादयः । प्रच्छर्दने निरूहे च मधूष्णं न निवार्यते ॥८९॥

अलब्धपाकमा वेव तयोर्यस्मान्निवर्तते । गुरुरूक्षकषायत्वाच्छैत्याचाल्पं हितं मधु ॥९० ॥

न हि कष्टतमं किञ्चित्तदजीर्णायतो नरम् । उपक्रमविरोधित्वात् सयो हन्यायथा विषम् ॥ ९१ ।।

नानाद्रव्यात्मकत्वाच्च योगवाहि परं मधु । वृप्ययोगैरतो युक्तं वृषतामनुवर्तते ॥ ९२ ॥

भ्रामरं पौप्पिकं क्षौद्रं माक्षिकं च यथोत्तरम् । जीर्णं च तेष्वन्त्ये द्वे एव ह्युपयोजयेत् ।।९३ ॥

Madhu (honey ) is good for the eyes, breaks up solidified materials inside the body, relieves thirst, mitigates kapha, poison, hiccup, bleeding disease, leprosy (and other skin diseases), diabetes, worms, vomitting, difficulty in breathing, cough, diarrhoea; cleanes the ulcers, unifies fractures, heals wounds and causes increase of vata.

Sugar of honey is dry (nonunctous), astringent sweet in taste and possesses properites similar to honey; Honey is heat producing; used hot by persons who are suffering from increased heat, it kills them quickly because it has been prepared even out of poisonous flowers and by bees which are also poisonous.

Use of honey, which is heat producing, is not contraindicated in therapies like vamana (emesis) and niruha (decoction enema) as it comes out of the body quickly without undergoing digestion.

Because of properties like difficult digestibility, dryness, astringency and noncoolant (in other words-heat producing) honey is good only in little quantities; there is nothing more difficult (to cure) than indigestion caused by honey (by using too much quantity); it kills the person quickly just like poison because the treatment for this condition is contrary to the usual lines of therapy. Honey being a combination of many materials is the best yogavahi (ambivalent), so used along with aphrodisiac drugs it helps increase of sexual vigour.

Bhramara, Pauspika, Ksaudra and Maksika varieties of honey are good in order of succession; Old honey is still more good, the last two varieties of honey should be made use of (as far as possible).(86-93)

इति इक्षु वर्गः ।

Thus ends the group of sugarcane products.

Notes :- Honey is the sweet liquid prepared by bees for their own use but robbed by man. There are many varieties of bees, different in size, colour and habitat. Some dwell in forests and build their home (hive) attached to the branches of tall tress, some build them inside the crevices of the trees; they are also seen attached to the roofs of tall buildings, inside the cracks of the walls etc., generally large and medium sized brown coloured bees build big combs (hives) while small sized, slightly blackish bees build their home inside the crevices and hollows of threes and buildings. The bees go from flower to flower, dip their sharp probosis into them, suck the sweet liquid (nectar), store them in a special sac inside their mouth. After they come back to their hive in the evening, they bring out the sweet nectar and deposit it inside the small chambers of the comb. Thus they build up a store of readyfood for their use in rainy season. Man lured by its sweetness drives away the bees forcebly and collects the honey, not caring even the strong poisonous sting of the enraged bees. Now-a-days bee-keeping has come into vogue, wooden hives are provided to them inside the grades and honey collected periodically without harming the bees or being harmed by them.

Honey is a very sweet, thick liquid, varying in colour from dark brown to light yellow. The sweetness and tickness also show variations depending upon the region, type of flowers bees feed on, season and the variety of the bees. Honey is a mixture of nectar and pollen of flowers. It contains 20.06% of water, 71.41% of carbohydrate (in the from of two sugars- the dextrose and lavulose), 0.38% of protien, small quantities of Formic acid, and Vitamin-B. It is used as a sweetening agent used along with foods and drinks; it is also used as a vehicle for administration of medicines, as a supplementary diet and drug in many diseases. It can be used by all irrespective of age or sex, in little quantities without adding anything, daily either as such or along with other articles of food. It is necessary to use genuine honey always and refect the spurious and adultarated honey which are sold cheap in the market. Genuine honey is slightly transparent, clear liquid without any precipitate at the bottom of the bottle, and forms a uniform solution when poured into clean water.

Taila varga – group of oils

तैलं स्वयोनिवत्तत्र मुख्यं तीक्ष्णं व्यवायि च । त्वग्दोषकृदचक्षुप्यं सूक्ष्मोष्णं कफकृन्न च ॥ ९४ ॥

कृशानां बृंहणायालं स्थूलानां कर्शनाय च । बद्धविट्कं क्रिमिघ्नं च संस्कारात्सर्वरोगजित् ॥ १५ ॥

तैलप्रयोगादजरा निर्विकारा जितश्रमाः । आसन्नतिबला युद्धे दैत्याधिपतयः पुरा ॥९६ ॥

Tailas (oils) are generally similar (in properties) to their source (oil-seed); of them, the chief is that of tila (sesamum).

Tila taila

Oil of sesamum possesses the properties like tiksna (penetrating deep into the tissues), vyavayi (spreading throughout the body fast), it produces diseases of the skin, is bad to the eyes; suksma (capable of entering into even minute pores), hot in potency, not increasing kapha, it makes lean persons fatty and fat persons lean, is constipating, kills worms; with appropriate processing, it cures all diseases; by constant use of oil, the kings of Daityas (Raksasas and other non-Aryans) of ancient times, were not getting old (soon), were free from diseases, withstanding exertion and very strong in battles. (94-96)

Notes :- ‘taila’ specially means the oil of tila (sesamum) and used in that sense itself at all places in ancient books of Ayurveda (and even of general sanskrit literature) unless specified differantly. The use of seamum oil for cooking is gradually becoming less in recent times and oil of groundnut (peanut), coconut, mustard, rape seeds, soyabean, sunflower etc have been brought to use. In the context Ayurveda, it is sesamum oil only that should be used for internal administration and far the preparation of medicated oils. Many other kinds of oils of medicinal value are described further on.

Eranda taila

सतिक्लोषणमैरण्डं तैलं स्वादु सरं गुरु | वर्ध्मगुल्मानिलकफानुदरं विषमज्वरम् ॥ ९७॥ ।

रुक्छोफौ च कटीगुह्यकोष्ठपृष्ठाश्रयौ जयेत् । तीक्ष्णोष्णं पिच्छिलं विस्रं रक्तैरण्डोद्भवं त्वति ॥९८ ॥

Oil of eranda (castor seeds ) , is bitter, pungent and sweet in taste, laxtive, very hard to digest, cures scrotal hernia, abdominal tumors, diseases caused by vata and kapha, enlargement of abdomen, intermitant fevers, and pain and swellings of the waist, genitals, abdomen and back.

Oil of red variety of castor seeds is still more penetrating, hot in potency and sticky and has a bad smell. (97-98)

Notes: Castor oil is used for medicinal purposes to produce purgations, to relieve pains and reduce swelling etc., it is an efficient vatahara drug (mitigates the increased vata) and so very useful in diseases such as amavata (rheumatism) urusthambha (stiffness of the legs) and many other nervous disorders. It is administered either alone or along with other drugs both internally an externally. Its another common use is for abhyanga or oil-bath.

Anya taila (other kinds of oils):

उमाकुसुम्भजं चोष्णं त्वग्दोषकफपित्तकृत् ।

Oil derived from seeds of uma and kusumbha are hot in potency and produce diseases of the skin and increse kapha and pitta. (981/2)

दन्तीमूलकरक्षोघ्नकरञ्जरिष्टशिग्रुजम् ।।९९।।

सुवर्चलेङ्गुदीपीलुशङ्गिनीनीपसम्भवम् । सरलागरुदेवाह्नशिंशपासारजन्म च ।। १०० ।।

तुवरारुष्करोत्थं च तीक्ष्णं कट्वस्रपित्त कृत् । अर्शः कुष्ठक्रिमिश्लेष्मशुक्रमेदोनिलापहम्।।१०१।।

Oil derived from danti, mulaka, raksoghna, karanja, arista, sigru, suvarcala, ingudi, pilu, sankhini, nipa, sarala. aguru, devahva, simsipa, tuvara and aruskara.- all are penetrating, pungent, cause abnormal increase of rakta and pitta, cure haemorrhoids, leprosy (and other skin diseases), worms and diseases of kapha, semen, fat and vata. (99-101)

Notes: All the above are non-edible oils, useful only for the treatment of diseases mentioned. They are to be prepared by the physician when required. They may be used either alone or in combination with other drugs.

करअनिम्बजे तिक्ते नात्युष्णे तत्र निर्दिशेत् । कषायसिक्ककटुकं सारलं व्रणशोधनम् ॥ १०२ ।।

भृशोष्णतीक्ष्णकटुके तुवरारुष्करोद्भवे । विशेषात् क्रिमिंकुष्ठप्ने तथोर्ध्वाधोविरेचने ।।१०३।

अक्षातिमुक्तकाक्षोडनालिकेरमधूकजम् । त्रपुसोर्वारुकूष्माण्ड श्लेष्मातकप्रियाजलम् ॥१०४॥

वातपित्तहरं केश्यं श्लेष्मलं गरु शीतलम् । पित्तश्लेष्मप्रशमनं श्रीपर्णीकिंशुकोद्भवम् ॥ १०५ ॥ तिलतैलं वरं तेषु कौसुम्भमवरं परम् ।

Of the above, oil of karanja and nimba are bitter and not very hot in potency (mildly hot); oil of sarala is astringent, bitter and pungent in taste and cleanses the ulcers; oils of tuvaraka and aruskara are powerfully hot in potency. highly penetrating, pungent, destroyers of worms and leprosy especially and cause purgations in both the upper and lower parts of the body (in other words vomitting and purgations).

Oil obtained from aksa, atimutaka (madhavi phala) aksoda, nalikera – ‘madhuka, trapusa, ervaruka, kusmanda, slesmataka and priyala mitigate vata and pitta, good for the the hairs, make for increase of kapha, is hard to digest and cold in potency.

Oil obtained from sriparni and kimsuka mitigate pitta and kapha. (102-105)

Out of all the oils, that obtained from tila is best and that from kausumbha is worst.

Notes:- The oils mentioned in the above verses were being used nore for shampooing the hairs and body, as ointments, unguents for cuts and fissures of the skin, etc and rarely for cooking. Out of them, we find now-a-days only coconut oil being used for food but not the others.

Vasa – majja – fat and marrow

वसा मज्जा च वातघ्नौ बलपित्तकफप्रदौ ॥१०६॥

मांसानुगस्वरूपौ च विद्यान्मेदोपि ताविव । बौलूकी सौकरी पाकहंसजा कुकुटोद्भवा ॥१०७॥

वसा श्रेष्ठा स्ववर्गेषु कुम्भीरमहिषोद्भवा । काकमद्गु वसा तद्वत् कारण्डोत्था च निन्दिता ॥१०८॥

शाखादमेदसां च्छागं हास्तिनं च वरावरे । इति तैलवर्गः ।

Vasa (muscle-fat) and Majja (bone-marrow) both mitigate vata, increase strength, pitta and kapha; they are similar in properties with the muscle (flesh) from which they are taken out; even fat (body-fat) also is similar in properties.

The muscle-fat derived from bailuki ( a kind of fish) saukari ( pig ) pakahamsa (a kind of swan) and of the kukkuta (cock) are the best in those groups; But that of kumbhira (crocodile) mahisa ( buffalo) kakamadgu (black waterhen) and karanda (water duck) are bad in their groups.

Out of animals which feed on plants the body-fat of goat is the best and that of the elephant is worst. (106-108)

Thus ends the group of oils.

Notes: Vasa is the thin fatty material found inside the folds of the muscles, Majja is the thick liquid marrow present inside the bones and Medas is the yellow coloured solid fat present underneath the skin. All these are used for Snehana ( oleation therapy) and hence their inclusion under this group of oils. These substances evn though highly lubricative, they also have some of the other properties in accordance with the nature of animals from which they are obtained.

Madya Varga – group of alcoholic beverages

दीपनं रोचनं मद्यं तीक्ष्णोक्ष्णं तुष्टिपुष्टिदम् । सस्वादुतिक्लकटुकमम्लपाकरसं सरम् ।। १०९।।

सकषायं स्वरारोग्यप्रतिभावर्णकृल्लषु । नष्टनिद्रातिनिद्रेभ्यो हितं पित्तास्रदूषणम् ॥११०॥

कृशस्थूलहितं रूक्षं सूक्ष्मं स्रोतोविशोधनम् । वातश्लेप्महरं युक्तया पीतं विषवदन्यथा ॥ १११ ॥

गुरु तोषजननं नवं जीर्णमतोऽन्यथा । पेयं नोष्णोपचारेण न विरिक्लक्षुधातुरैः ॥११२॥

नातितीक्ष्णमृदुस्वच्छघनं व्यापन्नमेव वा ।

Madya (wines) in general, stimulate digestion, help taste, (appetite) penetrate deep, hot in potency, give satisfaction (mental) and nourishment (to the body), slightly sweet, bitter and pungent in taste, sour at the end of digestion; laxative, slightly astringent, confer good voice, health, intellegence, colour and complexion; easily digestable, beneficial to those having loss of sleep or excess sleep, both to lean and stout persons; is nonviscid, capable of entering through minute pores, and cleansing them; mitigte vata and kapha; all these benefits accrue if used judiciously, but used otherwise, they act like poison.

Fresh ones are hard to digest, make for increase of all the dosas whereas old ones are opposite of this. They should not be used hot or along with hot comforts; not by persons who are having purgations (or had purgative therapy) and who are hungry; Wines which are very strong or very weak, which are very clear (like water) or very turbid and those which are spoilt, should not be used for drinking.(109-112 1/2)

Notes The term ‘madya’ refers to all types of alcoholic beverages in general. The practice of drinking alcoholic bevarages is very ancient in our country going as far back as the times of the Rgveda (2000 B.C) preparing and drinking many kinds of wines sometimes alone some times in groups and assemblles was very common then. So also even today. Alcoholic beverages produce exhilaration and a sort of mental exuberance, hence their popularity, even as a tonic for health. But the good effects are slight compared to the quantity consuined to preduce them. So people go on increasing the quantity of the drink, day after day and finally become addicted to it so greatly, that it is impossible to be without it even for a few hours. Large quantities of such drinks produce many abnormalitiis in the various organs and their functions, and cause incurable diseases and even death. Having understood this, ancient scholars prescribed many rules and regimen for taking alcoholic drinks in order to protect the health; such as “it should be little, should be taken after food and never on empty stomach; taken in the company of good friends and not alocne, etc. Followed strictly these will avoid much of the bad effects of such drinks. “”


गुल्मोदरार्शोग्रहणीशोषहृत् स्नेहनी गुरुः ॥११३॥

सुरानिलघ्नी मेदोसृक्स्तन्यमूत्रकफावहा ।

Sura cures abdominal tumors, enlargement of the abdomen, haemorrhoids, sprue and consumption; is lubricating, hard to digest, mitigates vata, causes increase of fat, blood, breast – milk, urine and kapha.(113)

तद्गुणा वारुणी हृद्या निहन्ति शूलकासवमिश्वासविबन्धाध्मानपीनसान् । शूलप्रवाहिकाटोपतृष्णाशोफार्शसां हितः ॥११५॥

जगलः पाचनो ग्राही रूक्षस्तद्वच्च मेदकः । वक्कसो हतसारत्वाद्विष्टम्भी दोषकोपनः ।। ११६।।

नातितीव्रमदा लघ्वी पथ्या वैभीतकी सुरा । लघुस्तीक्ष्णा च ॥ ११४॥

व्रणे पाण्ड्वामये कुष्ठे न चात्यर्थं विरुध्यते ॥११७॥

Varuni is similar in properties with sura, is good for the heart (or mind), easily digestable, penetrating and relieves colic, cough, vomitting, difficulty in breathing, constipation, flatulence and nasal catarrh.(114)

Jagala is good for those suffering from colic, dysentery, gurgling noise inside the abdomen, thirst, oedema and haemorrhoids; it is digestive, constipating and increases all the dosas because of its nature of having lost all the essence (of raw materiasl).(115-116)

Notes :- Sura is prepared by cooking the flour of rice, barley etc., and then fermenting the liquid. It is white in colour and thick in consistence. that prepared with juice of kharjura (date palm), tala (wild palm ) etc., is Varuni. The thick precipate of sura is Jagala, still thicker is Medaka and the very thick deposit is bakkasa (kinwa or surabija ). None of these are being used now-a days.

Sura prepared from vibhitaka is not very intoxicating, is easily digestable, good for health and not contraindicated in diseases like, ulcers, anaemia and leprosy (and other skin disorders). (117)

विष्टम्भिनी यवसुरा गुर्वी रूक्षा त्रिदोषला ।

कौहली बृंहणी गुर्वी लेप्मलस्तु मधूलकः ॥११८॥

Sura prepared from yava (barley) is not easily digestable, is non-viscid, increases all the three dosas; Kauhali (prepared from another variety of barley) is nourishing and hard to digest and madhulaka distilled from the flowers of madhuli is going to increase kapha. (118)

यथाद्रव्यगुणोऽरिष्टः सर्वमद्यगुणाधिकः । ग्रहणीपाण्डुकुष्ठार्शः शोषशोफोदरज्वरान् ॥११९॥

हन्ति गुल्मक्रिमिप्लीहः कषायकटुवातलः ।

Aristas will have the same preperties of substances from which they are prepared, possess all the properties of wines in greater strength; cure duodenal disease, anaemia, leprosy and other skin diseases, haemorrhoids, consumption, oedema, enlargement of abdomen, fevers, tumors of the abdomen, worms and enlargement of spleen; they are astringent, pungent and cause increase of vata. (1191/2)

Notes :- Aristas are prepared by fermenting the decoction of drugs, fruits etc., with addition of treacle/jaggery, sugar or honey and kept in sealed pots under the ground or inside stock of husk for a period of one or two months.

माकं लेखनं हृद्यं नात्युष्णं मधुरं सरम् ॥ १२०॥ अल्पपित्तानिलं पाण्डुमेहार्श: क्रिमिनाशनम् ।

अस्मादल्पान्तरगुणं खार्जूरं वातलं गुरु ॥ १२१॥

Mardvika (prepared from dry grapes) is scarifying, good to the heart, not very hot in potency, sweet, laxative, causes mild increase of pitta and vata, cures anaemia, haemorrhoids and worms; Kharjura (prepared from dates ) is less in quality (properties) than the above, increases vata and is hard to digest. (120-121)

शार्करः सुरभिः स्वादुर्हृद्यो नातिमदो लघुः । सृष्टमूत्रशकृद्वातो गौडस्तर्पणदीपनः ।।१२२।।

That prepared by using sugar is pleasant to smell, sweet, good to the heart, not very intoxicating, easy to digest, expels urine, faeces and flatus; that prepared by using jaggery/treacle is nourishing and kindles hunger; (122)

वातपित्तकरः शीधुः स्नेह श्लेष्मविकारहा । मेदः शोफोदरार्शोघ्नस्तत्र पक्करसो वरः ।।१२३।।

Sidhu increases vata and pitta and cures the diseases caused by excess fat consumption and kapha.

Pakvarasa sidhu is better and cures obesity. oedema, enlargement of abdomen and haemorrhoids. (123)

Notes:- Sidhu is prepared from juice of sugarcane etc. fermenting them without boiling; pakvarasa sidhu is sugarcane juice boiled and then fermented.

च्छेदि मध्वासवस्तीक्ष्णो मेहपीनसकासजित् । सुरासवस्तीक्ष्णोऽनिलापहः ॥ १२४॥

मैरेयो मधुरो हृष्यः सर: सन्तर्पणो गुरुः । धातक्यभिषुतो जीर्णो रूक्षो रोचनदीपनः ॥ १२५॥

द्राक्षासवो मधुसमः परमं स तु दीपनः । माकसदृशः प्रोक्तो मृद्धीकेक्षुरसासवः ॥१२६॥

Madhvasava breaks up solidified materials, is penetrating and cures polyurea, nasal catarrh and cough:

Surasava is highly intoxicating, sweet, penetrating and mitigates vata. Maireya is sweet, pleasing, laxative, nourishing and hard to digest. Fermented liquor from dhataki flowers which is old is non-unctous, kindles taste and hunger.

Draksasava is similar to honey, a very good stimulator of digestion; mrdvekasava and Iksvasava are similar in properties to grapes itself. (124-126)

Notes: Madhvasava is prepared from honey, surasava is prepared from unripe corn, maireya is from kodrava grain; draksa is the small variety of grapes whereas mrdwika is the bigger variety. Iksasava is prepared out of sugarcane juice.

समासादासवो हृद्यो वातलः सौषधानुगः | द्राक्षेक्षुमाक्षिकं शालिरुत्तमा व्रीहिपञ्चमाः।।१२७॥

मद्याकरा यत्तेभ्योऽन्यत्तन्मद्यप्रतिरूपकम् । गुणैर्यथोद्वणैर्विद्यान्मद्यमाकरसङ्करात् ॥ १२८॥

In brief, all Asavas are good to the heart (or mind) increase vata and possess medicinal properites.

Grapes, sugarcane (juice), honey, sali and good vrhi are the five best raw materials for preparation of wines; anything other than these are only substitutes; liquors prepared by mixture of many sources (raw materials) will acquire qualities of those which are predominant (127-128)

Notes :- Sali is the red variety of rice which matures during rainy season and Vrhi is the white variety.

रक्तपित्तकफोत्लेदि शुक्लं वातानुलोमनम् ।

विदाहि भृशतीक्ष्णोक्ष्णं हृद्यं रुचिकरं सरम् ॥ १२९॥

दीपनं शिशिरस्पर्शं पाण्डुट्टकृमिनाशनम् । गुडेक्षुमयमाकशुक्लं लघु यथोत्तरम् ॥ १३० ।।

कन्दमूलफलाद्यांश्च तद्वद्वियात्तदासुतान् । शाण्डाकी चाऽसुतं चान्यत् कालाम्लं रोचनं लघु ॥ १३१॥

धान्याम्लं भेदि तीक्ष्णोष्णं पित्तकृत् स्पर्शशीतलम् । श्रमक्लमहरं रुच्यं दीपनं बस्तिशूलनुत् ||१३२॥

शस्तमास्थापने हृद्यं लघु वातकफापहम् । एभिरेव गुणैर्युक्ते सौवीरकतुषोदके ॥१३३।।

क्रिमिहृद्रोगगुल्मार्शः पाण्डुरोगनिबर्हणे । ते क्रमाद्वितुषैर्विद्यात्सतुषैश्च यवैः कृते ॥१३४॥

Sukta causes increase the moisture of rakta (blood) pitta and kapha, makes vata to move downwards, causes heart-burn, highly penetrating and very hot in potency; good to the heart (or mind), improves taste, is laxative, kindles digestion, cold to touch and cures anaemia, diseases of the eye and worms:

Sukta prepared with guda (molasses jaggery), sugarcane juice, madya (wine) and grapes are easily digestable in order of succession, sukta prepared from tubers, roots and fruits bear the same properties as their raw materials; sandaki (prepared from leafy vegetables) and kalamla (sukta which has become sour by passage of time) are stimulators of taste and easily digestable.

Dhanyamla splits solidified materials inside the body, is penetrating, hot in potency, increases pitta, is cold to touch, relieves exhoustion (fatigue after exercise), debility (fatigue even without exercise), stimulates taste and digestion, relieves pain of the urinary bladder, is suitable for administration as enema into the rectum, good for the heart (or mind), easily digestable and mitigates vata and kapha.

Sauviraka and Tusodaka have also similar properties, and cure worms, diseases of the heart, abdominal tumors, haemorrhoids and anaemia. They are prepared from dehusked barely and barley with husk respectively.(129-134)

इति मद्यवर्गः ।

Thus ends the group of wines.

Notes:- Sukta is prepared from tubers, roots in the form of a gruel and then fermented. Some times oils and salt were also added. Dhanyamla is prepared from the bran or husk of rice, wheat or other cercals or grains. Sauviraka and Tusodaka are from barley husk. None of these are being prepared in the present day and the manner in which they were being prepared is also not clearly known tone#

Mutra varga – group of urines

मूत्रं गोजाविमहिषीगजाश्वोष्ट्रखरोद्भवम् । पित्तलं रूक्षतीक्ष्णोष्णं लवणानुरसं कटु ॥ १३५ ॥

क्रिमिशोफोदरानाहशूलपाण्डुकफानिलान् । गुल्मारुचिर्विपश्चित्रकुष्ठाशसि जयेल्लघु ।।१३६॥

विरेकास्थापनार्लेपस्वेदादिषु च पूजितम् । दीपनं पाचनं भैदि तेषु गोमूत्रमुत्तमम् ।। १३७।।

The urine of cow, goat, sheep, buffalo, elephant, horse, camel and donkey cause the increase of pitta, are non-unctous, hot in potency, pungent in taste with salty taste following it, cure worms, inctous, penetrating. oedema, enlargement of abdomen, distention, colic, and colic, and anaemia; mitigate kapha and vata, useful in abdominal tumors, loss of appetite, poison, leucoderma, leprosy and other skin diseases and haemorhoids; are easily digestable, best suited for therapies like purgation, enema, application over the skin, sudation (fomentation) etc., stimulate hunger, digestion, break the solidified materials in the body, out of all the above, urine of the cow is the best. (135-137)

श्वासकासहरं च्छागं पूरणात् कर्णशूलजित् । दद्यात् क्षारे किलासे च गजवाजिसमुद्भवम् ।। १३८ ।।

हन्त्युन्मादमपस्मारं क्रिमीन्मेहश्च रासभम् । FREE POSEID

Urine of goat cures difficulty in respiration, cough, and instilled into the ears.

Urine of elephant and horse is useful to prepare alkalies and in the treatment of leucoderma.

Urine of donkey cures insanity, epilepsy, worms and diabetes. (138)

Notes :- Urine though a waste product of the body has many medicinal properties This had been recognised long back in our country and still continues to be used when needed. Cow’s urine is used more commonly than that of other animals for medicinal and religious purposes alike. in view of the special sanctity attached to the cow in this country. Chief constituents of urine are water; little quantities urea, uric acid, posphates, oxalates, and hormones. Their proportion varies from animal to animal.

Sakrit guna – properties of excreta

कषायतिक्लमेतेषां हिध्माश्वासहरं शकृत् ॥ १३९॥

मार्गमोजः क्षयहरं वैष्किरं वातरोगनुत् । प्रसहानामपस्मारमुन्मादञ्च नियच्छति ।।१४०।।

महामृगसमुद्भूतं कुष्ठहृज्जलचारिणाम् । नेत्ररोगहरं पित्तं प्रवृद्धं च नियच्छति ॥१४१॥ पित्तं तिक्लं विषहरं रोचना कफवातजित् ।

तिक्ला पाप्माहरा – मूत्रं मानुषं तु विषापहम् ||१४२॥

The (excreta) dung of these animals in general are astringent and bitter in taste, cures hicup, difficulty in breathing; The dung of mrga ( deer) prevents loss of ojas (essence of all the dhatus); that of vaiskira birds cures diseases caused by vata, that of prasaha bird cures epilepsy and insanity; that of animals of large size (wild animals) cures leprosy and other skin diseases; that of animals which live in water cures diseases of the eye and mitigates the increased pitta. (139-141)

The bile (coming out from the stomach of animal) is bitter in taste, and antipoisonous; that coming from their liver (gall) increases appetite, bitter and wards off sin.

The human urine is antipoisonous;

तोयक्षीरेक्षुतैलांनां वर्गैर्मद्यस्य च क्रमात् । इति द्रवैकदेशोऽयं यथास्थूलमुदाहृतः ॥१४३॥

Thus ends the group of urines. (142)

इति मूत्रवर्गः ।

Thus in this chapter, were described in brief, the groups of liquid materials such as waters, milks, sugarcane juices, oils and alcoholic beverages, (and urines ) in successive order.

इति षष्ठोऽध्यायः

Thus ends the sixth chapter.


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