अथातोऽन्नपानविधिमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । इतिहस्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥१॥
We will now expound the chapter known as Annapana Vidhi – regimen of taking foods and drinks-; thus said Atreya and other great sages.
Annapana prayojanam – usefulness of food and drinks
विधिविहितमन्नपानमिष्टेन्द्रियार्थमायतनमायुषो ब्रुवते ।
यदायत्तानि ह्योजस्तेजोधात्विन्द्रियबलतुष्टिपुष्टिप्रतिभारोग्यादीनि ।
तदिन्धना चान्तराग्नेः स्थितिः । अग्निमूलं च देहधारणमिति ||२||
Authorities say that food and drinks partaken in a proper manner only, are helpful for satisfying the senses and bestowing long life. It depends on the valour, growth, nourishment, intelligence and health (of the person). It is the fuel for the internal fire and this fire is the chief support of the body. (2)
Ahara kalpana vishesa – factors related to food
अथात्मवान् स्वभावसंयोगसंस्कारमात्रादेशकालोपयोगव्यवस्थाः सप्ताहारकल्पनाविशेषाणां
स्वास्थ्यास्वास्थ्यफलानां हेतुभूताः समीक्ष्य हितमेवानुरुध्येत ।
So, a self-controlled person should partake foods only after considering the seven factors related to food; such as;
Svabhava ( natural qualities) Samyoga ( admixture) Samskara (processing) Matra ( quantity ) Desa (habitat) Kala (season) and Upayoga vyavastha (mode of using), which are the causes for either health or ill health.
Notes: There is a slight difference with regard to the number of factors related to food between Caraka samhita and this text. Caraka counts eight such factors, the eighth factor being the Upayoktr the user (the person who eats, his nature and constitution ) whereas Vagbhata includes the ‘user’ under the factor Desa (habitat) itself. –
Ahara svabhava – nature of food material
तत्र स्वभावतो दिव्योदकरक्तशालिषष्टिकमुद्गेणलावादयो लघवः ।
क्षीरेक्षुव्रीहिमाषानूपामिषा दयो गुरव इति । ते खल्वपि संयोगादिविशेषैरन्यथात्वं प्रतिपद्यन्ते ॥३॥
By their, Svabava (nature), rain water, red variety of rice, rice which matures in sixty days, green gram, meat of deer and lava bird (busturd quail) are easily digestible; whereas milk, sugercane juice, big sized rice, black gram and meat of animals living in the marshy region are not easily digestible. Even these undergo change to the opposite by the effect of samyoga (admixure) and other facors. (3)
Ahara samyoga – admixture
तत्र संयोगो नाम द्वयोर्बहूनां वाद्रव्याणां संहतीभावः । स विशेषमारभते यनैकैकशो द्रव्याणि ।
संस्कारस्तु तोयाग्निसनिकर्षशौचमन्थनदेशकालभावनाभाजनादिभिरुपजन्यते ।
मात्रा पुनः पिण्डपरिमाणतः समुदायेन प्रतिद्रव्यापेक्षया चाहारराशि: |
देशो द्रव्यस्योपयोक्नुश्चोत्पत्यव स्थाने । तत्र पुनरुपयोक्ता स्वस्थातुरत्वतः प्रकृतिभेदतश्च परीक्ष्यः ॥४॥
Samyoga(admixture) is mixing two or more substances together. These effects not present in individual substances of union produce a special combination.
Samskara (processing) is the result of contact with water and fire, washing, churning, place, time, mode and vessel used for cooking.
Notes: contact with water means soaking articles of food in water to make them moist and soft; contact with fire includes roasting, frying, heating, burning, boiling in water frying in fats, cooking in steam, baking on a pan etc; the place of cooking and time of cooking, vessels used for cooking and preserving also influence the quality of food. preparing and preserving sour things in copper or brass vessels becoming poisonous is the best-known example of this.
Matra (quantity) is applicable to the total quantity of food to be consumed and also to each item separately. Desa (habitat, place) refers to both the region in which the article of food is grown and also to the region where the user lives. Again here Upayokta (the user) of the food should be examined (understood) either as a healthy or unhealthy person and by the type of his constitution.
Ahara Kala – time
कालस्तु ऋतुव्याध्यपेक्षो जीर्णाजीर्णलक्षणश्च ।
अजीर्णेऽपि पूर्वस्याहारस्यापरिणतो रस उत्तरेणोपसंसृज्यमानः सर्वान् दोषान् प्रकोपयत्याशु ।
जीर्णे तु स्वस्थानस्थेषु दोषेषु वातानुलोम्यादुत्सृष्टेषु मूत्रपुरीषवेगेषु विशुद्धेषूद्वारहृदयस्रोतोमुखेषु
विशदकरणे लघुनि शरीरेऽ अग्नावुदीर्णे जाताया बुभुक्षायामभ्यवहृतमन्नमप्रदूषयद्दोषानायुर्बलवर्णानभिवर्द्धयति ।
केवलमय मेव कालो भोजनस्य । अतीतकालं पुनस्तद्वातविष्टब्धं कृच्छ्राद्विपच्यते कर्शयत्यन्नरुचिं च पुनरुपहन्ति ॥ ५ ॥
Kala (time) refers to both the season and the stage of the disease, and also to symptoms of proper digestion (of food previously partaken) or improper digestion. In case of improper digestion, the end product of the food previously consumed, mixed with the end product of today’s food causes the increase of all doshas quickly. If the food of the previous day has undergone proper digestion, the doshas, will be remaining in their places, and movement of vata will be downward causing easy elimination of faeces, the eructations (belchings) are good, the orifices of the heart and other channels will be clear, the sense organs are functioning well, a feeling of lightness of the body, kindling of the internal fire and hunger manifest, the I product of the present day’s food will not vitiate (increase) the doshas but helps in helps improvement of life, strength and colour (of the body). Only that is the best (ideal) time for taking food.
Food partaken, long after the usual (ideal) time, will cause obstruction to (the movement of) vata, undergoes digestion with difficulty, makes the body weak and destroys the desire for food. (5)
at the proper time have been clearly described above.
Notes: The bad effects of taking food either too early or too late and the effects of necessary to decide a suitable time to take food both during day and night and stick to it. The digestive organs and their functions get conditioned for effective digestion, if this habit is maintained. The other functions of the body also depend upon the condition of digestion. It is now established that many some other diseases are due to the irregularity of time of food. The various digestive juices are secreted in the digestive tract at the accustomed time of food; if the food is taken before the scheduled time, it does not undergo digestion because of the absence of these juices, if the food is taken long after er the scheduled time, then also these juices are absent in the tract. Both these give room for occurrence of many diseses. Hence sticking to a specific time for taking food is essential for maintenance of health
Ahara upayoga vyavastha – regimen of food
उपयोगव्यस्था तु नास्त्रातो न दिग्बासा नैकवस्त्रधृक् न मलिनवसनो नाहुत्वा न जपित्वा नानिरूप्य
देवताभ्यो न पितृभ्यो न दत्वाग्रमन्नमग्नये न गुरुभ्यो नातिथये नाभ्यागतेभ्यो न श्ववयःश्वपचेभ्यः
प्रत्यवेक्ष्य चाश्रितोपाश्रितानपि तिरोऽपि स्वपरिगृहीतान् प्रशस्तदेशका लोपकरणयुक्तः स्रग्वी
विभूषितः सुगन्धिरार्द्रपाणिपाद: सुविशुद्धवदनोऽभिमतसहायः केशमक्षिकाद्यनुपजुष्टमनिन्द्यमनिन्दन्ननिन्दितमपुनरुष्णीकृतं
नात्युष्णमनुपदग्धं सुसिद्धम लोलो नासात्म्यं नाविदितं नाविदितागमं नातिसायं नातिप्रगे नाकाशे नातपे नान्धकारे
नाथो वृक्षस्य न शय्यास्थो नोन्नम्य प्रदेशिनीं न पात्रे भिन्ने नासंवृते न मलिने भावदूषिते वा न चासनस्थिते
न हस्तस्थे न हस्ते प्राङ्मुखः सुमनाः शुचिभक्ताक्षुधितानुकूलजनोपहितं हितमन्नमश्नीयात् ।
न पर्युषितमन्यत्र मांसोपदंशभक्ष्येभ्यः। नाशेषमन्यत्र दधिमधुघृतसलिलस क्नुशुक्लपायसेभ्योऽपि च ।
स्निग्धं लघूष्णमविलम्बित मनतिद्रुतमजल्पन्नहसंस्तन्मनाः समीक्ष्य सम्यगात्मानम् ।।६।।
Upayoga vyavastha (the manner of taking food) should be as follows; persons should not take food without taking bath, without putting on any cloths, without offering oblations to fire, without repeating the holy hymns, without submitting (offering) to gods and manes, without giving and the uninvited guests, food first to the fire, the invited dogs, birds, and beggers, to those depending upon him and others who depend on them and animals like cows, horse, etc.
Persons should take food from his own hand, at a suitable place, time and accompaniments, wearing garlands and ornaments; with scents anointed to the hands and feet, their face and mouth well cleaned, helped by the affectionates; food not being contaminated with hairs, flies, etc., and food which is not impoverished; he should abstain from abusing it (finding fault in it or expressing dislike), that food which is not used by others, not made hot for the second time, not very hot, not overcooked, prepared well, and without too much of interest in it ( in other words, without much greed or lust in eating).
Food should not be one which is not accustomed to, which is not known, which is not mentioned in the texts; it should not be taken very late in the evening nor very early in the morning, in a very open place (without enclosing on any side ), in sunlight, in darkness, under a tree, lying in bed, keeping the index finger raised up; ( as a sign of declining) in a vessel which is broken, not covered, not clean, that food thought to be bad even though might not be actually so; by holding the container or the food in his hand.
The person should eat food sitting facing east, with a pleasant mind, served by clean, affectionate, unhungry and obedient people and that food is suitable to him.
Stale food should not be taken except meat, upadamsa (pickles) bhaksya (eatables which require good mastication); food which are preserved from the previous day should not be taken except curds, honey, ghee, liquid foods containing flour, soured whey and pudding prepared from milk.
Food should contain fats (oil, ghee etc.), be easily digestible and warm. It should not be eaten very leisurely or very hurriedly or accompanied with too much of talk and laughter. The person should eat food with relish and with a good knowledge of his own self (his health, capacity of consumption etc.). (6)
स्निग्धलघूष्णानि हि वह्निमौदर्यमुदीरयन्ति कोष्ठं परिशोधयन्ति धातून विकुवेते क्षिप्रं जरयन्ति अनिलमनुलोमयन्ति ।
तथा स्त्रिग्धं दृढीकरोतीन्द्रियाण्युपचिनोति शरीरमपचिनोति जरसं बलमभिवर्द्धयति वर्णप्रसादमभिनिर्वर्त्तयति ।
लघु च पुनः स्वभावादिभिन्नमपि चाल्पदोषं भवति । उष्णं च पुनर्जनयति रुचिमुपशोषयति श्लेष्माणम् ।
विलम्बितं तु भुआनो न तृप्तिमधिगच्छति बहु च भुङ्क्ते शीतीभवति चानजातं विषमपाकं च भवति ।
अतिद्रुतं तु भुञ्जनस्य जल्पतो हसतोऽन्यमनसो वा भवेदुत्स्नेहनमवसादनं भोजनस्याप्रतिष्ठानं गुणदोषाविभावनं च ॥ ७॥
Food which contains fat and which is easily digestible, kindles the fire in the abdomen (digestive power), cleanses the alimentary tract, does not vitiate the tissues, gets digested quickly and causes the downward movement of vata; produces plumpness of the body, postpones old age, increase strength and improves colour and complexion;
food which is laghu (easily digestible) does not harm the doshas and undergoes digestion without causing any difficulty even though it may become unsuitable slightly.
Food which is ushna produces good taste (appetite) and dries up the kapha.
Person who eats food leisurely does not feel contented, eats large quantity, the food becomes cold and so acts like a poison and does not get digested well.
A person who eats very hurriedly, accompanied by too much talk and laughter and whose mind is engaged with other things, will have his food going in through wrong passage, ets delayed in digestion; food does not stay in the alimentary tract to the required time and the person will not be able to experience the good or bad of the food. (7)
Satmya Ahara – accustom, habituation
समीक्ष्य सम्यगात्मानमिति ममेदं सात्म्यमिदमसात्म्यमिति नित्यमप्रमत्तः प्रत्यवेक्षेत ।
तत्र सात्म्यं नाम सहात्मना भवत्यभ्यस्तं तदौचित्यादुपशेत इत्येके । सात्म्यविपरीतमनुपशयादसा त्म्यम् ।
अन्ये पुनः प्रकृतिवयोदेर्शतुदोषव्याधिवशेन सात्म्यं बहुविधमिच्छन्ति ।
ते ह्युपशयमात्रमङ्गीकृत्य विपरीतगुणमप्युपचारेण सात्म्यमाचक्षते । तुल्यगुणं चानुपशयादसा त्म्यम् ।
सात्म्यं तु प्रवरावरमध्यविभागेन त्रिविधम् ।
तत्र सर्वरसं प्रवरमेकरसमवरं मध्यं तु मध्यममेव । तेषु प्रवरं समदोषस्योपदिशन्तीति ।
इतरेषामपि क्रमेण सात्म्यमपि चाहितं पादेन वा विवर्जयेदित्युक्तं प्राक् ।
तत्र यदाहारजातं समधातूननुवर्त्तयति विषमांश्च समीकरोति तत्समासतो हितम् । विपरीतमहितम् ।
तत् पुनर्मात्रायोगादिवैचित्र्यादनियतमपि यथोपदेशं यथाभूयिष्ठं च शीलयेत् परिहरेच्च ॥ ८ ॥
The words “considering ones own self” means that the person who eats should know which is Satmya (accustomed food) to him and which is Asatmya (not accustomed food). Here ‘Satmya’ is defined by some as “that which becomes one with the body from the habit of using it for a long time and so gives comfort to the body. The opposite of Satmya and that causing discomfort to the body is Asatmya”. Some others say that Satmya is of many kinds, as related to the constitution of the body, age, habitat, season, dosha, disease etc. They consider “giving comfort” only as the accepted criteria and include even those of the opposite qualities under satmya categorically. They say that sometimes even those of identical qualities are Astmya as they cause discomfort to the body.
Satmya is of three kinds – the best, medium and poor; getting accustomed to all the tastes is best, and to any one taste in poor and to two or more tastes is medium. The best one is seen in persons whose constitution is formed by all the three doshas in equal proportion, the other two in others.
It was earlier stated that those things which are unhealthy should be discontinued gradually even though they are accustomed to them. In general terms, that food which maintains the health of the normal tissues and makes the abnormal one normal, is to be considered as good (healthy, wholesome, suitable for health). The opposite of this is bad (unhealthy, unsuitable food). Though both these, are again, unspecific due to the quantity, admixture etc., of food, they are either to be used or rejected as (per their quality described) earlier. (8)
Notes:- In regions where rice is the staple food of the people every person living there will be eating rice even from his childhood and will have become accustomed to it. It does not give him any discomfort. So rice is Satmya to him. The same rice will not be so, for a person who has been accustomed to eating wheat since his childhood. Giving comfort and fit to be used for long period are the criteria to judge any thing as ‘Satmya’. Some substances give comfort for some time but are unfit to be used for a long time eg. coffee, tea etc.
Some substances produce discomfort for some time but are fit to be used for a long time eg. Haritaki, etc.
It is ideal to use foods containing all the six tastes daily but very few will be doing so.
The majority of people are accustomed to two, three or four tastes.
The common Indian meal usually contains a staple food (rice, wheat, jawar, ragi etc.), curry or soup (prepared with vegetables or meat with a liberal quantity of spices, sours and salt) a little quantity of pickles, (predominantly sour, salty and bitter), sauces, fried eatables etc., as adjuvants. So it is a wholesome food. Some people are more fond of one or two tastes only than others and eat a little more of them. Though it is pleasant for them, its long-continued use of any one or two tastes only is not good and will certainly cause disorders in them. Hence the advice to discontinue such habit even though it is pleasant for some time. Likewise, the habit of using foods of all tastes should be cultivated gradually to maintain health.
Ahitasana – unhealthy diet
तथा विशेषतः समशनमध्यशनममात्राशनं विषमाशनं च वर्जयेत् । तत्र पथ्यापथ्येमेकत्रभुक्तं समशनम् ।
भुक्तस्योपरि भुक्तमध्यशनम् । अमात्राशनं पुनः पृथगेवोपदेक्ष्यते । अप्राप्तातीतकालं तु भुक्तं विषमाशनमिति ।
भुञ्जनस्तु पेयायूषरसान् व्यञ्जनानि राजतेषु पात्रेषु निदध्यात् । परिशुष्कप्रदिग्धानत्युष्णं च पयः सौवर्णेषु ।
खलखट्वरकाम्बलिकान् कांस्येषु । रागषाडवसट्ट कान् वज्रवैडूर्य विचितेषु ।
घृतमायसे पयः सुशीतं ताम्रमये पानीय पानकानि च मृद्धेमस्फटिककाचमयेषु ओदनं च विस्तीर्णे मनोरमे स्थाने ।
अन्यथा हि वर्णगन्धरसान्यत्वा दहितं स्यात् ॥ ९॥
Likewise, Samasana, Adhyasana, Amatrasana and Visamasana should be avoided. Samasana is mixing healthy and unhealthy foods together, Adhyasana is taking food over the previous food (before the food taken earlier is digested), Amatrasana will be described later separately, (Chapter 11) Visamasana is taking food, too early or too late than the scheduled time.
At the time of eating, peya (drinkables) yusa (soup) rasa (mutton soup) and vyanjana (boiled vegetables, sauces, pickles) should be kept in silver vessels;
Those which are dry, which adhere to the vessel, which are very hot and milk should be kept in gold vessels;
Khala (buttermilk boiled with sour substances and spices), khatwara (a preparation with pungent and sour substances for licking) kambalika (sour milk mixed with whey) should be kept in bronze vessels;
ragasadava (a sweet syrup compounded of grapes, pomagranates or mango along with ginger, cardomum, ghee etc.) and sattaka (buttermilk processed with cumin seeds) in beautiful vessels made of diamonds and beryl; ghee in an iron vessel, cooked milk in copper vessels; drinking water, syrups and boiled rice in vessels of mud, gold, quartz or glass; all these being arranged in a wide and pleasant place; otherwise they will undergo a change in their colour, smell and taste and become unfit for use. (9)
अपि च । दक्षिणपार्श्वे भक्ष्यं स्थापयेत् । सव्ये पेयं लेह्यं मुखोद्घर्षणपिण्डीं च मध्ये भोज्यमिति ।
यथाग्निसात्म्यं तु प्राक् द्रवमुपशुष्कं वाश्नीयात् । प्रागेव तु गुरुस्वादुस्निग्धं च | मध्येऽम्ललव णम्।
अन्ते रूक्षं द्रवमितररसयुक्तं च । तत्र मन्दानेद्रवोष्णेन समुत्तेजितोप्मणोऽन्यदुपयुक्तं सम्यक् पाकमेति ॥१०॥
And further, bhaksya (eatables) are to be arranged on the right side, peya (drinkables) lehya (lickables) and balls which require hard chewing are to be on the left side and bhojya (staple or the chief food) in the centre.
Considering the digestive capacity and habituation, foods which are either watery or very dry (non- fatty) hard to digest, sweet and fatty should be consumed in the begining; those which are sour and salty in the middle and those which are dry (non-fatty) liquid and of other tastes at the end.
Those who have the poor digestive capacity should consume liquid and warm foods in the beginning itself, for the digestive activity getting stimulated by the heat, digest the other foods which are eaten later, in a proper way. (10)
Anupana – after drink
अनुपाने तु सलिलमेव श्रेष्ठं सर्वरस योनित्वात्सर्वभूतसात्म्यत्वाज्जीवनादिगुणयोगाच्च ।
तच्छीतं दधिमधुयवगोधूममद्यविशेषेषु सर्वेषु च विदाहिषु शरद्ग्रीष्मयोश्च । उष्णं पिष्टमयेप्वन्येषु च दुर्जरेषु हेमन्ते च ।
द्रवद्रव्यविज्ञानीयं चेक्षेत । क्षीरं शालिषष्टिकयोः तथैवोपवासाध्वभाप्यस्त्री व्यायामक्लान्तबालवृद्धेषु ।
मांसरसः शोषादिषु । वाते त्वम्लांनि च । पित्ते शर्करोदकम् । त्रिफलोदकं तु सक्षौद्रं श्लेष्मणि प्रायश्चाक्षिगलरोगेषु ।
मस्त्वेव वा दनि कूचिकाकीलाटयोश्च । धान्याम्लं मस्तु तक्रं वा शाकावरानेषु ।
मद्यं मांसेषु फलाम्लमम्बु वाऽऽसवांश्च विविधान् विभज्य प्रयोजयेत् ।
विशेषतस्तु मध्वासवान् ग्राम्येषु तीक्ष्णान् त्रिफलासवान् वन्येषू ।
न्यग्रोधादिफलासवान् विष्किरेषु अर्कशेलुशिरीषकपित्थासवान् बिलेशयेषु दिग्धुहतेषु च ।
अम्लफलासवान् प्रसहेषु काशेक्षुपद्मबीजशृङ्गाटककशेरुकमृद्वीकाखदिरासवान् क्षौद्रयुक्तं वा
शीतमुदकमुदश्विद्वा महामृगेष्वौदकेषु च । सुरां प्रतुदेषु तथा श्रमार्केषु कृशेषु च | मधूदकं स्थूलेषु ।
मद्यं मद्यमांससात्म्येष्वल्पाग्निषु । अपि च । समासेनानविपरीतमविरोधि च ॥ ११ ॥
As an Anupana (after-drink, liquid to be taken after meals) water is the best because it is the chief source of all the tastes, it is accustomed to all living beings and possesses the properties of sustaining life etc. It should be taken cold, after consuming curds, honey, barley, wheat and all other foods which cause a burning sensation during digestion and is sarat (autumn) and grisma (summer) seasons.
It should be taken hot after consuming foods prepared from corn flour and such other which are hard to digest; during hemanta (season of frost) and as described in the chapter on liquid substances (Chapter 6)
Milk as an after-drink is best after eating rice and rice which matures in sixty days; for those who are debilitated with fasting, long walk, speaking, sexual intercourse and exercise, and also for children and the aged.
Meat soup is best for those who are emaciated by consumpiton and other diseases;
sour syrups for those having disorders of vata;
sugar water for disorder of pitta;
water boiled with triphala mixed with honey. for disease of kapha and of the eyes and throat.
Mastu (whey) or cold water are best after consuming dadhi (curds) kuchika (inspissated buttermilk) and kilata (inspissated milk).
Dhanyamla (sour gruel of cereals), mastu (whey) or takra (buttermilk) are ideal after eating foods prepared with pulses, vegetables and coarse grains;
Madya (wines) are good after consuming meat or the syrups of sour fruits, water or fermented drinks; prepared in cold processing will be ideal depending upon the qualities, can also be used; especially madhvasava (wine prepared from honey) after consuming meat of domesticated animals.
Strong triphalasava after eating meat of animals living in forests; nyagrodhadi phalasava (fermented liquids prepared from fruits of vata and others) after meat of viskira birds; liquors prepared from arka, selu sirisa, kapittha, after eating meat of animals which live in burrows and those killed by poisoned weapons; liquor prepared from sour fruits after eating meat of prasaha birds; liquors prepred from kasa, iksu, seeds of lotus, srngataka, kaseruka, mrdwika and khadira mixed either with honey, cold water, or udaswit (buttermilk dilluted with water) after consuming meat of big game animals (lion, tiger, bison etc.,) and those living in water; sura (liquor prepared by distillation) after eating meat of pratuda birds and for persons who are fatigued by exertion and emaciated; water mixed with honey for those who are obese (fatty); madya (wine) for those who are habituated to wine and meat daily and who have poor digestion. In brief that liquid which possesses the properties opposite of that of the food and that which does not cause any harm to the person is the ideal (after drink) (11)
अनुपानं खलु तर्पयति प्रीणयत्यूर्जयति बृंहयति देहस्य पर्याप्तिमभिनिर्वर्तयति भुक्तमवसादयत्य
भसङ्घातं भिनत्ति मार्दवमापादयति वेदयति सुखपरिणामितामाशुव्यवायितां चाहारस्योपज नयति ।
वज्यं तूर्ध्वजत्रुगदश्वासकासप्रसेकहिध्मास्वरभेदोरः क्षतिभिर्गीतभाप्मयप्रसक्तैश्च ।
तेषां हि प्रदूष्यामाशयमुरः कण्ठस्थितमाहारजं स्नेहमासाद्य तदभिष्यन्दाग्निसादच्छर्यादीनाम यान् विदध्यात् ।
पीत्वा च भाष्यगेयाध्वस्वप्नान्नशीलयेत् । पानं च प्रक्लिन्नदेहमेहकण्ठाक्षिरोग व्रणिन इति ॥१२॥
An after-drink tones up the body gives satisfaction, invigorates, causes plumpiness, gives a feeling of contentment, makes the food move downwards easily, breaks the hard materials of the food, makes them soft, moistens them, helps for easy digestion and distribution to all the. parts of the body.
After drink is to be avoided by those who are suffering from diseases of the parts of the body above the shoulders, dyspnoea, cough, excess salivation, hiccup, hoarseness of voice, injury to the chest and those who are indulging in too much of singing and speaking. For such persons, the after drink disturbs the stomach and chest, increases the moisture of the food in the throat and causes watery discharges from the tissues, indigestion, vomiting and other diseases.
After taking such a drink, person should not indulge in speaking, singing, walking long distances and sleeping.
Persons who are suffering from accumilation of moisture in the body, polyurea, diseases of the throat, eyes and ulcers should not take an afterdrink. (12)
Notes:- Drinking fluids after eating solid foods is a good habit and is prescribed as a daily routine. Whatever might have been the practice in ancient times but now a days only water is taken immediately after meals. The quantity of water or other fluids to be taken has not been mentioned above somehow. As known to everybody it should be in moderate quantity, say about a quarter of a litre. Large amounts taken may cause vomiting or other discomforts and very little amounts may not be sufficient for the body. Solid foods will undergo proper digestion only after it is moistened well with water. So drinking a moderate quantity of water after each meal should be cultivated as a healthy habit.
Bhojanottara karma – activities after meals
ततः पाणिगतमन्नमन्येनापनीय दन्तान्तरस्थं च शनैः शनैः शोधनेन विशोध्य लेपगन्धस्नेहाप
नोदमाचान्तोऽङ्गुल्यग्रगलिताम्बुपरिषिक्लनेत्रस्ताम्बूलादिकृत वदनवैशद्यो धूमपानादिहतोर्ध्व कफवेग:
पदशतमात्रं गत्वा वामपार्थेन संविशेत् । द्रवोत्तरभोजनस्तु शय्यां नातिसेवेत । यानप्लवनवाहनान्यातपांश्च भुक्तवान् वर्जयेत् ।
आहारपरिणामकराः पुनरिमे भावा । तद्यथा |
ऊष्मा वायुः स्नेहः क्लेद काल: समयोगश्च ।
तत्रोष्मा पचति वायुरपकर्षति स्नेहो मार्दवं जनयति क्लैदः शैथिल्यमापादयति कालः सर्ववपुर्व्याप्तिमभिनिर्वर्त्तयति ।
समयोगस्त्वेषामन्नप रिणामधातुसाम्यकरः सम्पद्यते ।
समयोगस्य तु पुनः कारणान्युचितो हितश्च देहसंस्कारोऽभ्य वहारवेष्टा शयनं सौमनस्यं च ।
परिणमतस्त्वाहारस्य गुणाः शरीरगुणभावमापद्यन्ते यथास्वमविरुद्धाः । विरुद्धास्तु विहताश्व विरोधिभिर्विहन्युः शरीरमिति |
After taking the meals, the person should clean his hands well, to remove the remnants of food, clean the teeth by tooth picks to remove the residue of food, if any, sticking on there, gargle the mouth to remove the coating, smell and greasiness; touch the eyes with the moist finger tips, make the mouth pleasant by chewing betel leaves, inhale smoke to remove upward accumulation of kapha, walk about hundred steps and recline comfortably on his left side. Those who have taken more liquid foods should not make use of a bed for long. Riding in chariot, swimming, basking in the sun should be avoided.
Ahara parinamakara bhava – factors helpful for digestion
The following are the factors which bring about digestion of food, viz., heat, air, fat, moisture, time and proper combination; heat (fire-like activity inside the stomach) cooks the food; air (or nervous activity causing peristalsis and other movements of the stomach and intestines) causes downward movement of food; fat brings about softness; moisture breaks up the food particles; time makes the food (effect of food) to reach all the parts of the body; proper combination of all these factors helps to maintain the normalcy of the tissues. The factors responsible for the proper combination of the above, are again, the suitable and healthy foods, the condition of the body, the mode and procedure of eating, reclining and such activities and a pleasant mind.
The qualities and properties of the digested food will ultimately assume the qualities and properties of the body (of the tissues) if such foods are not opposite ( of the qualities of the tissues). Foods which possess the opposite qualities (to those of the tissues) will destroy the body by assuming antagonistic qualities. (13)
भवन्ति चात्र । १३।
Some more verses further;
औकुलाभ्योषपृथुकान् सुपिष्टकृततण्डुलान् ।
न जातुभुक्तवानद्यान्मात्रयाद्यात्सुकाङ्क्षितः ॥१४॥
Persons should not eat aukula (unripe corns, fried or burnt over fire) abhyosa (unripe barley fried or burnt over fire) prthuka (parboiled paddy fried and flattened) and eatables prepared. with rice flour after meals; but if very much tempted or desired he can take very little of it. (14)
त्यजेदेकरसासात्म्यं गुरु शुष्कं च भोजनम् ॥१५॥
Foods which are prepared from vegetables, grains of least quality, having predominance of pungent, sour, astringent and salt, habit of eating foods of any one taste only, foods which are hard to digest and which are dry should be avoided. (15)
वक्ष्यते यनिदानादौ सर्वदोषप्रकोपणम् ।
अत्यभिष्यन्दि विष्टम्भि विदाहि गुरु रुक्षणम् ॥१६॥
All those which are mentioned as the causes in each disease, those which brings about increase of all the doshas, which are atyabhisyandi (cause severe obstruction of tissue pores by more fluid secretion), those which are constipating, which cause burning sensation during digestion, those not easily digestible, those causing dryness inside, should not be eaten. ( 16 )
क्षारपिष्टविरूढाद्यं तत्समस्तं न शीलयेत् ॥ १७॥
Kilata ( inspissated milk) dadhikurcika ( inspissated buttermilk) fish, dry or uncooked raddish, alkaline foods, flours, germinated grains should not be used as food. (17)
Hitahara – suitable food
शीलयेच्छालिगोधूमयवषष्टिकजाङ्गलम् । सुनिषण्णकजीवन्तीबालमूलकवास्तुकम् ।।१८।।
पथ्यामलकमृद्धीकापटोलीमुद्गशर्कराः घृतंदिव्योदकक्षीरक्षौद्रदाडिमसैन्धवम् ।।१९।। ।
The daily use of the following should be cultivated rice, wheat, barley, rice maturing in sixty days, meat of animals of desert like regions, sunisannaka, jivanti, tender mulaka, vastuka, patha, amalaka, mrdvika, patli,mudga,sarkara, ghee, rain water, milk, honey, dadima and saindhava. (18-19)
त्रिफलां मधुसर्पिर्भ्यां निशि नेत्रबलाय च । स्वास्थ्यानुवृत्तिकृद्यच्च रोगोच्छेदकरं च यत् ॥ २०॥
Triphala, mixed with honey and ghee can be taken daily at night to improve the strength of the eyes (vision); all foods which are good to maintain health, and all those which cure diseases should be used daily. (20)
स्वभावमात्रायोगादिपरस्परविपर्ययैः भोजनानि विरुध्यन्ते तानि विद्वान् विवर्जयेत् ॥ २१ ॥
A wise man should avoid such foods which become incompitable (or unhealty) by their nature, quantity, admixture of substances of opposite qualities etc. (21)
त्यागाद्विषमहेतूनां समानां चोपसेवनात् ।
विषमा नानुबन्धन्ति जायन्ते धातवः समाः ॥२२॥
By avoiding those which cause abnormalities in the tissues and using those which have similar qualities as of the tissues, the tissues will not undergo abnormal changes but will remain normal. (22)
अनेन कुक्षेर्द्वावंशौ पानेनैकं प्रपूरयेत् ।। आश्रयं पवनादीनां चतुर्थमवशेषयेत् ||२३||
Half of the stomach should be filled with solid foods, one quarter by liquids and another quarter should be kept vacant for air etc. ( 23 )
योज्यः क्रमोऽयं सततं नावश्यमितरेषु च ॥ २४॥
This practice is essential for those who have poor digestive capacity, who are weak, who are of poor health, for kings, the wealthy, and tender. It is not so much essential for others. (24)
करोति रूक्षं बलवर्णनाशं त्वग्रूक्षतां वातशकृभिरोधम् । स्निग्धं त्वतिश्लेष्मचयप्रसेक हृद्गौरवालस्यरुचिप्रणाशान् ॥२५॥
Very dry foods cause loss of strength and colour, (complexion) dryness of the skin and obstruction to the movement of flatus and faeces; fatty foods cause great increase of kapha, excess salivation, heavyness of the heart, lazyness and loss of taste (appetite). (25)
शीतं तु सादारुचिवह्रिसादहल्लासविष्टम्भनरोमहर्षान् ॥२६॥
Very hot foods cause toxicity, ( excitement), burning sensation, thirst, loss of strength, giddiness and bleeding diseases; very cold foods cause deblity, loss of taste, weak digestive capacity, oppression in the chest (nausea), stasis of food for long time inside and horripilations.(26)
अतिस्थिरं मूत्रशकृद्विबन्धमतृप्तिमव्याप्तिमशीघ्रपक्तिम् । अतिद्रवं पीनसमेहकासस्यन्दान् करोत्यग्निबलं च हन्ति ॥ २७ ॥
Very hard (solid) foods cause obstruction to urine and feces, a feeling of not being contented, of not spreading to all the parts of the body and of not undergoing quick digestion; very liquid foods produce running in the nose, polyurea, cough, ophthalmia and destroy the digestive power. (27)
अतिमधुरमनलशमनं भुक्तमसात्म्यं न पुष्टये वपुषः ।
अतिलवणमचक्षुष्यं तीक्ष्णात्यम्लं जरा साक्षात् ॥ २८ ॥
Foods which are very sweet diminish the digestive capacity, not good for health and do not nourish the body; foods which are very salty are bad to the eyes; while very sour foods bring oldage quickly by their powerful effect. (28)
इति विधिमबलम्ब्य योऽनपान बल मिव विग्रहवत्सदोपयुङ्क्ते ।
तनुमपि तनुजां रुजां त्वनाप्य व्रजति नरः स समाशतस्य पारम् ९
Persons who always follow the above regimen of foods and drinks shall surely obtain strength similar to a statue, do not suffer from even minor diseases and surely attain a life of more than one hundred years.
इति दशमोऽध्यायः ॥ Thus ends the tenth chapter.