अथातो विरुद्धान्नविज्ञानीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । इति हस्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥ १॥
We will now expound the chapter entitled Viruddhanna vijnaniya (knowledge of incompatable foods); thus said Atreya and other great sages.(1)
Viruddha Ahara – incompatable foods
ग्राम्यानूपौदकपिशितानि मधुगुडतिलपयोमाषमूलकविसैर्बिरूढधान्यैश्च नैकध्यमद्यात् । विशेषतः पयसा मत्स्यान् ।
उभयं ह्येतन्मधुररसविपाकित्वादभिष्यन्दि शीतोष्णवीर्यत्वात् परस्परं विरुद्धम् । तेष्वपि विशेषेण चिलिचिमः ।
स पुनः शकली लोहितनयन: सर्वतो लोहितराजिलहितप्रभाकरः प्रायो भूमौ चरति
सोऽत्यभिष्यन्दितमत्वात् सुतरां व्याधीनुपजन यत्यामविषं च ||२||
The meat of animals living in villages (domestic), marshy places and in water, should not be eaten along with honey, jaggery, sesamum, milk, blackgram, raddish, bisa ( lotus stalk) and germinated grains; especially milk along with fish; both are sweet in taste, are sweet at the end of digestion, both are abhisyandi (cause obstruction of tissues) and mutually incompatable because of their cold and hot potency respectively; especially the cilicima, which is very scaly, has red coloured eyes, red stripes all over the body, red complextion, and lives generally very near to the ground. This is a very powerful abhisyandi, produces many diseases and Amavisa (endogenous toxins) quickly. (2)
सर्वं चाम्लं पयसैकध्यं विरुद्धम् । तत उत्तरं वा विरुद्धं फलञ्च कडुवरकमकुष्ठवेल्लकुलत्थमापनि ष्पावाश्च ।
न मूलकादिहरितं भक्षयित्वा पयः सेव्यं कुष्ठाबाधभयात् । पौष्करं रौहिणीकं जातुकं वा शाकं सह मधुपयोभ्यां नाभ्ययवहरेत् ।
ताभ्यां च सह कपोतान् सर्षपतैलभृष्टान् । मत्स्यबदराणां बदराणि श्वाविवराहमांसं चैकध्यं पित्तेनाममांसानि,
दध्ना कुक्कुटं पृषतं च कुसुम्भशाकेनौरभ्रं सौवीरकेण तिलशष्कुली:, क्षीरेण लवणं मूलकेन माषसूपं,
नवनीतेन शाकं, उपोदकां मैरेयमार्द्वीकाभ्यां, पीलूनि करीरैः, बिसैर्विरूढकानि, दध्ना माषसूपेन गुडेन
मधुना घृतेन ना लकुचफलं, दना तक्रेण तालफलेन वा कदलीफलं, पिप्पलीमरिचाभ्यां मधुना गुडेन
वा काकमाचीं, तामेव मत्स्यपचने भृङ्गिवेरपचने वा भाजने सिद्धामन्यत्र
वा सिद्धां रात्रिमुषितां, कांस्यभाजने दशरात्रोषितं सर्पिर्मद्यदधिमधुभल्लातकेषु चोष्णम् ॥३॥
All sour things mixed with milk become incompatable.
Similarly, also the fruits and grains like kangu, varaka, makustaka, vella, kulattha, masa and nispava.
Milk should not be used immediately after eating mulaka and other leafy vegetables, because of the fear (risk) of getting leprosy; the leaves of pauskara, rohinika and jatuka should not be eaten along with honey and milk; like wise the meat of the peigors which has been fried in oil of sarsapa. The fish and fruit of badara fried in mustard oil and unfried badara fruits should not be used together; similarly the meat of svavid (porcupine) and the varaha (wild boar); uncooked (or incompletely cooked along with pitta (bile of animals). Meat of the kukkuta (Cock) and prsata (spotted deer) along with dadhi (curds); the meat of ram with the leaves of kusumbha; saskuli (fried pastry/eatable) prepared from sesamum with the sauviraka (sour gruel).
Milk and salt, soup of black gram and raddish, leafly vegetables with butter; upodaka with maireya and mardvika (fermented liquiors); pilu with karira, bisa with germinated grains; the fruits of lakuca along with curds, soup of black gram, jaggery, honey or ghee; kadali phala with curds, buttermilk or fruits of tala phala; kakamaci along with pippali marica, honey or jaggery, the same (kakamaci) which has been cooked in the vessel used for cooking fish or ginger or cooked in any other vessel but kept overnight; the ghee which has been kept for more than ten days in a bronze vessel; and use of wines, curds, honey and bhallataka made hot-all these are incompatible. (3)
तक्रसिद्धकाम्पिल्लको विरुद्धः । अङ्गारशूल्यो भासः। सुराकृसरापायसाश्चैकध्यं विरुद्धाः ॥ ४॥
Kampillaka prepared with butter milk, the meat of bhasa bird (beared vulture) which is cooked on flame on an iron rod; sura (beer), krsara (mess) and payasa ( milk pudding) mixed together are all incompatable. (4)
मधुसर्पिर्वसातैलोदकानि समभृतानि द्विशस्त्रिशः समस्तानि वा । मधुघृते भिन्नांशे दिव्योदकानु पाने ।
मधपुष्करबीजं पद्मोत्तरिकाशाकं शार्करो मैरयो मधु च सहोपयुक्तं विरुद्धम् वातं चातिकोपयति ।
हारिद्रकः सर्वपतैलभृष्टो विरुद्धः पित्तं चतिकोपयति । पायसो मन्थानुपानो विरुद्धः श्लेष्माणं चातिकोपयति ।
उपोदका तिलकल्कसिद्धा हेतुरतीसारस्य । बलाका वारुण्या कुल्माषैश्च विरुध्दा । सैव वराहवसया परिभृष्टा सद्यो व्यापादयति ।
गोधालावतित्तिरिमयूरकपि ञ्जलाश्चैरण्डदार्वग्निसिध्दा एरण्डतैलसम्मूर्छिताः । हारीतमांसं हारिद्रशूलकावसक्तं हारिद्राग्नि प्लुष्टं च ।
तदेव भस्मपांसुपरिध्वस्तं सक्षौद्रं च ॥५॥ तथा मत्स्यनिस्तालितस्नेहसाधिताः पिप्पल्यः ।
शीतोष्णं नवपुराणमामपकं च नैकमैकध्यमद्यात् ॥५॥
Honey, ghee, muscle-fat, taila (sesamum oil) and water mixed in equal quantities, in the combination of two, three or all of them are incompitable; so also honey and ghee though of unequal proportion along with rain water taken as an after-drink; honey and seeds of puskara. Sarkara ( wine prepared with sugar) and maireya (wine prepared from dates ) and honey used together are incompatables and cause profound increase of vata.
Haridraka (a kind of tuber used as vegetable) fried in mustard oil is incompitable and cause profound increase of pitta; payasa (milk pudding) followed by mantha (solution of flour and sugar) is incompatable and causes profound increase of kapha.
Upodaka processed with paste of tila (sesamum) is the cause for diarrhoea; meat of balaka ( crane ) with varuni ( a kind of liquor) and kulmasa (steam-cooked grams ) is incompatable; the same (meat of balaka) fried in muscle-fat of the varaha (boar) causes sudden death.
Meat of godha, lava, tittiri, mayura, and kapinjala cooked in castor oil using the castor plant as fuel is incompatable; likewise the meat of harita bird held in a stick haridra (probably daruharidra) or the same (meat of harita bird) cooked inside hot ash and sand and mixed with honey ( is incompatable).
Pippali processed (fried) in the oil used for frying fish ( is incompatable)
Food materials which are of cold and hot potency, which are freshly harvested or very old, which are uncooked (unripe ) and cooked ( ripe ) should not be combined together and used. (5)
सलिलावगाहः सहसोष्णाभितप्तस्य त्वगदृष्टयोरुपघाताय । तृष्णाभिप्रवृध्दये च ।
तथैव पयःपानं रक्तपित्ताय । शरीरेणायस्तस्य सहसाभ्यवहारः छर्दिषे गुल्माय वा ।
वाचा त्वास्तस्य स्वरसादाय । इत्यन्नपानद्रव्यविरोधैकदेशो बाहुल्येनोपयोगी कथितः ।
भेषजद्रव्याणां तु यथोपदेशकेव प्रयोगो न्याय्यतरः । तद्विरोधः पुनरतिप्रसङ्गभयानोक्तः । न च तद्विज्ञानमेकान्त भद्रकं ॥६॥
Immersing oneself in cold water soon after prolonged exposure to sunlight is the cause for diseases of the skin and eyes (vision) and increase of thirst also.
Likewise the drinking of milk (soon after long exposure to sunlight) in causing raktapitta (haemorrhagic diseases).
Taking food immediately after physical fatigue is the cause for either vomitting or abdominal tumour; food taken immediately after getting tired by speaking for long perods causes hoarseness of voice.
Thus, incompatability (unsuitable for health) regarding articles of food, drinks which are in common use were described. As regards the drugs, their use should be in the same manner as described. Their incompatability (wrong usage) are not described here for the fear of abuse (by unqualified / unscrupulous persons ) ; such a mention here is not good. (6)
Viruddhanirukti – definition
अपिच ॥ उत्क्लेश्य दोषान्न हरेत् द्रव्यं यत्तत्समासतः ।
विरुध्दं तद्धि धातूनां प्रत्यनीकतया स्थितम् ॥ ७॥
Those substances, which cause the increase of dosas in the body but do not expel them out (of the body) are known as Viruddha, and so they remain antogonistic to the dhatus (tissues).
बलिनां मिथोगुणानां विषमतया समतयाप्युभयथापि संस्कारादिवशेन च भवति निसर्गादपि विरोधः ॥८॥
Even naturally, imcompatability happens by the combination of substances in respect of their strngth of qualities, of unequal or equal proportions or both, or by different processes of cooking. (8)
क्षीरं कुलत्यैः पनसेन मत्स्यैस्तप्तं दधि क्षौद्रघृते समांशे ।
वार्यूषरे रात्रिषु सक्लवश्व तोयान्तरास्ते यवकास्तथा च ॥९॥
Milk is incompatible along with kulattha, panasa fruit with matsya; boiled curds, mixtures of equal quantities of honey and ghee, water of alkaline regions, partaking flour made into thick solution with water at night; and yavaka ( small variety of barely) are all incompatables.
कुशाग्रीयधियामेतदुदाहरणमात्रकम् । उपनीतमलं विद्वान् सर्वत्र क्रमते यतः ॥ १० ॥
For an intelligent person the examples, cited here are enough to understand (the subject) and a scholar devoid of doubt makes use of things in right manner at all times. ( 10 )
Viruddhasevana dosa – bad effects of incompatables
विस्फोटशोफमदविद्रधिगुल्मयक्ष्म तेजोबलस्मृतिमतीन्द्रियचित्तनाशान् ।
कुर्याद्विरुध्दमशनं ज्वरमस्रपित्त मष्टौ गदांश्च महतो विषवच्च मृत्युम् ॥ ११ ॥
The use of incompatable foods will produce boils, swelling, toxicity, abscess, tumours of the abdomen, tuberculosis; loss of vigour, strength, memory, sense perceptions and intellect; fever, haemorrhagic diseases, the eight Mahagadas (dreaded diseases) and even death just like poison. (11)
Notes :- The eight dreaded diseases are Vatavyadhi (diseases of the nervous system) Ashmari (renal calculus) Kusta (leprosy and other skin diseases) Meha (diabetes) Udara ( enlargement of the abdomen) Bhagandara (fistuala-in-ano) Arsas (haemorrhoids) and grahani (disease of the duodenum).
ViruddhaAnna Chikitsa – treatment
तेप्वाशु कुर्यात्संशुद्धिं शमं वा तद्विरोधिभिः । द्रव्यैस्तैरेव वा पूर्वं शरीरस्याभिसंस्कृतिम् ।।१२।।
व्यायामस्निग्धदीप्ताग्निवयस्थबलशालिनाम् । विरोध्यपि न पीडायै सात्म्यमल्पं च भोजनम् ॥ १३ ॥
दोषादिवैपरीत्येन हरते रोगिणां रुजम् । ऐकध्यं दधिदुग्धादियोजना न विरुध्यते ॥१४॥
In such diseases, purificatory therapies should be adopted quickly or in persons who are unfit for it, palliative measures should be done by the use of substances which have the qualities opposite of those used earlier; or even of those which are of similar properties, keeping in mind the condition of the body.
Incompatable foods etc. do not cause harm to persons who are accustomed to physical exercise and oleation therapy daily, who have powerful digestive capacity, who are of middle age and strong.
Similarly, foods which have become accustomed and which are in small quantities do not cause trouble even though such food are incompatable. They even cure the diseases of patients by causing variations in the dosas etc.; as for example the use of dadhi (curds ) and milk etc together in different combinations (with other materials) does not become incompatable always. (14)
योगादिभेदायद्यद्वा पथ्यानामप्यपथ्यता । तद्भेदान्तदतस्तद्वद्विरोधोऽपि निवर्त्तते ॥१५॥
By different combinations, even healthy foods became unhealthy; similarly even unhealthy foods lose their bad qualities and become healthy. (15)
पादांशेन त्यजेत्सात्म्यमहितं हितमाचरेत् ।
एकान्तरं तत चोर्ध्वं द्व्यन्तरं त्र्यन्तरं तथा ॥ १६ ॥
Bad foods which have become accustomed to the body should be discontinued gradually in the proportion of a quarter (one-fourth of the accustomed quantity) and good foods should be taken instead, slowly increasing by one, two and three periods of taking food. (16)
क्रमेणानेन सन्त्यक्ता दोषाः संवर्द्धिता गुणा: । प्रभवन्ति न पीडायै प्राप्नुवन्ति स्थिरात्मताम् ॥ १७॥
By this method, the dosas get rid of the bad effects, acquire their normal qualities, cease to produce diseases and attain their own stability (congeneal for health). (17)
Notes:- Discontinuing bad foods (and even bad activities) should be gradual and reducing in quantity and not sudden. Sudden discontinuance will cause harm to the body because it will have developed a certain adjustment with the accustomed substances and cannot be without it. It requires sufficient time to be without it and to adjust to new substances. Good things which are not accustomed to the body, may evoke difficulties in the begining and it is only after sufficient time the body becomes accustomed to it. So both discontinuance of bad foods and continuance of good foods should be gradual and slow.
Traya upasthambha – three pillars
त्रितयं चैतदुपस्तम्भनमाहारः स्वप्नोऽब्रह्मचर्यं च ।
एभिर्युक्तियुक्तैरुपस्तम्भैः शरीरं बलवर्णोप चयोचितमनुवर्त्तते यावदायुः संस्कारः । तत्र अहार उक्तो वक्ष्यते च ॥१८॥
Ahara (food) Svapna (sleep) and Abrahmacharya(indulgence in sex) are the three pillars (of life). Supported by these three pillars, the body maintains its strength, colour (complexion) and growth till the end of life. So far, food was described and will be described further also. (18)
Svapna / Nidra (sleep)
लोकादिसर्गप्रभवा तमोमूला तमोमयी ।
बाहुल्यात्तमसो रात्रौ निद्रा प्रायेण जायते ॥१९॥
Sleep was born out of Tamas, at the time of commencement of this creation; it is another form of Tamas itself and manifests when Tamas is predominant, generally at night. (19)
श्लेप्मावृतेषु स्रोतस्सु श्रमादुपरतेषु च । इन्द्रियेषु स्वकर्मभ्यो निद्रा विशति देहिनम् ॥ २०॥
When the srotas (tissues pores, channels etc.) of the body become covered (coated and obstructed) by kapha, when the body is fatigued by exertion and when the sense organs are not functioning, sleep manifests in the body. (20)
सर्वेन्द्रियव्युपरतौ मनोऽनुपरतं यदा । ॥ विषयेभ्यस्तदा स्वप्नं नानारूपं प्रपश्यति ॥ २१
When all the sense organs have stopped cognising their objects but only the mind is cognising them, the sleeping man sees different kinds of dreams. (21)
निद्रायत्तं सुखं दुःखं पुष्टिः काश्यं बलाबलम् । वृषता क्लीबता ज्ञानमज्ञानं जीवितं न च ॥ २२॥
Strength and misery, nourishment and emaciation (increase or decrease of the body), strength and debility, virility and impotence, knowledge and ignorance, and life and death are all dependent upon sleep. (22)
अकालेऽतिप्रसङ्गाञ्च न च निद्रा निषेविता । सुखायुषी पराकुर्यात् कालरात्रिरिवापरा ||२३||
Sleep indulged at improper time, in excess or not at all, destroys one’s happiness and life just as the kalaratri (the black night just prior to death). (23)
सैव युक्ता पुनर्युङ्क्ते निद्रा देहं सुखायुषा । योगाभियोगिनो बुद्धिर्निर्मला तमसा यथा ॥ २४ ॥
The same (sleep) indulged judiciously will make for happiness and long life just as the mind of the yogis (ascetics) becomes clear from the knowledge of the soul and penances. (24)
रात्रौ जागरणं रूक्षं स्त्रिग्धं प्रस्वपनं दिवा | अरूक्षमनभिष्यन्दि त्वासीनप्रचलायितम् ॥ २५ ॥
Not sleeping at night causes dryness of the body; sleeping during day is the cause for increase of unctuousness whereas reclining leisurely without sleeping, causes neither. (25)
Divasvapna – day sleep
ग्रीष्मे वायुचयादानरौक्ष्यरात्र्यल्पभावतः । दिवास्वप्नो हितोऽन्यस्मिन् कफपित्तकरो हि सः ॥ २६॥
Sleeping at day time is beneficial during grisma (summer) because, in this season vata will have undergone caya (mild increase), dryness is more and nights are short, because it is adana kala. Whereas in other seasons it (day-sleep) causes increase of kapha and pitta. (26)
मुक्त्वातिभाष्ययानाध्वमयस्त्रीभारकर्मभिः । क्रोधशोकभयैः क्लान्तान् श्वासहिध्मातिसारिणः ||२७|| वृध्दबालाबलक्षीणक्षततृच्छ्रलपीडितान् ।
अजीर्ण्यभिहतोन्मत्तान् दिवास्वप्नोचितानपि । धातुसाम्यं तथा ह्येषां श्लेष्मा चाङ्गानि पुष्यति ||२८||
Sleeping during day is permissible for those who are tired from excess indulgence in speech, riding on animals, walking long distances, alcoholic drinks, sexual intercourse and lifting heavy weights; anger, grief and fear; those suffering from dyspnoea, hiccup and diarrhoea, the aged, the young, the debilitated, the emaciated, the wounded, the thirsty; those suffering from pain, indigestion; injury by weapons, insanity (and other kinds of mental disorders) and those habituated to sleeping at day time. It produces in them, equilibrium of the dhatus (tissues) and plumpiness of the body by kapha. (27-28)
बहुमेदःकफाः स्वप्युः स्नेहनित्याश्च नाहनि ।
विषार्त्तः कण्ठरोगी च नैव जातु निशास्वपि ॥२९॥
Those having great accumulation of fat and kapha (in their body), and those who take fatty food daily, should not sleep during day; while those suffering from poisoning and diseases of the throat should not sleep even during nights. (29)
Atisvapna – excess of sleep
हलीमकशिरोजाडयस्तैमित्यगुरुगात्रताः । ज्वरभ्रममतिभ्रंशस्त्रोतोरोधाग्निमन्दताः ॥३०॥
शोफारोचकहल्लासपीनसार्द्धावभेदकाः कण्डूरुक्कोठपिटकाकासतन्द्रागलामयाः ॥३१॥
विषवेगप्रवृत्तिश्च भवेदहितनिद्रया ।अपच्यमानो बाहुल्यात् स्रोतांस्यावृणुते कफः ॥ ३२॥
ततः स्रोतस्सु रुद्धेषु जायते गात्रगौरवम् । गुरुगात्रस्य चालस्यमालस्यादतिनिद्रता ॥३३॥
Halimaka (severe form of jaundice), diseases of the head, stiffness and heaviness of the body, fever, giddiness, loss of mental activity, obstruction of orifices, dyspepsia, swelling, loss of appetite, nausea, nasal catarrh, hemicrania, itching, pain, rashes, eruptions, cough, stupor, diseases of the throat, quick development of stages of poisoning – are all produced by injudicious (excess) sleep. Kapha, not undergoing regular processing because of its increased quantity, obstructs the orifices (of the tissues); obstruction of orifices causes heaviness of the body, and from heaviness follows laziness, which in turn causes excess sleep. (30-33)
विरेकः कायशिरसोर्वमनं रक्तमोक्षणम् । धूमः क्षूत्तृव्यथाहर्षशोकमैथुनभीक्रुधः ॥३४॥
चिन्तोत्कण्ठाs सुखा शय्यासत्वोदार्यं तमोजयः । रूक्षानं चाहितां निद्रां वारयन्ति प्रसङ्गिनीम् ॥ ३५ ॥
एत एव च विज्ञेया निद्रानाशस्य हेतवः | कालशीलक्षयो व्याधिर्वृद्धिश्चानिलपित्तयोः ॥ ३६॥
Purgations of the body and of the head, vomiting, bloodletting, inhalation of smoke; hunger, thirst, pain, happiness, grief, sexual intercourse; fear, anger, worry and such other emotions; uncomfortable bed, increase of satvaguna, victory over (conquering of) Tamoguna (inadequacy or non-existance), dry foods and intense engagement (indulgence in any thing or work); lapse of the usual sleeping time and habit, the effect of diseases, increase of vata and pitta in the body – all these are the causes for loss of sleep. (34-36)
Notes:- Satvaguna stands for illumination, intellegence, purity of thought, alertness and other mental funcions in a healthy manner. Its increase makes the mind to get engaged in reading, writting, contemplating, reasoning etc., on useful and interesting subjects. At such occassions persons will not get sleep. Tamoguna is its opposite and stands for ignorance, incativity, and diminished mental functions. Victory over it is, in other words, increase of Satvaguna, by artificial methods. It can also be interpreted as victory over darkness, in other words the presence of bright light.
Asvapna – loss of sleep
निद्रानाशादङ्गमर्द्दशिरोगौरवजृम्भिकाः । जाड्यग्लानि भ्रमापक्कितन्द्रारोगाश्च वातजाः ॥ ३७॥
Loss of sleep causes vague pains all over the body, feeling of heaviness of the head, yawnings, lazyness, tiredness, giddiness, indigestion, stupor, and diseases produced by increased vata. ( 37 )
कफोऽल्पो वायुनोदूतो धमनीः सन्निरुध्य तु । कुर्यात्संज्ञापहां तन्द्रां दारुणां मोहकारिणीम् ॥ ३८॥
उन्मीलितविनिर्भुने परिवर्त्तिततारके । भवतस्तत्र नयने स्रुते लुलितपक्षमणी ॥३९॥
Kapha, slightly increased, moved upwards into the head by vata and causing obstruction to the dhamanis (channels ) produces Tandra (stupor) which causes loss of sensation consciousness and produces delusions. The eyes are wide open, eye ball gone in, pupil dilated, tears these are seen in this flowing out, the eyelashes disarranged condition. (38-39)
अर्धत्रिरात्रात्सा साध्या न सा साध्या ततः परम् । यथाकालमतो निद्रां रात्रौ सेवेत सात्म्यतः ॥४०॥
It is curable if it is of duration of half of three nights (one and half days) and not curable if it is more. , all should go sleep at the proper time at night.
असात्म्याज्जागरादर्थं प्रातः स्वप्यादभुक्तवान् । शीलयेन्मन्दनिद्रस्तु क्षीरमिक्षुरसं रसान् ॥४१॥
आनूपौदकमांसानां भक्ष्यान् गौडिकपैष्टिकान् । शालीन्मद्यानि माषांश्च किलाटान् माहिषं दधि ॥४२॥
अभ्यङ्गोद्वर्त्तनस्रानमूर्ध्दश्रवणपूरणम् । चक्षुषस्तर्पणं लेपः शिरसो वदनस्य च ॥४३॥
प्रवाते सुरभौ देशे सुखां शय्यां यथोचिते । संवाहनं स्पर्शसुखं चित्तज्ञैरनुजीविभिः ॥४४॥
सर्पिः क्षीरानुपानं च जीवनीयैः शृतं पिबेत् । कान्ताबाहुलता श्लेषो निर्वृतिः कृतकृत्यता ॥४५॥
If one keeps awake at night due to unaccustomed conditions, he should compensate for it by sleeping the next morning, for half of that period ( duration of loss of sleep) without taking any food. (41)
Persons who get insufficient sleep should use milk, sugarcane juice, meat soup and meat of animals of marshy places and of those living in water; eatables prepared from jaggery and flour; rice, wines, black gram, skimmed buttermilk, curds of buffalo’s milk; resort to applying oil to the body, massage, bath, putting oil on the head, ears and eyes, application of lubricating paste to the head and face; the bed should be spread in a place with mild breeze and pleasant smell; mild and comfortable massaging of the body by those who are affectionate and dependant on him; use of ghee followed by drinking of milk boiled with Jivaniya (rejuvinating) group of drugs; warm embrace by the tender arms of the wife; a sense of satisfaction of having done good deeds, thinking of things pleasant to the mind and fulfilment of desire-all these are going to bestow happy sleep. (41-45)
मनोऽनुकूला विषयाः कामं निद्रासुखप्रदाः । ब्रह्मचर्यरतेर्ग्राम्यसुखनिस्पृहचेतसः ॥४६॥
निद्रा सन्तोषतृप्तस्य स्वं कालं नातिवर्त्तते । एतान्येव च भूयिष्ठं निद्रालुः परिवर्जयेते ॥४७॥
Persons who follow brahmacarya (rules of right conduct), who are happy sexually, who are having a contented mind and who are satisfied with happiness, will not miss their sleep at the proper time. Persons who are having excess of sleep even normally should avoid the things enumerated above ( milk, sugar cane juice, etc.,) (46-47)
कालस्स्वभावामयचित्तदेहखेदें: कफागन्तुतमोभवा च ।
निद्रा बिभर्त्ति प्रथमा शरीरं पाप्मान्तगाव्याधिनिमित्तमन्याः ॥४८॥
Sleep is produced by the accustomed time (nights), effect of diseases, fatigue of the mind and body, increase of Kapha; external factors and dominance of tamoguna; of these the first one (that due to accustomed time every night) protects the body, the last one ( due to dominance of tamoguna) is sinful and destroys the body; (it appears just before death) and all the remaining are caused by diseases. (48)
Gramya dharma – regimen of copulation
ग्राम्यधर्मप्रवृत्तौ तु रजस्वलामनिष्ठामनिष्टाचारामशस्तामतिस्थूलामतिकृशां
गर्भिणीं सूतिकाम नुत्तानां विकृताङ्गां गणिकामप्रजसं दुष्टयोनिमन्ययोनिमन्य स्त्रियं विशेषाच
वयोवर्णवृद्धां सगोत्रां गुरुमित्रबन्धु भृत्यपत्नीं वर्णिनीं तथा
चैत्यचत्वरचतुप्पथोपवन- श्मशानघातसलिलौष धद्विजगुरुसुरनृपालयेप्वहनि गोसर्गे
मध्यन्दिनेऽर्द्धरात्रौ पर्वेष्वनङ्गे पिपासुरप्रणीतसङ्कल्पो वा न गच्छेत् ।
न च विपरीतव्यवाये योजयेत् । विशेषेण चातिव्यायतां गर्भिणीं नवप्रसूतामृतुमतीं संवृतयोनिं च ।
मूर्द्धाभिघातं च परिहरेत् । न च निषेकाभिमुखं शुक्रं धारयेदिति । –
मनः शरीरस्थितिमात्रमेव व्यवायं सेवेत । न तत्परः स्यादिति ॥ ४६॥
With regards to sexual intercourse (copulation, coitus), man should avoid a woman who is in her menstrual period, who is not liked by him (because of ugliness, etc.) whose activities (behaviour, speech etc.) are not liked (though she is liked), who is not suitable (because of low caste, ill reputed family etc.) who is too obese (fatty), too emaciated (thin), who is pregnant, recently delivered, who is not lieing with her face upwards, who has deformed organs, who is a prostitute, who is not capable of conception (sterile) and who suffers from diseases of the the genital organs; he should avoid Anyayoni (genital organs other than of a woman) a woman who belongs to others (not his wife) expecially who is more aged and who belongs to his own gotra (sanguinous group); who is the wife of his teacher, friend, relative and servant; who is an ascetic (nun); places such as temples, cross roads (lanes), squires or meeting place of four roads, gardens, burial ground, slaughter house, reservoirs of water and herbs, house of the twice born (brahmanas) teachers, gods and kings, should be avoided. Time, such as day, at the time of letting the cattle out for grazing (morning), midday, midnight and on inauspicious days, should be avoided; so also the also organs other than the genitals (mouth, axilla, groin, anus etc.), when he is thirsty and when not interestly prepared (when not desirous).
Man should not make the woman play his role (allowing her to mount on him); should avoid especially the woman who is desirous of excessive copulation, who is pregnant, who has just delivered, who is menstruating and who has a narrow (constricted) vaginal passage.
He should avoid hitting the head (of his partner during the ecstacy of libido). He should not withhold the ejaculation (discharge of semen) in the middle. Copulation should be restricted to one’s capacity of mind and body (without causing fatigue of either of them). Man should not be engrossed in it too much. (49)
भवति चात्र श्लोकाः विस्रब्धहष्टो रहसि तत्कामस्तरुणः पुमान् । समस्थिताङ्गः सुरभिर्मुक्तमूत्रादिरव्यथः ॥ ५० ॥
नानाशितो नात्याशितो वृष्याणां: तर्पितस्त्र्यहम् । नारी नारीर्गुणैर्युक्तां सहपूर्वगुणां व्रजेत् ॥५१॥
द्व्यहाद्वसन्ते तस्यान्ते पक्षात्तद्वत् घनोदये । सेवेत कामतः कामं हेमन्ते शिशिरे बली ॥ ५२॥
स्नानाङ्गरागव्यजेन्दुपादमांसासवक्षीररसान् रसालाम् भक्ष्यान् सिताढ्यान् सलिलं सुशीतम् सेवेत निद्रां च रतान्ततान्तः||५३||
An adult who is (keenly) interested in copulation should engage himself in it with a pleasant mind, with the woman whom he likes, in secrecy, adopting the suitable posture, anointed with good smelling cosmetics, free from the urges of urine etc., not without taking food (i.e. after meals) not taking too much food, having gained strength by use of aphrodisiacs (foods or drugs) for three days earlier, and with the woman who has all the womanly qualities.
Copulation may be indulged into once in two days during vasanta (spring); once in a fortnight in the next (grisma-summer) and also in ghanodaya (varsa rainy season); and a strong man may indulge in it as many times as he desires during hemanta and Sisira (cold season).
Man getting tired after sexual intercourse, should take bath, put on cosmetics, comfort himself with fan and moonlight, partake meat, wine, milk, soup, rasala (sweetened syrup of plantains) and other eatables prepared with sugar in plenty, cold water and then go to sleep. (50-53)
स्त्री संसर्गाद्धि सद्यः स्यात् क्लीवता बलिनामपि । एवं चाप्यायते शीघ्रं तेषां शुक्रं च धाम च ॥ ५४॥
Immediately after copulation, even a strongman becomes impotent and so resorting to the activities stated above makes for replenishment of the semen and its repository (the body). (54)
दृष्टयायुरोजः शुक्रानां क्षयं मेद्राश्रयान् गदान् । वायोः कोपमधर्म च मूढः प्राप्नोत्यतोऽन्यथा ॥५५॥
The foolish person who does not follow the above regimen loses his vision, life-span, valour, semen, and becomes a victim of disease of the penis, increase of vata and gets into sin. (55)
उत्तानो वेगरोधी वा वृद्धिमेहाश्मशर्कराः । तिमिरादिगदोत्पत्ति र्मूर्द्धायाहननादध्रुवम् ॥ ५६||
He, who adopts the supine posture (lying on the back with face upwards) during copulation, who suppresses the urges (of elimination of urine, faeces etc.) becomes a victim of hernia, diabetes and urinary calculus and gravel; hitting the head and other parts (during copulation) will surely produce blindness and such other diseases. (56)
भ्रमक्लमोरुदौबल्यबलधात्विन्द्रियः क्षयः । अपर्वमरणं च स्याद्विशेषेणातिमैथुनात् ॥ ५७
Giddiness, fatigue,debility of the thighs, decrease of strength of tissues, capacity of sense organs and even premature death will occur due to excess of sexual intercourse (57)
नचोन: षोडशाद्वर्षात् सप्ततेः परतो न च । आयुष्कामो नरः स्त्रीभिः संयोगं गन्तुमर्हति ॥ ५८ ॥
अतिबालो ह्यसंपूर्णसर्वधातुः स्त्रियं व्रजन् । उपतप्येत सहसा तटाकमिव काजलम् ॥ ५९॥
शुष्कं रूक्षं यथा काष्ठं जन्तुजग्धं विजर्जरम् | स्पृष्टमाशु विशीर्येत तथा वृद्धः स्त्रियं व्रजन् ॥ ६॥
Man desirous of long life should not have sexual intercourse with woman before the age of sixteen years and after seventy years. Young boys (less than sixteen years) will not have attained full development of all the tissues of the body, if they indulge in copulation, their body dries up quickly like the little quantity of water in a tank; if old man (after seventy years) indulges in it, he collapses just as an old, dry and worm-eaten wooden staff crumbles even on mild handling. (58-60)
कायस्य तेजः परमं हि शुक्र माहारसारदपि सारभूतम् । जितात्मना तत् परिरक्षणीयं ततो वपुः सन्ततिरप्युदारा ॥६१ ॥
अप्रमत्तो भजेद्भावांस्तदासुखसंज्ञकान् । सुखोदर्केषु सज्जेत देहस्यैतदलं हितम् ॥ ६ ॥
Semen is the most valuable essence of the body, more valuable than even the essence of food; it has to be carefully protected (preserved) by the self-controlled person. The body, thus protected by semen and carefully preserved, bestows excellent progeny.
While indulging in all things (food, sex etc.) which give quick pleasure, one should be self-controlled, he should also keep in mind the good result he anticipates and become contented. These will be enough to obtain happiness. (61-62)
Roga karana – cause of diseases
प्रज्ञापराधोऽसात्म्यार्थसंयोगः कालवैकृतम् । हितेऽपि रतमाहारे योजयन्त्यामयैर्नरम् ॥ ५३॥
Willful transgression of a regimen of right conduct, improper correlation of sense organs with their objects and abnormal changes of time (season) will make a man a victim of diseases even though he is taking suitable food in a proper manner. (63)
Notes: Man’s activities are mainly three (a) physical (b) mental and (c) vocal. For these, some rules of right conduct have been prescribed for one’s own good. Adhering to them will bestow health and happiness. Whereas violating them either willfully or by ignorance will lead to ill health and misery. Similarly, proper use of sense organs to understand the things outside will lead to the maintenance of health whereas their improper use will produce diseases. Likewise, the changes in the atmosphere in different seasons also bring about changes inside the body. If such changes are very abnormal they cause many diseases in the body, unless precautionary measures are taken.
नापथ्यसेविनं सद्यः प्रबाधन्ते तदा मलाः । प्रकोपं प्रतिविघ्नन्ति भिन्नैप्यादिभिर्यदा ||६४||
The dosas do not produce disorders quickly in those who indulge in unhealthy things (foods, activities etc.), as long as, there is hinderance to their increase by the dusyas (tissues) which are opposite to them. (64)
Notes: Foods and activities bring about the increase of one or more of the dosas when their qualities are similar. The increased dosas in their turn, bring about abnormalities in the dushyas (tissues and body wastes). If the qualities of the dusyas are opposite to the qualities of the the dosas, there will be hinderance to the increase of the dosas. On such occassions the dosas do not produce diseases quickly because they will not have undergone the increase needed to cause disease.
न च सर्वापचारोऽपि सर्वदा सर्वदोषकृत् ।
न हि सर्वाण्यपथ्यानि तुल्यदोषाणि नैव च ॥६५॥
All unhealthy things do not always cause increase of all the dosas, as all such things are not always similar to all the dosas. (65)
Notes: The dosas are having qualities which are different from one another. Foods and activities which are similar in qualities with those of any dosa cause its increase and at the same time bring about the decrease of that dosa which has opposite qualities or may not at the same time do so.
सर्वे तुल्यबला दोषा न सर्वाणि वपूंषि च । व्याधिक्षमत्वे शक्तानि यतोऽपथ्यं तदेव तु ॥६६॥
गच्छत्यपथ्यतमतां तुल्यदोषादिवर्द्धितम् । त एव च पुनर्दोषा हेतुभिर्बहुभित्रितः ||६७||
All the dosas are not of equal strength and all the bodies (of persons) do not possess the same degree of resistance to disease.
All the unhealthy things are also not equally capable of producing diseases; they become utmost unhealthy when they combine with dosas having similar qualities. (66-67)
Notes – Compared among themselves vata is very powerful, next less is pitta and still less is kapha. For them to undergo increase and produce diseases, even one mild cause is enough for vata, one or more causes of moderate strength may be required for pitta and one or more powerful causes are needed for Kapha. Resistance to diseases is of three kinds (a) natural or inherent and (b) artificial or newly created (c) seasonal. Of these, it is the first which is permanent and so is important. The degree of natural resistance varies in respect of heredity, race, habitat, age, sex, constitution and so on. It is at its best in adults, males, and in those constitutions formed out of a combination of all the three dosas in equal proportions (sammisra prakrti). The degree of natural resistance has a large number of variations. Because of this only, it is seen that all persons indulging in the same type of unhealthy foods etc., living in the same region do not get affected simultaneously during an epidemic.
The nature of unhealthy things are also very different. Some of them are very mild and not capable of increasing the dosas, some are moderate and some are powerful to cause the increase; some times only one cause is enough and some other times more than one cause should combine together to increase the dosas. The qualities of the unhealthy foods etc., will cause the increase of that particular dosa which is the same as their own but not of the dosa which has different or opposite qualities.
मिथो विरुद्धा बलिनो दीर्घकालानुबन्धिनः । सर्वे समप्रकुपिताः प्राप्याल्पमपि कारणम् ॥६८॥
The dosas which have undergone increase by the effect of many causes, combining in their opposites, in persons who are strong, will produce diseases which continue in the body for a long period of time. (68)
Notes: The combination of many causes will no doubt be very powerful to cause increase of the dosas and produce diseases. But each of the dosas has different qualities, sometimes the dosas of opposite qualities, may get increased at the same time by the same causes and combine together inside the body. Such a combination is called the combination of the opposites. In that combination, any one dosa becomes more powerful than the other and produces the disease. If such a condition takes place in persons who are strong (physical strength and also good natural resistance to diseases) it can only produce a disease of moderate severity, persisting in the body for a long time but not a severe disease causing death quickly.
प्राणायतनमाश्रित्य गम्भीराः सर्वमार्गगाः । देहेऽहितोचिते स्युश्चिरादप्याशुकारिणः ||६९||
If all the three dosas undergo increase in equal degree, even with trivial causes, in bodies (persons) which have been indulging in unhealthy foods etc., they (dosas) produce fatal diseases quickly, invading the seats of life and all the pathways (of diseases) penetrating deep into them. (69)
Notes:- Increase of all the three dosas together at the same time and their combination inside the body will be powerful. They spread all over the body quickly, affect the important organs like the heart, head and other vital organs (whose working supports life) and produce powerful diseases causing quick death. Diseases which are caused by any one dosa are mild and easily curable, those caused by any two dosas are moderate and curable with difficulty, and those caused by all the three dosas together are severe and incurable.
अहितान्यपि चान्येषामभ्यासादुपशेरते । दोषाश्चैषां क्षयं यान्ति कर्मवातातपादिभिः । ७० ॥
In some persons even indulgence in unhealthy foods etc., do not cause increase of the dosas, because their body will have become accustomed to them by long use. The increase of dosas even if happens, will get decreased by the usual daily physical activities, breeze and sunlight. (70)
Notes:- Bad foods and things, even of poisonous nature though continued to be used for a long time do not produce any sudden increase of the dosas because the body will have become accustomed to them, and some kind of a conditioned equilibrium will have become established inside the body. Such persons will not suffer from diseases due to those accustomed things.
Janapadodhvamsa – epidemics
भिन्नाहारवयः सात्म्यप्रकृतीनां समं भवेत् । एको विकृतवाय्वादियुगपत्सेवनात् गदः ।।७१।।
वातादीनां तु विकृतिर्विकृताद्ग्रहचारतः । भौमान्तरिक्षदिव्येभ्य उत्पातेभ्यश्च जायते ॥ सम्भवः पुनरेतेषां कर्मणः सामुदायिकात् ॥७२॥
Persons whose food, age, habits and constitutions are all different, get affected by one and the same disease, which is caused by abnormalities of air etc. when they are exposed to it. Such abnormalities of air etc., are due to abnormal movement of planets, calamities which occur. naturally in the earth, atmosphere and sky. The cause for such natural abnormalities of air etc. is the (sinful) acts of the community (70-72)
Note: This verse explains the onset and affliction of epidemic diseases. When an epidemic disease breaks out in a region, it affects a large number of persons in the community are not similar in all respects. Such diseases are very powerful, their mode of spread very quick and their source common. Hence, their affliction to many, very quickly. Ancients had recognised that such epidemics are due to the use of contaminated air, water, land and season; which are common to all in a community. They attributed such contamination to superhuman forces (planets, comets, meteors, etc.) and natural calamities (earthquakes, typhoons, volcanoes, forest fires etc.,) which, are in turn due to Adharma (unrighteous acts) of the community as a whole.
दुष्टो वायुरभिष्यन्दी स्तिमितोऽत्युष्णशीतलः । कुण्डली भैरवरवः परुषोऽनार्त्तवो बली ||७३ ||
अन्योन्यव्याहतगतिः पांसुबाष्पविषान्वितः | रसवर्णादिविकृतमपक्रान्तविहङ्गमम् ॥७४॥
निन्दितप्रभवं तोयमुपक्षीणजलाशयम् । मक्षिकामूषिकाव्यालबहूत्पातप्रदूषितः देशोऽपथ्यानबहुलो नष्टधर्ममहौषधिः । ॥७५॥
कालश्च विपरीतोऽतिहीनलिङ्गो यथायथम् ॥ ७॥
The contaminated air causes watery discharge from the channels of the body, is stagnant, either very hot or very cold, forms circles ( whirls ) makes loud sounds, is dry, unusual to the season, in excess than usual, moves in different directions or in opposite directions, contains sand (dust) vapour ( smoke ) and poison.
Contaminated water will be abnormal in its taste, colour etc., is deserted by birds, comes out from bad places and dried out reservoirs.
Contaminated land is one having a lot of flies, rats, reptiles, and frequent natural calamities; full of unhealthy foods, is devoid of righteousness (people of right conduct) and potent herbs.
The vitiated season is that whose characteristics are either opposite, excessive or deficient (of the usual). (73-76)
एते दुष्परिहारत्वादहितायोत्तरोत्तरम् । येषामनियतं कर्म तस्मिन् काले सुदारुणे ॥७७।
The above are difficult to avoid, are powerfully bad in their succeding order and their effects also are unpredictable. (77)
कर्म पञ्चविधं तेषां योज्यं तद्वद्रसायनम् । शस्यते देहवृद्धिश्व भेषजैः पूर्वमुद्धृतैः ॥७८॥
Hence, during such grave periods, people should resort to panchakarma (purificatory treatments such as emesis, purgation, oil-enema, decoction enema and nasal medication) and also to Rasayana Chikitsa – rejuvenation therapy with medicines which increase the strength of the body described earlier. (78)
ब्रह्मचर्यं दया दानं सदाचाररतिः शमः । सद्धर्मः सत्कथा पूजा देवर्षीणां जितात्मनाम् ॥ ७९ ॥
देशानामविपन्नानां साधूनां च निषेवणम् । दैवव्यपाश्रयं चेष्टं कर्म जीवितरक्षणम् ॥८oll
Celibacy, forgiveness, charity, good (normal) conduct, self-control, acts of righteousness, reading of moral stories, worship of gods, sages and disciplined men; living in healthy places, in the company of good people, activities which are prescribed to obtain the grace of gods are all to be practised to protect one’s life (during such grave periods of community destruction). (79-80)
हेमन्तादिषु कुर्वीत स्वं स्वं चाकालिकेष्वपि । विधिं तच्छीलनं यस्माच्छीतादिद्वन्द्वकारितम् ॥८१ ॥
ऋतुचर्यादिशीतोष्णवृष्टिदोषप्रतिक्रिया । अत एव च चर्यायां हेमन्तशिशिरे समे ॥८२ ||
In the case of season having unusual features, such of the regimen prescribed for seasons commencing with Hemanta should be followed even though out of season. Otherwise, there is the risk of being affected by the features of both cold and heat. The regimen prescribed for seasons of cold, heat and rain is also to be similarly planned. So, in the matter of following of the regimen, both Hemanta and Sisira are the same (81-82)
Notes:- Meaning of the above verses can be made clearer as follows. Three kinds of climatic changes may take place unusually at certain periods. Viz., (a ) atiyoga – increase of the normal features than the usual (b) ayoga – decrease of the normal features than the usual and (c) mithyayoga – appearance of features not usual for that season (features of any other season showing up). All these three are abnormal.
Doubt naturally arises as to how the seasonal regimen has to be followed. Hence, it is clarified that in case of an increase of the usual features in the season, the regimen prescribed for that season itself should be followed more intensively,
in case of a decrease of the usual feature, it is enough to follow the same regimen mildly;
and in case of the appearance of unusual features, it is necessary to follow the regimen of the invading season. For example, if the features of sisira rtu appears in grisma rtu, the regimen should be that of sisira rtu though it is actually grisma.
Daiva – paurusa karma – actions of past and present lives
सर्वप्राणभृतां नित्यमायुर्युक्लिमपेक्षते । दैवे पुरुषकारे च स्थितं तस्य बलाबलम् ||83||
Life of all living beings always requires careful protection. Its strength and weakness depend upon the effect of actions of past lives and also of the present life. (83)
अन्यजन्मकृतं कर्म दैवं पौरुषमैहिकम् । विद्यात्ते कर्मणी त्रेधा श्रेष्ठमध्यावरत्वतः ॥८४॥
तयोरुदारयोर्युक्लिर्दीर्घस्य सुसुखस्य च । नियतस्यायुषो हेतुर्विपरीतस्य चापरा ॥८५||
Actions pertaining to the past lives are known as Daiva; whereas actions pertaining to the present life are known are Paurusa. These two are again of three kinds; the good, moderate and bad.
The good actions of both the past lives and present life together help the maintenance of very happy life to the stipulated full period, the bad actions of both, together, make for life of opposite nature (miserable and short), the moderate kind of action make for medium kind of life, a mixture of good and bad actions of both make for a mixed kind of life. (84-85)
Notes: One of the important doctrines of Hindu philosophy is the belief in past, present and future lives for every living being. The actions of every life are not going to end with that life alone. Good actions give good effects, bad ones produce bad effects and both mixed will give mixed effects. In the language of Indian philosophy, the (karma) actions of past life are known as Adrista (unseen) Daiva (providential, divine) Purakrta (done previously) and Prarabdha (obtained from the past). The effects of these past actions are known as Vasana (covering, adherents) as these adhere to the Atma (soul) and travel with him from the previous life to the next succeding life.
मध्या मध्यस्य मिश्रस्य सङ्कीर्णा श्रुणु चापरम् । दैवं पुरुषकारेण दुर्बलं ह्युपहन्यते ॥८६॥
तथा दैवेन बलिना पौरुषं कर्म दुर्बलम् । दृष्ट्वा यदेके मन्यन्ते नियतं मानमायुषः ॥ ८७
Actions of previous lives, if weak, will be overpowered by the actions of present life; similarly the actions of the present life, if weak, will be overpowered by those of the previous lives. Observing this, some people think that the (span of) life is predetermined. (86-87)
कर्म किञ्चित् क्वचित्काले विपाकनियतं महत् । किञ्चिच कालनियतं प्रत्ययैः प्रतिबोध्यते ॥८८ ॥
Some actions which are strong undergo Vipaka (ripening) without any fixed period of time, whereas some others (which are weak) require a certain determined period of time. (88)
Kala- Akalamrityu – timely and untimely death
एवं च द्विविधो मृत्युः कालाकालविभेदतः । उपदिष्टस्ततश्चैष हिताहितविधिक्रमः ॥८९||
Accordingly, even death is of two kinds – Kala (timely, mature, natural) and Akala (unnatural, premature). Hence, the good or bad for life are described here (in Ayurveda). (89)
Notes:- Indu, the commentator states that Akalamrtu or untimely death is due to actions which ripen without any fixed period of time and Kalamrityu – timely death – is due to actions which ripen after a certain determined period. It is only after ripening, the actions produce their effect. The time required for ripening is variable, certain things can be done during this period to alter the effects, though the effects cannot be fully removed. Certain good things are to be adopted and certain bad things discontinued; such good things are called as hita (suitable) and bad things as ahita (unsuitable) to life. Both are described in Ayurveda.
एकोत्तरं मृत्युशतं ब्रुवते वेदवादिनः । तत्रैकः कालसंयुक्तः शेषास्त्वागन्तवः स्मृताः ॥ ८॥
श्येनादिना च यागेन भ्रातृव्यस्य तथा च तैः । दीर्घश्रवससोमाद्यैर्विहितश्चात्मनो वधः ॥ ८॥
आयुष्कामस्य तत्प्राप्तिस्तथेष्टया मित्रविन्दया । सर्वस्मादेव चात्मानं गोपायेदीदृशी स्मृतिः ॥८॥
The followers of Vedas say, that “death is of one hundred and one kind; of them, one is the Kala (timely, natural) and the remaining hundred are Agantu (external, coming from outside, unnatural). They suggest Atmavadha (suicide) by the performance of Syena yaga (a kind of sacrifice), waging war against enemies and engaging in prolonged sacrifices like Soma yaga, etc.
Those desiring a long life may gain it by performing sacrifices such as Mitravinda. Life, is thus to be protected by such activities always. (90-92)
Notes:- In ancient times of India, persons who have become very old, used to invite death by the performance of certain sacrifices, engaging themselves in battles etc.,
some others tried to protect their life from untimely death by performing different kind of sacrifices etc.
तथा मरणमुद्दिष्टं सौगतानां चतुर्विधम् । विषमापरिहारेण जायते नियतायुषाम् ॥ 3 ॥
ध्रुवं रोगित्वमन्येषां मृत्युरेव त्वपर्वणि । अकाण्डे शस्त्रघाताद्यैः प्रत्यक्षो मृत्युरन्यथा ॥९४॥
उद्भ्रान्तचण्डमातङ्गतुरङ्गादिसमागमम् आरातिदुष्टवाय्वादिसाहसाहितभोजनम् वर्जयेदिति न ब्रूयुर्मुनयो दिव्यचक्षुषः ।
दैवव्यपाश्रयादींश्च रसायनविधींस्तथा ॥ ९६॥
न वा तेऽपि यथाकाममायुषः स्थितिमाप्नुयुः । अहिसिंहगजादिभ्यो विदुषां न भयं भवेत् ।। ९ ।।
मिथ्याप्राकारदुर्गाणि मिथ्यामारणरक्षणम् । आयुष्कामस्य मिथ्यैव परदारादिवर्जनम् ॥ ९८ ||
मन्त्रदेवतयाहूता नाचक्षीरन् महाहयः । विषसुप्तप्रबुद्धस्था भावाभावौ तदायुषः ॥ ९९ ॥
सन्यासरोहिणीकादिग्रस्तस्य सहसा भवेत् । उपेक्षया न मरणं जीवितं वा चिकित्सया ॥ ९॥
प्रत्यहं नृसहस्रस्य युद्वेऽन्योन्यमभिघ्नतः । साधुवृत्तस्य चातुल्या न भवेदायुषः स्थितिः ॥२१॥
नायुधैर्द्विषमिन्द्राद्या नौषधैरार्तमश्विनौ । उपक्रमेरन्न भवेदकालमरणं यदि ||२०|| ॥ १५॥
घटानामामपक्कानां पालनापरिपालनैः । चिराल्पकालवर्त्तित्वं चित्रस्थानां च दृश्यते || १० ||
इत्यत्यन्तप्रसिद्धेऽपि सिद्धे सर्वागमैरपि । दृष्टेऽप्यकालमरणे विचिकित्सेत्कथं बुधः ॥१०४॥
Saugatas (Buddhists ) assert that death is of four kinds. Indulgence in bad things which are to be avoided by those persons whose life span is pre-determined is certain to make them sick and in those whose life is not predetermined to cause untimely death. Another kind of untimely death is that caused by injury by weapons etc.
If there was no untimely death, the sages possessing divine insight, would not have advised avoiding combat with the untamed and violent elephants, horses and enemies; use of contaminated air etc., adventures and unhealthy foods; nor would have advised the adoption of activities to obtain the divine grace and use of rejuvenating medicines. Even they also did not get life as they desired (by following these activities); learned men would not have been afraid of snakes, lions or elephants; constructed strong forts and citadels, protection from acts of killing, avoidance of sex with wives of others and such other activities would all be useless; persons who have become dead by the poison of venomous snakes would not have been brought back to life by the gods invited through the charms. By postponing the treatment, persons suffering from diseases like sanyasa (coma) and Rohini (a fatal disease of the throat) would not die immediately, nor get back their life by immediate treatment. Thousands of people are seen dying every day in war fighting each other, and the life of even the Pius men is not different; if there was no untimely death gods like Indra would not use weapons (to kill demons), the Asvinis would not have used medicinal plants to cure the sick; baked and unbaked pots would remain long or perish either by not guarding them or by guarding them respectively (unbaked pot existing long by protecting it wihile a baked perishing by not caring for it); The long or short life of drawings and paintings is commonly seen. In spite of all these best examples, the teachings of all the scriptures, and also by actually seeing untimely death, why do scholars debate on it? (93-104)
गुणवद्भिषगादीनां सम्भवे सम्भवेत्तु यः । मृत्युं तं कालजं प्राहुरितरं तद्विपर्यये ॥१०५॥
The death that occurs to a patient even with the availability of good physician and others (medicines, nurses) is designated as Kala mrtyu – timely death) the other one is opposite of it (the Akala kind). (105)
यथा रथो वाह्यमानो न्यायेन क्रमशः क्षयम् । यायादात्मवतामायुस्तथान्येषां विपर्ययः ॥ १०६ ॥
शुचितैलदशो दीपः कीटवाताद्यपीडितः । दीप्तिमान् वर्त्तते सम्यक् यथैवास्नेहसङ्ख्यात् ॥ १०७॥
स एवातो यथा च स्याद्विपरीतो विपर्यये । हिताहितोपचारेण तथैव पुरुषो ध्रुवम् ॥ १०८ ॥
Just as a chariot used in a proper manner undergoes slow decay only after (expiry of) its expected life, so is the life of disciplined persons; whereas that of others will be opposite (meets with untimely death).
Just as a lamp provided with clean oil, and wick and not disturbed by insects and wind, continues to burn till the oil is used up fully, so also is the life. The opposite of these will cause the opposite kind of life (short life), similarly is the (effect of) indulgence in healthy and unhealthy things. (106-108)
Notes: Proper use of the chariot means looking after it carefully, by repairing the broken parts immediately, putting lubricating oil to the axles, running it on good and even roads, not loading heavily etc. By improper use the chariot becomes mutilated, breaks up into pieces and become unusable, far earlier to its expected period of life). Likewise the life of a person who maintains it propperly continues ot exist till the prescribed period whereas the life of that person who does not need to maintain it, becomes cut in the middle. The example of a lamp is also similar, it continues to burn till the presence of oil, wick and absence of disturbace by insects, etc., whereas it gets extinguished in the middle if the oil or wick is absent or if it disturbed by wind or insects. So also life continues to exist for the full period in the body of the person who protects it with healthy foods and from disturbing diseases while the life of the person who spoils it with unhealthy foods and frequent diseases, ends up in the middle itself.
Sarira palana – importance of protecting the body
सर्वमन्यत् परित्यज्य शरीरं पालयेदतः । तदभावे हि भावानां सर्वाभावः शरीरिणाम् ॥ १०९ ।।
नगरी नगरस्येव रथस्येव रथी यथा । स्वशरीरस्य मेधावी कृत्येष्ववहितो भवेत् ॥ ११० ॥
Leaving aside all other things, the body is to be protected carefully; for, in its absence, all other activities (of man) cease to exist. Just like the mayor of a city and the driver for a chariot (looking after the city and the chariot) so also an intelligent person for his own body, by attending to its work. (109-110)
Notes: Every effort should be made to maintain the body in good condition. Without the body, nothing can be accomplished in this world. So it is the duty of every person to protect it with healthy foods and activities and achieve the aims of life through it.
आहारकल्पनाहेतून् स्वभावादीन् विशेषतः । समीक्ष्य हितमश्नीयार्छेहो ह्याहारसम्भवः ॥१११ ॥
Persons should take healthy foods, especially considering the different methods of preparing them and the very nature of the food materials because the body is produced (maintained) by food. (111)
भीलज्जायत्रणालोभहर्षशोकवशं गतः ।
न जातु धारयेद्वेगांस्तद्धि सर्वापदास्पदम् ॥ ११२ ॥
Being under the influence of fear, shyness, restraint, greed, pleasure or grief, one should not suppress the urges ( of urine, faeces etc.) as that would lead to all kinds of dangers. (112)
हितमभ्यस्यतः पुंसो नाकाले कालदंष्ट्रया । सञ्जायते परामर्शो बलोत्साहेन्द्रियायुषाम् ।।११३ ॥
Those who cultivate the habit of taking good food will not become victims of the jaws of death prematurely and lose their strength, enthusiasm, sense perception and life itself. (113)
अहितान्यपि सन्त्यज्य दोषमप्याप्नुयायदि । तथाप्यानृण्यमायाति साधूनामात्मवानिति ॥११४॥
यच्च रोगसमुत्थानं न शक्यमिह केनचित् । परिवर्तुं न तत् प्राप्य शोचितव्यं मनीषिणा ॥११५॥
In case, a self-controlled person becomes a victim of disease even after avoiding all unhealthy things, a wise man should consider it as due to divine will (or actions of the past life). Having got such diseases learned men should not lament over it, as they are
हिताहारविहाराणां सदाचारनिषेविणाम् ।
लोकद्वयव्यपेक्षाणां जीवितं ह्यमृतायते ॥११६।।
The life of those who are habituated to healthy foods and activities, who maintain a disciplined behaviour throughout, who desire the benefits of both the two worlds (the present resent and the future) will certainly become nector-like (happy and immortal). (116)
गृध्रुर्ग्राम्यसुखे वश्यः क्लेशानां हतसत्पथः । मूढो जीवत्यनर्थाय दुर्गतिं प॑रिबृंहयन् ॥११७॥
A foolish man who is uncontented with sexual pleasures, increased in miseries, and staying away from the right path, leads a purposeless (useless) life and accumulates nothing but sin. (117)
विदुषान्तश्शरीरस्थन्नित्यं सन्निहितान्नरीन् ।
man who desires, to live long, should conquer the enemies who are residing inside the body and who are present nearby always, by avoiding all things which are to be avoided. (118)
जित्वा वर्ज्यानि वर्ज्यानि चिरं जीवितुमिच्छता ||११८
तदात्वे चानुबन्धे वा तस्मात् कर्माशुभोदयम् । स्मरन्नात्रेयवचैसो न धीमान् कर्तुमर्हति ॥ ११९।।
An intelligent person, remembering the teachings of Atreya, should not indulge in any activity which yields bad results either immediately or after some time. (119)
Thus ends the ninth chapter.