अथातो मात्राशितीयं नामाध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । इति हस्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥ १॥
We will now expound on the chapter called Matrasitiya (quantity of food to be consumed); thus said atreya and other great sages
Aharamatra – quantity of food
मात्राशी स्यात् । मात्रा पुनरग्निबलाहारद्रव्यापेक्षिणी |
कुक्षेरप्रतिपीडनमाहारेण हृदयस्यासं रोधः पार्श्वयोरविपाटनमनतिगौरवमुदरस्य प्रीणनमिन्द्रियाणां
क्षुत्पिपासोपरतिः स्थानासनश यनगमनोच्छ्वासप्रश्वासभाष्यसङ्कथासु सुखानुवृत्तिः सायं
प्रातश्च सुखेन परिणमनं बलवर्णोप चयकरत्वं चेति मात्राया लक्षणम् ||२||
Man should always eat a determined quantity of food. Such a quantity depends upon the digestive capacity and the nature of the food material.
An ideal quantity is that which does not cause any discomfort in the abdomen, obstruction in the region of the heart, stretching pain in the flanks, too much of heaviness of the abdomen; which gives satisfaction to the sense organs, quenches hunger and thirst, does not cause any difficulty for sitting, reclining, lying, walking, inspiration and expiration, speaking and reading; undergo easy digestion both in the evening and morning, provides strength, colour ( complexion) and stoutness to the body (2)
त्रिभागसौहित्यमर्द्धसौहित्यं वा गुरूणामुपदिश्यते । लघूनामपि नातिसौहित्यम् ।
अनिलानलगुणबहुलानिहि लघूनि तुल्यगुणत्वादग्निसन्धुक्षणान्यविधिना चाल्पदोषाणि ।
इतराणि तु पृथिवीसलिलगुणबहुलान्यसामान्याद्विपरीतान्यन्यत्र व्यायामाग्निबलात् ।
अमात्रा पुनरशनस्य हीनताऽऽधिक्यं च । तत्र हीनमात्रमशनं बलवर्णोपचयमनोबुद्धीन्द्रियोपघातकरं
विबन्धकृदवृष्यमनायुष्यमनौजस्यं सारविध्मापनमलक्ष्मीजननमशीतेश्च वातविकाराणामायतनम् ।
अतिमात्रं पुनः सर्वदोषप्रकोपणमाहुः ।
तेन हि प्रपीड्यमाना बातादयो युगपत्प्रकुपिताः कुक्ष्यैकदेशस्थास्तदेवापरिपक्कमाविश्य विष्टम्भयन्तोऽलसकमभिनिर्वर्तयन्ति ।
सहसा वाधरोत्तराभ्यां मार्गाभ्यां प्रच्यावयन्तो विषूचिकाम् ॥ ३॥
The quantity of foods which are guru (hard to digest) is either three fourth or half of one’s satisfaction, and for those which are laghu (easy to digest) it is that quantity which does not cause over satisfaction.
Easily digestible foods possess the properties of vayu and agni (mahabhuta) preponderantly, stimulate digestive activity because of identical properties and cause a mild increase of doshas, if at all, in other ways.
Others (foods which are not easily digestible) possess the properties of Prithvi and ap (mahabhuta) preponderantly, are generally opposite (of the digestive activity) unless helped by exercises and stimulants of digestion. (3)
Notes: All the substances in this world are composed of the panchamahabhutas only, so also the articles of food and even the human body. The nature and properties of substances are according to the preponderance of one or more of the mahabhutas in them. Tejas is the bhuta (element) responsible for heat and activities of heat, Food materials which possess this bhuta in (element) are responsible for heat and activities of heat. Food materials which possess this bhuta in greater proportion are easily digestible. inside the alimentary tract because it is Tejas itself that is present there which we call as Kosthagni (fire- like activity in the alimentary tract known also as digestive activity). Such foods undergo easy and quick digestion because of identical properties. The prthvi and ap bhutas possess properties opposite of tejas and food materials which possess these two bhutas preponderantly diminish the capacity of the Kostagni (digestive activity in the alimentary tract) and so do not undergo easy and quick digestion.
In this way food materials are of two kinds viz. Laghu- which are easily digestable and Guru- which are not easily digestable. Between them laghu foods do not cause much trouble to the body while guru foods cause many disturbances and diseases; occasional overeating of laghu foods may not cause trouble to the body but guru foods taken even slightly less than the usual quantity sometimes causes indigestion. So it is better to avoid taking guru foods in more quantities.
Variation in quantity of food means either less or more than the usual fixed quantity.
Hinamatra Ahara – inadequate quantity
The use of food which is less than the usual (determined, accustomed) quantity, causes diminition of strength, colour (and complexion), mental activity, intelligence and functions of the sense organs; produces constipation and loss of sexual vigour; does not help long life and good vigour; reduces the strength, creates inauspicious activities and becomes the cause for diseases of vata origin to manifest in the body. (3)
Atimatra Ahara – excess quantity
The use of food which is more than the usual quantity produces increase of all the doshas. Troubled by the food, vata and other two doshas undergo quick increase, spread to all the parts of the abdomen; the food without undergoing digestion stays for a long time inside the abdomen producing (the disease) Alasaka or gets eliminated out of the body quickly both in downward and upward directions producing (the disease) Visucika. (3)
Notes: The use of food either less or more in quantity may or may not produce the above mentioned symptoms and diseases on the same day but continued as a habit for some time will surely produce diseases. Eating excess quantity of food is more dangerous as it may produce the symptoms and diseases even on the same day.
अपि च । प्रयाति नोर्ध्वं नाधस्तादाहारो न च पच्यते । आमाशयेऽलसीभूतस्तेन सोडलसकः स्मृतः ॥४॥
Food neither moves upward nor downward, does not undergo digestion but stays leisurely inside the stomach-this disease is known as Alasaka.(4)
विविधैर्वेदनोद्भेदैर्वाय्वादिभृशकोपतः । सूचीभिरिव गात्राणि विध्यतीति विषूचिका ॥५॥
An increase of vata and other doshas taking place quickly gives rise to different kinds of discomforts especially pain as though being pricked by needles all over the body this disease is (known as ) Visucika. (5)
तत्र वातः शूलानाहाङ्गमर्दमुखशोषप्रलापकम्पमूर्च्छाभ्रमजृम्भोद्वेष्टनाक्षिप्रवेशशिरोहृदयातिरु क्सिराकुञ्चनस्तम्भनानि करोति ।
पित्तं पुनर्व्वरातिसारान्तर्दाहवैवर्ण्यतृष्णामदभ्रमप्रलयानि । श्लेष्मा तु छर्यरोचकप्रसेकाङ्गसादाविपाकशीतज्वरगात्रगौरवाणि ।
विशेषस्तु दुर्बलस्याल्पवहेर्बहु श्लेष्मणोवातमूत्रपुरीषवेगविधारिणोऽन्नपानमनिलप्रपीडितं श्लेष्मणाविबद्धमार्गमलसत्वादबहि
र्मुखीभवत् छर्द्यतीसारवर्ज्यानि यथोक्त्वानि शूलादीन्युपजनयत्यतिमात्राणि । सोऽलसः ।
अतिमात्रदुष्टास्तु दोषा: प्रदुष्टामवद्धमार्गास्तिर्यग्गच्छन्तः कदाचिदस्य शरीरं दण्डवत् स्तम्भयन्ति ततस्तमलसकमसाध्यं ब्रुवते ॥ ६॥
Vata (undergoing increase predominantly) produces pain and distention of the abdomen, bodyache, dryness of the mouth, delerium, tremors, fainting, giddiness, yawning, twisting pain, sunken eyes, severe pain in the head and heart, constriction of the veins and stiffness of the body parts;
Pitta (undergoing increase predominantly) produces fever, diarrhoea, burning sensation inside the body, discolouration, thirst, toxicity (excitement), giddiness and fainting ( loss of conciousness).
Kapha (undergoing increase predominantly) produces vomiting, loss of appetite, salivation, weakness of the body parts, indigestion, preceded by chills, ( rigors), and feeling of heaviness in the body.
Especially in those people who are debilitated, of poor digestive activity, who have a predominance of kapha in their body and who habitually suppress the urges of flatus, urine and faeces; the food and drinks being forced by vata but obstructed in their movement by Kapha are held up inside without moving out, and cause pain and other symptoms in greater degree but without vomiting and diarrhoea. This is Alasa.
The doshas undergoing great increase, becoming obstructed (in their normal channels) by Ama, begin to move sidewards in the abdomen (Chapter 11 channels), sometimes makes his body (of the patient of Alasaka) stiff like a wooden log. Such an Alasaka is said to be asadhya (incurable.)
Ama visa – undigested food; toxins of food
विरुद्धाध्यशनाजीर्णशीलिनः पुनरामदोषमामविषमामनन्ति । विषसदृशलिङ्गत्वात् ।
तत्परमसाध्यानाम् । आशुकारितया विरुद्धोपक्रमत्वाच्च ।
न च केवलं मात्रयैव कृत्स्रमाहारफलमवाप्तुं शक्यं स्वभावादीनां भिन्नफलत्वात् ॥ ७॥
Those persons who indulge in incompatible (unhealthy) foods and overeating will becomes victims of Amadosha; it is also known as Amavisa because it produces symptoms similar to those of poison. It is incurable because of its quickness of action and complicated treatment.
Foods will not give all their benefits only by their quantity; even their nature, etc., (admixture, processing) also bestow different benefits. (7)
Notes: The ingested food undergoes digestion inside the alimentary tract by the Kostagni (also called Jatharagni, Kayagni and and Pacaka pitta correspondeing to digestive activity brought about by different digestive juices such as gastric juice, bile, pancreatic juice, intestinal juice etc). If the Agni is normal, the food will be properly digested and the end product of digestion the essence of food- will be prepared well, fit to be assimilated by the tissues. If, on the other hand the Agni is weak (poor digestive activity) then the food will not be cooked properly and the final end product will be containing large amount of inadequately digested or undigested food particles. These are known as Ama (uncooked, unprocessed, raw). Production of Ama which started inside the alimentary tract gradually invades the doshas and through them spreads to the dhatus (tissues) and the malas (waste products) also. This condition gives rise to many diseases. This concept of Ama and its effects is one of the important doctrines of pathology in Ayurveda.
तथा हि । गुरुरूक्षशुष्कशीतद्विष्टविष्टम्भिविदाह्यशुचिविरुद्धात्यम्बुपानद्रवमकाले काले
वा कामक्रोधलोभेर्ष्याहीशोकोद्वेगभंयक्षुदुपतप्तेन वा यदनपानमुपयुज्यते तदप्याममेव प्रदूषयति ॥८॥
Likewise, foods which are hard to digest, dry, (moistless), cold, the disliked; those which cause constipation or burning sensation, which are dirty and incompatible; drinking of large amounts of water; foods which are mainly liquid, these taken at the improper or proper time; foods and drinks taken by a person who is afflicted with lust, anger, greed, jealousy, shyness, grief, emotions, fear and hunger, are also going to produce Ama in the body. (8)
Notes: The point to note here is the effect of various kinds of emotions on digestion. A calm and peaceful mind is very much essential for good digestion. Persons who are victims of such emotional upsets frequently get into different kinds of disorders of digestion sooner or later. Mere good and healthy food alone is not enough for proper digestion.
Ama chikitsa – treatment of Ama
तत्र साध्यमामं दुष्टमलसीभूतमुल्लिखेत् पाययित्वासलवणमुष्णं वारि । तथात्वच्छर्दयन्तमतिलीनदोषं कृष्णानागदन्तीकल्कयुक्तं पाययेत् ।
मदनफलकषायं वा पिप्पलीसिद्धार्थकल्कयुक्तम् । दन्तीमागधिकावचूर्णितं वा कोशातकीरसम् ।
अवस्थापेक्षी वा वमनकल्पोक्तानि तीक्ष्णवमनानि । ततः स्वेदवर्त्तिप्रणिधानाभ्यामुपाचरेत् ॥ ९॥
The Ama which is bad and stagnating inside and which can be treated easily should be brought out in the upward route (by emesis) making the person drink warm water mixed with salt. If the person does not vomit (with salt water) because of ama lurking deep, he should be administered a paste of krsna (pippali) and nagadanti or decoction of madanaphala mixed with the paste of pippali and siddhartaka or powder of danti and magadhika mixed with the juice of kosataki or any other powerful emetic recipe described in the chapter on vamanakalpa, depending on the condition. Later on, he should be treated with sudation therapy and rectal suppositories (9).
सद्यः सम्यग्विशुद्धस्य शाम्यन्ति तदुपद्रवाः । शूले निरन्नकोष्ठेऽद्भिः कोष्णाभिश्चूर्णिताः पिबेत् ॥
हिङ्गुप्रतिविषाव्योषसौवर्चलवचाऽभयाः । अथवा पिप्पलीमूलं त्रिवृतादारुसैन्धवम् ॥११॥
Soon after the purificatory therapy, its (of ama accumulation) complications also subside; If pain in the abdomen continues even when there is no food inside, warm water mixed with the powder of hingu, prativisa vyosa, sauvarcala salt, vaca and abhaya or a powder of pippalimula, trivrt,daru and saindhava salt or powder of sunthi, milky sap of snuhi, saindhava salt, pippali and marica or a powder of patha, amlavetasa, yavaksara, yavani and puskara mula should be given with warm water (10-12).
Dwiruttara Hingwadi Churna
शुण्ठी: सक्षीरलवणपिप्पलीमरिचानि च । पाठाम्लवेतसक्षारयवानीपौष्कराणि वा ॥ १२॥
द्विरुत्तरं हिङ्गवचाऽग्निकुष्ठ सुवर्चिकाक्षारबिडाजमोदम् । शूलोदरानाहविषूचिकार्शोहद्रोगगुल्मोर्ध्वसमीरणनम् ॥ १३॥
Powder prepared from hingu, vaca, agni, kusta suvarcika ksara, bida lavana and ajamoda each succeding one, in double the quantity to the preceding. This recipe cures pain and distention of the abdomen, visucika, haemorrhoids, heart disease, abdominal tumors and upward movement of vata (revese peristalsis, belching etc ) . ( 13 )
Notes : The proportion of drugs will be hingu- one part, vaca two parts, citraka four parts, kusta eight parts, sauvarecaksara- sixteen parts, bidalavana thirty two parts and ajamoda sixtyfour parts -all to be mixed nicely, powdered and taken with hot water.
मुस्ताजमोदपूतीकवचाशुण्ठ्यग्निधान्यकैः । सवालकशठीबिल्वैः क्वाथं तृट्च्छ्रलवान् पिबेत् ॥ १४॥
The person who is having thirst and pain in the abdomen can be given the decoction of musta, ajamoda, putika, vaca, sunthi, agni, dhanaka, valaka,sathi and bilva ( 14 )
रास्त्राकट्फलषड्ग्रन्थाबृहतीद्वयजोङ्गकैः । गुग्गुलवतिविषाकुष्ठपत्रव्याघ्रनखाम्बुदैः । कुर्याच्छुष्कैः समूत्रैर्वा लेपोद्वर्त्तनधूपनम् ।।१५।।
Rasna, katphala, sadgrantha (vaca), the two brihati, jongaka (aguru) guggulu, ativisa, kustha, patra, vyaghranakha and ambuda-powder of all these either dry or mixed with cow’s urine can be used as paste for application, massaging or fumigation of the abdomen. (15)
सरुक्चानद्धमुदरमम्लपिष्टैः प्रलेपयेत् । दारुहैमवतीकुष्ठशताह्वाहिङ्गुसैन्धवैः ॥१६॥
In case of pain and enlargement of the abdomen, a paste prepared with daru, haimavati (vaca), kustha, satahwa, hingu and saindhava macerated with any sour juice has to be applied over the abdomen. (16)
यवचूर्णश्च साक्षारतक्रः कोष्ठार्तिजित् परम् । योजयेतसैन्धवान्तैश्च वर्तिं विमूत्रसङ्ग्रहे ॥१७॥
नाम्यमानानि चाङ्गानि भृशं स्विन्नानि वेष्टयेत् ।
Takra (buttermilk) mixed with yavaksara is ideal to relieve pain of the abdomen.
In case of obstruction to faeces and urine a rectal wick (suppository) prepared with drugs ending with saindhava (emumerated in verse 16) can be introduced into the rectum.
The parts of the body which have contracted should be given good fomentation and kept wrapped. (17)
विषूच्यामतिवृद्धायां पायर्दाहः प्रशस्यते ॥१८॥
In case of advanced stage of Visucika, branding of the heel (of the patient with a hot iron rod) is of great benefit. (18)
सशुक्तसैन्धवैस्तैलं पक्कमभ्यञ्जने हितम् ॥ १९ ॥
An oil prepared with the two ksaras (sarjiksara and yavaksara) pinyaka (old oil cake of sesamum), kustha, aruskara, citraka, sukta (salted liquor) and saindhava is good for oil-bath (massage over the body and bathing in hot water) for the patient who has severe stiffness of the body, to be used after he had effective emetic and purgative therapies.(19)
सुच्छर्दितविरिक्तस्य गात्रायामेऽतिदारुणे | भल्लातकमधूच्छिष्टजीर्णपिण्याकनागरैः । घृततैलं पचेत्साम्लैस्तञ्च खल्लीनमुत्तमम् ॥ २०॥
Oil or ghee prepared with bhallataka, madhucchista (bees wax) old pinyaka (oil cake of sesamum) nagra along with sour substances is very good to relieve khalli (stiffness and contractures of the arms and legs). (20)
त्वक्पत्ररास्त्रागरुशिग्रुकुष्ठैरम्लप्रपिष्टैः सवचाशताहैः ।
उद्वर्त्तनं खल्लिविषूचिकाघ्नं तैलं विपकं च तदर्थकारि ॥ २१ ॥
Massaging the body with a paste prepared from twak, patra, rasna, agaru, sigru, kustha vaca satahva and any sour juice cures Khalli (stiffness and contractures of arms and legs) and Visucika. An oil prepared with the above drugs will also serve the same purpose. ( 21 )
तदहश्रोपवास्यैनं विरिक्तवदुपाचरेत् । सामन्येनेति सिद्धोक्ता विषूच्यलसकक्रिया ||२२||
After making the patient fast for one day he should be looked after in the same way as prescribed for a person who has undergone a purgative therapy.
The above are the general, effective methods of treatment for both Visucika and Alasa. (22)
आमदोषेषु त्वन्नकाले जीर्णाहारं दोषोपलिप्तामाशयं स्तिमितगुरुकोष्ठमनन्नाभिलाषिणमभिस
मीक्ष्यं पाययेद्दोषशेषपाचनार्थमौषधं वह्निसन्धुक्षणार्थं च । अजीर्णाहारं पुनर्न पाययेत् ।
यत आमदोषदुर्बलोह्याग्निर्युगपदामदोषमौषधमाहारजातं चाशक्तः पक्नुम् ।।२३।।
In those who have Amadosha, after the food gets digested, the amasaya (stomach) will be found coated inside with a layer of ama, causing loss of movement, heavyness of the abdomen and lack of desire for food. In such a condition, the patient is to be given medicines to digest the un digested pasty material and also to kindle the agni (digestive function). If the food has not been digested such medicines should not be given;
because the Agni (digestive activity) will have been weakened by both the amadosha and the food and it will not be able to digest the medicine. (23)
Notes: It is needless to say that digestion of food will be improper when once ama dosha gets formed inside. Some times the food undergoes digestion to some extent and some quantity moves forward to the intestines while more remains inside the stomach itself causing discomfort. At that stage digestive drugs are to be given.
अपि चैषा विभ्रमोऽतिबलत्वादुपरतानलबलमातुरं सहसैवातिपातयेत् ।
Further, the diseases caused by ama dosha being very powerful because of the weakness of the agni (digestive activity) they may kill the patient suddenly. (24)
आमदोषजानां पुनर्विकाराणामपतर्पणेनैवोपशमो भवति ॥२४॥
तत्तु त्रिविधम् लङ्घनं लङ्घनपाचनमवसेचनं च | तत्र लङ्घनमल्पदोषाणाम् ।
तेन ह्यनिलानलवृध्या वातातपपरीत इवाल्पः सलिलाशयोऽल्पदोषः प्रशोषमापद्यते ।
लङ्घनपाचनाभ्यां मध्यदोषे वातातपाभ्यां पांसुभस्मावकिरणैरिव चानतिमहान् सलिलाशयः ।
बहुदोषाणां पुनर्दोषावसेचनमेव कार्यम् । न ह्यस्राविते पल्वलोदकौघे शाल्यादिपुष्टिर्भवति ॥ २५ ॥
Again, the diseases caused by amadosha can be cured only by Apatarpana. It is of three kinds; Langhana, ( fasting), Langhana-pacana (fasting combined with digestive therapies) and Avasecana (forceble elimination or expulsion).
Langhana is indicated when the ama dosha is mild. It enhances the agni (digestive function) and vata which cause disappearance of little amount of amadosha, just as little amount of water in a tank disappears by the (action of ) wind and sun.
When the amadosha is profound only Avasecana (expelling it out by force) should be done; Just as the crops in a field do not grow well unless the excess water, and silt are drained out. (25)
तस्मात्सन्तर्पणनिमित्तानां च नान्तरेणापतर्पणमस्ति शान्तिः ।
अपतर्पणनिमत्तानां च नान्तरेण सन्तर्पणमिति । एवमन्येषामपि व्याधीनां यथास्वं निदानविपरीतमौषधमेवावचारयेत् ।
सति त्वनुबन्धेनिदानविपरीतमपास्य व्याधिविपरीतमेव तदर्थकारि वा ।
विमुक्तामदोषस्यपुनः परिपक्कामदोषशेषस्य दीप्ते चानावभ्यङ्गास्थापनानुवासनं विविधस्नेहपानं च युक्तया प्रयोज्यम् ।
प्रसमीक्ष्य दोषौषधादीनामवस्थान्तराणि । भवन्ति चात्र |॥ २६॥
For such of the diseases which are caused by Santarpana (excess food intake, over- nutrition) there is no treatment other than Apatarpana (fasting, intake of less food, undernutrition); for diseases caused by Apatarpana there is no treatment other than santarpana.
This (principle) is applicable to other diseases also; the treatment should be done by the use of drugs (or therapies) opposite of the causes of the disease. If there is combination (of doshas or diseases) then the treatment shall be the use of drugs (or therapies) opposite of the diseases, discarding the use of drugs (or therapies) opposite of the causes, or it may be the use of drugs (or therapies) which give the same effect (opposite effect though not actually opposite drugs).
Notes : Ordinarily the first principle of treatment of disease is the avoidance of the cause or use of drugs which possess qualities opposite to the cause. In some diseases which are caused by diverse kinds of causes or when more than one disease is present in the body, the treatment has to be the use of drugs or methods of treatment which are opposite of the disease proper. Some times it may even be the use of drugs or methods which are not actually opposite of the disease but still produce the opposite effect of curing the disease. (Tadarthakari chikitsa).
After the amadosha has been resolved but some residue of it still remaining and the person having good digestive capacity, he should be given oil massage and bath, decoction enema, oil enema and many kinds of drinking of fats, carefully considering the condition of the doshas, dhatus and other factors. (26)
Notes: Amadosha does not remain in the alimentary tract only but spreads even to the tissues all over the body. Oil massage and bath in hot water bring such amadosha from the tissues all over the body to the alimentary tract, and the two types of enemas will help in eliminating amadosha from the alimentary tract.
यः श्यावदन्तौष्ठनखोऽल्पसंज्ञः छर्यर्दितोऽन्तर्गतताम्रनेत्रः । क्षामस्वरः स्रस्तसमस्तसन्धिर्यायानरोऽसौ पुनरागमाय ॥२७॥
He (the patient of amadosha) whose teeth ( gums) lips and nails have become blue, who is slightly conscious (or even unconscious), troubled with vomiting, whose eyes are sunken and red, voice very feeble and all the joints loosened does not come back to life. (27)
व्योषं करञ्जस्य फलं हरिद्रे मूलं समावाप्य च मातुलुङ्गयाः ।
छायाविशुष्कागुलिकाः कृतास्ता हन्युर्विषूचीं नयनाञ्जनेन ॥२८॥
Vyosa (trikatu), the seeds of karanja, the two haridra and the root of matulunga are all made into a pill, dried in shade and preserved. Applying the paste of this pill into the eyes as an eye- salve cures Visucika. (28)
शिरीषनक्ताह्नफणिज्जबीजत्रायन्त्यपामार्गफलैश्च वर्त्तिः ।
बस्तस्य मूत्रेण विषूचिकाघ्नी प्रलेपधूपाञ्जननस्ययोगैः ॥२९॥
Sirisa, naktahva, seeds of phanijjaka, trayanti, fruits of apamarga are all rubbed nicely with goat’s urine and a wick prepared; used either as an external application, fumigation, eye-salve or nasal drops it cures visucika. (29)
Trividha Ajirna – three kinds of indigestion
अजीर्णं च कफादामं विष्टब्धमनिलाद्भवेत् । विधं पित्तकोपेन त्रिप्रकारमिति स्मृतम् ॥ ३० ॥
Ajirna (indigestion) is of three kinds viz Amajirna from the increase of kapha, Vistabdhajirna, from the increase of vata and Vidagdhajirna from the increase of pitta. (30)
तत्रामे गुरुतोत्क्लेदः शोफो गण्डाक्षिकूटयोः ।
उद्गारश्च यथाभुक्तमविद्र्धः प्रवर्त्तते ॥३१॥
In amajirna the symptoms are feeling of heaviness, nausea, swelling of the cheeks and the eyesockets and belching similar to those which come immediately after food, coming up without any sign of digestion. (31)
विष्टब्धे शूलमाध्मानं विविधा वातवेदनाः ।
मलवाताप्रवृत्तिश्च स्तम्भो मोहोऽङ्गपीडनम् ॥ ३२॥
In Vistabdhajirna, the symptoms are- pain and distention of the abdomen with accumulation of gas, the appearance of different symptoms of an increase of vata, non-elimination of faeces and flatus, stiffness, delusion and aches all over the body. (32)
विधे भ्रमतृणमूर्छाः पित्ताच्च विविधा रुजाः |
उद्गारश्च साधूमाम्लः स्वेदो दाहश्चजायते ॥३३॥
In Vidagdhajirna; giddiness, thirst, fainting different symptoms of increase of pitta, sour and warm belchings, sweating and feeling of burning sensation all over the body are the symptoms.(33).
लङ्घनं कार्यमामे तु विष्टव्ये स्वेदनं भृशम् । विदग्धे वमनं यद्वा यथावस्थं हितं भवेत् ॥ ३४॥
Amajirna is to be treated by langhana (fasting or light liquid food), Vistabdhajirna by profound sudation (methods to cause perspiration) and Vidagdhajirna by vamana (emesis) or by any other way which is appropriate to the existing condition. (34)
गरीयसो भवेल्लीनादामादेव विलम्बिका । कफवातानुविद्धामलिङ्गा तत्समसाधना ||३५||
Even Vilambika is due to accumulation of large amounts of amadosha in the alimentary tract. The symptoms and treatment of this disease is the same as of ama associated with kapha and vata.
रसशेषेऽन्नविद्वेषो हृदयाशुद्धिगौरवे । तत्राभुक्का दिवास्वप्यात् क्षुद्वानयाल्लघुप्रति ॥ ३६॥
In case of Rasasesajirna there will be aversion to food, impurity in the hrdaya, and feeling of heaviness of the body. The person who is having this condition should be asked to sleep during day without taking any food and later take light foods if he feels hungry. (36)
Notes: Rasasesajirna is the condition in which the end product of digestion has little amounts of ama (undigested or unprocessed materials) remaining in it. This being a very mild condition does not require any drug treatment. The symptom, “impurity in the hrdaya” is appearance of too many belchings of bad smell and taste.
यामैश्चतुर्भिर्द्वाभ्यां च भोज्यभैषज्ययोः समे । पाकोऽग्नौयुक्तयोर्द्राक्च तीक्ष्णे मन्दे पुनश्चिरात् ॥ ३७॥
A period of four yamas (twelve hours) and two yamas ( six hours) are required for the proper digestion of food and medicines respectively. It may be earlier than these periods if the Agni (digestive activity) is powerful and late if the agni is weak. ( 37 )
सभक्तमौषधं तस्मान्मन्दाग्नेरवचारयेत् । पूर्वाहे भोजनं सात्म्यं लघु दीपनबृंहणम् ॥३८॥
Hence, medicines are to be administered along with food itself to persons who have poor digestive ability, because the food taken in the morning is accustomed to, easily digestable, kindles digestion and nourishes the body. (38)
प्रातराशे त्वजीर्णेऽपि सायमाशो न दुष्यति । अजीर्णे सायमाशे तु प्रातराशो हि दुष्यति ॥ ३९॥
Even if the food taken in the forenoon is not digested well, taking food again in the night does not cause any harm, whereas if the food taken at night is not digested well, taking food the next morning will definitely cause harm. (39)
दिवा प्रबोध्यतेऽर्केण हृदयं पुण्डरीकवत् । तस्मिन्त्रिबुद्धे स्रोतांसि स्फुटत्वं यान्ति सर्वशः ||४०॥
व्यायामाच्च विचाराच्च विक्षिप्तत्वाञ्च चेतसः । न क्लेदमुपगच्छन्ति दिवा तेनास्य धातवः ४१॥
अक्लिन्नेष्वन्नमासिक्तमत्यन्तेन न दुष्यति । अविदग्धेष्विव पयस्स्वन्यत्संमिश्रितं पयः ||॥४२॥
During day, the heart will be open by the effect of sunlight just like the lotus flower opens at the sight of the sun; because of that all the channels of the body become clear and active. The dhatus (tissues) do not become laden with moisture during day-time because of exercise (physical activity) and mental activity being more. When the channels are not having excessive moisture, the food taken do not cause much harm. Just as the uncooked milk does not become spoiled by admixture of any other kind of milk.(40-42)
रात्रौ तु हृदये म्लाने संवृतेष्वयनेषु च । यान्ति कोष्ठे परिक्लेदं संवृते सर्वधातवः ||४३||
क्लिन्नेष्वन्यदपत्रेषु तेष्वासिक्तं प्रदुष्यति । विद्गधेषु पयस्स्वन्यत् पयस्तप्तेष्विवार्पितम् ।
नैशे तस्मादजीर्णेऽने नान्यद्भुञ्जीत भोजनम् ॥४४॥
At nights, the heart will be closed, all the channels also will have been closed, all the dhatus (tissues) will be having more moisture, which even comes to the alimentary tract. Thus getting too much of moisture it becomes full of other undigested materials also and causes harm, just as cooked milk gets spoiled when it is mixed with other milk. Hence, if the food taken in the night has not been digested well, the next meal should not partake again. (43-44)
Notes: In ancient times people firmly believed that heart is the seat of all activities of both the body and mind and that the function of the heart is very active during day and less during the night. Hence the description of its opening and closing to that of the lotus flower. The other changes taking place in the alimentary tract and the tissues are also different between day and night. There is much truth in these descriptions as seen in the light of the present-day knowledge also.
All the organs and tissues of the body will be more active during day than during night. During day man being physically active, all the moisture secreted by the tissues will be excreted out; whereas during night man being inactive and engaged in sleep for about ten or twelve hours, the excretory functions will also be withheld. So, much of the moisture secreted by the tissues accumulates within them. In this manner, almost all the functions of the body are more efficient during day than during night.
Jirnahara Laksana – symptoms of digestion
उद्गारशुद्धिरुत्साहो वेगोत्सर्गो यथोचितः ।
लघुता क्षुत्पिपासा च जीर्णाहारस्य लक्षणम् ॥ ४५ ॥
Pure belchings, (without any taste or smell), enthusiasm, elimination of wastes at the proper time, lightness of the body, appearance of hunger and thirst are the symptoms of good digestion of food. (45)
प्रायः प्रज्ञापराधेन रोगग्रामः प्रजायते । नृणामशनलुब्धानां विशेषेण विषूचिका ॥४६॥
Large number of diseases are generally due to wrong activity- (violation of dietic regimen), and especially so the visucika, in those who are greedy for food.(46)
दोषोपनद्धं यदि लीनमन्नं पित्तोल्वणस्यावृणुयान्न वह्निम् ।
जाये त दुष्टा तु ततो बुभुक्षा या मन्दबुद्धीन् विषवनिहन्ति ॥४७॥
In persons who have a predominance of pitta, the food staying inside the alimentary tract, though getting polluted by the increased doshas, still does not minimise the function of Agni (digestive activity). So, they develop a bad hunger which kills the unintelligent person, like poison. ( 47 )
इति एकादशोऽध्यायः । Thus ends the eleventh chapter.