Ashtanga sangraha sharira sthana chapter 6 – Siravibhaga-classification of veins; thus said Atreya and other great sages. (1)
अथातः सिराविभागमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥ १॥
Mula sirah – root veins
दश मूलसिरा हृदयप्रतिबद्धाः सर्वाङ्गप्रत्यङ्गेष्वोजो नयन्ति । तत्प्रतिबद्धा हि शरीर चेष्टाः । तास्तु द्व्यङ्गुलमङ्गुलमर्धाङ्गुलं यवं यवार्धं च गत्वा द्रुमपत्रसेवनीप्रतानवद्भिद्यमानाः सप्तशतानि भवन्ति ॥२॥
Ten mulasira (root veins) which are connected to the heart, transport ojas (essence of dhatus) to all the major and minor parts of the body. All the activities of the body are dependent on them. They, dividing themselves to the size of two angula, one angula, half angula, yava (barley) half yava and so on, just like the ribs and veins of a leaf, become seven hundred. (2)
तासां चतुःशती शाखासु । तत्र षोडशाव्यधनीयाः षट्त्रिंशं शतमन्तराधौ तत्र द्वात्रिंशत् । चतुष्षष्ट्यधिंकं शतमूर्ध्वम् तत्रापि पञ्चाशत् ॥३॥
Out of them, four hundred are in the extremities, of which sixteen are not to be cut;
one hundred and thirty-six are in the trunk, of which thirty-two are not to be cut;
one hundred and sixtyfour are at the top (head), of which fifty ( are not to be cut). (3)
तासामेकैकस्मिन् सक्थि शतम् । तत्र न विध्येज्जालन्धराम् । तिस्त्रश्चाभ्यन्तरगताः ॥४॥
They are one hundred in each leg; among them, that which is in Jalandhara is not to be cut; so also the three inside. (4)
Notes: Siravyadha or cutting a vein/venesection to let out blood is a kind of treatment; some veins should not be cut for the fear of heavy bleeding and other complications. Jalandhara is the name of a marma (vitalspot). Further verses also contain names of many such marmas.
द्वात्रिंशच्छ्रोण्या गुदमेद्राश्रयाः । तासां द्वे द्वे वक्षणयोः कटीक़तरुणयोश्चेत्यष्टौ शस्त्रतो रक्षेत् । षोडश पार्श्वयोः तयोरूर्ध्वगामेकैकां पार्श्वसन्धिसंज्ञाम् । चतुर्विंशतिः पृष्ठे । तासां पृष्ठवंशमुभयतो द्वे द्वे ऊर्ध्वगामिन्यौ ताश्चतस्त्रः । चतुर्विंशतिरुदरे । तासां मेट्र्स्योपरि रोमराजीमुभयतो द्वे द्वे ता अपि चतस्त्रः । चत्वारिंशद्वक्षसि । तासां द्वे हृदये द्वे द्वे च स्तनमूलस्तनरोहितेषु । एकैकापस्तम्भापालापेष्विति । ताश्चतुर्दश ॥ ५ ॥
They are thirtytwo in the pelvis located in the anus and penis; of them, two in each groin and two in each katika taruna totalling eight should be protected from sharp instruments; sixteen are in the flanks, of them, one on each side moving upwards known as parsvasandhi (are not to be cut). In the back, they are twentyfour, of them two on each side of the vertebral column moving upwards, totalling four ( are not to be cut). In the abdomen they are twentyfour, of them two on each side of the penis, bordering the line of hairs – thus four ( are not to be cut). Forty are in the chest, of them two in the heart and two each in stanamula and stana rohita ( are not to be cut), likewise, one each at apasthambha and apalapa, thus they are fourteen. (5)
Notes : ‘Four’ in the neck refers to four marmas (vital spots) viz, the two nila and two manya; eight.eight’ refers also to the eight marmas (vital spots) known as matrakas.
चतुर्विंशतिर्ग्रवायाम्। तासां चतस्त्रोऽष्टौ च मर्मसंज्ञाः । द्वे कृकाटिकयोर्द्वे विधुरयोरिति षोडश शस्त्रेण न स्पृशेत् । हन्वोः षोडश तासां सन्धिसम्बन्धिन्यौ द्वे । षोडश जिह्वायाम् । तासामधो द्वे रसवेदिन्यौ द्वे वाक्प्रवर्तिन्यौ ताश्चतस्त्रः । चतुर्विंशतिर्नासायाम् । तासां द्वे गन्धवेदिन्यौ तासामेव च तालुन्येकामिति तिस्रः । षट्पञ्चाशन्नेत्रयोः । तयोरुन्मेषनिमेषक्रिये द्वे द्वे । द्वे चापाङ्गयोरिति षट् । नासानेत्रगतास्तु ललाटे षष्टिः । तासां केशान्तानुगताश्चतस्त्रो द्वे चावर्तयोरेका च स्थपन्यामिति सप्त । कर्णयोः षोडश । तासां शब्दवाहिन्यौ द्वे । त एव च शङ्खयोस्तासां शङ्खसन्धिगते द्वे । द्वादश मूर्धनि । तासामुत्क्षेपयोर्द्वे सीमन्तेष्वेकै – कामेकामधिपतावित्यष्टौ शस्त्रेण परिहरेत् । तथा क्षुद्रिकाः कुटिलाः सङ्कीर्णा ग्रथिताः सन्धिषु चाशस्त्रकृत्याः ॥६॥
In the neck, they are twentyfour; of them, four and eight are known as marmas (vital spots), two in the krkatika and two in vidhura. Thus totally sixteen should not be touched with sharp instruments.
Sixteen are in the lowerjaw, of them, the two which bind the joints (should not be cut). Sixteen are in the tongue, among the two which are below and which indicate the tastes and two which initiate speech, thus four ( are not to be cut).
In the nose they are twentyfour, of them two which help in knowing the smell and one in the palate, thus three ( are not to be cut). In the eyes they are fiftysix, of them two each, which help in opening and closing of the eyelids respectively, and two in the outer angle of the eye, totally six, (are not to be cut). Those present in the nose and the portion of the forehead near the nose are sixty, of them, four which are at the border of the hair, two in the two avartaka and one in the sthapani-totally seven (are not be cut).
In the ears there are sixteen, two which help carry the sound (are not to be cut). In the sankhas (temples) also the same number ( sixteen), of them two at the sankha sandhi ( are not to be cut). In the head they are twelve, out of them two in the two utksepa, one at the simanta (which are five) and one in the adhipati thus eight in total, should be spared from sharp instruments. So also those (veins) which are very small, curved, concealed (by other structures) knotty and those situated in the joints ( are not to be cut). ( 6 )
तासां यथास्वं तुर्यांशविभागेन पञ्चसप्तत्यधिकं शतमनिलरक्तं वहति ।
एष विभाग: पित्तश्लेष्मशुद्धरक्तेष्वपि स्थिता ह्येवं देहमनुगृह्णन्ति दोषाः । व्यत्ययेन च पीडयन्ति ॥७॥
Out of their total (of seven hundred), a quarter of it, that is one hundred and seventyfive – transport rakta (blood) associated with anila (vata), such a division also applies to rakta associated with pitta and slesma (kapha) and also suddharakta (unassociated with the doshas); in this manner the doshas support ( sustain, maintain in healthy state) the body, and cause troubles to it when abnormal. (7)
तत्र श्यावारुणाः प्रस्पन्दिन्यः सूक्ष्माः क्षणपूर्णरिक्ता वातरक्तं वहन्ति । नीलपीतासिताः स्पर्शोष्णाः क्षिप्रस्त्राविण्यः पित्तरक्तम् । गौर्यः स्निग्धाः स्थिराः शीताः कण्डूमत्यः कफरक्तम् । लक्षणसङ्करे संसर्गसन्निपातरक्तम् । समा गूढाः स्निग्धा रोहिण्यः शुद्धरक्तमिति ॥८॥
Those which are bluish-red in colour, pulsate (throb), small in size, get full and empty (alternately ) every minute, carry vata-rakta (blood associated with vata); those which are blue, yellow or black, warm to touch and which bleed quickly carry rakta (blood) associated with pitta; those which are white, smooth, hard, cold to touch and cause itching (scratching sensation) carry kapha rakta (blood associated with kapha) mixture of these features indicate carries of rakta associated with two or three doshas; those which are even ( straight, regular), deep seated, smooth and mild red in colour, carry suddharakta (pure blood not associated with doshas). (8)
Muladhamani – root arteries
धमन्यस्तु चतुर्विंशतिः । ताभिः कायोऽयमाराम इव जलहारिणीभिः केदार इव कुल्याभिरुपस्निह्यति । ताभिश्च नाभिश्चक्रनाभिरारकैरिवावृता । तस्या नाभ्यां विशेषेण प्राणा व्यवस्थिताः । यतश्च सान्तरग्न्यधिष्ठानम् ॥९॥
Dhamani are twentyfour; by them the entire body gets supplied with nourishment similar to a vast plot of land by canals carrying water; from them (dhamanis) the nabhi (umbilicus ) is surrounded just as an axle hole is surrounded by the spokes (of a wheel); at that umbilicus (centre) life is designed to dwell; hence it is seat of internal fire. (9)
तासां खलु धमनीनां दशोर्ध्वं प्रसृता दशाधश्चतस्त्रस्तिर्यक् । ततस्ताभिर्यथास्वमङ्गावयवा धार्यन्ते आप्याय्यन्ते च ॥१०॥
Out of them – ten spread upwards, ten downwards and four sidewards, thus all the major and minor parts of those regions are supported and nourished by them. (10)
तासामूर्ध्वगा हृदयमभिप्रपन्नाः प्रत्येकं त्रिधा जायन्ते । ततस्त्रिंशतो मध्ये द्वे द्वे वातपित्तकफरक्तरसान् वहतः । अष्टाभि: शब्दरूपरसगन्धा गृह्यन्ते । द्वाभ्यां द्वाभ्यां भाषते घोषं करोति स्वपिति प्रतिबुध्यते च । द्वे चाश्रु वहतः । द्वे च स्तनाश्रिते नार्याः स्तन्यं नरस्य शुक्रम् ॥११॥
Each one of those spreading upwards, after reaching the heart, divides into three (branches); out of this thirty, two each carry vata, pitta, kapha, rakta and rasa; from eight of them, sound, sight, taste and smell will be understood, speaking, shouting, sleeping and awakening are done by two each, two bring out the tears, two located in the breasts carry the (production and elimination of) breast-milk in women and semen in men. (11)
अधोगमाः पक्वाशयस्था एवं त्रिधा जायन्ते । तत्र दशाद्याः पूर्ववत् । द्वे वहतोऽन्नं मात्रायेण । द्वे तोयम् । द्वे मूत्रम् । द्वे शुक्रं वहतो द्वे च मुञ्चतः । ते एव नारीणामार्तवम् । द्वे वर्चोनिरसिन्यौ स्थूलान्त्रप्रतिबद्धे । एवं द्वादश । शेषास्त्वष्टौ धमन्यस्तिरश्चीनाः स्वेदमभितर्पयन्ति ॥ १२ ॥ तिर्यग्गामिन्यश्चतस्त्रो भिद्यमानाः सुबहुधा भवन्तीत्युक्तं प्राक् ॥१३॥
Each one of those spreading downwards, on reaching the pakvasaya (colon), divides into three (branches); of these, the first ten acts as described earlier, (two each carry vata, pitta, kapha, rakta and rasa) two carry the food which is in its usual quantity, two carry water, two the urine, two carry the semen and two eliminate it (out); the same way in women they carry the artava (menstrual fluid) and eliminate it; two located in the large intestine eliminate the faeces, thus these are twelve; the remaining eight dhamanis spreading side wards eliminate sweat. (12)
It has already been said that the four dhamanis spreading sidewards dividing themselves become innumerable. (13)
Notes: Opinions differ regarding the identification of dhamanis, some equate it to nerves while others to arteries, considering their number, and function. Majority of scholars equate it to arteries accepting the definition that dhamanis are so called because they throb (pulsate).
Sthulasrotas/bahyasrotas big/external openings/orifices
स्त्रोतांसि पुंसां नव । कर्णौ नेत्रे नासापुटौ मुखं पायुर्मूत्रपथोऽन्यानि च त्रीणि स्त्रीणां स्तनौ रक्तपथश्च । तथापराण्यन्तस्त्रोतांसि जीवितायतनानि त्रयोदश प्राणोदकान्नधातुमलानामयनानि ॥१४॥
Srotas ( channels, orifices) are nine in men, viz, two each of the ears, eyes, and nostrils, one each of the mouth, anus and urethra;
Three more in women-two of the breasts and one of the (menstrual) blood.
Suksmalabhyantara srotas subtle, internal openings/orifices – Further the other internal srotas which are the seats of life are thirteen and are the channels of prana, udaka (water) and anna (food), the dhatus (seven tissues) and malas (three important/waste products). (14)
तत्र प्राणवाहिनां हृदयं मूलं महास्त्रोतश्च । तानि धातुक्षयरौक्ष्यपिपासाक्षुद्व्यायामवेगधारणादिभिर्दुष्यन्ति । ततोऽतिसृष्टं प्रतिबद्धमल्पाल्पमभीक्ष्णं वा सशब्दशूलमुच्छ्वसनम् । तत्र श्वासवत् साधनम् ॥१५॥
The mula (root, chief seat, organs) of Pranavahi srotas are the hridaya (heart) and the mahasrotas (alimentary car al),
They undergo abnormalities due to loss or depletion of tissues, use of dry things (food and drinks) thirst, hunger, exercise, suppression of the urges and such other causes; abnormal symptoms are-respiration becoming excessive, obstructed, very little (shallow) and continuous; expiration associated with sound and pain; their management is similar to that of svasa roga (dyspnoea). (15)
उदकवाहिनां तालु मूलं क्लोम च । तान्यामभयातिपानोष्ण शुष्कान्नकषायतृनिग्रहादिभिर्दुष्यन्ति । ततोऽतितृष्णा मुखशोषः कर्णक्ष्वेडनं तमोदर्शनं च । तत्र तृष्णोक्तमौषधम् ॥१६॥
The mula (chief, seat, organs) of Udakavahi srotas, are : the palate and kloma, they become abnormal due to ama (uncooked or undigested foods) fear, excess of alcoholic drinks, hot and dry foods, astringent foods, suppression of thirst and other urges; from these abnormalities arise, viz. excessive thirst, dryness of the mouth, ringing in the ears and feeling of darkness before the eyes, (unconsciousness); treatment for such condition is as described for the disease trishna ( thirst) . ( 16 )
अन्नवाहिनामामाशयो मूलं वामपर्श्वं च । तेषा दुष्टौ सर्वं मात्राशितीयोक्तमवगच्छेत् ॥१७॥
The mula of Annavahi srotas are amasaya (stomach) and vamaparsva (oesaphagus); in case of their abnormalities measures described in matrasitiya (chapter 1 1 of sutrasthana) should be adopted. (17)
रसवाहिनां हृदयं मूलं दश धमन्यश्च । रक्तवाहिनां यकृत् प्लीहा च । मांसवाहिनां स्नावानि त्वक् च । मेदोवाहिनां वृक्कौ मांसं च । अस्थिवाहिनां जघनं मेदश्च । मज्जवाहिनां पर्वाण्यस्थीनि च । शुक्रवाहिनां स्तनौ मुष्कौ मज्जा च । मूत्रवाहिनां बस्तिर्वक्षणौ च । शकृद्वाहिनां पक्काशयः स्थूलान्त्रं च । स्वेदवाहिनां मेदो रोमकूपाश्च । तेषां दूषणं विविधमहिताहारविहारमुपद्रवान् पृथक् पृथक् साधनं दोषादिविज्ञानीयाद्यथास्वं वृद्धिक्षयलक्षणेन लक्षयेत् ॥१८॥
The mula of Rasavahi srotas are the hridaya (heart) and the ten mula dhamani, (big arteries); those of Raktavahi are the yakurt (liver) and pliha (spleen); those of Mamsavahi are the snayu (tendons and nerves) and the tvak (skin); those of the Medovahi are the vrukka (kidneys) and mamsa (muscles); those of the Asthivahi are the jaghana (pelvis) and meda (adipose tissue); those of the Majjavahi srotas are the parvani (joints) and asthi (bones); those of the Sukravahi srotas are the stanau (breasts), muskau ( scrotum, testes) and majja (bone marrow); those of Mutravahi are the basti (urinary bladder) and vanksanau (groins); those of Sakritvahi (purisavahi) are the pakvasaya (colon) and sthulantra (large intestine); those of Svedavahi are medas (fat tissue) and lomakupa (hair follicles).
The different kinds of unhealthy foods and activities which bring about abnormalities in these srotas along with the diseases produced and the management of each of them, has to be understood by the symptoms of the increase or decrease (of the dhatus, malas etc) as described in the Doshadivijnaniya (chapter 19 of sutrasthana). (18)
व्यधेतुस्रोतसां भ्रममोहकम्पप्रलापाध्मानशूलारुचितृछर्दिज्वरातिरुधिरस्त्रुतिमूत्रपुरीषरोधा मरणं च । तस्मात्स्त्रोतोविद्धं प्रत्याख्यायोपाचरेत् । उद्धृतशल्यं च सद्योव्रणविधानेन ॥१९॥
If the srotas are injured, there will be giddiness, delusion, tremors, delerium, flatulence, abdominal pain, loss of taste or of appetite, thirst, vomiting, fever, severe bleeding, suppression of urine and faeces and death. So injury to the srotas should be treated after intimating its incurability (to the patient or his relatives); if a foreign body is lodged inside them it should be removed first and then treatment as prescribed for fresh wound started. (19)
तत्र स्रोतसामेव विशेषा: सिराधमन्यः । अन्ये त्वन्यत्वमिच्छन्ति सिराधमनीस्रोतसाम् । केवलं परस्परसन्निकर्षात् सदृशकर्मत्वात् सौक्ष्म्याच्च विभक्तकर्मणामप्यविभाग इव लक्ष्यते ॥२०॥
The siras ( veins) and dhamanis (arteries) are the modifications of srotas only. Some others opine that siras, dhamanis and srotas are different and state, that in view of their close proximity, identical function, and minuteness, they are considered as not different from one another, even though they are different. ( 20 )
अपरे पुनराहुः। स्त्रोतांसि सिराधमन्यो रसवाहिन्यो नाड्यः पन्थानोऽयनानिमार्गाः शरीरच्छिद्राणि संवृतासंवृतानि स्थानान्याशयाः क्षया निकेताश्चेति शरीरे धात्ववकाशानां लक्ष्यालक्ष्याणां नामानीति ॥ २१ ॥
Yet, other say, that srotas, sira, dhamani, rasavahini, nadi, panthana, ayana, marga, shariracchidra (orifices) which are covered and not covered, hollow organs, seats, dwelling places (seats) of other substances are all the names of empty spaces, perceptable and imperceptable, present inside the dhatus (tissues) of the body. (21)
ते चावकाशाः प्रकुपिताः स्थानस्थान्मार्गस्थांश्च धातून् प्रकोपयन्ति । तेऽपि कुपितास्तानि स्त्रोतांसि । स्त्रोतांसि च स्त्रोतांसि । धातवश्च धातून् । तेषां सर्वेषामेव दूषयितारो दुष्टा दोषाः । ते च प्रायशो दुष्यन्त्यग्निदोषात् । तस्मात्तन्निमित्तान्यायुरारोग्यबलोपचयवर्णौजांसि। तत्प्रतिबद्धान्येव च रञ्जकादीनि भूताग्नयो धात्वग्नयश्च । तथान्नमपि तेनैव पक्कममृततां यात्यपक्कं च विषताम् ॥ २२ ॥
These empty spaces becoming abnormal, bring about abnormality in the dhatus which are in their normalcy, or in their pathways, which in turn (brings about abnormality of) in the srotas; srotas vitiate other srotas, dhatus vitiate other dhatus, that which brings about abnormalities in all these is actually the doshas which have become abnormal; they (doshas) usually become abnormal by the abnormalities of agni (fire-like activity) hence, the lifespan, health, strength, nourishment, colour ( and complexion) and ojas (valour) all are dependent on it (agni); so also dependent on it are the ranjaka and other agni’s (pittas), the bhutagni’s and dhatvagni’s as well; likewise even the food if well cooked by it (agni) becomes nector-like and ill-cooked becomes poison-like. (22)
Kosthagni – digestive fire
तत्र पित्तविशेषः पाचकसंज्ञोऽग्निरिति प्रागभिहितः । अन्ये पुनराचक्षते दोषधातुमलसन्निपातजनितोऽन्तरूष्मा यथानिर्दिष्टाधिष्ठानकर्मानिरिति ॥२३॥
It has been said earlier, that the pitta known as pachaka is called as agni; others say that the heat produced inside the body by the combination of the doshas, dhatus and malas, functioning together present in the place and attending to function as indicated earlier is the agni. (23)
Ahara paka – digestion of food
स खलु विधिवदभ्यवहृतमन्नजातं प्राणेन वायुना कोष्ठमाकृष्टं द्रवैर्विभिन्नसङ्घातं स्नेहेन मृदूकृतमभिसन्धुक्षितः समानेनामाशयस्थं स्थालीस्थमिवाम्बुतण्डुलमग्निरन्तरग्निः पचति ॥२४॥
The food, ingested in the proper way (in accordance with the regimen of taking food) is pulled into the kostha ( alimentary tract) by prana vayu (first division of vata); bigger particles are split up into smaller ones by the fluids, made soft by their unctiousness (moistness), then cooked (digested) by the antaragni (internal fire) activated by samana (vata) inside the amasaya (stomach) just as rice and water kept in a pot is cooked by the fire. (24)
तत्तु सर्वरसमपि पच्यमानमादौ मधुरीभूतं कफं फेनीभूतमुदीरयति । ततो विदग्धमम्लीभूतमामाशयात् च्यवमानमच्छं पित्तम् । प्राप्य च पक्वाशयं कटुकीभूतमनिलम् ॥ २५ ॥
The food though possessing ( substances) of all the tastes, while being cooked, (digested) is first made madhura (sweet ) in taste and this causes the increase of kapha which is forthy in nature; next undergoing vidagdha (further cooking) it becomes amla (sour), gets expelled out of the amasaya (stomach) and causes increase of achcha pitta (clear or pure pitta); then coming into the pakvasaya (large intestines) it becomes katu (pungent) and causes increase of anila (vata). (25)
Notes: The food that man eats consists of substances possessing six tastes – salt, sour, pungent, bitter and astringent. When such a food reaches the stomach, the process of digestion commences; the first phase is dominated by production of kapha (kledaka) in large quantities as a result of which, the entire mass of food is made sweet; the second phase is dominated by production of pitta (pachaka) in large quantities resulting in the entire mass of food becoming sour; the third phase is dominatd by production of vata in large quantities resulting in food becoming pungent – these three changes in taste is known as Avastha paka and is brought about by kosthagni (digestive activity brought about by the juices secreted by the stomach, pancreas, liver and the two intestines).
ततश्चैवं विक्लिन्न आहारे पञ्च पञ्चात्मका महाभूताग्नयो वायुना व्यस्तान् यथास्वं पञ्चैव भूतगुणानाहारस्थान् पचन्ति । ते पक्काः पुनर्यथास्वमेव देहाश्रितांश्च स्वविकारभूतान् भूतगुणानाप्याययन्ति ॥ २६ ॥
Afterwards, when the food becomes fully moistened, the five kinds of mahabhutagnis, bring about cooking (digestion) of their corresponding substances, helped by vayu (vata); qualities of substances thus undergoing cooking (digestion) will nourish the identical qualities of substances present in the body. (26)
Notes: After Avastha paka is completed, the five bhutagnis (parthi vagni, apyagni, tejogni, vayavyagni and nabhasagni) which are also present in the gastro-intestinal tract, act upon the materials of identical nature and bring about their transformation; parthivagni acts upon the materials of parthiva qualities only and not on others; similar is the pattern with other bhutagnis. By this transformation, materials of different nature are made suitable to the human body (organism specific). Materials now having properties similar to those of the tissues of the body, nourish the tissues of identical nature-materials of parthiva qualities will nourish the dhatus (tissues) of parthiva nature only such as asthi (bone) etc; materials of apya qualities nourish tissues of apya nature only such as rasa (plasma), and so on the others also. This paka (transformation) brought about by bhutagnis is known as Nistha paka (terminal, conclusive, decisive transformation).
एवं चपक्कादाहाराद्विविधौषधगर्भादिव स्नेहादच्छ: सारभूतो रसाख्यः किट्टाख्यश्चमलोऽभिनिर्वर्तते । ताभ्यां च सारमलाभ्यां तदात्मकानामेव शरीरगुणानां धात्वाख्यानां यथास्वं स्रोतांसि पारम्पर्येणाविच्छिन्नसन्तानमापूर्यन्ते । स्त्रोतोभ्यश्च यथाविभागं यथायथमेव धातवः पुष्यन्ति । उत्तरोत्तरानुप्रवेशेऽपि च पूर्वेषां स्त्रोतसां यथाकालं सम्यगाहारोपयोगेन परिणामवताप्याय्यमानानां नापचयो भवति । ततश्च धात्वाख्याः प्रसादमलाः स्वं स्वमेव मानमनुवर्तन्ते । यथावयश्शरीरम् ॥२७॥
Just as a clear fluid (juice/essence) and a residue (waste product) are produced from different kinds of plants, so also from the cooked (digested) food two substances are produced viz, the sara (essence) known as rasa and the wastes known as kitta (mala); by these sara (essence) and mala (waste), identical qualities of the body, known as dhatus, are nourished through their own srotas (channels), one after the other and in uninterrupted manner. The srotas and the dhatus get their nourishment in their own specific order. Though these are interrelated, the previous with its next succeeding, the previous one does not undergo decrease or deficiency when the succeeding one gets its nourishment, because they get their replenshment by food being consumed from time to time. Hence the dhatus (tissues) and malas (wastes) retain their quantity normally in respect of age and physique. (27)
तत्राहाररसो व्यानविक्षिप्तो यथास्वं सप्तसु धात्वग्निषु क्रमात् पच्यमानः स्वात्मभावप्रच्युतिसमनन्तरमेव प्राप्तरक्तादिधातुसंज्ञकः कालवदस्खलितबलप्रमाणो देहमूर्जयित्वा धातून् धातुमलांश्च पुष्णाति ॥ २८॥
The essence of food transported by vyana (division of vata) (through the srotas to the seven dhatus) undergoes further cooking (transformation) by the seven dhatvagnis (fire-like activity in the tissues), in proper order, casts off its previous qualities and assumes new ones, identical with themselves; both (these activities) taking place simultaneously, and becomes known as dhatus such as rakta and others, maintaining an uninturrupted strength and quantity, like kala (time). This (rasa) supports/sustains, the body and nourishes the dhatus (tissues) and the dhatumalas (waste products of the tissues). (28)
Notes: The dhatus contain suksma srotas (minute pores) which are specific to each dhatu, in other words, the features and functions of srotas of one dhatu is different from that of the other.
The dhatus also contain an agni (fire-like element) specific for each dhatu, the functions of one particular dhatvagni cannot be done by any other kind of dhatvagni. When the nutrient materials of food, gets transformed by the activity of the five bhutanis and then becomes converted into the first dhatu known as rasadhatu, which reaches the hridaya (heart) from the amasaya – pakvasaya (stomach and intestine) Vyana vata present in the hridaya (heart) forces the rasadhatu out of the heart and circulates it all over the body to reach all the dhatus, this rasadhatu contains the posaka amsa (nutrient materials) required by every dhatu, these posaka amsas, (nutrient materials) are also called as posaka dhatus (nourishing tissues) and also as asthayi dhatus (unstable, mobile tissues) and travel through the srotas (channels, cell pores) present in them.
The srotas of each dhatu also being specific will allow only those nutrient materials which are identical with the qualities of that particular dhatu. For example the srotas (channels, cell pores) present in the mamsadhatu (muscle tissue) will only take in such nutrient materials which have properties similar to those of mamsa but not others, similarly with the srotas of other dhatus. When the posaka amsas (nutrient materials) reach the dhatus, they are acted upon by the dhatvagni (fire-like activity present in the tissues) and cooked (transformed) further, into two portions, the sarabhaga (essence) and the kittabhaga/ malabhaga (waste product). The sarabhaga (essence) is further subdivided into two portions suksma bhaga (subtle portion) which is less in quantity is converted into the next succeeding dhatu, the sthulabhaga (gross portion) which is more in quantity is retained in the same dhatu for its own growth. The kittabhaga (waste material) are expelled out of the dhatus by the very same srotas (channels, cell pores) into the circulating rasadhatu. This entire process of digestion and transformation taking place in the dhatus is known as dhatu parinama (tissue metabolism) on the anology of Kedarakulya nyaya (field and water supply canals).
Dhatu parinama – tissue matabolism
अथान्नकिट्टमच्छं मूत्रं घनं शकृत् । रसस्य सारो रक्तं मलः कफो लसीका च । रक्तस्य सारो मांसं कण्डरास्सिराश्च मलः पित्तम् । मांसस्य सारो मेदस्त्वचो वसा च किट्टं कर्णाक्षि नासिकास्यरोमकूपप्रजननमला: । मेदसः सारोऽस्थिस्त्रायुसन्धयः किट्टं स्वेदः । अस्थः सारो मज्जाः किट्टं केशरोमनखाः | मज्ज्ञस्तु सारः शुक्रं मलोक्षिवित्वचां स्नेहः । शुक्रस्य सारमोजः । अत्यन्तशुद्धतयास्य मलाभावः । अन्ये पुनरतएव तस्य नेच्छन्ति पाकम् । अपरे पुनः शुक्रसारं गर्भमेवामनन्ति ॥२९॥
Of the wastes of food, the clear (liquid) portion is mutra (urine) and the solid portion is sakrut (faeces). Sara (essence) of rasa (dhatu) is rakta (blood) and its kitta (wastes) are kapha and lasika; the sara (essence) of rakta (blood) is mamsa (muscle), kandara (big tendons) and sira (veins) and its waste is pitta; the essence of mamsa is medas (fat tissue) tvak (skin) and vasa (muscle-fat), its wastes are the excretions of the ears, nose, mouth, hair follicles and genital organs. The essence of medas (fat) are the asthi (bones), snayu (tendons and possibly nerves also) and joints; and its waste is sveda (sweat); the essence of asthi (bones) is majja (marrow) and its waste are hairs of the head and of the body and the nails; the essence of majja (marrow) is sukra (semen) and its waste is the fatty materials in the excretions of the eye and of the skin; the essence of sukra is ojas, because of its extreme purity it has no wastes. Hence some (authorities) do not relish the (idea of) paka (process of cooking, transformation) of sukra at all, while some others are inclined to say that essence of sukra is the garbha ( embryo). ( 29 )
Notes: In the above passage only two categories of substances viz dhatus and malas have been mentioned. Under the former, both dhatus (primary tissues) and upadhatus ( secondary tissues) have been included; lasika (lymph) is included under the category of kitta (waste ) here but in other texts it is considered as an upadhatu (secondary tissue ) of rasadhatu.
वायुः पुनरग्नेराहारस्य च बह्वल्पतया तस्मात्तस्मान्मूर्छनाविशेषादमूर्तः शब्दवानीषच्छब्दः प्रचुरोऽल्पो वा पञ्चात्मा कोष्ठे प्रादुर्भवति । एवं च कृत्वान्नमया एव देहे सर्वे भावाः । तेनैव चेदमेवं चिरेण व्याप्तमन्तर्बहिः शरीरयन्त्रमनवरतप्रवाहेण स्वास्थ्यबलोपचययुक्तं यावत्कर्मोपादानं याप्यते । अन्यथा त्वन्नरसोत्क्षेपणाद्विबद्धस्त्रोतसा वा यथावदनभिसन्धीयमानधातुप्रवाहमन्तरा व्यवच्छिद्यते । व्याधिभाजनं वा भवति ॥३०॥
All the five divisions of vayu (vata) are produced inside the alimentary tract by the contact (interaction) of agni (digestive activity) and food, in greater or lesser proportion. It(vayu) though a formless substance especially and possessing the quality of (producing) sound, here (in the body) it will be having very little sound (or no sound), greater or lesser.
In this way, all the materials of the human body are produced from food only. From it (food) only, which has permeated (the body), both inside and outside, all the time, all the activities of the body are made possible, without interruption for long periods of time, endowed with health, strength and growth, till all the effects of actions, earned (in previous lives) continue to prevail. On the other hand, excess production of the essence of food or its obstruction (for movement) in the channels, which will interfere with the continuous supply of nutrition to the dhatus (tissues) will cause termination of all activities (death) or makes the body a victim to diseases. ( 30 )
अन्ये तु वर्णयन्ति । अभ्यवहृतमात्रस्याहारस्य कण्ठनाडीप्रलुठितस्य महानिम्नमवतीर्णस्य यो य ए वांशः कायाग्निनावलीढ: पाकमुपनीयते तस्य तस्यैव प्रसादाख्यो रसलेशोऽभिनिर्वृत्तिसमनन्तरं समं समस्तधातुषु संवृतासंवृतैः प्रविसृतो विवृतमुखेष्वासन्नेषु स्त्रोतस्सु भूयान् प्रथमतरं चान्वेति पर्यायेणेतरेष्वपि । एवमन्नरस एवं साक्षात्सर्वधातून् केनचिदेव कालभेदेन पुष्णाति । न पुनर्धातवो धात्वन्तरतां स्वरूपोपमर्देन प्रतिपद्यन्त इति ॥३१॥
Some others (authorities) explain it (differently) as follows :- the food, which has been ingested in proper way, which has descended into the great pit (stomach) through the passage in the throat (oesophagus) which has undergone cooking (digestion) by the kayagni (fire-like activity in the alimentary tract), leads to the production of its essence known as rasalesa (moities of rasa), which at the same time of production, begins to circulate to all the dhatus (tissues) through the channels. It enters first into the channels which are open and which are near and next, in turn, into others. In this way the essence of food only nourishes all the tissues of the body with a difference of time. Hence the dhatus (tissues) will not transform themselves from one to the other by losing their features. (31)
Notes: The above description refers to another doctrine of dhatu parinama (tissue metobolism). According to this, rasa dhatu supplies nourishment directly to all the dhatus for their growth and maintance, the preceding dhatu does not undergo transformation to become the succeeding dhatu. Dhatus get nourishment one after the other, the nearest gets first and the farthest in the last. This is explained with Khale kapota nyaya – the anology of the harvesting place and the pigeons. Corn heap is at a fixed place, piegons come to pick up the grains of corn, the bird which is near comes first and picks the food, while that which is far away comes later, and picks the food last. On this anology rasa nourishes raktadhatu first as it is very near, next it ( rasa) nourishes mamsa, next to that the medas and so on, in course of time.
Kosthagnibheda – kinds of digestive fire
अग्निस्तु बलभेदेन चतुर्विधो भवति । तत्र समो विषमस्तीक्ष्णो मन्दश्च । समो यः सम्यगेवोपयुक्तमन्नं सम्यक् पचति । विषमोऽसम्यगप्युपयुक्तं पचति सम्यगपि च न पचति । तीक्ष्णोऽसम्यगप्युपयुक्तमाशु पचति । स एव वर्धमानोऽत्यग्निर्भवति । मन्दस्तु सम्यगप्यु – पयुक्तमुदरगौरवाध्मानविबन्धाटोपान्त्रकूजनमुखशोषवायुस्तम्भादीन्यामलिङ्गानि दर्शयित्वा चिरात् पचति । बाह्येनापि च ज्वालाङ्गारात्मकेनाग्निना नैकाकारः सर्वदा पाको भवति । किमुतान्तराश्रयेणोष्णात्मना समेनापि । तस्मात्तं प्रयत्नतो रक्षेत् । तत्र प्रवरेण सात्म्येन समं यथास्वमपरेणेतरान् क्रमशः सात्म्यमापाद्य प्रवरेण परिपालयेद्दोषोपक्रमणीयोक्तेन च वातादिसाधनेन ग्रहणीरोगविहितैश्चौषधव्यायामयोगैरिति । भवति चात्र ॥ ३२ ॥
Agni (digestive activity in the alimentay tract) is of four types depending upon its strength (functional capacity) viz – sama (normal), visama (irreregular, erratic), tiksna (intense, powerful) and manda (weak, mild, inactive). ‘
Sama is that which cooks the usual quantity of food correctly (without giving any trouble), visama is that which cooks even the unusual (quantity of) food correctly (sometimes ) and the usual (quantity of) food badly (some other times); tikshna is that which cooks even the unusual (more quantity) food very quickly, the same getting increased further becomes atyagni (excessively intense digestive activity); manda is that which cooks even the usual (quantity of) food after a long time producing symptoms such as heaviness of the abdomen, flatulence, constipation, gurgling noise in the intestines, dryness of the mouth, obstruction of flatus and such other features of indigestion. Even when the external fire which is in the form of flame and embers of many shapes does not cook correctly always, then what to say of the internal fire which is usually in the form of only heat.
Hence it should be protected by all out efforts. The sama agni (normal one) should be preserved by use of accustomed foods and activities) the others (abnormal kinds) should be made normal slowly by adopting the regimen described in the Dosopakramaniya (chapter 21 of sutrasthana), by measures which mitigate vata and other doshas, by the use of drugs prescribed for the treatment of grahani disease (a disorder of the duodenum) and suitable physical exercises etc). (32)
Srotas lakshana – features of tissue pores
स्वधातुसमवर्णानि वृत्तस्थूलान्यणूनि च । स्त्रोतांसि दीर्घाण्याकृत्या प्रतानसदृशानि च ॥३३॥
Srotas are of the same colour of their dhatus (tissues in which they are present), they are tubular, big or small, long in shape and resemble a creeper with many branches. (33)
आहारश्च विहारश्च यः स्याद्दोषगुणैः समः । धातुभिर्विगुणो यश्च स्त्रोतसां स प्रदूषकः ॥३४॥ .
Foods and activities, qualities of which are similar to those of the doshas and dissimilar to those of the dhatus, are the ones which bring about abnormalities of the srotas. (34)
Srotodusti prakara – kinds of abnormalities of tissue pores
अतिप्रवृत्तिः सङ्गो वा सिराणां ग्रन्थयोऽपि वा । विमार्गतो वा गमनं स्त्रोतसां दुष्टिलक्षणम् ॥३५॥
The signs of abnormalities of the srotas are – (a). atipravritti (excess functioning/ hyper activity (b). sanga (obstruction, inadequate activity, hypo-activity), (c). siragranthi (tumors, swelling, new growths) and (d). vimarga gamana – (movement in the worng or unusual direction or channel). (35)
बिसानामिव सूक्ष्माणि दूरं विप्रसृतानि च । द्वाराणि स्त्रोतसां देहे रसो यैरुपचीयते ॥३६॥
The orifices of the srotas are small like that of a lotus stalk, spread out farther and it is through these the rasadhatu nourishes (all the other dhatus). (36)
केचिदाहुरहोरात्रात् षडहादपरे परे । मासात् प्रयाति शुक्रत्वमन्नं पाकक्रमादिभिः ॥३७॥
Some say, that the food after cooking, gets transformed into sukra (semen) within a day and night; others say after six days, and yet others say, after one month. (37)
वृष्यादीनि प्रभावेण सद्यः शुक्रादि कुर्वते । प्रायः करोत्यहोरात्रात् कर्मान्यदपि भेषजम् ॥ ३८ ॥
Aphrodisiacs and others (drugs, foods etc) cause production of sukra (semen) immediately by their extraordinary property. Even the other drugs and activities generally bring about it, with in a day and night. (38)
Dhatumala – tissue wastes
कफः पित्तं मलः खेषु प्रस्वेदो नखरोम च । स्नेहोऽक्षित्वग्विशामोजो धातूनां क्रमशो मलाः ॥३९॥
Kapha, pitta, kha mala (excretions of the srotas), sveda (sweat); nails, hairs, fatty materials of the eyes, skin and faeces and ojas are the waste products of the dhatus (tissues) respectively (vide para.29 for details). (39)
Agni pradhanyam – importance of fire-like activity
सम: समाने स्थानस्थे विषमोऽग्निर्विमार्गगे। पित्ताभिमूर्छिते तीक्ष्णो मन्दोस्मिन्कफपीडिते ॥४०॥
The agni (digestive fire) which is in its normal condition and usual place is sama; that which has moved wrongly (to another place and functioning badly) is visama; that which is associated with pitta is tiksna and that troubled by kapha is manda. (40)
शान्तेऽग्नौ म्रियते युक्ते चिरं जीवत्यनामयः । रोगी स्याद्विकृते तस्मात्तं प्रयत्नेन पालयेत् ॥४१॥
Loss of agni causes death, if it is proper, man lives for long time healthy, and if it is abnormal it makes him a patient. So it should be preserved (as normal) by all efforts. (41)
॥ इति षष्ठोऽध्यायः ॥
Thus ends Ashtanga Sangraha Sharira sthana Sixth chapter.