अथातो रोगानुत्पादनीयं नामाध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । इतिहस्माऽहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥१॥
We will now expound the chapter known as Roganutpadaniya (nonproduction or prevention of diseases). Thus said Atreya and other great sages. (1)
Adharaniya vegas – urges of the body not to be suppressed
वेगान् नधारयेद्वातविण्मूत्रक्षवतृक्षुधाम् । निद्राकासश्रमश्वासजृम्भाश्रुच्छर्दिरेतसाम् ॥ २॥
The urges of the flatus, faeces, urine, sneeze, thirst, hunger, sleep, cough, heavy breathing on exertion, yawn, tears, vomitting and seminal discharge, should not be suppressed. (2)
Notes These are the normal activities of the body and intended to eliminate unwanted materials. The process of such elimination is a chain reaction initiated and carried out by the nervous system; suppressing it in the middle not only stops the elimination of waste products but also brings about strain and disorders of the nervous system leading to the production of many diseases. These develop in those who are in the habit of suppressing the urges over long periods of time and not immediately. It is very necessary to respond to the natural urges of the body when they appear and not control them, to prevent diseases. –
Adhovata rodhaja roga – bad effects of suppression of flatus
अधोवातस्य रोधेन गुल्मोदावर्तरुक्क्लमाः । वातमूत्रशकृत्सङ्गद्दष्टयग्निवधहृद्भदाः ॥३॥ Suppression of the urge of the flatus gives rise to disorders such as abdominal tumor, upward movement inside the abdomen and pain; debility, obstruction to the movement of flatus, urine and faeces, loss (or decrease) of vision and digestive activity and diseases of the heart. (3)
Sakrtrodha -suppression of urge of faeces
शकृतः पिण्डिकोद्वेष्टप्रतिश्यायशिरोरुजः । ऊर्ध्ववायुः परीकर्तो हृदयस्योपरोधनम् ॥ ४॥
मुखेन विट्प्रवृत्तिश्च पूर्वोक्लाश्चामयाः स्मृताः ।
Suppression of the urge of faeces, gives rise to twisting pain (cramps) in the calf muscles, running in the nose, headache, upward movement of air, cutting pain in the rectum, oppression in the region of the heart, faecal vomitting and all other diseases mentioned earlier (in respect of suppression of flatus).(4)
Mutrarodha – suppression of urine
मूत्रस्य रोधात् पूर्वे च प्रायो रोगाः तदौषधम् | वर्त्यभ्यङ्गवगाहाश्च स्वेदनं बस्तिकर्म च ॥६॥
अन्नपानं च विड्भेदि विड्रोधोत्थेषु यक्ष्मसु । मूत्रजेषु तु पाने च प्राग्भक्तं शस्येत घृतम् ॥ ७॥
जीर्णान्तिकं चोत्तमया मात्रया योजनाद्वयम् । अवपीडकमेतच्च संज्ञितं
Splitting pain all over the body, formation of urinary stones, pain in the urinary bladder, penis and groins and even the other diseases mentioned earlier develop by the suppression of the urge of urine. (5)
The treatment for these conditions are :
use of guda varti (rectal suppositories), oil-massage, hip-bath, fomentation, administration of enemas, and use of foods which help elimination of facces, are to be adopted in disorders due to suppression of faeces; in disorders due to suppression of urge of urine, drinking of pure ghee in large doses both before taking of the food and after the digestion of food are indicated. This method is known as Avapidaka.
Notes: Guda varti ( rectal suppositories) are prepared from purgative drugs and are small and rod shaped bits. They are lubricated with oil, ghee or any other greasy material, inserted into the rectum at night, to produce a soft evacution the next morning. Foods which are sour in taste. leafy vegetables, with liberal quantity of milk and fats are the ideal ones to produce soft motions. The quantity of ghee which can be used for drinking can be about 60-90 ml.
Udgara rodha – suppression of belchings
धारणात् पुनः ॥८॥
उद्गारँस्यारुचिः कम्पो विबन्धो हृदयोरसोः ।
आध्मानकासहिध्माश्च हिध्मावत्तत्र भेषजम् ॥ ९॥
By suppression of belching, arises anorexia, tremors, feeling of obstruction in the (region of the ) heart and chest, flatulance, cough and hiccup. The treatment for these conditions is similar to that of hiccup. (8-9)
Ksavathu rodha – suppression of sneeze
शिरोर्तीन्द्रियदौर्बल्यमन्यास्तम्भार्दितं क्षुतेः । तीक्ष्णधूमाञ्जनाघ्राणनावनार्कविलोकनैः ॥ १०॥
प्रवर्तयेत् क्षुतिं सक्तां स्वेदाभ्यङ्गौ च शीलयेत् । योज्यं वातघ्नमन्त्रं च घृतं चौत्तरभक्तिकम् ॥११॥
Suppression of sneezing produces headache, debility of the sense organs, stiffness of the neck, and facial paralysis. Administration of pungent inhalations, eye-salves, snuff, nasal medication (putting oil into the nose), looking at the sun, should be used to produce sneezing. After it starts, the person should be given oil-massage, warm fo mentation, foods which mitigate vata and ghee to drink soon after food. (10-11)
Trishna rodha – suppression of thirst
शोषाङ्गसादबाधिर्यसम्मोहभ्रमहद्भदाः । तृष्णाया निग्रहात्तत्र शीतः सर्वो विधिर्हितः ॥१२॥
Emaciation, debility, deafness, delusion, giddiness and diseases of the heart are caused by suppression of thirst; in such conditions all the foods, drinks and comforts which are cold should be resorted to.(12)
Kshudha rodha – suppression of hunger
अङ्गभङ्गारुचिग्लानिकार्यशूलभ्रमाः क्षुधः ।
तत्र योज्यं लघु स्निग्धमुष्णमल्पं च भोजनम् ॥ १३॥
By suppression of hunger, pain all over the body, loss of appetite, exhaustion, emaciation, pain in the abdomen and giddiness are produced. Use of little quantities of foods which are light ( easy to digest) unctous and warm should be advised in such conditions. (13)
Nidra rodha – suppression of sleep
निद्राया मोहमूर्धाक्षिगौरवालस्यजृम्भिकाः । अङ्गमर्दश्च तत्रेष्टः स्वप्नः संवाहनानि च ॥ १४॥
Suppression of sleep causes delusion, heavyness of the head and eyes, lassitude, repeated yawning and pains all over the body. In such conditions good sleep and light massaging of the body should be advised.(14)
Kasarodha – suppression of cough
कासस्य रोधात्तद्वृद्धिः श्वासारुचिहृदामयाः ।
शोषो हिध्मा च कार्योऽत्र कासहा सुतरां विधिः ॥१५॥
Suppression of cough makes for its increase, appearance of dyspnoea, anorexia, diseases of the heart, emaciation and hiccup; in such conditions all the treatments indicated for cough should be done.(15)
Sramasvasa – suppression of breathing after exertion
गुल्महृद्रोगसम्मोहाः श्रमश्वासाद्विधारितात् । हितं विश्रमणं तत्र वातघ्नश्व क्रियाक्रमः ॥१६॥
Suppression of the heavy breathing after exertion, leads to abdominal tumors, diseases of the heart and delusions. Such persons should be given complete rest and treatment which mitigate vata. (16)
Jrumbha rodha – suppression of yawning
जृम्भायाः क्षववद्रोगाः सर्वश्वानिलजिद्विधिः ।
Suppression of yawning will produce all the diseases caused by suppression of sneezing; even here the treatments should be all that mitigate vata.
Asrurodha – suppression of tears
सगुल्मा बाष्पतस्तत्र स्वप्नो मद्यं प्रियाः कथाः ।
Suppression of tears (by controlling weeping) will produce running in the nose, pain in the eyes, head and heart, stiffness of the neck, lose of appetite, giddiness and tumors in the abdomen. In such conditions, good sleep, mild alcoholic drinks, company of friends and pleasant stories should be resorted to. (17)
Chardi rodha – suppression of vomitting
सकासश्वसहृल्लासव्यङ्गश्वयथवो वमेः । गण्डूषधूमानाहारं रुक्षं भुक्त्वा तदुद्वमः ॥ १९॥
व्यायामः स्रुतिरस्रस्य शस्तं चात्र विरेचनम् । सक्षारलवणं तैलमभ्यङ्गार्थे च शस्यते ॥२०॥
Visarpa (herpes), rashes, skin diseases like leprosy, irritation of the eyes, anaemia, fevers, associated with cough, difficulty in breathing, nausea; discoloured patches on the face, and oedema are caused by the suppression of vomittings. In such diseases, mouth gargles, inhalation of smoke, withholding of food eating dry foods and vomitting it over immediately. Exercise, blood letting, mild purgations and massaging the body with oil medicated with alkalies and salts are to be done. (18-20)
Sukrarodha – suppression of semen
शुक्रात्तत्स्रवणं गुह्यवेदनाश्वयथुज्वराः । हृद्व्यथा मूत्रसङ्गाङ्गभङ्गवर्माश्मषण्ढताः ॥ २१ ॥
ताम्रचूडसुराशालिबस्त्यभ्यङ्गावगाहनम् । बस्तिशुद्धिकरैः सिद्धं भजेत् क्षीरं प्रियाः स्त्रियः ||२२| तत्र सेवेत
Suppression of the urge of semen makes for its increased flow often; pain and swelling of the genitals, fever, pain in the region of the heart, obstruction to micturition, pain all over the body, enlargement of the scrotum, and impotence. In such conditions foods prepared out of flesh of cock, alcoholic beverages made of flour and rice, administration of enema, oil-massage, tub-bath with water medicated by drugs which clear the urinary bladder; use of large quantities of milk and indulgence in sexual intercourse with the woman best liked- should be resorted to (21-22)
सर्वं च वर्जयेद्वेगधारिणम् । विड्वामिनं परिक्लिष्टं क्षीणं तृछूलपीडितम् ||२३||
All such persons who are in the habit of suppressing the urges of the body should be refused treatment, especially those who are having faecal vomittings, who have become emaciated and those having severe thirst and pain in the abdomen. (23)
रोगा: सर्वेऽपि जायन्ते बेगोदीरणधारणैः । निर्दिष्टं साधनं तत्र भूयिष्ठं ये तु तान् प्रति ॥ २४॥
ततश्चानेकधा प्रायः पवनो यत् प्रकुप्यति । अन्नपानौषधं तस्य युञ्जीतातोऽनुलोमनम् ॥ २५ ॥
All diseases arise from voluntary suppression or forcible initiation of the urges of the body; the methods of treatment of such diseases have also been indicated; in most of these diseases it is vata that gets increased, hence the foods, drinks and medicines which have the property of causing downward movement (inside the abdomen) are to movement be used in such diseases.
Notes: Willful suppression of the urges when they manifest or forcefully initiating the urges even before they manifest in their usual time, both are bad for health and so should be avoided.
Shodhanam avasyakam – purificatory therapies necessary even for the healthy
क्रमादपामपि मणौ पङ्कोऽवश्यंभवत्यत : । उत्तिष्ठेत यथाकालं मलानां शोधनं प्रति ॥२६॥
Just as silt develops surely, in course of time, even in pure water kept undisturbed in a earthenpot, so also ( dirt accumulates ) inside the body; hence it should be removed from the body at appropriate times. (26)
Notes: Inspite of adhering to the regimen of the different seasons, little quantities of waste materials and mild abnormalities of the three dosas will be found in the body always. These will not give rise to diseases quickly because of thier poor strength but if allowed to accumulate for long time, they gain strength and cause many diseases. So periodical removal of these abnormal materials should be done by purificatory measures such as emesis, purgation etc.
चयकाष्ठामुपारुह्य कुर्वते ते ह्युपेक्षिताः । प्रायशः सुचिरेणापि भेषजद्वेषिणोगदान् ॥ २७॥
अतिस्थौल्याग्निसदनमेहकुष्ठहृतौजसः । स्रोतोरोधाक्षविभ्रंशश्वासश्वयथुपाण्डुताः ॥ २८॥
आमोरुस्तम्भजठरकृच्छ्रालसकदण्डकान् । च्छर्दिगण्डकृमिग्रन्थितन्द्रादुःस्वप्नदर्शनम् ॥२९॥
कण्ठामयान् मूर्द्धरुजं प्रणाशं बुद्धिनिद्रयोः । तेजोवर्णबलानां च तृप्यतो बृंहणैरपि ॥३०॥
यतैरपि चाऽहारैर्यस्मादस्य वहन्ति न । दोषोपलिप्तवदना रसं रसवहाः सिराः ||३१||
वमनादीनतो युञ्ज्यात् स्वस्थस्थैव यथाविधि | दोषाः कदाचित् कुष्यन्ति जिता लङ्घनपाचनैः ||३२||
ये तु संशोधनैः शुद्धा न तेषां पुनरुद्भवः । यथाक्रमं यथायोगमत ऊर्ध्वं प्रयोजयेत् ॥३३॥ रसायनानि सिद्धानि वृष्ययोगांश्च कालवित् ।
The dosas, undergoing increase slowly, in the body of such persons, who are negligent of taking purificatory measures, produce many diseases quickly which might even defy treatment.
Obesity, poor digestive capacity, diabetes, leprosy, toxic fevers, obstruction of the tissue pores (or passages, channels of the body), debility of the sense organs, difficulty in breathing, oedema, anaemia, accumulation of undigested materials, stiffness of the legs, enlargement of the abdomen, severe digestive disorders like Alasaka and Dandaka, vomitting, enlargement of (lymph) glands, intestinal parasites, tumors, lassitude; appearance of bad dreams, diseases of the throat, headache; loss of intellegence, sleep, complexion, colour and strength even thouh taking nourishing foods- all these diseases develop in the body because the channels of the rasadhatu (nutrient tissue) will have become coated with the increased dosas (or by accumulation of wastes). Hence in order to promote health it is necessary to prescribe vomitting and other purificatory measures suitably.
Dosas which have been mitigated by fasting and use of digestive drugs, are likely to increase once again; but those (dosas) conquered by purificatory measures will never increase again.
So, after adopting purificatory measures, rejuvinating tonics and efficient aphrodisiacs should be administered as suited to the times, (season and age). (27-34a)
Notes: The three dosas- vata, pitta and Kapha- are constantly undergoing change by the effect of seasons, foods and activities, etc. They usually undergo slight increase in quantity in healthy persons and decrease back to normal by the daily foods and activities which are opposite of their qualities. Such mild increase, though incapable of producing diseases in the body quickly, may do so, after some time, if allowed to accumulate. The channels of nutrition of the tissues become blocked either partially or completely by the accumulated dosas causing obstruction to the movement of the nutrition into the tissues. This is the stage of commencement of disease. Hence in order to prevent this and restore normalcy (health) it is essential to control the dosas and bring them back to normal.
There are two methods of treatment for bringing the increased dosas back to normal viz., (a) Samana (palliative) mitigating the increase by avoidance of food, administration of drugs of opposite quality etc., (b) Sodhana- (purificatory) removing the increased and accumulated dosas, out of the body forcibly by emesis, purgation etc.; of these two, the former is slow and gives temporary effect and hence not ideal, while the latter is quick, gives permanent effect, hence condidered best. But sodhana measures cannot be done in all persons, at all times and in all conditions. So samana measures are also important and useful where sodhana can not be done.
भेषजक्षपिते पथ्यमाहारैर्ब्रहणं क्रमात् ॥ ३४ ॥
शालिषष्टिकगोधूममांसक्षीरघृतादिभिः | हृद्यदीपन भैषज्यसंयोगाद्रुचिपक्लिदैः ॥ ३५॥
साभ्यङ्गोद्वर्तनस्नाननिरूह स्नेहबस्तिभिः । तथा स लभते शर्म सर्वपावकपाटवम् ॥ ३६॥ धीवर्णेन्द्रियवैमल्यं वृषतां दैर्घ्यमायुषः ।
Those who have become weak by administration of therapies should be given nourishing foods gradually. Foods prepared with rice, sastika (rice which ripens in sixty days), wheat, meat, milk, ghee etc., made tasty, pleasing and easily digestible by addition of drugs are ideal. Oil-bath, massages, bath, use of oil enema and decoction enemas and such other measures help in improving their digestive capacity, intelligence, colour and complexion, clarity of the sense organs, sexual vigour and long life.(34-37a)
Agantu rogas – diseases caused by external agencies
ये भूतविषवाय्वग्निक्षतभङ्गादिसम्भवाः ||३७||
कामक्रोध भयाद्याश्च ते स्युरागन्तवो गदाः ।
Diseases produced by the Bhutas (evil spirtis, animals, bacteria etc.,) poison, air (breeze), fire, wounds, and mutilations caused by weapons, and those caused by lust, anger, fear etc., are all known as Agantu (external, extrogenous) diseases. (37b-38a)
Notes:- Diseases are classified under two major heads (a ) Nija inborn, endogenous. internal, organic, produced inside the body. (b) Agantu – coming from outside. exogenous, caused by other animals (big or minute). weapons, fire, electricity and such other harmful elements etc. The inclusion of mental diseases caused by emotions such as anger, fear etc., under Agantu group is based on the belief that Bhutas (evil spirits, bacteria etc) are the causitive agents for such diseases.
Aganturoga chikitsa – treatment of external diseases
त्यागः प्रज्ञापराधानामिन्द्रियोपशमः स्मृतिः ॥३८॥
देशकालात्मविज्ञानं सद्वृत्तस्यानुवर्तनम् । अथर्वविहिता शान्तिः प्रतिकूलग्रहार्चनम् ।। ३९ ।।
भूताद्यस्पर्शनोपायो निर्दिष्टश्च पृथक् पृथक् । अनुत्पत्यै समासेन विधिरेष प्रदर्शितः ।।४०।।
निजागन्तुविकाराणामुत्पन्नानां च शान्तये ॥४१॥
Avoiding prajnaparadha (wilful transgression of normal activities of the body, mind and speech), controlling the activities of the sense organs, proper knowledge of the habitat, season and ones own self (constitution, temperament); adopting the regimen of right living, performing propitiatory rites prescribed by Atharva veda, worshipping planets and stars which are malevalent to oneself, and avoiding the contact of evil spirtits, etc. these are specific methods described not only to prevent the origin of diseases but also to cure those which have already manifest. (38-41)
Notes: Prajnaparadha is a technical term in Ayurveda, used to mean intentional trangression or violation of normal or usual activities of the body (kayaka), mind (manasika) and speech (vacika); in three ways, such as atiyoga (over-activity), ayoga (inactivity) and mithya-yoga (perverse activity). This has been described in detail in chapter 22.
Propitiatory rites prescribed by Atharva veda are performance of Yajna (sacrifices), offering of oblations, giving donations, observing vows. wearing of gems, amulets; going on pilgrimage etc. Contact of evil-spirits can be avoided by scrupilous adherance to cleanliness (both external- (bodily) and internal-(mental); study of sc otures, following the path of rightousness (dharma) in all activities, keeping away from the company of bad persons and objects etc.
All the above are mentioned here to instruct the healthy person to avoid all activities which are harmful to the body and adopt such of them which are helpful to promote and maintain his health.
शीतोद्भवं दोषचयं वसन्ते विशोधयन् ग्रीप्मजमभ्रकाले ।
घनात्यये वार्षिकमाशु सम्यक् प्राप्नोति रोगानृतुजान् न जातु ॥४२॥
Elimination of the dosas accumulated due to cold seasons is to be done during Vasanta rtu, that of the Griisma (hot season) during rainy season; that of Varsa rtu during cloudy season- these make the person, get rid of the diseases caused by the effect of the seasons.(42)
Notes: The above verse recapitulates the methods suggested to avoid the bad effects of the dosas which undergo abnormality due to the effect of the seasons described in the previous chapter. The dosas which have increased in a particular, rtu (season) will have to be mitigated in the succeeding ritu or rtus (seasons).
नित्यं हिताहारविहारसेवी समीक्ष्यकारी विषयेष्वसक्तः । दाता समः सत्यपरः क्षमावानाप्तोपसेवी च भवत्यरोगः ||४३ || अर्थेष्वलभ्येष्वकृतप्रयत्नं कृतादरं नित्यमपायवत्सु । जितेन्द्रियं नानुपतान्ति रोगास्तत्कालयुक्तं यदि नास्ति दैवम् ॥४४॥
Indulgence in suitable foods activities daily, doing all activities carefully considering their good and bad, not getting engrossed too much in sensory pleasures, giving donations (to the needy), treating all living beings equally (with compassion), following the path of truth, forgiving the mistakes of others and keeping the company of good, learned men-all these make a person live a disease-free life.(43)
Not attempting to obtain such objects which are unattainable, not disregarding those which are readily available, keeping control over one’s sense organs, makes a person free from diseases, except of course by the will of gods (providence). (44)
Notes :- Attempting to obtain things or pleasures which are beyonds one’s power or capacity, at all costs, and getting disappointed by failure in such atempts will be utter foolishness; similarly not being satisfied with what he already has with him, belittling its good qualifies and getting discontented with it, is also foolishness. Both are to be avoided to keep up good health. Inspite of following all the rules of health, man becomes a victim of diseases caused by proidence (effects of past lives, wrath of gods etc.) which is beyond human comprehension.
कालोऽनुकूलो विषया मनोज्ञा धर्म्याः क्रियाः कर्म सुखानुबन्धि । सत्वं विधेयं विशदा च बुद्धिर्भवन्ति धीरस्य सदा सुखाय ॥४५॥
Favourable time, sense objects which are pleasing to the mind, righteous activities which bestow happiness, mind under control and clear intellect-these, in a courageous person, always provide happiness.(45)
Notes: “Favourable time’ means the seasons of the year having their normal features without variations, ‘sense objects’ means the subjects of the five sense organs such as sound, touch, sight, taste and smell; ‘rightous activities’ are those which are prescribed by the scriptures as good to one and all; mind ‘under control’, is one that is not swayed away by emotions but which is steadfast, and ‘clear intellect’ is that which arrives at a decision after careful discrimination. All these are ideal for promotion of health and attainment of happiness.
इति पञ्चमोऽध्यायः Thus ends the fifth chapter.