We will now expound the chapter known as Doshadi Vijnaniya (knowledge of doshas and others); thus said Atreya and other great sages (1).
अथातो दोषादिविज्ञानीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥
Dehasya mulam – components of the body
दोषधातुमलमूलो हि देहः । तस्मात्तेषां लक्षणमुपदेक्ष्यामः |
पक्तयूष्माभिलाषक्षुत्पिपासाप्रभाप्रसाददर्शनमेधा शौर्यमार्दवादिभिः पित्तम् ।
स्थैर्यस्त्रेहसन्धिबन्धवृषताक्षमाधीधृतिबलालौल्यादिभिः श्लेष्मा ॥ १ ॥
The body is composed of Doshas, Dhatus and Malas only. So, we shall describe their features (functions).
Prakrta Vata karma – functions of normal vata
Vayu (vata) sustains ( mantains) the body with expiration, inspiration, enthusiasm, movement of the various parts, keenness ( sharpness) of sense perceptions, initiation of the natural urges (such as that of urine, feces etc.) and many other functions;
Prakrta pitta karma – functions of normal pitta
Pitta sustains the body with digestion, heat production, desire, production of hunger, thirst, colour and complexion, understanding, intelligence, valour (bravery ) softness of the body parts and similar others.
Prakrta Kapha karma – functions of normal kapha
Kapha sustains the body with stability, lubrication (moistness), compactnes of the joints, virility, forbearance, intelligence, courage, strength, attachment (passion, lustfulness) and such others. (2).
Prakrta Dhatu karma – functions of normal tissues
तुष्टिप्रीणनरत्कपुष्टिभिस्तु रसः। जीवनवर्णप्रसादनमांसपोषणैरसृक् । देहलेपमलमेदः पुष्टिभिर्मांसम् ।
नेत्रगात्रस्निग्धतास्त्रेहदार्ग्यास्थिपुष्टिभिर्मेदः । देहोर्ध्वताधारणमज्जपोषणणाभ्यामस्थि ।
स्नेहबलास्थिपूरणशुक्रपुष्टिभिर्मज्जा । हर्षबलगर्भोत्पादनैः शुक्रम् । अवष्टम्भानिलानल धारणैः शकृत् ।
अन्नक्लेदनिर्वाहणेन मूत्रम् । क्लेदत्वक्स्त्रेहरोमधारणैः स्वेद इति ॥ २० ॥
Rasa (plasma) provides a sense of satisfaction, nutrition (to the tissues ) and nourishment to rakta (blood);
Rakta (blood) sustains life activities, imparts colour ( complexion) and nourishment to mamsa (muscle tissue);
Mansa covers the body, nourishes the waste products and medas (adipose tissue);
Medas provide moistness of the eyes and also of the body, lubrication, stability and nourishment to asthi (bone);
Asthi helps the maintenance of erect posture and nourishment to majja (bone marrow);
Majja confers moistness (lubrication ) strength, fills the cavity of the bones and gives nourishment to sukra (reproductive tissue);
sukra furnishes happiness, strength and production of the foetus.
Prakrta Mala karma – functions of normal waste product
Sakrt ( faeces) gives strength and supports vata and pitta;
Mutra (urine ) eliminates the excess moisture of the food;
Sveda (sweat) maintains the moistness (greasiness) of the skin and supports the hairs (of the skin). (2).
Note: The above are the important functions of the Doshas, Dhatus and Malas when they are in their normal condition. Each of them, has many other functions also.
Vruddha Vata karma – functions of aggravated Vata
मलसङ्गाध्मानाटोपमोहदैन्यभय शोकप्रलापादिभिर्वृद्धोः वायुः पीडयति ।
पीतत्वंग्लानीन्द्रि यदौर्बल्यौजोविस्त्रंसशीताभिलाष दाहतिक्तास्यतातृणमूर्च्छाल्पनिद्रताक्रोधादिभिः पित्तम् ।
श्वैत्यशैत्यस्थौल्यालस्यगौरवाङ्गसादत्रोतः पिधानमूर्च्छातन्द्रा निद्राश्वसंकासप्रसेकहल्लासाग्नि सादसन्धिविश्लेषा दिभिः श्लेष्मा ॥ ३ ॥
Vata undergoing vruddhi (increase) troubles the body by producing emaciation, blackish discolouration, (unwanted) movement of the body, tremors, desire for heat ( hot comforts ), loss of consciousness and sleep, decrease of strength and capacity of sensory organs, pains in the bones, decrease of bone marrow, obstruction to the movement of feces (and other waste products), flatulence (distension of the abdomen by accumulation of gas), and gurgling noise insider it, delusion, timidity, fear, grief (sorrow), delerium and such other ailments;
Vruddha Pitta karma – functions of aggravated Pitta
Pitta undergoing vruddhi (increase) produces yellow colouration of the skin, fatigue, weakness of the sense organs, mild decrease of Ojas (essense of the dhatus), desire for cold (comforts), feeling of burning sensation, bitter taste in the mouth, thirst, fainting, very little sleep, anger and such other ailments.
Vruddha Kapha karma – functions of aggravated Kapha
Kapha undergoing vruddhi (increase) troubles the body producing whitish discolouration, coldness, plumpiness, fatigue, feeling of heaviness, debility of the body parts, obstruction of the channels (tissue pores and others), fainting, stupor, sleepiness, difficulty in breathing, cough, excess salivation, nausea, weakness of digestive activity, looseness of the joints and such other ailments. ( 3 )
Vruddha Dhatu karma – function of increased tissues
प्रसेकारोचकास्यवैरस्यहृल्लासस्त्रोतोरोधस्वादुद्वेषाङ्गमर्दादिभिरन्यैश्च श्लेष्मविकारप्रायैः रसः ।
कुष्ठविसर्पपिटकासृग्दराक्षिमुखमेढ्रगुददाहगुल्मविद्रधिप्लीह व्यङ्गकामलाग्निनाशतमः प्रवेश
रक्ताङ्गनेत्रतावातरक्तपित्तादिभिरन्यैश्च पित्तविकारप्रायैरसृक् । गलगण्ड गण्डमाला र्बुदग्रन्थि श्लेष्मरक्तविकार प्रायैश्च मांसम् ।
प्रमेहपूर्वरूपैः स्थौल्योपद्रवैश्चान्यैरपिश्लेष्मरक्तमांसविकारप्रायैदः । अध्यस्थिभिरधिदन्तैश्चास्थि ।
नेत्राङ्गरक्तगौरवैः पर्वसु च स्थूलमूलारुर्भिर्मज्जा । अतिस्त्रीकामताशुक्राश्मरीसम्भवाभ्यांशुक्राधिक्यम् ।
कुक्षिशूलाटोपगौरवैः शकृदाधिक्यम् | बस्तितोदाध्मानैर्मूत्राधिक्यम् । कण्डूदौर्गन्ध्यैः स्वेदः ।
अन्येऽपि च दूषिकादिमला बाहुल्यद्रवताकण्डूगौरवैः ॥४॥
Rasa undergoing vruddhi (increase) causes excess salivation, anorexia, bad taste in the mouth, nausea, obstruction of the channels (tissue pores etc.) aversion to sweet taste, body aches and other symptoms of (increased) kapha.
Rakta undergoing vruddhi (increase) produces leprosy (and other skin diseases), visarpa (herpes), pitaka (boils, pustules, petichea, etc.) menorrhagia, burning sensation of the eyes, mouth, urethra and recvruddhitum; abdominal tumours, abscesses, enlargement of spleen, discoloured patches on the skin, jaundice, loss of digestive activity, seeing darkness before eyes (loss of vision and consciousness) vataraktaa (gout), raktapitta (bleeding disease) and other symptoms of increased pitta.
Mamsa undergoing vruddhi (increase) produces enlargement of glands in the neck and scrofula; malignant tumors, benign tumours; diseases of the palate, tongue and throat; increase in size and heaviness of the buttocks, neck, lips, arms, abdomen, chest and thighs; and other symptoms of increase of kapha and rakta.
Medas undergoing vruddhi (increase) produces all the premonitory symptoms of prameha (diabetes), obesity and its complications, and other symptoms of increase of kapha, rakta and mamsa.
Asthi undergoing vruddhi (increase) causes extra bones and teeth;
Majja undergoing increase produces feeling of heaviness of the eyes, body parts and blood; increase in size of the joints and appearance of small ulcers (on the skin).
Sukra undergoing vruddhi (increase) produces great desire for women (sex) and formation of stones in the seminal tract.
Vruddha Mala karma – functions of increased waste products
Sakrt (faeces) undergoing increase causes pain, gurgling noise and feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen.
Mutra (urine) undergoing increase causes pain and enlargement of the urinary bladder.
Sveda (sweat) undergoing increase causes itching and bad smell of the skin.
Increase of other waste products leads to their excess production and liquification, irritation (itching) and feeling of heaviness (of the related parts). (4)
Kshina Dosha Karma – functions of decreased Doshas
प्रसेकारुचिहृल्लाससंज्ञामोहाल्पवाच्केष्टताप्रहर्षाङ्गसादाग्निवैषम्यादिभिः क्षीणो वायुः पीडयति । दिभिः पित्तम् ।
शैथिल्यहृदयद्रवश्लेस्तम्भशैत्यानियततोदारोचका विपाकाङ्गपारुष्यकम्पगौरवनखनयनशौक्ल्या भ्रमोद्वेष्टनानिद्राङ्गमर्दपरिप्लोषतोद दवदाहस्फोटनवेपनधूमायनसन्धि ष्माशयशून्यांतादिभिः श्लेष्मा ॥५॥
Vata undergoing ksaya (decrease) troubles the body with excess salivation, anorexia, nausca, loss of consciousness, delusion, very littie of speech and activity, loss of happiness, debility and disorders of digestive activity;
Pitta undergoing ksaya ( decrease) troubles the body with stiffness, coldness, irregular pains, anorexia, indigestion, roughness of the body, tremors, feeling of heaviness, whitish colouration of the nails, eyes and such other symptoms.
Kapha undergoing ksaya ( decrease) causes giddiness, twisting pains, loss of slecp, body-aches, mild burning sensation, pricking pain, localised burning sensation; feeling of bursting, churning and movement of hot fumes from inside: looseness of the joints, palpitation and emptiness of the seats of kapha. (5)
Ksina Dhatu karma – functions of decreased tissues
शब्दासहत्वहृदयद्रवकम्पशोषशूलशून्यतास्पन्दनघट्टनैरल्पयापि च चेष्टया श्रमतर्षाभ्यां रसः । त्वग्रौक्ष्याम्लशीताभिलाषसिराशैथिल्यैरसृक् । स्फिग्गण्डादिशुष्कतातोदरौक्ष्याक्षग्लानिसन्धि स्फोटनधमनीशैथिल्यैर्मांसम् । प्लीहवृद्धिकटीस्वापसन्धिशून्यताङ्गरौक्ष्यकार्यश्रमशोषमेदुरमां साभिलाषैमसक्षयोक्तैश्चमेदः । दन्तनखरोमकेशशातनरौक्ष्यपारुष्यसन्धिशैथिल्यास्थितोदा स्थिबद्धमांसाभिलाषैरस्थि । अस्थिसौषिर्यनिस्तोददौर्बत्यभ्रमतमोदर्शनैर्मज्जा ! श्रमदौर्बल्यास्यशोषतिमिरदर्शनाङ्गमर्दपाण्डुतासद क्लैव्यमुष्कोदमेधमायश्चिराच निषण सरक्तनिषेकेण वा शुक्रम् । सशब्दस्य वायो: कक्ष निर्यगृर्ध्व व भ्रमणेनान्वेष्टन – पार्श्वहृदयपीडनेनाल्पतया च शकृत् । बस्तिनिस्तोदमुखशोषकृछ्राल्पविवर्णमूत्रतादिभिः सरुधिरमूत्रतया वा मूत्रम् । स्तब्धरोमकूपतारोमच्यवनत्वक्परिपाटनस्वापपारुष्यस्वेदनाशैः
Rasa undergoing ksaya (decrease) produces inability to withstand noise, increase of heart rate, tremor, emaciation, pains, emptiness of organs, pulsations (throbbing) and rubbing (friction), exhaustion even by slight activity and feeling of fear (anxiety).
Rakta undergoing ksaya (decrease) causes dryness of the skin, desire for sour things and cold comforts and collapse of veins (blood vessels).
Mamsa undergoing ksaya (decrease) causes wasting (emaciation) of the buttocks, cheeks and other parts, pricking pain, dryness, debility of sense organs, crackling noise in the joints and collapse of the arteries.
Medas undergoing ksaya (decrease) produces enlargement of spleen, loss of sensation in the waist, emptiness of the joints, roughness (dryness) and emaciation of the body, fatigue, desire for fatty meat and other symptoms caused by decrease of mamsadhatu.
Asthi undergoing ksaya (decrease) produces falling of teeth, nails, hairs of the body, hairs of the head, dryness, roughness (of the skin), looseness of the joints, pricking pain in the bones and desire for the meat attached to bones as food.
Majja undergoing ksaya (decrease) produces hollowness and pains of the bones, debility, giddiness and seeing darkness before the eyes (loss of vision or unconsciousness).
Sukra undergoing ksaya (decrease) cause exhaustion, debility, dryness of the mouth, darkness before the eyes (unconsciousness), bodyaches, pallor, poor digestion, impotence, pricking pain in the scrotum, feeling of hot fumes moving inside the penis (urethra), delayed ejaculation of semen or ejaculation mixed with blood.
Ksina Mala karma – functions of decreased waste products
Sakrt (faeces) undergoing ksaya (decrease) causes movement of flatus associated with sound in sideward and upward directions, twisting of the intestines, the appearance of pain in the flanks and region of the heart and little quantity of the faeces.
Mutra (urine) undergoing ksaya (decrease) produces pricking pain in the bladder, dryness of the mouth, elimination of little quantity of urine, with difficulty and of different colours or mixed with blood.
Sveda (sweat) undergoing ksaya (decrease) causes stiffness of the hair follicles, falling of hairs, cracking, loss of sensation and roughness of the skin and scanty perspiration. (6)
Notes From the foregoing description it becomes clear that the increase and decrease of the doshas, dhatus and malas are abnormal and they produce many trouble some symptoms. Hence, both the words ‘vruddhi’ and ‘Ksaya’ are used to convey abnormal conditions. But while extolling the properties of some efficient medicinal recipes and in some other places the term ‘vruddhi’ has been used as a synonym to denote Upacaya or healthy growth of certain dhatus of the body. So the meaning of these two terms should be taken with reference to the context.
अन्येऽपि च मला यथायथं मलायनं शोषशून्यत्वलाघवैः । विपरीतगुणक्षयवृद्धिभ्यां च वृद्धिक्षया वुपलक्षयेत् ।
मलानां त्वतिसङ्गोत्सर्गाभ्यां च वृद्धिक्षयौ । वृद्धेस्तु मलानां क्षयः पीडयति सुतरामनौचित्यात् ॥७॥
The other waste products undergoing decrease produce appropriate symptoms, associated with dryness, emptiness and lightness of the organs producing them.
The increase and decrease (of the doshas and dhatus) have to be understood by the decrease and increase of their opposite properties respectively; the increase and decrease of the malas (wastes) by their excess accumulation or excess elimination respectively; of these two, it is the decrease of the malas that troubles the body more, since the body is not accustomed to it.
Notes: The above statement can be explained as follows: Dryness, coldness and levity are the normal properities of vata. Unctuousness, heat and heaviness are their opposite properties. If these opposite properties are found more in the body, the decrease of vata is to be inferred; if the properties similar to it are found more, the increase of vata is to be understood; this applies to the dhatus also in the same manner.
Dosha dhatu sambandha – relationship of doshas and dhatus
तत्रास्थनि स्थितो वायुरसृक्स्वेदयोः पित्तम् । शेषेषु श्लेष्मा । तस्मादेकवृद्धिक्षयकारणत्वमेषाम् । न त्वेवमस्थिवाय्वोः ।
सर्वैव हि वृद्धिः प्रायोऽतिसन्तर्पणनिमित्तत्वाच्छ्लेष्मणानुगता। तद्विपर्ययाच्च क्षयो वायुना।
तस्माल्लङ्घनबृंहणाभ्यां वृद्धिक्षयजान् विकारानुपचरेत् । पवने तु बृंहणलङ्घनाभ्याम् ।
सर्वत्र च द्रव्यगुणकर्मविपर्ययतुल्यभावेनाविरुद्धेन ॥८॥
Vata resides in the asthi (bone tissue),
Pitta in asrk (blood) and sveda (sweat)
and Kapha in the rest (of the dhatus and malas); therefore, the cause of increase and decrease of both (dosha and dhatu) is one and the same; but it is not so in the case of Asthi and Vata.
The increase of all (the dhatus) being generally due to overnutrition, kapha is seen predominant in such conditions; in the opposite condition (decrease of dhatus) it is vata which is predominant. Hence, the disorders caused by the increase and decrease are to be treated with Langhana (decrease of nutrition) and Brimhana (increase of nutrition) therapies respectively. In case of vata it should be both Bimhana and Langhana.
In all cases, the use of substances, qualities and actions either opposite or similar but not antagonistic (to the dhatus) is to be planned appropriately. (8)
Notes: The relationship that exists normally in the body between the doshas and dhatus has been explained above. The dhatus (tissue). malas (wastes) are the asraya (recepticle, container, place of residence) and the doshas are asrayi (content, material, present inside). Vata resides in the bone tissue, pitta in blood and kapha in the remaining i.e., rasa, mamsa, medas, majja, sukra and purisa. Dhatus undergo increase or decrease by the same causes except in the case of vata and asthi. The theory behind the relationship between asthi and vavu has not been understood clearly so far. None of the commentators have elaborated on this point and no satisfactiory explanation is available till date.
In the treatment of ailments caused by the increase of the dhatus, the drugs or methods selected should be opposite to the dhatus either materially, qualitatively or functionally. Likewise, ailments caused by the decrease of the dhatus should be treated with drugs or methods which are similar either materially, qualitatively or functionally. A caution has also been given, that the drug or method so selected should not be the one which destroys the dhatus.
Dhatu vruddhi karana – causes for increase of tissues
धातवः खलु शरीराः समानैः समानगुणभूयिष्ठै र्वाहारविहारैरभ्यस्य मानैर्वृद्धिमाप्नुवन्ति ।
ह्रासं तु विपरी तैर्विपरी तगुणभूयिष्ठैर्वा । तथा हि देहधातवो ये गुरवस्ते गुरुभिरैक्यकारितयोप चीयन्ते ।
लघवस्तु लघुभिस्तद्विपरीतैस्तु पृथक्त्वकारिभिरपचीयन्ते ।
तस्मादन्येभ्यो द्रव्येभ्योऽपि सुतरां रक्तमाप्याय्यते रक्तेन मांसं मांसेन मेदो मेदसाऽस्थि तरुणास्था मज्जा मज्ञा शुक्रं शुक्रेणामगर्भेण गर्भः ।
यत्र त्वेवं लक्षणेन सामान्येन सामान्यवतामाहारविहाराणामसान्निध्यं स्यात् सन्निहितानां चाभ्यवहरणमशक्यं विरुद्धत्वाद् घृणित्वादरुचेरन्यस्माद्वा कारणान्तरात् । तत्र समानगुणभूयिष्ठानामन्य प्रकृतीनामाहारविहाराणामभ्यवहारः श्रेयान् ॥ ९ ॥
The dhatus of the body generally undergo vruddhi (increase) by the use of foods and activities which are similar materially or which possess similar properties predominantly; they undergo decrease by the use of foods and activities which are opposite materially or which possess opposite properties predominantly.
The dhatus which are heavy undergo increase by substances which possess the property of heaviness; and those which cause union or compactness; and decrease by those which cause separation or rarefaction.
Hence (on this analogy ) even inspite of many other substaces, rakta (blood) undergoes increase especially by the use of blood as food, mamsa (muscle ) by the ingestion of meat, medas (fat) by the use of fat as food, asthi (bone) by the use of cartilages as food, majja (marrow) by the use of marrow as food, sukra (reproductive tissue) by use of seminal fluid; garbha (loctus) by the use of egg as food.
The substances thus mentioned possessing similar qualities, which could be used as food or activities may not be present nearby, or, those which are present nearby may not be suitable to be used as food, being either antagonistic causing aversion, tastelessness or due to any other reason. In such circumstances, it is best to make use of substances of similar properties derived from different species (plants, animals or birds ) possessing identical qualities predominantly.
Notes: In this passage the term vruddhi (increase) is used as synonym of the term upacaya (normal growth) but not in the sense to denote abnormal growth as stated earlier. The various materials mentioned here are the tissues of the body either of man or animals. Tissues of the human body though present nearby are repulsive to be used as food. Hence, the advice, to make use of the tissues of animals and birds as food.
तथा शुक्र क्षये क्षीरसर्पिषोरुपयोगो मधुरस्निग्धशीतानामपरेषां च द्रव्यणाम् ।
Hence, in case of decrease of sukra (reproductive tissue) the use of milk, ghee and other substances possessing sweet taste, unctousness and cold properties (are indicated). (9)
कर्मापियस्य धातोः समानक्रियतया वृद्धिकरं तस्य तस्य वृद्धिमभिलषता तत्तदासेव्यम् । तथैव चातुल्यक्रियतया ह्रासकरं तदर्थिनेति । अपि च विशेषतो रक्तवृद्धिजान् रक्तनिर्हरणप्रसाद ‘नकायविरेचनेन । मांसवृद्धिजान् संशोधनशस्त्रक्षाराग्निकर्मभिः | मेदोजान् स्थौल्यकार्श्यक्रि याक्रमेण । रसक्षयजान् मांसरसमद्यक्षीरैः । अस्थिक्षयजान् बस्तिभिस्तिक्तोपहितैः क्षीरबस्ति भिश्च । शकृवृद्धिजानतीसारविधानेन । शकृत्क्षयजान्यवमाषकुल्माषाजमेषमध्यादिभिः । मूत्रवृद्धिक्षयजान् मेहकृच्छ्रचिकित्सया | स्वेदक्षयजानभ्यङ्गव्यायामद्यस्वप्रनिवातशरणस्वेदै रिति । भवति चात्र ॥१०॥
Even in respect of activities also, those which make for increase of the dhatus should be followed by persons who desire the increase of their dhatus should be followed by persons who desire the increase of their dhatus, and persons who desire the decrease of their dhatus should follow activities which are dissimilar.
Further, the ailments caused by the abnormal increase of rakta (blood) should be treated specially by blood letting, purificatory therapies and purgations of the body; those of increase of mamsa ( muscle ) by purificatiory measures, surgical measures, use of alkalies and branding by fire; the ailments of medas (fat) by adopting the treatment indicated for obesity and emaciation.
Those (diseases) caused by decrease of rasa (plasma) by the use of meat soup, wines and milk; those caused by decrease of asthi (bone tissue) by the use of enemas prepared with drugs of bitter taste and those prepared with milk; ailments caused by increase of sakrt (faeces) by adopting the treatment of diarrhoea: those caused by the decrease of faeces by the use of yava, masa, kulmasa, ajamesamadhya (intestines of goat and ram); ailments caused by increase or decrease of mutra (urine) by adopting treatment of diabetes and dysurea respectively; those due to decrease of sveda (sweet) by oil-bath, exercises, wines, sleep, remaining in airtight room and other techniques of producing perspiration. (10)
Dhatvagni Vikrti – abnormalities of tissue metabolic agency
ये पाचकांशा धातुस्थास्तेषां मान्द्यातितैक्ष्ण्यतः । वृद्धिः क्षयश्च धातूनां जायते शृणु चापरम्॥११॥
Listen further; another kind of increase and decrease of the dhatus occur due to the debility and intensity respectively of the moity of dhatvagni (firelike agency) present within the dhatus. (11)
पारम्पर्येऽपि दावाग्नेस्तत्तत् प्राप्येन्धनं शिखा । वृद्धिक्षयौ यथा याति तद्वद्धातुपरम्परा ॥१२॥
Just as a forest fire, though continuously burning, gets flared up greatly at certain times or gets reduced at certain others, depending upon the nature of the fuel available, so also the continuity of dhatus undergo increase or decrease depending upon the nature of the fuel. (12)
द्रव्यं तुल्यं विशष्टं स्वं स्वं वृध्यै क्षयाय च । प्रत्यात्मबीजनियतं भृशमाशु प्रजायते ॥१३॥
Substances which are similiar (identical) or dissimilar (peculiar) to each of the dhatus are the causes for their quick increase or decrease respectively; because each one has its own specific effect (action) in quickly transforming them (dhatus). (13)
Notes: Just as there is Agni (fire-like activity) inside the alimentary tract to digest the food even so there is a specific kind of Agni (fire-like substance) in each of the dhatu. Its function is to digest the food material supplied to the dhaus through the constantly circulating Rasa dhatu. This nutrient material is actually the essence of the food produced at the end of digestion in the alimentary tract. Depending upon the nature of this fire-like substance the dhatus undergo increase or decrese. If the fire-like substance is very weak, the dkatus undergo abnormal increase, dude to accumulation of large quantities of undigested food materials; if on the other hand, the fire-like substance is very strong, the dhatus undergo decrease due to quick consumption of nutrient available and non-availability of extra nutrition.
The nature of the food materials has also its own influence on the dhatus. Materials which are identical or possess identical properties will have a sort of affinity (congeneity, suitability) to the dhatus. The use of such foods will help for the upacaya of the dhatus (normal growth of the tissues) quickly. Meat, in contrast to all other foods, specially helps for the normal growth of the muscles of the body quickly, because of its close affinity. Such substances are said to be special and more suited than others. Materials which are not identical and possess properities opposite of those of the dhatus, will cause their decrease.
पूर्वो धातुः परं कुर्यात् वृद्धः क्षीणश्च तद्विधम् ।
The preceding dhatu gives rise to (produces, generates) its succeeding dhatus; similarly also, when they have undergone increase or decrease. (14a)
Notes: The first dhatu Rasa will give rise to the production of its succeeding dhatu the Rakta; Rakta in its trun produces Mamsa, the next succeeding one. Mamsa produces Medas, Medas produces Asthi, Asthi produces Majja and Majja produces sukra. This order of succession is applicable both during normal as well as abnormal states. A dhatu which has undergone increase will produce its succeeding dhatu also in the state of increase, and that which has undergone decrease will produce its succeeding dhatu also in the state of decrease.
Doshadusti parinama – effects of vitiation of doshas
दोषा दुष्टा रसैर्धातून् दूषयन्त्युभये मलान् ॥१४॥
अधो द्वे सप्त शिरसि खानि स्वेदवहानि च । मला मलायनानि स्युर्ययस्वं तेष्वतो गदाः ॥ १५ ॥
The doshas undergoing vitiation (abnormality) will vitiate (cause abnormalities) in the Rasa and other dhatus, both of them together (doshas and dhatus) create abnormalities in the Malas (waste products), and the malas create abnormalities in the channels; which are two below, seven in the head and the channels of the sweat. Producing all these abnormalities, they (doshas) give rise to diseases in every one of them (14b-15)
Notes: The doshas undergo abnormality (increase or decrease) first by the effect of foods and acitvities. The abnormal doshas will then bring about abnormalities in the dhatus which are their normal dwelling places, Next follows the abnormalities in the waste products as well as channels of the body.
These channels are of two kinds. the large ones and the small ones. Large ones are – the rectum and urethra below; two in the eyes, two in the ears, two in the nose and one of the mouth above.
The small ones are those of the sweat, present in the skin and still smaller ones present in each of the dhatu paramanus (pores in the tissue cells). Diseases manifest when this series of abnormalities take place inside the body.
Dhatustha pittaja rogah – diseases of pitta origin
रक्ते विसर्पं दाहं च मांसे मांस्याककोथनम् । सदाहान्मेदसि ग्रन्थीन् स्वेदात्युद्वमनं तृषम् ॥१७॥
अस्थिन दाहं भृशं मज्ञि हारिद्रनखनेत्रताम् । पूतिपीतावभासं च शुक्रं शुक्रसमाश्रितम् ॥ १८ ॥
सिरागतं क्रोधनतां प्रलापं स्त्रावगं तृषम् । कोष्ठगं मदतृड्दाहान् व्यापिनोऽन्यांश्चयक्ष्मणः ॥१९॥
The diseases produced by Vata will be described in the chapter on Vataroga in Nidana sthana.
वक्ष्यन्ते वातजास्तत्र निदाने वातरौगिके। पित्तं त्वचि स्थितं
Pitta (which has increased) residing ( getting localised)
in the tvak ( skin) produces small-pox and chicken-pox;
residing in rakta (blood) it produces herpes and burning sensation,
in the muscles it causes ulcers and putrification;
in the fat tissue it causes burning sensation, tumors, excess perspiration and thrist;
in the bones, it causes severe burning sensation in them;
in the bone marrow it causes yellow colouration of the nails and eyes;
residing in the reproductive tissue, it imparts bad smell and yellowish colour to it;
invading the veins (arteries also) it produces angry mind and irrelevant talk;
occupying the snayus it causes thirst;
residing in the alimentary tract it produces toxicity, thirst, burning sensation and many other ailments. (16-19)
Dhatustha kaphaja rogah – diseases of kapha origin
श्लेष्मा त्वचि स्थितः कुर्यात् स्तम्भं श्वेतावभासताम् । पाण्ड्वामयं शोणितगो मांससंस्थोऽर्बुदापचीः ॥२०॥
आर्द्रचर्मावन द्धाभगात्रतां चातिगौरवम् । मेदोग: स्थूलतां मेहमस्थां स्तब्धत्वमस्थिगः ॥२१॥
मज्जगः शुक्लनेत्रत्वं शुक्रस्थः शुक्र सञ्चयम् । विबन्धं गौरवं चाति सिरास्थ: स्तब्धगात्रताम् ॥२२॥
स्त्रायुगः सन्धिशूलत्वं कोष्ठगो जठरोन्नतिम् । अरोचकाविपाकौ च तांस्ताश्च कफसम्भवान् ॥२३॥
विण्मूत्रयोः साश्रययोस्तत्र तत्रोपदेक्ष्यते । उपतापोपघातौ तु स्वाश्रयेन्द्रियगा मलाः ॥२४॥
Kapha (increased) residing (getting localised)
in the skin causes stiffness, and whitish discolouration;
residing in the blood it causes anaemia;
residing in the muscles it causes malignant tumors, scrofula, a feeling as though the body is covered with rawhide and a feeling of heaviness;
located in the fat it causes obesity and diabetes;
in the bones it causes loss of movement;
residing in the marrow it produces whitish discolouration of the eyes;
residing in the reproductive tissue it causes more accumulation of that tissue inside, obstruction to its flow and makes it thick;
residing in the veins it causes stiffness of the body;
in the snayus it causes pain in the joints;
in the alimentary tract it causes enlargement of the abdomen, anorexia, indigestion and many such ailments of kapha origin;
The ailments caused by the doshas involving feces and urine and the organs concerned with them will be described at appropritate places. (further on).
Doshas invading the sense organs will cause pain in them and disturbances of perception. (20-24)
Dosha sancara – movement of doshas
व्यायामादूष्मणस्तैक्ष्ण्यादहिताचरणादपि। कोष्ठाच्छाखास्थिमर्माणि द्रुतत्वान्मारुतस्य च ॥२५॥
दोषा यान्ति तथा तेभ्यः स्रोतोमुखविशोधनात् । वृध्याभिष्यन्दनात्पाकात्कोष्ठं वायोश्च निग्रहात् ॥ २६ ॥
तत्रस्थाश्च विलम्बेरन् भूयो हेतुप्रतीक्षिणः । ते कालादिबलं लब्ध्वा कुप्यन्त्यन्याश्रयेष्वपि ॥२७॥
Due to exercise (physical activities) intensity of heat (atmospheric and bodily), indulgence in unsuitable activities (foods, drinks etc.) and quick activity of Vata, the doshas (which have increased) spread from the Kostha (alimentary tract) to the sakha (dhatu-tissues) asthi (bone) and marma (vital organs, points).
Like wise, by elearance of the orifices of the srotas (channels, cell pores etc.), by increase (cf their own quantity in the tissues), by increase of moisture (in the tissues), by undergoing ripening, and by subjugation (mitigation) of Vata the doshas move into the Kostha (from the sakhas etc.,).
Remaining there, in anticipation of the cause (of excitement) they (doshas) obtaining strength like time etc., get aggravated (increased) even at other places. (25-27)
Sthani-Agantu dosha chikitsa – treatment of the two doshas
तत्रान्यस्थानसंस्थेषु तदीयामबलेषु तु । कुर्याच्चिकित्सां स्वामेव बलेनान्याभिभाविषु ॥२८॥ आगन्तुं शमयेद्दोषं स्थानिनं प्रतिकृत्य वा ।
Such doshas which are weak and residing in the seats of others should be treated there itself in accordance with their strength. The Agantu invading (external, different from that of the seat) dosha is to be controlled first by treatment, withholding the treatment of the sthani dosha (usual) (internal, normal to that seat) for some time. (28)
Notes: The above statement can be explained as follows: Uras (chest) is the normal seat of kapha, region sorrounding the nabhi (umbilicus) is of Pitta and the pakvasaya (colon) is of Vata; if pitta or vata gets located in the uras (chest) the seat of kapha they will become Agantu doshas (external or invading) for that places and the kapha which is the usual one to that place will become Sthani dosha (belonging to that place, natural, usual). The treatment has to be done for both in that place. If the Agantu dosha is more powerful (increased greatly or producing severe symptoms) it is to be treated first, if the sthani dosha is powerful than the Agantu, treatment should be for it first and next for the Agantu. It is for the physician to determine the dosha which is stronger and treat it first; most of the time it is the Agantu dosha which is stronger and so demands treatment first.
Ojo Varnana – description of Ojas
तेजो यत्सर्वंधातूनामोजस्तत् परमुच्यते । मृदु सोमात्मकं शुद्धं रक्तमीषत्सपीतकम् ॥ २९ ॥
यत्सारमादौ गर्भस्य यच्च गर्भरसाद्रसः । संवर्तमानं हृदयं समाश्रयति यत्पुरा ॥३०॥
यच्छरीररसः स्नेहः प्राणो यत्र प्रतिष्ठितः । यस्यानाशान्ननाशोऽस्ति प्रीणिता येन देहिनः ॥ ३१ ॥
हृदयस्थमपि व्यापि तत् परं जीवितास्पदम् । ओजः क्षीयेत कोपक्षुद्ध्यानशोक श्रमादिभिः ॥३२॥
बिभेति दुर्बलोऽभीक्ष्णं ध्यायति व्यथितेन्द्रियः । दुच्छायो दुर्मना रूक्षो भवेत् क्षामश्च तत्क्षये ॥३३॥
जीवनीयौषधक्षीररसाद्यास्तत्र भेषजम् । ओजोवृद्धौ हि देहस्य तुष्टिपुष्टिबलोदयः ॥ ३४॥
The essence of all the dhatus is known as Para ojas; it is the very best (material), is soft, possesses the qualities of water, is pure, slightly reddish with yellowish tinge, it is the first essential element of the embryo, the essence of the rasa dhatu of the foetus and gets localised in its heart (of the foetus) very early (earlier to the formatin of the different parts of the body).
It is the chief fluid material of the body on which life depends, by the absence or loss of which there is loss of life and by it the living beings are kept happy.
Even though residing in the heart, it is circulating everywhere and helps the life activities. It undergoes decrease by anger, hunger, worry, grief, physical exertion, and other causes. By such a decrease, the person begins to experience fear (of loss of life), debility, too much of worry, discomfort in the sense organs; bad complexion, unstable mind (mental disturbances), dryness and emaciation of the body. The treatment for such condition is the use of rejuvenating drugs, milk, meat soup and others (which confer strength).
Increase of ojas gives the body good growth, nourishment and improvement of strength. (29-34)
Notes: Other treatises like, Caraka, and Susruta Samhitas and Astanga hrdaya recognise two kinds of Ojas; (a) para ojas which is of eight bindu (minims), present in the heart, its increase providing the body with good development and strength, its decrease, causing loss of strength, complexion, soundness of the mind and sense organs and its loss causing death. (b) Apara ojas which is of half anjali similar to that of Kapha, circulates all over the body, along with rasa dhatu (and rakta dhatu), confer the body with two kinds of strength viz., physical strength and strength to resist diseases (natural resistance).
It has not been possible so far to identify correctly these two types of ojas and so it is a subject for further research.
Dosha raksana – protecting the doshas
यदन्नं द्वेष्टि यदपि प्रार्थयेताविरोधि तु । तत्तत्यजन् समश्श्रंश्च तौ तौ वृद्धिक्षयौ जयेत् ॥३५॥
Foods which are hated (not liked) and those which are desired (wanted, liked) are to be avoided or made use of, to mitigate or improve respectively, the doshas which are either increased or decreased, provided such foods are not harmful to the body. (35)
कुर्वतेऽभिरुचिं दोषा विपरीतसमानयोः । वृद्धाः क्षीणाश्च भूयिष्ठं लक्षयन्त्यबुधा न तत् ॥३६॥
The doshas which have undergone increase or decrease will produce in the body desires (instincts) for foods of dissimilar and similar properties respectively; foolish persons do not recognise it (and attend to these). (36)
यथाबलं यथास्वं च दोषा वृद्धा वितन्वते । रूपाणि जहति क्षीणाः समाः स्वं कर्म कुर्वते ॥३७॥
The doshas which have undergone increase will produce their symptoms depending upon their strength; the doshas which have undergone decrease will leave off (even) their own qualities/symptoms (will not bring up, unable to manifest) and the doshas which are in their normal condition attend to their functions normally. (37)
य एव देहस्य समा विवृध्यै त एव दोषा विषमा वधाय । यस्मादतस्ते हितचर्ययैव क्षयादिवृद्धेरिव रक्षणीयाः ॥३८॥ –
The same doshas which in their normal state are the causes for the normalcy and growth of the body, are also the causes for destruction of the body in their abnormal state, hence they should be prevented from undergoing decrease or increase by adopting healthy activities. (38)
Notes: The doshas undergo abnormalities (increase or decrease) by indulgence in foods and activities which are similar or dissimilar to their properties. The body on its own bring back the doshas to their normal condition by indicating some instincts – desires or aversions to foods, and activities; the doshas which have undergone increase will produce aversion to foods of similar or identical properties and desire for foods and activities of their opposite nature. The opposite is the case when the doshas which have undergone a decrease. By attending to these desires and aversions, the doshas can be normalised even without recourse to drugs.
The doshas which have undergone increase, produce mild, moderate or severe symptoms depending upon the degree of their strength. The doshas which have undergone decrease will have become very weak in their own natural qualities and so will not be able to produce distressing symptoms or if at all, might give rise to a few mild symptoms.. This is the reason for the categorical statement that diseases are produced by the increased doshas“.
इति एकोनविंशोऽध्यायः ।
Thus ends the ninteenth chapter.