We will now expound on the chapter known as Doshabhediya – divisions of the doshas; thus said Atreya and other great sages.
अथातो दोषभेदीयं नामाध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥
वाय्वाकाशधातुभ्यां वायुः । आग्नेयं पित्तम् । अम्भः पृथिवीभ्यां श्लेष्मा ।
Vayu (vata) is formed out of (born form the combination of) vayu and akasa bhutas;
Pitta from agni ( tejas) bhuta;
kapha from ap and prthvi bhutas;
Dosha sthana – seats of the doshas
Vata Dosha Sthana
तत्र पक्वाशयः कटिः सक्थिनी पादावस्थि श्रोत्रं स्पर्शनं च वातस्थानानि । अत्र च पक्काशयो विशेषेण ।
Pakvasaya (large intestine), waist, thighs, feet, bones, ears and the skin are the seats of Vata.
Vata Dosha Vishesha Sthana specially so the pakvasaya.
Pitta Dosha Sthana
नाभिरामाशयः स्वेदो लसीका रुधिरं चक्षुः स्पर्शनं च पित्तस्थानानि । अत्र नाभिर्विशेषेण ।
Umbilicus, amasaya (stomach and small intestines), sweat, lymph, blood, eyes and the skin are the seats of Pitta.
Pitta Dosha Vishesha sthana specially so the (region of ) the umbilicus
Kapha Dosha Sthana
उरः कण्ठः शिरः क्लोम पर्वाण्यामाशयो रसो मेदो घ्राणं रसनं च श्लेष्मस्थानानि । अत्राप्युः रोविशेषेण ।
Chest, throat, head, kloma (pancreas) joints, amasaya, rasa (plasma), fat, nose, tongue are the seats of Kapha.
Kapha Dosha Vishesha Sthana specially the chest.
इत्थमधोमथ्योर्ध्वसन्निवेशिना दोषत्रयेण शरीरमागारमिव स्थूणात्रितयेन स्थिरीकृतम् ।
अतश्च दोषा देहस्य स्थिरीकरणात् स्थूणा इत्युच्यन्ते । धारणाद्धातवः ।
मलिनीकरणादाहारमलत्वाच्च मलाः । दूषणस्वभावाद्दोषा इति ॥१॥
Thus the body is supported by these three doshas situated in the lower, middle and upper portions respectively, just like a house is supported firmly by three pillars. Since the doshas maintain the firmness of the body they are called as pillars, they are (also) called as dhatus because they support the body and as malas because they pollute (vitiate) the body and also because they are the waste products of the food; they are called as doshas because of their tendency of polluting (causing abnormalities) others (1).
Dosha bheda – Types of doshas
Mainly Three types of Doshas are there Vata, Pitta And kapha They are again devided into 5 types each.
Vata Dosha Types
त एते प्रत्येकं पञ्चधा भिद्यन्ते । तद्याथा | प्राणोदानव्यानसमानापानभेदैर्वायुः ।
Prana, Udana Vyana, Samana and Apana of Vata;
Prana Vata sthana
तत्र प्राणो मूर्द्धन्यवस्थितः कण्ठोरश्चरो बुद्धीन्द्रियहृदयमनोधमनीधारणष्ठीवनक्षवथूद्गारप्रश्वासोच्छ्वा सान्त्रप्रवेशादिक्रियः ।
Prana is located in the head, moves downwards to the throat and chest;
Prana Vata Karma
Prana Vata attends to the functions of maintenance of intellect, sense organs, heart, mind, and arteries (veins also); functions such as expectoration, sneezing, belching, inspiration, expiration, swallowing of food and such others.
Udana vata sthana
उदान उरस्यवस्थितः कण्ठनासिकानाभिचरो वाक्प्रवृत्तिप्रयत्नो जबलवर्णस्रोतः प्रीणनधीघृतिस्मृतिमनोबोधनदिक्रियः।
Udana located in the chest, moves in the region of the throat, nose and umbilicus.
Udana vata karma
Udana vata attends to the functions of producing speech, activities (physical movements, actions) valour, strength, colour; nourishing the tissue pores (by providing them nutrition); discrimination, courage, memory, awakening of the mind and such others.
Vyana vata sthana
व्यानो ह्रद्यवस्थितः कृत्स्तदेहचरः शीघ्रतरगति: गतिप्रसारणाकुञ्चनोत्क्षेपावक्षेपनिमेषोन्मेषजृम्भणान्नास्वादनस्त्रोतोविशोधनस्वे दासृकृस्त्रवणादिक्रियो योनौ च शुक्रप्रतिपादनो विभज्य चान्नस्य किट्टात् सारं तेन क्रमशो धातूंस्तर्पयति ।
Vyana located in the heart, moves all over the body with great speed.
Vyana vata karma
Vyana vata attends to functions such as movement (locomotion), expansion, contraction, upward movement, downward movement, opening and closing of the eyelids, yawning,feeling the tastes of food, clearing (or cleansing or widening) of the channels (or pores), causing the flow of sweat and blood, bringing the male reproductive tissue (semen vis a vis spermatozo) into the uterus, separating the nutrient portion and waste portion of the food (after its digestion) and supplying nourishment to all the dhatus in proper order.
Samana Vata sthana
समानोऽन्तरग्निसमीपस्थस्तत्सन्धुक्षण: पक्कामाशयदोषमलशुक्रार्तवाम्बुवहः स्त्रोतोविचारी तदवलम्बनान्नधारणपाचनविवेचनकिट्टाधोनयनादिक्रियः ।
Samana located near the digestive fire (in the stomach) kindles it.
Samana vata Karma
Samana vata moves inside the large intestine, stomach and small intestines, channels of the doshas, malas (wastes) sukra (reproductive tissue of the male), artava (menstrual fluid, and also ovum, thereproductive tissue of the female), and ambu (body fluids); supports them in their functions, attends to functions such as retaining of food, (in the alimentary tract), digestion, separation of essence and wastes and moving the waste products downwards and such other functions.
Apana Vata sthana
अपानस्त्वपान स्थितो बस्तिश्रोणिमेद्रवृषणवङ्क्षणोरुचरो विण्मूत्रशुक्रार्तवगर्भनिष्क्रमणादिक्रिय इति ॥२॥
Apana located in the rectum, moves along the urinary bladder, pelvis, penis, scrotum (testes) and groin.
Apana Vata Karma
Apana vata attends to elimination of faeces, urine, semen, menstrual fluid and foetus and such other functions (2).
Pancha pitta – five types of pitta dosha
पाचकरञ्जकसाधकालोचक भ्राजकत्वभेदैः पित्तम् ।
Pachaka, Ranjaka, Sadhaka, Alocaka and Bhrajaka are the five types of Pitta
Pachaka Pitta Sthana
तत्र यदामाशयपक्वाशयमध्यस्थं पञ्चमहाभूतात्मकत्वेऽपि तेजोगुणोत्कर्षात् क्षपितसोमगुणं ततश्च त्यक्तद्रवस्वभावं सहकारिकारणैर्वायुक्ले दादिभिरनुग्रहाद्दहनपचनादिक्रियया लब्धाग्निशब्दं पित्तमन्नं पचति सारकिट्टी विभजति शेषाणि च पित्तस्थानानि तत्रस्थमेवानुगृह्णाति तत् पाचकमित्युच्यते ।
That pitta which resides in between the amasaya (stomach) and pakvasaya (large intestine); though composed of all the five bhutas, yet has the predominance of qualities of tejas bhuta and deficiency of qualities of apbhuta. Hence, it is devoid of the qualities (properties) of liquids. Helped by exciting (helping, cooperating) causes such as vata, moisture (water) and others,
Pachaka Pitta Karma
Pachaka pitta attends to the functions such as burning and digestion, so obtains the name Agni (fire); it digests the food, separates the essence and wastes from it; remaining in its own place it supports (gives help) the other pittas, located in different places. This pitta is known as Pacaka.
Notes: Pachaka pitta described as residing in between amasaya and pak wasaya should be taken to mean as residing inside these organs. Though it is actually existing in the from of liquid, it does not possesses the qualities of (sneha) moisture and (saitya) coldness which are the special qualities of liquids generally; it requires the help of other factors to carry on its functions. It supports the other pittas and also dhatwagnis (similar substances present in the tissues).
Ranjaka Pitta Sthana
आमाशयस्थं तु रसस्य रञ्जनाद्रज्ञ्जकम् ।
The pitta, located in the amasaya (stomach) is known as Ranjaka pitta.
Ranjaka Pitta Karma
Ranjaka Pitta imparts red colour to rasa (plasma).
Sadhaka Pitta Sthana
हृदयस्थं बुद्धिमेधाभिमानोत्सा प्रेतार्थसाधनात्साधकम् ।
The pitta located in the heart is known as Sadhaka,
Sadhaka pitta karma
Sadhaka pitta helps achieve the aims of life, by attending to functions such as discrimination, intelligence, pride and enthusiasm.
Alochaka Pitta Sthana
दृष्टिस्थं रूपालोचनादालोचकम् ।
The pitta which is found in the eyes is known as Alochaka,
Alochaka Pitta Karma
Alochaka Pitta helps in visulization.
Bhrajaka Pitta Sthana
त्वक्स्थं त्वचो भ्राजनात् भ्राजकम् ।
That which is located in the skin is known as Bhrajaka,
Bhrajaka Pitta Karma
तदभ्यङ्गपरिषेकालेपादीन पाचयति छायाश्च प्रकाशयति ॥३॥
Bhrajaka pitta helps expression of colour. It digests the materials used in the form of oil-massage, water-bath, application of paste, (poultices linaments) over the skin and reflects the complexon. (3)
Pancha Kapha – five types of kapha dosha
अवलम्बकक्लेदकबोधकतर्पकश्लेषकत्वभेदैः श्लेष्मा |
Avalambaka, Kledaka, Bodhaka, Tarpaka and Slesaka are the five types of Kapha.
Avalambaka Kapha sthana
सतूरस्थ: स्ववीर्येण त्रिकस्यान्नवीर्येण च सह हृदयस्य च शेषाणां च श्लेष्मस्थानानां तत्रस्थ एवोदकर्मणावलम्बनादवलकम्बक इत्युच्यते ।
That kapha which resides in the chest, helps the areas around the shoulders, arms and neck by its own capacity.
Avalambaka Kapha karma
Avalambaka kapha helps the heart by the capacity of the essence of food; remaining in its own place supports the other kaphas by contributing the properties of water, is known as Avalambaka, because of its supporting functions.
Kledaka kapha sthana
आमाशयस्थितोऽन्नसड्यातस्य क्लेदनात् क्लेदकः ।
The kapha which resides in the amasaya (stomach) is known as Kledaka
Kledaka kapha karma
Kledaka kapha moistens the solid food.
Bodhaka kapha sthana
रसनास्थ: सम्यग्रसबोधनात् बोधकः ।
That which is located in the tongue
Bodhaka kapha karma
Bodhaka kapha helping in appreciation of tastes is called as Bodhaka.
Tarpaka Kapha sthana
शिरस्थश्चक्षुरादीन्द्रियतर्पणात् तर्पकः ।
That which resides in the head
Tarpaka kapha karma
Tarpaka kapha nourishes the sense organs is called as Tarpaka.
Sleshaka Kapha sthana
पर्वस्थोऽस्थिसन्धिश्लेषणात् श्लेषक इति ॥४॥
That which resides in the joints.
Sleshaka kapha karma
Sleshaka kapha providing lubrication to the bones is called as Slesaka. ( 4 )
एवममीषु स्थानेषु भूयिष्ठमविकृताः सकलशरीर व्यपिनोऽपि वातपित्तश्लेष्माणो वर्तन्ते । तेषां वृद्धिहेतुर्वक्ष्यते निदानेषु ।
सामान्यतश्च वृद्धिक्षयलक्षणमुक्तं पूर्वाध्याये । वृद्धिर्हि द्वेधा । चयप्रकोपभेदेन ।
तत्रोष्णगुणोपहिता रुक्षादयो वायोः सञ्चयमापादयन्ति। शीतगुणोपहिताः प्रकोपमुष्णगुणोपहिताः स्रिग्धादयः प्रशमम्।
शीतगुणोपहितास्थीक्ष्णादयः पित्तस्य चयमुष्ण गुणोपहिताः कोपं शीतगुणोपहिता मन्दादयः प्रशमम् ।
शीतगुणोपहिताः स्त्रिग्धादयः कफस्य चयमुष्णगुणोपहिताः कोपं तथा तु रूक्षादयः प्रशमम् ॥५॥
In this manner, the doshas, though present all over the body, are also found abundantly in certain places when they are normal.
The causes which bring about their increase will be described in the Nidana section. In the previous chapter, the symptoms caused by their increase and decrease generally, have already been described.
Dvividha Vriddhi – two kinds of increase
Vriddhi (increase of doshas) is of two kinds, viz. chaya and prakopa;
ruksha (dryness and other qualities (of vata), associated with ushna (heat) bring about Vata Sanchaya;
associated with sita (cold) they cause Vata Prakopa;
snigdha (unctousness)and other qualities associated with usna (heat) bring about Vata Prasama (mitigation).
Tiksna (penetrating) and other qualities of pitta) associated with sita (cold) cause Pitta sancaya,
associated with usna (heat) cause Pitta prakopa;
manda ( slowness) and others associated with sita ( cold) will cause Kapha sancyya,
associated with usna (heat) cause Kapha prakopa;
ruksa ( dryness) and others associated with usna (heat) will cause Kapha prasama. (15)
चयो वृद्धिः स्वधाम्न्येव प्रद्वेषो वृद्धिहेतुषु । विपरीतगुणेच्छा च कोपस्तून्मार्गगामिता ॥६॥
लिङ्गानां दर्शन स्वेषामस्वास्थ्यं रोगसम्भवः । स्वस्थानस्थस्य समता विकारासम्भवः शमः ॥७॥
देहेऽक्रुद्धो ऽनिलवशात् कृत्त्रे ऽर्द्धेऽवयवेऽपि वा । दोषो विकारं कुरुते खे वर्षमिव तोयदा ॥८॥
Chaya (sancaya) in defined as “increase (of the dosha) in its own seats (places); such a condition produces aversion to the factors which were the causes of increase and desire for factors which have the qualities opposite of those of the dosha.
Kopa (Prakopa) is the movement of the increased dosha even to the seats (places) of other doshas; such a condition causes the manifestation of its own abnormal symptoms, loss of health, and occurance of diseases.
Sama (Prasama) is presence of the doshas in their normal condition, in their own place without giving rise to diseases.
Just as the clouds are brought together at one place by the wind (and made to rain) the doshas which have undergone increase are made to produce diseases either in the whole body, in half of it or in any one organ, being brought there by the influence of vata. (6-8)
अथ प्रकुपिता वातादयोनानाविधैर्विकारैः शरीरमुपतपन्ति । आविष्कृततमास्तु वायोरशीतिर्विकाराः तद्यथा । नखभेदो विपादका पादशूलं पादभ्रंशः सुप्तपादता वातखुडता गुल्फग्रहः पिण्डिकोद्वेष्टनं गृध्रसी जानुविश्लेषः ऊरुसाद ऊरुस्तम्भः पड्गुत्वं गुदभ्रंशा गुदार्तिर्वृषणाक्षेपो मेढ्रस्तम्भो वड्ङ्क्षणानाहः श्रोणिभेदो विड्भेदो उदावर्तः खञ्जत्वं कुब्जत्वं वामनत्वं त्रिकग्रहः पार्श्वावमर्द उदरावेष्टो हृन्मोहो हृद्रवो वक्षोघर्षस्तथा वक्षोपराधो वक्षस्तोदो बाहुशोषस्तथा ग्रीवास्तम्भो मन्यास्तम्भः कण्ठोद्ध्वंसो हनुस्तम्भस्ताल्वोष्ठभेदो दन्तभदो दन्तशैथिल्यं मूकत्वं वाक्सङ्गः प्रलापः कषायास्यता मुखशोषो रसाज्ञत्वं घ्राणनाशः कर्णशूलमशब्दश्रुतिरुच्चैः श्रुतिर्बाधिर्य वर्त्मस्तम्भो वर्त्मसङ्कोचस्तिमिरमक्षिशूलमक्षिव्युदासो भ्रूव्युदासः शङ्खभेदो ललाट भेदः शिरोरुक्केशभूमिस्फुटनमर्दितमेकाङ्गरोगः सर्वाङ्गरोग आक्षेपको दण्डकः श्रमो भ्रमो वेपथुम्भा ग्लानिर्विषादो रौक्ष्यं पारुष्यं श्यावारूणाभासत्वमस्वप्नोऽनवस्थितचित्तता च ।।९।।
So, Vata and other doshas which have undergone abnormal increase cause troubles to the body by producing different kinds of diseases.
Vataja Vikara – disorders produced by Vata Dosha
The following eighty are the diseases produced by Vata which have clear manifestation (specific, more common, predominant); craking of the nails, cracks of the feet, pain in the feet, ptosis of the feet, loss of sensation in the feet, pain in the feet, pain and stiffness of the ankles, claudiction of the calfmuscles, sciatica, cutting pain in the knee joint, loosness of the knee, weakness (debility) of the thighs, stiffness (loss of movement) of the thighs, lameness of both legs, prolapse of the rectum, pain in te rectum, indrawing of the testicles, flacidity of the penis, enlargement (swelling, mass) in the groin, pulling pain in the pelvis, diarrhoea, upward movement (reverse peristalisis), lameness by one leg, hunchback (kyphosis), dwarfism, pain and stiffness of the shoulder region, pain and stiffness in the back, twisting pain in the flanks, diffuse pain in the abdomen; slowing of the heart palpitation (increase of heart rate) pain in the chest, constriction (obstruction) in the chest, pricking pain in the chest, wasting of the arms, stiffness of the neck, stiffness of the nape of the neck, scratching (irritation, itching) in the throt, stiffness of the lower jaw, cutting pain of the palate, pain in the lips, pain in the teeth, looseness of the teeth, inability to talk, obstruction to speaking, irreleant, excess talk, astringent taste in the mouth, dryness of the mouth, loss of taste perception, loss of smell perception, pain in the ears, hearing sound which are not existing, hearing of loud sounds, loss of hearing. stiffness (loss of movement) of the eyelids, contraction of the eyelids, loss of vision, pain in the eyes, ptosis of the eyes, ptosis of the eye brows, cutting pain in the temples, cutting pain in the forehead, headache, craking of the skin of the scalp; facial paralysis, paraplegia, paralysis of the whloe body, convulsions, tetanus, fatigue, giddiness, shivering, yawning, lassitude, remorse (depression, sorrow); dryness, roughness, blackish-red (brown) discolouration, loss of sleep and instability of the mind. (9)
Pittaja Vikara – disorders produced by pitta dosha
पित्तविकाराः पुनरोषः प्लोषो दवो दवथुर्विदाहोऽन्तर्दाहस्त्वग्दाहोंऽसदाहो धूमको उम्लक ऊष्माधिक्यमतिस्वेदोऽङ्गन्धो ऽवयवसदनं शोणितक्लेदो मांसक्लेदस्त्वङ्मांसावदरणं चर्मदरणं रक्तपित्तं हरितत्वं हारिद्रत्वं नीलिका कक्ष्या कामला तिक्तास्यता लोहितगन्धास्यता पूतिमुखत्वं तृष्णाधिक्यमतृप्तिरास्यपाको गलपाकोऽक्षिपाकः पायुपाको मेढ्रपाको जीवादानं तमः प्रवेशो हरितहारिद्रनेत्रमूत्रशकृत्त्वं च ॥ १०॥
Again, 40 diseases produced by Pitta are:- – osa, plosa, dava, davathu, vidaha, antardaha (all these are different kinds of burning sensation and have been difined in a further passage), burning sensation in the skin in the shoulders, feeling of movement of hot fumes, feeling of sourness of belching, increase of body temperature, excess perspiration, foul smell of the body, weakness of the organs, increase of moisture on the blood and in the muscles; putrefaction (decomposition, sepsis) of the skin, muscles, cracks in the skin, appearance of red coloured rashes, boils and patches, bleeding disease; green yellow or blue discolouration tumor (mass) in the axilla, jaundice, bitter taste in the mouth, smell of iron in the mouth, bad smell in the mouth, severe thirst, lack of contentment, ulcerations of the mouth, throat, eyes, rectum, and urethra; fear of death (anxiety), entering into darknes (coma); greenish and yellowishdiscolouration of the eyes, urine and faeces. (10)
Kaphaja Vikara – Disorders produced by kapha
श्लेष्मविकारस्तु तृप्तिस्तन्द्रा निद्राधिक्यं स्तैमित्यं गुरुगात्रतालस्यं मुखमाधुर्यं प्रसेकः श्लेष्मोगिरणं मलाधिक्यं बलासो हृदयोपलेपः कण्ठोपलेपो धमनीप्रतिचयो गलगण्डोऽति स्थौल्यं शीताग्नित्वमुदर्दः श्वेतावभासता श्वेतनेत्रमूत्रशकृत्त्वं च ॥११॥
The disease produced by Kapha are 20:-abnormal feeling of contentment (lack of desire for anything ), stupor, excess sleep, stiffness (stability, immobility, firmness), feeling of heaviness of the body, lazyness, sweet taste in the mouth, excess salivation, expectoration of sputum, increase of waste products and kapha, accumulation of kapha (fluid) in the heart and throat, increased fullness of the arteries, enlargement of glands in the neck, obesity, decrease of body temperature and of digestive activity, cold swelling, whitish disocolouration of the skin, eyes, urine and feces. (11)
तत्र सर्वाङ्गीणस्तीव्रः सन्तापो दाहः । स्वेदारतिमानोषः। प्रादेशिकः स्वेदरहितोऽग्न्यार्चषेव दाहः प्लोषः । मुखोष्ठतालुषु दाहो दवः । चक्षुरादीन्द्रियेषु दाहोदवथुः। पाणिपादांसमूलेषु विविधः सन्तापो विदाहः । कोष्ठे दाहोऽन्तर्दाहः । शिरोग्रीवाकण्ठतालुषु धूमायनं धूमकः । सान्तर्दाहहृदयशूलोद्वारोऽम्लकः। शोणितस्य कृष्णतादौर्गन्ध्यतनुत्वानि क्लेदः। मांसस्य तु कृष्णता दौर्गन्ध्यंच। बाह्यत्वक्संहतिश्चर्मकोथः। कोष्ठगौरवादाहारास्पृहा तृप्तिः। अन्ये पुनराहुरन्नाभिन तृप्तिरिव तृप्तिरोचकः । निद्रार्त्तस्येव विषयाग्रहणं तन्द्रा | स्तैमित्यं तु प्रमीलक इत्यन्यैः पठितम् । उपलेप इवोपलेपः । तदतिशयः प्रतिचयो ऽतिपूरणम् । अग्नेरतिमन्दता शैत्यम् | उरसोऽभिष्यन्द उदर्दः । केषाञ्चिच्छीतवेपथुरुदर्दः । अन्ये पुनराहुः ॥१२॥
शीतपानीयसंस्पर्शाच्छीतकाले विशेषतः । सरागकण्डूः शोफः स्यादुदर्दः स कफोद्भव इति ॥१३॥
महाविकारास्तु यथास्वमेवोपदेक्ष्यन्ते । क्षुद्रविकाराः पुनर्यदेवाङ्गमाविशन्ति तदुपपदमेव नाम लभन्ते । यथा । नखशङ्खललाटभेदाः सान्तर्दाहकण्ठहृदयोपलेपादयः । तेषां हि तथैव स्वरूपमुपदिष्टं भवति ॥ १४ ॥
Daha is severe burning sensation all over the body, Osa is burning sensation accompanied with sweating and restlessness; plosa is a calised burning sensation as though touched by flame; burning sensation in the mouth, lips, and palate is dava; davathu is burning sensation in the eyes and other sense organs; different kinds of burning sensation in the palms, soles and shoulders is vidaha, burning sensation inside the alimentary tract is antardaha; feeling of movement of hot fumes inside the head, neck, throat and palate is dhumaka; burning sensation inside, pain in the heart and sour belchings together is amlaka; blackish discolouration, bad smell and thinness of the blood is sonitakleda; mamsakleda is black discolouration and bad smell in the muscles; increased thickness of the skin is carmakotha.
Feeling of heaviness of the abdomen causing lack of desire for food is trpti, others say that trpti is lack of desire for food and drinks or loss of appetite (anorexia); inability of perception as though engrossed in sleep is tandra; others say that staimitya is pramilaka (deep sleep) or unconsciousness); upalepa is feeling of being covered with a pasteor smeared with greasy material; excessive fullness or smeared with gresay material is praticaya; saitya is profound decrease of body temperature; udarda is accumulation of fluid in the chest, according to some others, udarda is shivering associated with cold (rigors), still other say that udarda is swelling, red in colour with itching seen specially in cold season from contact with cold water and produced by kapha. (12-13)
So far only major diseases were mentioned. Minor diseases are named with the prefix of the name of the organ which they affect, for example, nakhabheda, Snikhabheda, lalatabheda, antardaha, kanthopalepa, hrdayopalepa etc., the features of such diseases are described in that manner. (13-14)
सर्वेषु तेषु तेष्वनुक्तेषु चान्येष्वसङ्ख्येयत्वाद्विकारेष्विमान्येव दोषाणामात्मलिङ्गानि सकलशरीर व्यापीन्यव्यभिचारीणि च । तथा कर्माण्युपक्रमश्च । तथात्मलिङ्गान्यायुष्कामीये निर्दिष्टानि ॥ १५ ॥
In all such diseases which are not mentioned here which are innumerable, the features of the doshas only are seen manifesting all over the body without any exception. So their (doshas) functions and methods of treatment are all the same. The features (qualities and properties) specific to each of the doshas have already been described in Ayuskamiya (chapter 1) ( 15 )
Vriddha Dosha karma – functions of incresed dosha
Vriddha Vata karma – functions of increased vata
कर्माणि तु वायोः स्रंसव्याससङ्गसादभेदतोदहर्षतर्षवर्त्ताङ्गमर्दकम्प व्यथवेष्टभङ्गशूलशोषस्वा स्वाप पारुष्यसैषिर्यसङ्कोच स्पन्दनानि कषायरसत्वं श्यावारुणवर्णता च पित्तस्य दाहोष्मपाकस्वेद क्लेदकोथस्त्राव रागा: कट्वम्लरसत्वं शुक्लारुणवर्ज्यवर्णता च । श्लेष्मणः कण्डूस्थैर्यगौरवोपदेहस्त्रे हशैत्यबन्धचिरकारित्वानि मधुरलवणरसत्वं श्वेतवर्णता चेति ॥१६॥
The functions of Vata which has undergone vriddhi (increase, aggravation) are causing drooping, expansion, obstruction, and weakness of the bodyparts, tearing pain, pricking pain, horripilations, thirst, hardening, squeezing pain all over the body, termors, misery (dull discomfort), constricting pain, breaking pain, continuous pain; dryness (evaporation), loss of sensation, brittleness, hallowness, contractions, throbbing of the body parts; astringent taste in the mouth and blackish red discolouration.
Vriddha pitta karma – functions of increased pitta
The functions of (increased) Pitta are: causing of burning sensation, increase of boty temperature, formation of ulcers, excess perspiration, increase of moisture (by excess secretions), putrifaction (decomposition), exudation, redness, pungent and sour taste in the mouth and appearance of other colours except white and crimson.
Vriddha Kapha karma – functions of increased kapha
Functions of increased Kapha are: causing itching, immobility, heaviness, accumulation of waste products forming coating inside the channels and organs, increase of moisture (unctuosness), coldness, obstruction, slowing of actions, sweet and salt taste in the mouth and whitish discolouration. (16)
कपिलबलस्त्वेषां स्वलक्षणानि रसतो निर्दिदेश। कट्वम्ललवणं पित्तं स्वाद्वम्ललवणः कफः । कषायतिक्तकटुकोवायुर्द्दष्टोऽनुमानतः ॥१७॥
सुश्रुतः पुनः पठति | पित्तं विदग्धमम्लतामुपैति श्लेष्मा लवणताम् । तदेवमेतानि वाय्वादिरूपकर्माण्यवहितः सम्यगुपलक्षयेदागमप्रत्यक्षानुमानैः। अनन्तरं च देशकालमात्रा दीन् प्रमाणीकृत्याश्वेवोपक्रमेतेति । भवन्ति चात्र ॥ १८ ॥ *
Kapilabala has correlated these special symptoms with the taste (perception); he says “Pitta which has increased produces pungent, sour and salt tastes (in the mouth), Kapha which has increased causes sweet, sour and salt tastes and Vata undergoing increase will produce astringent, bitter and pungent tastes; by (noting) these taste the increase of the connected dosha is to be inferred” Susruta states further; Pitta in its vidagdha state (digestive phase) becomes sour and kapha becomes salty.
In this way the specific properties (qualities) and functions of Vata and other doshas are to be determined by the help of the scriptures (medical texts), personal observation and inferences. Later correlating such a determination with habitat, time, quantity etc., treatment (of the increased dosha) should be started immediately. (18)
Doshasamyoga – combinations of doshas
वक्ष्यन्तेऽतः परं दोषा वृद्धिक्षयविभेदतः । पृथक् त्रीन् विद्धि संसर्गस्त्रिधा तत्र तु तान्नव ॥१९॥
त्रीनेव समया वृद्ध्या षडेकस्यातिशायने । त्रयोदश समस्तेषु षड् द्व्येकातिशयेन तु ॥ २० ॥
एकं तुल्याधिकैः षट् च तारतम्यविकल्पनात् । पञ्चविंशतिरित्येवं वृद्धैः क्षीणैश्च तावतः ॥२१॥
एकैकवृद्धिसमताक्षयैः षट् ते पुनश्च षट् । एकक्षयद्वन्द्ववृध्या सविपर्यययापि ते ॥२२॥
भेदा द्विषष्टिर्निर्दिष्टास्त्रिषष्टिः स्वाथ्यकारणम् । रोग्यवस्थासुयुगपद् वृद्धिसाम्यक्षयानुगम् ॥२३॥
Further on will be described the classification of the doshas in respect of their increase and decrease; they are of three kinds from the increase of each dosha individually; from the combination of two doshas undergoing increase they are three and thus make a total of nine altogether; from the normalcy of one dosha (and increase of other two) it will be three; and six altogether from the increase of one dosha more than the other two. One group from the increase of all the three doshas increased together; all these together form thirteen; from the combination of two doshas which have undergone increase more than the remaining one, it will be six; one from the combination of all the three undergoing increase; from the greater or lesser degree of increase it will be six. In this manner there will be twentyfive combinations of doshas in respect of their increase. An equal number will be in respect of their decrease. Again it will be six more from the combinations of increase of one, decrease of one and normalcy of one dosha; it will be six more from the combination of decrecase of one dosha and increase of the other two; thus there are sixtytwo; the sixtythird is the one responsible for maintenance of health (all the three doshas being in their normal condition) (19-23)
षट्कं हि दुर्बोधतरं विकारैरुपदेक्ष्यते । प्रकृतिस्थं यदा पित्तं वृद्धो वायुः कफक्षये ॥ स्थानादादाय गात्रेषु यत्र यत्र विसर्पति ॥२४॥
तदा भेदश्च दाहश्च तत्र तत्रानवस्थितौ । गात्रोद्देशे तथा स्यातां बलहानिपरिश्रमौ ॥ २५ ॥
पकृतिस्थं कफं क्षीणे पित्ते वायुर्यदा बली । कर्णेत् कुर्यात् तदा शूलं सशैत्यस्तम्भगौरवम् ॥२६॥
प्रकृतिस्थं यदा वातं पित्तं वृद्धं कफक्षये। संरुणाद्धि तदा दाहः शूलं चास्योपजायते ॥२७॥
प्रकृतिस्थं कफं वृद्धं पित्तं वायुक्षये यंदा । सन्निरुन्ध्यात्तदा कुर्यात् सतन्द्रागौरवं ज्वरम् ॥ २८ ॥
प्रकृतिस्थं यदा वायुं वृद्धः पित्तक्षये कफः । सन्निरुन्ध्यात्तदा कुर्याच्छीतकं गौरवं ज्वरम् ॥ २९ ॥
प्रकृतिस्थं यदा वायुं वृद्धः पित्तक्षये कफः । सन्निरुन्ध्यात्तदा कुर्यान्मन्दाग्नित्वं शिरोग्रहम् ॥३०॥
निद्रातन्द्रोपलेपांश्च हृद्रोगं गात्रगौरवम् । ष्ठीवनं पित्तकफयोर्नखादीनां च पीतताम् ॥३१॥
During the course of diseases, the following six types of increase, decrease and normalcy of the doshas which are very difficult to determine are described hereunder.
Vata which has undergone increase when kapha undergoes decrease, expels the normal pitta from its places to other places of the body producing tearing pain, burning sensation, loss of strength and fatigue in those places.
Vata which has undergone increase when pitta undergoes decrease, expels the normal kapha from its places to other places in the body, producing constant pain, coldness, stiffness ( loss of movement) and feeling of heaviness in them.
When pitta has undergone increase and kapha undergoes decrease, vata which is in normal condition blocks the movement of Pitta producing burning sensation and constant pain.
When kapha is normal, pitta is increased; and vata decreased; the increased pitta produces fever associatd with stupor and feeling of heaviness of the body.
When vata is normal, pitta is increased and kapha decreased, there will be chills, heaviness and pain.
When the pitta is normal, kapha is increased and vata decreased, there will be dyspepsia, pain in the head, sleep, stupor, coating (of the channels) diseases of the heart, heaviness of te body, expectoration of pitta and kapha and yellow discolouration of the nails and other parts. (23-31)
ये दोषवृद्धिक्षययोर्विकाराः कीर्तिताः पृथक् । शेषेष्वपि तु तानेव कल्पयेत्तद्यथायथम् ॥ ३२ ॥
The symptoms of increase and decrease of the doshas which have been describd separately above, should be anticipated in other cases also. (32)
संसर्गाद्रसरुधिरादिभिस्तथैषां दोषाणां क्षयसमताविवृद्धिभेदैः । आनन्त्यं तरतमयोगतश्च यातान् जानीयादवहितमानसो यथास्वम् ॥३३॥
The symptoms that manifest as a result of increase and decrease of doshas, their combination with rasa, rakta and others (dhatus and malas) both in their normal and abnormal conditions and in greater and lesser degree, will be endless (innumerable), and can be understood only with a mind intent on it. (33).
॥ इति विंशोऽध्यायः ॥
Thus ends the twentieth chapter.