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Ashtanga samgrahaRITUCHARYA ADHYAYA - Seasonal Regimen - Ashtanga Samgraha 4

RITUCHARYA ADHYAYA – Seasonal Regimen – Ashtanga Samgraha 4

अथात ऋतुचर्यां व्याख्यास्यामः । इतिहस्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥ १ ॥

We will now expound the chapter called Ritucharya (seasonal regimen); thus said Atreya and other great sages.

Kala – time

कालो हि नाम भगवाननादिनिधनो यथोपचितकर्मानुसारी ।

यदनुरोधादादित्यादयः खादयश्च महाभूतविशेषास्तथा तथा विपरिणमन्तो जन्मवतां

जन्ममरणस्यर्तुरसवीर्यदोपदेहबलव्यापत्सं पदां च कारणत्वं प्रत्ययतां प्रतिपद्यन्ते ॥ २॥

Kala (time) is divinity, it has neither a begining nor an end, it follows the accumulated effect of actions (of the past), Ordained by it, the Adityas, Kha (akasa) and other mahabhuta undergo transformation, it is the cause for the birth and death of all living beings, for the disorders and excellence of the seasons; of the tastes and potency (of all the substances); of disorder or excelence of the strength of the doshas and the body. (2)

Notes: Adityas are the shining objects in the sky and includes the sun and other planets, the stars etc. The five mahabhutas are, the Prthvi, Ap, Tejas, Vayu and Akasa, from the combination of which all the things in the universe are created, Everything in this universe is constantly undergoing change. The change from an earlier condition to its succeding condition is what is called “Kala” (time) or in other words “Parinama” (change). Because of the change, only we recognise myriads of substances in the world. Everything in the cosmos starting from the planets down to the minutest substance, undergoing change or transformations, follows some orderliness which can be recognised. The changes in the atmosphere into what is called the ‘seasons’ follow a defencte order. So also the physical body of all living beings. These changes are inexorable (unavoidable, uncontrollable) goes on silently without break. Beacuse of these changes only the body goes in for different conditions (age); the properties of substances such as taste, potency etc., are determined and the good or bad of all things are formed.

Kala Vibhaga – divisions of time

स मात्राकाष्ठाकलानाडिकामुहूर्तयामाहोरात्रपक्षमासर्त्वयनवर्षभेदेन द्वादशधा विभज्यते ॥ ३॥

तत्राक्षिनिमेषो मात्रा । ताः पञ्चदश काष्ठा । तास्त्रिंशत् कला ।

ताः सदशभागा विंशतिर्नाडिका । नाडिकाद्वयं मुहूर्त ।

ते तुल्यरात्रिन्दिवे राशिभागे चत्वारः पादोना यामः । तैश्चतुर्भिरहो रात्रिश्च ।

पञ्चदशाहोरात्राः पक्षः। पक्षद्वयं मासः स शुक्लान्तः ।

तैर्मार्गशीर्षादिभिर्द्विसंख्यैः क्रमाद्धेमन्त शिशिरवसन्तग्रीष्मवर्षाशरदाख्याः षडृतवो भवन्ति ।

तेषु शिशिरादयस्त्रयो रवेरुदगयनमादानञ्च शेषा दक्षिणायनं विसर्गश्च । तावादानविसर्गौ वर्षम् ॥ ४॥

It is divided into the following twelve parts – Matra, Kastha, Kala,

Nadika, Muhurta, Yama, Ahoratra, Paksa, Masa, Rutu, Ayana and Varsa.(3)

The period of time required for winking the eyelid once is a Matra; fifteen of them make one Kastha; thirty of them is Kala, they with addition of ten and twenty (30+10+20) make one Nadika, two nadikas make one Mahurta, they are four in each equal parts, in day and night; Four muhurtas, minus one-fourth of it is a Yama. Four yama make one Ahas (day) and four make one Ratra (night); fifteen such day and nights together make one Paksa (fortnight), two paksas make one Masa (month); culminating with the end of the white half; Masas (months) starting with Margasirsa, in combination of two succeeding ones constitute the six Rutus such as Hemanta, Sisira, Vasanta, Grisma. Varsa and Sarad respectively; the three of them commencing with Sisira are charectorised by the udagayana (northerly movement) of the sun and is also called Adana; the remaining three is Daksinayana (southern movement of the sun) and is Visarga; both Adana and Visarga together is one Varsa (year) (4).

Notes: The eternal and continuous time has been subdivided into many arbitrary divisions for convieniance to understand the changes in our day-to-day activities. Wisemen of ancient India considered the movement of the eyelids as ideal to be minimum unit of time and called as Matra (measure, unit). Successive number of such units were given different names as kasta, kala etc.

Uttarayana – northern solastice

तयोरादानमाग्नेयम् । तस्मिन् खलु कालस्वभावमार्गपरिगृहीतोऽत्यर्थोप्णगभस्तिजालमण्डलो

ऽर्कस्तत्संपर्काद्वायवश्च तीव्ररूक्षाः सोमजं गुणमुपशोषयन्तो जगतः स्नेहमाददाना ऋतुक्रमेणो

पजनितरौक्ष्या रूक्षान् रसांस्तिक्लकषायकटुकानभिप्रबलयन्तो नृणां दौर्बल्यमावहन्ति ॥५॥ –

Of these two ( ayanas), the Adana (Uttarayana northern solastice ) is agneya (hot, having predominance of heat). The sun will be having very hot rays, its burning disc surrounded by circular ring and emits great heat. By contact with hot rays of the sun, the air also becomes hot and dry; both together, dry up all the moisture of the earth, take away all the cooling qualities ( portions); the dryness caused thereby, makes the bitter, astringent and pungent tastes more active and brings about debility in human beings. ( 5 )

Dakshinayana – southern solastice

विसर्गस्तु सौम्यः । तस्मिन्नपि कालमार्गमेघवातवर्षाभिहतप्रभावे दक्षिणायनगेऽर्के

शशिनि चाव्याहतबले शिशिराभिर्भाभिः शश्वदाप्यायमाने माहेन्द्रसलिल प्रशान्त सन्तापे जगत्यरूक्षा

रसाः प्रवर्धन्तेऽम्ललवणमधुरा यथाक्रमं बलं चोपचीयते नृणामिति ॥६॥

Visarga (daksinayana ) is saumya (mild, cool). In this period, the sky will be having abundance of clouds, breeze and rain; the sun moves in the southward direction, the moon is powerful, producing cold, the atmosphere is pleasant, helped by the cool rain which makes the sour, salt and sweet tastes more active in successive order and brings about increase of strength in humans.(6)

भवति चात्र हेमन्ते शिशिरे चाग्रयं विसर्गादानयोर्बलम् । शरद्वसन्तयोर्मध्यं हीनं वर्षानिदाघयोः॥७॥

The strength of the people will be at its best in hemanta and sisira (rutus); it will moderate in sarad and vasanta ( rutus ) and poor in varsa and nidagha (rutus) of Visarga and Adana respectively. (7)

Notes: The movement of the sun will be little more towards the north on its cliptical path and so the earth comes a little nearer to it. This is known as Uttarayana (northern solatice ). The sun’s heat becomes more, takes away the moisture of the earth and makes all men weak. Hence called as Adanakala. During the next six months the movement of the sun will be slightly towards south on its eliptical path, the earth moves a little away from the sun. This is known as Daksinaayana (southern solastice), the sun’s heat reduces, the moisture on the earth increases and this makes men stronger.. Hence called as Visargakala. This cycle is repeated alternately in a defenite time and pattern.

The nature of the two semesters described above are quite opposite of one another. The Uttarayana or northern solatice being hot, reservoirs of water dry up, the air is hot, the moisture of the plants and of all living beings becomes greatly reduced by evoporation, because of this, the body becomes weak, requires plenty of water to replenish the lost quantity; the plants loosing their moisture become sapless and the bitter, astringent and pungent tastes which originate with dominance of Tejas (fire like property) become more powerful. Hence such of the plants which have these properties by their nature will be found very powerful during this period. So people are advised to avoid the use of such substances possessing these tastes for their food and drink. This is the best season to collect medicinal plants containing bitter, astringent and pungent tastes.

The Daksinayana or southern solastice is colder. There will be rain aplenty, all the reservoirs of water are full and overflowing, the water content in plants and animals. increase considerably and makes them strong. The plants yeild good amount of juice. the sour, salt and sweet tastes which originate from predominance of AP bhuta (water elements) and such plants which have these tastes naturally are found in plenty. So people are advised to avoid the use of such substances for their food and drink. This is the best season to collect medicinal plants containing sour, salt and sweet tastes.

As stated earlier, two consequetive months starting six Rutus as follows:1. Margasira + Pusya 2. Magha + Phalguna 3. Caitra+ Vaisakha: 4. Jyesta + Asadha 5.Sravana+Bhadrapada= 6. Asvayuja + Kartika Hemanta (Winter) = Sisira (cold, dewy) = Vasanta (Spring) = Grisma (summer) = Varsa (rainy) = Sarat (autumn) = Hemantaritucharya (regimen of winter): = with Margasiras constitute the Mid Nov. -to Mid Jan. Mid Jan to Mid March Mid March to Mid July Mid May to Mid July Mid July to Mid Sept. Mid sept to Mid Nov.

धूमधूम्ररजोमन्दास्तुषाराविलमण्डलाः । दिगादित्या मरुच्छैत्यादुत्तरो रोमहर्षणः ॥८॥

लोध्रप्रियङ्गुपुन्नागलवल्यः कुसुमोज्वला: । दृप्ता गजाजमहिषवाजिवायससूकराः ।।९।।

हिमानीपटलच्छन्ना लीनमीनविहङ्गमाः । नयः सबाप्पा: सोप्माणः कूपापश्च हिमागमे ।। १० ।।

देहोष्माणो विशन्तोऽन्तः शीते शीतानिलाहताः । जठरे पिण्डितोष्माणं प्रबलं कुर्वतेऽनलम् ॥ ११ ॥

विसर्गे बलिनां प्रायः स्वभावादिगुरुक्षमम् । बृंहणान्यन्नपानानि योजयेत्तस्य युक्तये ॥१२॥

अनिन्धनोऽन्यथा सीदेदत्युदीर्णतयाऽथवा । धातूनपि पचेदस्य ततस्तेषां क्षयान्मरुत् ।।१३।।

तेजःसहचरः कुप्येच्छीत: शीते विशेषतः ।

During Hemanta rutu (winter season), all the quarters ( area all around) appears smoky with covering of thick mist, sun also is covered likewise, cold breeze from the north causes horripilations; trees like lodhra, priyangu, punnaga, lavali are full with blossom; animals such as the elephant, goat, buffalo, horse, crow and pigs are more ferocious; the reservoirs of water are covered with a layor of mist, with very little of fishes and birds; rivers covered with mist, the water of wells and ponds are warm. The temperature of the body (of men and animals) beaten by the cold wind goes deep inside, gathers like a lump in the stomach, increasing the digestive fire (causes great hunger, appetite and keen power of digestion); in this Visarga Kala, people will have the ability to digest foods which are hard by nature, so such foods and drinks which are strenthening to the body should be taken properly planned; otherwise, the digestive fire might get increased. If such foods are not available, it might even devour the dhatus ( tissues ) itself; with their ( or dhatus ) decrease or loss, Vata gets increased (aggravated) in association with the internal heat during this cold season.(8-13 1/2)

अतो हिमे भजेत्स्निग्धान् स्वाद्वम्ललवणान्रसान् ।।१४।।

बिलेशयौदकानूपप्रसहानां भृतानि च । मांसानि गुडपिष्टोत्थमद्यान्यभिनवानि च ॥ १५॥

मापेक्षुक्षीरविकृतिवसातैलनवौदनान् । व्यायामोद्वर्तनाभ्यङ्गस्वेदधूमाञ्जनातपान् ।॥१६॥

सुखोदकं शौचविधौ भूमिगर्भगृहाणि च । साङ्गारयानां शय्यां च कुथकम्बलसंस्कृताम् ।।१७।।

कुङ्कुमेनानुलिप्ताङ्गो गुरुणाऽगरुणाऽपि वा । लघूप्णैः प्रावृतः स्वप्यात् काले धूपाधिवासितः ॥ १८ ॥

पीनाङ्गनाङ्गसंसङ्गनिवारितहिमानिलः ।

So during Hemanta, foods which are fatty, having sweet, sour and salt taste predominantly should be taken; flesh of animals which live in burrows, water and marshy places; those which prey upon others for food, and animals which are specially fed (for the sake of food); fresh liquors prepared with treacle and flour, products of masa, sugarcane and milk, muscle-fat, oil and freshly harvested grains should be used as food; exercises, massage, oilbath, sudation, inhalation of smoke, basking in the sun, warm water for washing; residing in houses which are under the ground, or equipped with ovens, bedding made of thick cotton and wollen blankets; in the company of beautiful woman who has adorned herself which perfumes like thick paste of kumkuma and agaru nd put on thin but warm cloth (of skin or silk); getting relieved of the cold with warm embrace of the woman having well developed parts of the body and thus get over the cold and breeze. (14-18 1/2)

Notes:- The term ‘guru’in the context of food refers both to large quantity and difficulty for digestion. Sveda or sudation are the methods to produce perspiration such as hot water bath etc.; keeping with a woman in the bed implies sexual intercourse also.

Sisiraritucharya – regimen of cold / dewy season

शिशिरे शीतमधिकं मेघमारुतवर्षजम् ॥ १९॥

रौक्ष्यं चाऽदानजं तस्मात् कार्य: पूर्वोऽधिकं विधिः । वसन्ते दक्षिणो वायुराताम्रकिरणो रविः ॥२०॥

नवप्रवालत्वक्पत्राः पादपाः ककुभोऽमलाः । किंशुकाशोकचूतादिवनराजिविराजिताः ॥ २१॥

कोकिलालिकुलालापकलकोलाहलाकुलाः । शिशिरे सञ्चितः श्लेष्मा दिनकृद्भाभिरीरितः ॥ २२ ॥

तदा प्रबाधमानोऽग्निं रोगान् प्रकुरुते बहून् । अतोऽस्मिंस्तीक्ष्णवमनधूमगण्डूपनावनम् ॥ २३ ॥

व्यायामोद्वर्त्तनक्षौद्रयवमोधूमजाङ्गलान् । सेवेत सुहृदुद्यानयुवतीश्च मनोरमाः॥२४॥

स्नातः स्वलङ्कृतः स्रग्वी चन्दनागरुरूपितः । विचित्रामत्रविन्यस्तान् सहकारोत्पलाङ्कितान् ॥ २५॥

निगढांश्चाऽसवारिष्टशीधुमाकमाधवान् । कथितं मुस्तशुण्ठयम्बु साराम्भः क्षौद्रवारि वा ॥२६॥

गुरुशीतदिवास्वप्नस्त्रिग्धाम्लमधुरांस्त्यजेत् ।

During Sisira rutu, the cold gets increased still more by the clouds, breeze and rain; dryness also will be found, it being the commencement of Adana kala; all the regimen described above for Hemanta rutu should be adopted more rigoursly and in greater measure during this Rutu. (19)

Vasantarutu carya – regimen for spring

During Vasantha rutu, the wind blows from the south, the sun’s rays are coppery red in colour; the trees are full of fresh spouts, bark and leaves; all the quarters (area all round) are clean and clear; trees like kimsuka, asoka, cuta and others adorn the forest kingdom; which reverberates with the pleasant sound of the cuckoo, bees etc. The sleyma (kapha) which has accumulated during the Sisira (rutu) gets increased still more by the effect of the hot sun, produces many diseases, by hampering the digestive activity.

So, administration or use of digestive emetics, inhalations, mouthgargles, nasal medication, exercise, massage; honey, barley, wheat and soup of meat of animals of the desert-like regions should be resorted to. Day-time should be spent in gardens in the company of friends and beautiful women who have taken bath, anonited their bodies with perfumes such as paste of candana and aguru and put on good dress and ornaments; fresh sahakara (mango juice mixed with sugar), fresh and pure asava, arista, sidhu, mardvika and madhava (different kinds of alcoholic beverage) kept in beautiful pots and served in different kinds of good looking vessels; water boiled with musta and sunthi, arambu (water processed with decoction of pith of trees such as asana, khadira, candana), madhvambu (water mixed with honey) should be used for drinking. Foods which are guru (hard to digest and more in quantity) and sita (cold); sleeping during day, materials which are fatty, sour and sweet should be avoided. (23-261/2)

Notes:- In Sisira rutu, kapha gets slightly incresed inside the body due to cold and will accumulate in thick consistence in many places. When the next season Vasanta dawns, the heat of the sun gradually increases and liquifies the thick kapha which fills up the tissues and cavities of the body by its increased volume. Left as such it leads on to the production of many diseases, so it should be removed out by force by emesis, inhalation of strong smoke, mouth gargles and nasal drops or reduced by indulgence in exercise etc. asava, arista, sidhu, mardvika and madhava are all mild alchoholic drinks; asava and aristas are prepared by fermenting infusions and decoctions respectively with addition of molasses; mardvika is prepared from grapes and madhava from honey; sarambha is water made fragrant by adding extracts of trees of astringent and bitter taste. All the above drinks and waters are intended to reduce the kapha in the body.

Grismaritucharya – regimen for summer


दिशो ज्वलन्ति भूमिश्च मारुतो नैऋतः सुखः । पवनातपसंस्वेदैर्जन्तवो ज्वरिता इव ॥२८॥

तापार्ततुङ्गमातङ्गमहिषैः कलुषीकृताः । दिवाकरकराङ्गारनिकरक्षपिताम्भसः॥२९॥

प्रवृद्धरोधसो नद्यः च्छायाहीना महीरुहाः । विशीर्णजीर्णपर्णाश्च शुष्कवल्कलताङ्किताः ॥ ३० ॥

आदत्ते जगतस्तेजस्तदाऽदित्यो भृशं यतः । व्यायामातपकद्दम्ललवणोष्णं त्यजेदतः ||३१||

मद्यं न सेव्यं स्वल्पं वा सेव्यं सुबहुवारि वा । अन्यथा शोफशैथिल्यदाहमोहान् करोति तत् ॥ ३२॥

नवमृद्भाजनस्थानि हृयानि सुरभीणि च । पानकानि समन्थानि सिताढ्यानि हिमानि च ।।३३।।

स्वादु शीतं द्रवं चानं जाङ्गलान्मृगपक्षिणः । शालिक्षीरघृतद्राक्षानालिकेराम्बुशर्कराः॥३४॥

तालवृन्तानिलान् हारान् स्रजः सकमलोत्पलाः । तन्वीर्मृणालवलयाः कान्ताश्चन्दनरूपिताः ॥ ३५॥

सरांसि वापीः सरितः काननानि हिमानि च । सुरभीणि निषेवेत वासांसि सुलघूनि च ॥३६॥

निप्पतयन्त्रसलिले स्वप्याद्धारागृहे दिवा । रात्रौ चाऽकाशतलके सुगन्धिकुसुमास्तृते ॥ ३७॥ कर्पूरचन्दनाङ्गो विरलानङ्गसङ्गमः ।

In Grisma rutu, the sun’s rays appear like that of flowers of atasi (light blue in colour) and are very hot; fire breaks out in the forests; the quarters and the earth seem to be burning with heat but the brecze from the southwest is comfotable; all the animals feel like suffering from fever by the effect of the hot wind, sun and consequent sweating; the water of rivers, ponds, lakes etc., are made dirty by elephants, buffaloes and other animals dipping themselves in water to reduce their heat; the quantity of water gets reduced by the strong heat of the sun; rivers appear prominent in their embankments (but with very little water), trees have no shade under them because of falling of ripened leaves; the leaves, bark and entwinning creepers are all dried up.

The sun being very hot takes away (withdraws) the strength of the earth (of all things on this earth) during this season; so people should avoid exercise, basking in the sun, substances which possess pungent, sour and salt tastes and hot (or producing heat inside); alcoholic drinks should not be taken, or taken in very little quantity or with addition of large quantity of water, otherwise it will produce oedema, looseness of the joints, burning sensations and delusion; syrups, thin gruels prepared with corn flour and sugar which are very sweet in taste and smell, kept in fresh mud pots are the ideal drinks. The food should be sweet, cold and liquid; meat of animals and birds living in desert-like regions, rice, milk, ghee, grapes, coconut water, sugar are to be made use of; cool breeze from fan prepard from the leaves of palm trees, head dress of garlands prepared from petals of lotus and lily should be worn; the company of women who are of thin build, adorned with garland of lotus, and anointed with the paste of sandal wood will be advisable; so also beautiful lakes, wells, ( ponds), rivers and forests which are cool and spreading pleasant fragrance are good for recreation; dress should be of very thin cloth and sprinkled with perfumes. It is best to sleep in apartment equipped with water fountains during day and during nights in an open area with sweet smelling flowers all around and in the company of a lady who has anointed herself with comphor and sandal paste. But sexual intercourse with her not being frequent. ( not daily) (27-371/2)

Varsa rutu carya – regimen for rainy seasons

वर्षासु वारुणो वायुः सर्वसस्यसमुद्गमः॥३८॥

भिन्भेन्द्रनीलनीलाभ्रवृन्दमन्दाविलं नभः । दीर्घिकानववार्यौघमग्नसोपानपङ्क्रयः ॥ ३९ ॥

वारिधाराभृशाघातविकासितसरोरुहाः । सरितः सागराकारा भूरव्यक्तजलस्थला ॥४०॥

मन्द्रस्तनितजीमूतशिखिदर्दुरनादिता । इन्द्रगोपधनुःखण्डविद्युदुद्योतदीपिता ॥४१॥

परितः श्यामलतृणा सिलिन्ध्रकुटजोज्वला । तदाऽदानाबले देहे मन्देऽग्नौ बाधिते पुनः॥४२॥

वृष्टिभूबाप्पतोयाम्लपाकदुष्टैश्चलादिभिः । बस्तिकर्म निषेवेत कृतसंशोधनक्रमः॥४३॥

पुराणाशालिगोधूमयवान् यूपरसैः कृतैः । निगदं मदिरारिष्टमार्द्वीकं स्वल्पमम्बु वा ॥४४॥

दिव्यं क्वथितकूपोत्थं चौण्डं सारसमेव वा । वृष्टिवाताकुलेत्वन्हि भोजनं क्लेदवातजित् ॥४५॥

परिशुष्कं लघुस्निग्धमुष्णाम्ललवणं भजेत् । प्रायोऽन्नपानं सक्षौद्रं संस्कृतं च घनोदये ॥४६॥

असरीसृपभूबाप्पशीतमारुतशीकरम् । साग्नियानं च भवनं निर्दंशमशकोन्दुरम् ॥४७॥

प्रघर्षोद्वर्तनस्रानधूमगन्धागरुप्रियः । यायात् करेणुमुख्याभिश्चित्रस्रग्वस्त्रभूषितः । ॥ ४८ ॥

नदीजलोदमन्थाहः स्वप्नातिद्रवमैथुनम् । तुपारपादचरणव्यायामार्ककरांस्त्यजेत् ।।४९।।

In Varsa rutu, the wind blows from the west, all vegetations springs up, the sky will be bright blue in colour resembling a sapphire freshly cut; the clouds move slowly making the sky appear dirty; the flight of steps of ponds and lakes become covered with fresh water, the lotus buds open out by the frequent rain fall; the rivers appear like occan, the demarcation of land area and area of water are not clear, pleasnat sounds from the clouds, peacocks and frogs are heard constantly; the earth shines with indragopa (cochineal) insects (insects with bright red coloured fur crawling on the ground) rainbow and lightenings; green grass, mushrooms and kutaja trees with flowers are found all around; the strength of men being reduced by the effect of the season, the digestive capacity also becomes less and troubles the person (with indigestion), by the effect of rain, vapour of the earth, water and air, the food materials undergo sour digestion. So, resort to the use of basti (enemas) should be done after proper purificatory prodedures; old rice, wheat and barley, soup of pulses processed with ginger, oil etc., pure and good madira, arista and mardvika diluted with little quantity of water should be used; rain water, or water of wells, or water collected from depressions in rocks and water of lakes should be boiled well and used; as the days are full of rains and wind the food should be such which reduces moisture and vata in the body; when it is cloudy, substances which are dry, easy to digest, fatty, hot, sour and salt should be used as food and drink along with honey and well processed (with oil, ginger, pepper etc.). The place of dwelling should be free from snakes, (scorpins etc.,) fumes from the earth, cold breeze and drizzle; equpped with fire places, devoid of musquitoes and rats which bite. Squeeezing and massaging of the body, bath, inhalation of smoke, scents such as of aguru should be resorted to; while going out, riding on a female elephant and such other vehicles is ideal, wearing of beautiful garlands and dress are good; river water, mixture of water and flour, sleeping during day, liquid foods, sexual intercourse, dew, walking by foot, exercise and exposure to sun rays should be avoided. (38-49) Sarad rutu carya (regimen of autumn):

शरदि व्योम शुभ्राभ्रं किञ्चित् पता मही । प्रकाशकाशसप्ताह्नकुमुदा शालिशालिनी |॥५०॥

विक्षिप्ततीक्ष्णकिरणो मेघौघविगमाद्रविः । बभ्रुवर्णोऽतिविमलाः क्रौञ्चमालाकुला दिशः ॥५१॥

कमलान्तरसंलीनमीनहंसांसघट्टनैः। तरङ्गभङ्गतुङ्गानि सरांसि विमलानि च ॥५२॥

वर्षाशीतोचिताङ्गानां सहसैवार्करश्मिभिः । तप्तानां सञ्चितं पूर्वं तदा पित्तं प्रकुप्यति ॥५३॥

शस्तं तिक्लहविःपानं विरेकोऽस्रस्रुतिः सदा । शीतं लघ्वभपानं च कषायस्वादुतिक्लकम् ॥ ५४॥

शालिषष्टिकगोधूमयवमुद्गसितामधु । पटोलामलकं द्राक्षा जाङ्गलं क्षुद्धतां भृशम् ॥ ५५॥

दिवा दिवाकरकरैर्निशाकरकरौनशि । सन्तप्तं ह्लादितं तोयमगस्त्येनाविषीकृतम् ॥५६॥

निर्मलं शुचि कालेन पक्कं पानेऽमृतोपमम् । हंसौघपक्षविक्षेपभ्रमत्भ्रमरपङ्क्षिषु ॥ ५७ ॥

सुसरोरुहसेव्यासु सरसीषु प्लवेत च । लघुशुद्धाम्बरः स्रग्वी शीतोशीरविलेपनः।।५८।।

सेवेत चन्द्रकिरणान् प्रदोषे सौधमाश्रितः । तृप्तिदध्यातपक्षारवसातैलपुरोनिलान् ॥ ५९॥ तीक्ष्णमद्यदिवास्वप्नतुषारांश्च विवर्जयेत् ।

In Sarat rutu, the sky is clear of clouds, the earth is full of slush, kasa grass, saptahva, water lily and paddy saplings; with the absence of clouds, the sunrays are spreading wide and are hot, the quarters (space all around) appear reddish brown, very clear and with kraunca birds (curlews ) — flying in formation resembling garlands; lakes ponds having waves raised by the fish moving underneath the lotus leaves and movement of swans; the water of the ponds etc., is clear.

Pitta which has accumulated in the body by the effect of cold of the Varsa rutu, gets further increased by the sudden heat of the sunsrays in this season; hence it is very ideal to have a drink of medicated ghee which is bitter in taste, resort to purgatives and blood letting frequently; the foods and drinks should be cold, easy to digest, less in quantity with astringent, sweet and bitter tastes; rice, sastika rice (which matures in sixty days) wheat, barley, green-gram, sugar, honey, patola amalaka draksa and meat of animals of the desert-like regions are good foods for those who have very good hunger; water made warm by sun’s rays in the afternoons and cooled by moonlight at nights and which is pleasant (clean), removed of poisonous effect by the rising of Agastya constellation; such pure, clear water boiled (and cooled) is as ideal as nectar itself for drinking in this season.

Day-time should be spent in sailing in lakes which are full of swans, rows of humming bees, and blossomed lotus flowers; wearing light and clean dress, garlands, anointing the body with the paste of usira which is coolant; nights should be spent on a terrace having good moonlight.

Over-satiation, curds, sunlight, alkaline substances, muscle-fat, oils, eastern breeze, strong alcholic drinks, sleeping during day and snowfall should be avoided. (50-59 1/2)

Notes – Agastya is the name of a star, (canopus) which appears in the sky on the seventh day of the second half of the month of Bhadrapada (mid August to Mid-September) and continues to shine for about two months. Hindu astronomy states that its rays have the effect of detoxicating poisons and so water kept exposed at nights during this period is equal to nectar. The term ‘Hamsodaka’ means pure water and can be applied to any water which is filtered and made potable.

नित्यं सर्वरसाभ्यासः स्वस्वाधिक्यमृतावृतौ ॥६०॥

A healthy person should cultivate the habit of eating foods of all the six tastes daily (all through the year) specially so of the particular tastes indicated in each season. (60)

Notes: Foods of all the six tastes need not be of equal quantities, the staple food like rice, wheat, jawar etc., which are sweet will have to be more in quantity; curry, soup, vegetables, pickles etc., which are adjuvants usually prepared by adding chillies, spices, salt, oil ghee; etc., are predominantly sour, pungent and salty. Sugar, jaggery honey, jams are the sweets; vegetables like bitter gourd, leaves of methika which are bitter should also be included in the diet. Though substances of astringent tastes are not favoured as foods, yet many articles of daily use also contain some amount of astringency. Hence, the common daily diet of India, is a judicious blend of all the six tastes. It has been so designed and put to practice since many centuries, with special attention, paid to promotion and maitainance of health of the people all the year. The only care expected of the people, is that they should not become too much fond of any one or two tastes and reject others.

Rutusandhi charya – regimen at union of seasons

ऋत्वोरन्तादिसप्ताहावृतुसन्धिरिति स्मृतः ।

तत्र पूर्वो विधिस्त्याज्यः सेवनीयोऽपरः क्रमात् ॥६१॥ असात्म्यजा हि रोगाः स्युः सहसा त्यागशीलनात् ।

The last and first seven days of the rutus (preceding and following) are together known as Ritusandhi (meeting of two seasons). During this period the regimen of the previous season should be discontinued gradually and those of the succeding season adopted slowly. If, on the other hand, they are discontinued or adopted suddenly, diseases due to unaccoustomed foods and activities develop.(61-61 1/2)

Notes: The last seven days of the disappearing season and the first seven days of the next appearing season making a fortnight is sufficient enough to discontinue the old regimen and adopt the new one gradually.

ऋतुष्वेवंविधेष्वेष विधिः स्वास्थ्ये च देहिनां ||६२॥ निर्दिश्यतेऽन्यरूपेषु विरुद्धज्ञानिको विधिः ।

The rules and regimen so far described for each season is meant only for persons who are healthy; for others (sick persons) separate regimen will be described later, while eloborating abnormalities (diseases).(62)

मासराशिस्वरूपाख्यमृतोर्यल्लक्षणत्रयम् ।।६३।। यथोत्तरंभजेच्चर्यां तत्र तस्य बलादिति ।

The qualities of the seasons are to be understood in respect of three aspects viz. Masa (months) Rasi (stellar constellations) and Svarupa (characteristic features); the regimen prescribed for each season should be followed in mild, moderate or full degree in the succeeding order of strength. (63)

Notes: The details of the three aspects of the seasons are as follows:Masas (months) Rasis (constellations) Makara Kumbha Phalguna 1. Magha 2. Caitra+ Vaisakha + 3. Jyesta + Asadha 4. Sravana + Bhadrapada 5. Aswina (ja) + Kartika 6. Margasira + Pausa + Mina + Mesa Vrsabha+Mithuna Karkata + Simha Kanya + Tula Vrscika+Dhanus Rutus (seasons) Sisira Vasanta Grisma Varsa Sarat Hemanta

Svarupa means the characteristic features special to each season. The appearance of all the three (masa, rasi and svarupa) do not correctly coincide often. Some times masa will have commenced but rasi will not have, sometimes the features of the season will not have started and so on. So importance is given first to the appearance of Svarupa (special features) in reckoning the season, then to the rasi (constellation) and last to the masa (month). The regimen prescribed for the season should be mild or part, if only masa has commenced without commencement of rasi as svarupa; it should be moderate if rasi has commenced but svarupa has not yet; and regimen should in full measure if svarupa (features) has commenced even without rasi. There are two methods of calculating the calender in our country, the souramana (according to the movement of the sun) and the candramana (according to the movement of the moon), the fromer is followed in north India while the latter in south India. There is a slight difference between the two, in respect of appearance of months, seasons etc.

In a vast country like India, the characteristic features of the seasons are also not uniform. In some places every feature manifests in full vigour throughout, while in some others, only a few features manifest moderately and in yet others, some featuress may manifest mildly or not at all. The Himalayan and Sub-Himalayan regions in the northern-most part of India will be having rain and cold in more times of the year; but it is heat and more heat as we travel to southern parts of the country. In ancient times, a convenient method of dividing India into three regions for reckoning the seasons was (a) area and to the northern side of the river Ganga (Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions) (b) areas to its southern side (Ganga-Yamuna basin, central Indian plaetau) and (c) area south of the Vindhya mountains, (the Deccan Plaetau). The season of heavy rain in the north was even given a new name as Pravrt rutu comprising of Asadha and Sravana months (mid-June to mid-August) and placed in between Grsma and Varsa rutus. So it is for the people of the geographical area to be conversant with the features of the seasons of that area and to follow the regimen appropriately.

Before closing this chapter, it is also necessary to know the relationship between the Rutus and and three doshas of the human body. As stated earlier the doshas undergo Caya (mild increase) Prakopa (profoud increase) and Prasama (decrease to normalcy) in different seasons. It is essential for the physician to have good knowledge of this order to adopt suitable remedial measures to prevent diseases that might arise from such increased doshas. The following table shows the change of the doshas in different seasons.

इति चतुर्थोऽध्यायः

Thus ends the fourth chapter.


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