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Charaka SamhitaShadvirechana Shatadhitiyadhaya - Six Hundred Purgatives - Charakasamhita Sutrasthana Chapter 4

Shadvirechana Shatadhitiyadhaya – Six Hundred Purgatives – Charakasamhita Sutrasthana Chapter 4


अथातः षड्विरेचनशताधितीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः ॥ १ ॥ इति छ स्माह भगवानात्रेयः ॥ २ ॥

We shall now expound the chapter on “Six Hundred Purgatives”.

Thus said lord Atreya. [ 1-2 ]

इह खलु षड् विरेचनशतानि भवन्ति, षड् विरेचनाश्रयाः, पञ्चकषाययोनयः, पञ्चविधकषाय कल्पनं, पञ्चाशन्महाकषायाः, पञ्चकषायशतानि, इति संग्रहः ॥ ३ ॥

There are six hundred purgatives; six different parts of the plant useful for purgation, five varieties of drugs for the preparation of decoction, five different pharmaceutical processes, fifty important varieties of decoctives and five hundred decoctions. This is, in brief, the subject matter of this chapter. [ 3 ]

In the previous two chapters, internal and external cleansing have been separately mentioned. In the present chapter, the medicines, both for internal as well as external cleansing are being explained. Here the term “purgation” implies emesis also, vide-Kalpa 1:4.

षड् विरेचनशतानि, इति यदुक्तं तदिह संग्रहेणोदाहृत्य विस्तरेण कल्पोपनिपदि व्याख्यास्यामः; ( तत्र ) त्रयस्त्रिंशद्योगशतं प्रणीतं फलेषु, एकोनचत्वारिंशजीमूतकेषु योगाः, पञ्चचत्वारिंशदिक्ष्वाकुषु, धामार्गवः षष्टिधा भवति योगयुक्तः, कुटजस्त्वष्टादशधा योगमेति, कृतवेधनं षष्टिधा भवति योगयुक्तं, श्यामात्रिवृद्योगशतं प्रणीतं दशापरे चात्र भवन्ति योगाः, चतुरङ्गुलो द्वादशधा योगमेति, लोभ्रं विधौ षोडशयोगयुक्तं, महावृक्षो भवति विंशतियोगयुक्तः, एकोनचत्वारिंशत् सप्तलाशङ्क्षिन्योर्योगाः, अष्टचत्वारिंशद्दन्तीद्रवन्त्योः, इति षड्विरेचनशतानि ॥ ४ ॥

Here, we shall deal with six hundred purgatives just briefly; we shall present elaborate explanation of each one of them in the Kalpa Section.

There are 133 purgatives with madana phala ( Randia dumetorum Lam. ), 39 with jimita (Luffa echinata Roxb.), 45 with iksvaku ( Lagenaria siceraria Standi. ), 60 with dhamargava ( Luffa cylindrica M. Roem. ), 18 with kutaja ( Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. ). 60 with krtavedhana ( Luffa acutangula Roxb. ), 110 with black variety of triurt ( Operculina turpethum R. B. ), 12 with caturangula ( Cassia fistula Linn. ), 16 with lodhrag ( Symplocos racemosa Roxb. ), 20 with mahavrksa ( Euphorbia nerufolia Linn. ). 39 with saptala ( Acacia concinna DC. ) and sankhini ( Cancora decussata Roem. et Sch. ), 48 with danti (Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg. ) and dravanti ( Jatropha glandulifera Roxb. ). These are the six hundred varieties of purgatives including emetics. [4] Out of the six hundred formulae enumerated above, the first 255 are for emesis and the remaining for purgation.

षड्विरेचनाश्रया इति क्षीरमूलत्वकपत्रपुष्पफलानीति ॥ ५ ॥

The six different parts of the plant useful for purgation are latex, root, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits. [5] .

Of all the six parts of the plant enumerated above, latex occupies the most important position in so far as purgation is concerned-cf. Sutra 25:40. The bark of lodhra ( Symplocos racemosa Roxb. ) and leaves of iksvaku (Lagenaria siceraria Standtl.), etc. are useful for purgation – vide Kalpa 3:5. In addition to the latex, etc. included in the verse, there are other purgatives like castor oil, copper and mercury preparations which are not mentioned either in this chapter or in the chapter of Kalpa section.

पञ्च कषाययोनय इति मधुरकषायोऽम्लकषायः । कटुकषायस्तिक्तकषायः कषायकषायश्चेति तन्त्रे संज्ञा ॥ ६ ॥

Five varieties of decoctions as found in the work are sweet, sour, pungent, bitter and astringent. [ 6 ] Of the six rasas (tastes), all except those having saline taste are described here for decoction.

पञ्चविधं कषायकल्पन मिति तद्यथा – स्वरसः, कल्कः, शृतः, शीतः, फाण्टः कषाय इति । ( यन्त्रनिष्पीडिताद् द्रव्याद्रसः स्वरस उच्यते । यः पिण्डो रसपिष्टानां स कल्कः परिकीर्तितः ॥ वह्नौ तु क्वथितं द्रव्यं श्रुतमाहुश्चिकित्सकाः । द्रव्यादापोत्थितात्तोये प्रतप्ते निशि संस्थितात् ॥ कषायो योऽभिनिर्याति स शीतः समुदाहृतः । क्षिप्त्वोष्णतोये मृदितं तत् फाण्टं परिकीर्तितम् ॥ ) तेषां यथापूर्व बलाधिक्यम्; अतः कषायकल्पना व्याध्यातुरवलापेक्षिणी; न सर्वत्रोपयोगीनि भवन्ति ॥ ७ ॥ त्वेवं खलु सर्वाणि

Five pharmaceutical processes are svarasa (juice), kalka (paste), srta (decoction ), sita (cold infusion) and phanta (hot infusion ).

Juice extracted from a drug pressed by a machine is known as svarasa; when pasted with juice and converted into a roundish lump, it is known as kalka. According to physicians, medicine prepared by boiling a drug on fire is called srta; cold infusion prepared by putting the coarsely ground drug in boiled water and preserved over night is known as sita; hen a medicine is prepared by putting the drug in boiled water and then squeezed, the filtrate out of it is known as phanta.

The potentiality of the medicines of the preceding category is greater than the succeeding ones; so these preparations should be prescribed with due regard to the strength of the patient and seriousness of the disease. All these preparations are not equally useful in all cases. [7]

As stated above, the potentiality of the preparations is greater in the preceding ones in relation to the succeeding ones. It is, therefore, necessary to take into consideration the strength of the patient and the seriousness of the disease while prescribing these different categories of preparations. For example, when the patient is strong enough and the disease is equally serious, the svarasa preparation of the drug will be eminently useful; it will not be so when the patient is weak or the disease is of less serious type. In fact, there are several other factors including the personal likings or otherwise of the individual patient to be taken into account while prescribing these preparations. If the patient has got aversion to svarasa, this preparation will not be useful to him at all irrespective of the fact that he is strong enough and his disease is of serious nature. According to the science of medicine, a drug disliked by a patient is not to be prescribed, inasmuch as it might instantaneously cause emesis or anorexia. Thus, prescription of these preparations is to be made with due regard not only to the strength of the patient or seriousness of the disease but also to the suitability of the drugs in question, specially in relation to the likes or dislikes of the patients.

Even the utility of different drugs lies in their different preparations. As it will be explained in the Chikitsa section, mandukaparni ( Centella asiatica Urban) should be administered in svarasa (juice ) form, yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) is to be taken with milk in powder (churna) form; Guduchi (Tinspora cordifolia Miers) along with its root and flower is to be taken in svarasa (juice ) form and sankhapuspi (Evolvulus alsinoides L.) in kalka (paste) form-cf. Chikitsa 1 : 3:30.

Kalka is of two types-wet and dry. Powder is just a variety of kalka in its dry form.

‘पञ्चाशन्महाकषाया’ इति यदुक्तं तदनुव्याख्यास्यामः;

Now we shall expound the 50 important varieties of decoctives mentioned before.

I तद्यथा – जीवनीयो बृंहणीयो लेखनीयो भेदनीयः सन्धानीयो दीपनीय इति षट्कः कषायवर्गः;

(The first group consists of) six important varieties of decoctives, viz. invigorators, nourishing drugs, those reducing corpulency, cathertics, healers of wound and digestive stimulants. Drugs conducive to longevity are known as jivaniya.

II बल्बो वर्ण्यः कण्ठ्यो हृद्य इति चतुष्कः कषायवर्गः,

(The second group consists of) four, viz. strength promoters, complexion promoters, those useful for throat and cardiac-tonics. III तृप्तिघ्नोऽशघ्नः कुष्ठघ्नः कण्डनः क्रिमिघ्नो विषन इति षट्कः कषायवर्गः

(The third group consists of) six, viz. removers of the sense of pseudo-contentment, anti-hemorrhoidals, curatives for obstinate skin diseases including leprosy, anti-pruritics, curatives of all infections, and anti-toxics.

Kapha, when vitiated gives rise to a sense of pseudo-contentment which tells upon normal health. Drugs, which remove that sort of pseudocontentment are known as trptighnas.

IV स्वन्यजननः स्तम्यशोधनः शुक्रजननः शुक्रशोधन इति चतुष्कः कषायवर्गः;

(The fourth group consists of) four, viz. galactagogues, galacto-purificators, spermatopoitics and spermato purificators. V स्नेहोपगः स्वेदोपगः वमनोपगो विरेचनोपग आस्थापनोपगोऽनुवास

नोपगः शिरोविरेचनोपग इति सप्तकः कषायवर्गः,

(The fifth group consists of) seven, viz. adjuvants of action, adjuvants of fomentation, adjuvants of emesis, adjuvants of purgation, adjuvants of asthapana type of enema, adjuvants of anuvasana type of enema and adjuvants for the elimination of dosas from the head.

The drugs that help the process of unction achieved by fats, etc. are known as snehopagas. Such drugs are known as vamanopagas as help madanaphala (Randia dumetorum Lam.), etc. for emesies viz. honey, madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) etc.

VI छर्दिनिग्रहणस्तृष्णानिग्रहणो हिक्कानिग्रहण इति त्रिकः कषायवर्गः;

(The sixth group consists of) three, viz. antiemetics, thirst restraining drugs and curatives of hiccough;

VII पुरीष संग्रहणीयः पुरीषविरजनीयो मूत्रसंग्रहणीयो मूत्रविरजनीयो मूत्रविरेचनीय इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः;

(The seventh group consists of) five, viz. bowel binders, bowel colouring drugs, antidiuretics, urine colouring drugs and diuretics;

Such drugs as eliminate the vitiated dosas from faeces are known as purisavirajaniyas. Drugs which increase diuresis are known as mutravirecaniyas.

VIII कासहरः श्वासहरः शोथहरो ज्वरहरः श्रमहर इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः; (The eighth one consists of) five viz. curatives of bronchitis, dyspnoea, oedema, fever and fatigue.

IX दाइप्रशमनः शीतप्रशमन उदर्दप्रशमनोऽङ्गमर्दप्रशमनः शूलप्रशमन इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः;

(The ninth one consists of) five, viz, curatives of burning syndrome, cold, urticaria, malaise and colic pain;

Udarda, here is to be taken as urticaria and not the disease described in Maharogadhyaya ( Sutra 20-?) by this name. Otherwise the prescription of tinduka ( Diospyros peregrina Gurke ), etc. for the relief of udarda cannot be justified because these drugs are not useful for vata.

X शोणितस्थापनो वेदनास्थापनः संज्ञास्थापनः प्रजास्थापनो वयःस्थापन इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः;

(The tenth one consists of) five, viz. hematics, sedatives, restoratives of consciousness, procreatives, and rejuvenators.

Sonitas thapana is that category of drug which restores blood in its pure form after eliminating its vitiating dosas. In the event of physical pain, the class of drugs which eliminates that pain and restores the body to its normal state is known as vedanasthapana. Samjnasthapana is the category of drugs that restore consciousness. The drug which eliminates procreational defects and thus restores embryo are known as prajasthapana.

And so the drugs useful for restoration of youth are known as vayahsthapana.

इति पञ्चाशन्महाकपाया महतां च कषायाणां लक्षणोदाहरणार्थं व्याख्याता भवन्ति । तेषामेकैकस्मिन् महाकषाये दश दशावयविकान् कषायाननुव्याख्यास्यामः; तान्येव पञ्च कषायशतानि भवन्ति ॥ ८ ॥

Thus, the fifty important decoctives are explained, keeping in view the definitions and examples thereof. We shall now explain ten drugs in each, constituting these important decoctives.

All these taken together constitute 500 decoctions. [ 8 ]

These fifty important decoctives are not exhaustive. There are other important formulae as well, for example, curatives of vata, pitta, etc.

Charaka Dashemani Mahakashaya – 500 Decoctions

(I) तद्यथा- जीवकर्षभकौ मेदा महामेदा काकोली क्षीरकाकोली मुद्रपर्णीमाषपर्थ्यो जीवन्ती मधुकमिति दशेमानि जीवनीयानि भवन्ति;

Jiwaka, rsabhaka, meda, mahameda, kakoli, ksirakakoli , mudgaparni (Phaseolus trilobus Ait. ), masaparni (Teramus labialis Spreng.), jivanti ( Leptadenia reticulata W & A. ) and Madhuka ( Glycyrrhiza glabra – Linn. ), – these ten drugs are invigorators,

(II) क्षीरिणी राजक्षवकाश्वगन्धाकाकोलीक्षीरकाकोलीवाट्यायनीभद्रौदनीभारद्वाजीपयस्यर्ण्यगन्धा इति दशेमानि बृंहणीयानि भवन्ति;

Ksirint ( Mimosops hexandra Roxb. ), rajaksavaka ( Euphorbia microphylla Heyne ), asvagandha ( Withania somnifera Dunal. ), kakoli ( ? ), ksirakakoli ( ? ), vatyayanm (Sida rhombifolia Linn. ), bhadraudani (Sida cordifolia Linn. ), bharadvaja ( Thespesia lampas Dalz & Gibs ), payasya ( Ipomoea paniculata R. Br. ) and rsyagandha ( ? ) — these ten drugs are nourishing.

(III) मुस्तकुष्ठहरिद्रादा रुहरिद्वा वचातिविषाकटुरोहिणीचित्रकचिरबिल्व हैम. वत्य इति दशेमानि लेखनीयानि भवन्ति;

Musta ( Cyperus rotundus Linn. ), kustha ( Saussurea lappa C. B. Clarke ), haridra ( Curcuma longa Linn. ), daruharidra ( Berberis (1 aristata D C.), vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.), ativisa ( Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ), katurohini (Picrorhiza kurroa Royleex Benth.), gitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn. ), Chirabilva (Pongamia pinnata Merr. ) and haimavati ( Iris versicolor ) — these ten drugs reduce corpulency.

(IV) सुवहारुबुकाग्निमुखीचित्राचित्रकचिरविल्वशङ्खिनीशकुलादनीस्वर्णक्षीरिण्य इति दशेमानि भेदनीयानि भवन्ति;

Suvaha ( Operculina turpethum R. B. ), arka ( Calotropis gigantea R. Br. ex Ait. ), urubuka ( ? ), agnimukhi ( Gloriosa superba Linn. ), citra ( Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg. ), Chitraka ( Plumbago zeylanica Linn. ), chirabilva ( Pongamia pinnata Merr. ), Sankhini ( Canscora decussata Roem. et Sch. ), Sakuladam ( Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. ) and svarnaksirim (Argemone mexicana Linn.) -… these ten drugs are cathertic.

(V) मधुक मधुपर्णीवृश्नि पर्ण्यम्वष्ठकी समङ्गामोचरसघातकीलोध्र प्रियकट्फलानीति दशेमानि सन्धानीयानि भवन्ति;

Madhuka ( Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. ), madhuparni ( Tinspora cordifolia Miers .), prsnipari ( Uraria picta Desv. ), ambasthaki ( Cissampelos pareria Linn. ), samanga ( Rubia cordifolia Linn. ), mocarasa ( Salmalia malabarica Schott & Endl. ), dhataki ( Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. ), lodhra ( Symplocos racemosa Roxb. ), priyaingu ( Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. ) and katphala ( Myrica nagi Thunb. ), —these ten drugs are healers of wounds.

7 (VI) पिप्पलीपिप्पलीमूलचग्यचित्रकटङ्गवेराम्लवेत समरिचाजमोदाभल्लातकास्थिहिङ्गुनिर्यासा इति दशेमानि दीपनीयानि भवन्ति, इति षट्कः कषाय वर्गः ॥ ९ ॥

Pippali ( Piper longum Linn.), pippalimula (root of Piper longum Linn. ), cavya ( Piper chaba Hunter. ), Mitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.), singavera (Zingiber officinalis Rosc.), amlavetasa (Rheum emodi Wall. ), maricha ( Piper nigrum Linn. ), ajamoda ( Trachyspermum roxburghianum), stone of bhallataka (Semecar pus anacardium Linn. f.) and hinguniryasa ( resin of Ferula narthex Boiss. ) — these ten drugs are digestive stimulants. This is about the decoctives consisting of six groups. [ 9 ]

(VII) ऐन्द्यूषभ्यतिरसर्थ्यप्रोक्ता पयस्याश्वगन्धास्थिरारोहिणीयलातियला इति दशेमानि बल्यान भवन्ति;

Aindri ( Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. ), rsabhi ( ? ), atirasa ( Asparagus racemosus Willd. ), rsyaprokta ( Teramnus labialis Spreng. ), <payasya ( Ipomoea paniculata R. Br. ), asvagandha ( Withania somnifera Dunal. ), sthira ( Desmodium gangeticum DC. ), rohini (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.), bala (Sida cordifolia Linn.), and atibala (a variety of Sida cordifolia Linn.)-these ten drugs are strength promoters.

(VIII) चन्दन तुङ्गपद्मकोशीरमधुकमञ्जिष्ठासारिवापयस्यासितालता इति दशेमानि वर्ण्यानि भवन्ति;

Chandana (Santalum album Linn.), tunga (Calophyllus inophyllum Linn.), padmaka (Prunus cerasoides D. Don. ), usira (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash. ), madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), manjistha (Rubia cordifolia Linn.), sariva (Hemidesmus indicus R.B.), payasya (Ipomoea paniculata R. Br. ), sita (white variety of Cynodon doctylon Pers.) and lata (black variety of Cynodon dactylon Pers.) these ten drugs are complexion promoters.

(IX) सारिवेक्षुमूलमधुकपिप्पली द्राक्षाविदारीकैटर्यहं सपादीबृहतीकण्टकारिका इति दशेमानि कण्ठ्यानि भवन्ति;

Sariva (Hemidesmus indicus R. B.), iksumula (root of Saccharum officinarum Linn.), madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), pippali (Piper longum Linn.), draksa (Vitis vinifera Linn.), vidari (Ipomoea paniculata R. Br. ), kaitarya (Myrica nagi Thunb.), hamsapadi ( Adiantum lunulatum Burm. ), brhati (Solanum indicum Linn.), and kantakarika (Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl.)these ten drugs are useful for throat.

(X) आम्राम्रातकलिकुच करमर्दवृक्षाम्लाम्लवेत सकुवल बदरदाडिममातुलुङ्गानीति दशेमानि हृद्यानि भवन्ति, इति चतुष्कः कषायवर्गः ॥ १० ॥

Amra (Mangifera indica Linn.), amrataka (Spondias pinnata Kurz.), likuca (Artocarpus lakooca Roxb.), karamarda (Carissa carandes Linn.), vrksamla ( Tamarindus indica Linn.), Yamlavetasa (Rheum emodi Wall. ), kuvala (Zizyphus sativa Gaertn.), badara (Zizyphus jujuba Lam.), dadima (Punica granatum Linn. ), and matulunga (Citrus decumana Linn.)-these ten drugs are cardiac tonics. This is about the decoctives consisting of four groups.

(XI) नागरचव्यचित्रकविडङ्गमूर्वा गुडूचीवचा मुस्तपिप्पलीपटोलानीति दशेमानि तृप्तिघ्नानि भवन्ति;

Nagara (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), cavya (Piper chaba Hunter.), Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.), vidanga (Embelia ribes Burm f.), murva (Clematis triloba Heyne ex Roth. ), Guduchi ( Tinspora cordifolia Miers.), vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.), musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn.), pippali ( Piper longum Linn.), and patola (Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn. ) – these ten drugs remove the sense of pseudo-contentment.

(XII ) कुटजबिल्वचित्रक नागरातिविषाभयावन्वयासकदारुहरिद्रावचाचव्यानीति दशेमाम्यर्शोघ्नानि भवन्ति;

Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. ), bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr. ), Chitraka ( Plumbago zeylanika Linn.), nagara (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), ativisa ( Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ), abhaya (Terminalia chebula Linn.), dhanvayasaka ( Fagonia cretica Linn.), daruharidra (Berberis aristata DC.), vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.), and cavya (Pipper chaba Hunter.)-these ten drugs are antihemorrhoidals.

(XIII) खदिराभयामत कहरिद्रारुष्करसप्तपर्णारग्वध करवीरविडङ्गजातीप्रवाला इति दशेमानि कुष्टघ्नानि भवन्ति;

Khadira (Acacia catechu Willd.), abhaya (Terminalia chebula Linn.), amalaka (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), haridra (Curcuma longa Linn.), aruskara / Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn. f.), saptaparna (Alstonia scholaris R. Br. ), aragvadha (Cassia fistula Linn.), karavira (Nerium indicum Mill.), vidanga (Embelia ribes Brum. f.) and jatipravala (tender shoots of Jasminum officinale Linn. var. grandiflorum Bailey. ) – these ten drugs cure obstinate skin diseases including leprosy.

(XIV) चन्दननलद्कृतमालनक्तमालनिम्ब कुटज सर्षपमधुकदारुहरिद्रा मुस्ता नीति दशेमानि कण्डघ्नानि भवन्ति;

Chandana (Santalum album Linn.), nalada (Nardostachys jatamamsi DC.), krtamala (Cassia fistula Linn.), naktamala (Pongamia pinnata Merr.), nimba ( Aladirachta indica A. Juss.), kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. ), sarsapa (Brassica nigra Koch. ), madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), daruharidra (Berbaris aristata DC.) and musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn.)-these ten drugs cure pruritus.

(XV) अक्षीवमरिचगण्डीर के बुकविडङ्गनिर्गुण्डीकिणिहीश्वदंष्ट्रावृषपर्णिकाखुपर्णिका इति दशेमानि क्रिमिघ्नानि भवन्ति;

aksiva (Moringa oleifera Lam.), maricha (Piper nigrum Linn.), gandira (Euphorbia antiqurum Linn.), kebuka (?),vidanga (Embelia ribes Burm. f.), nirgundi (Vitex nigundo Linn.), kinihi ( Achy. ranthes aspera Linn.), sodamstra ( Tribulus terrestris Linn. ), orsaparnika ( a variety of Ipomoea reniformis Chois) and akhuparnika (Ipomoea reniformis Chois)-these ten drugs cure all infections.

(XVI) हरिद्रामञ्जिष्ठासुवहा सूक्ष्मैलापालिन्दीचन्दनकत कशिरीषसिन्धुवारश्लेष्मातका । इति दशेमानि विषघ्नानि भवन्ति, इति षटकः कषायवर्गः ॥ ११ ॥

Haridra (Curcuma langa Linn.), manjistha (Rubia cordifolia Linn.), suvaha (Pluchea lanceolata Oliver & Hiern. ), suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton. ), palindi (?), Chandana (Santalum album Linn.), kataka (Strychnos potatorum Linn. f.), sirisa (Albizzia lebbeck Benth.), sindhuvara (Vitex nigundo Linn.) and slesmataka (Cordia dichotama Forst. f.)-these ten drugs cure toxic conditions. This is about the decoctives consisting of six groups. [11]

(XVII) वीरणशालिपष्टिकेचवालिकादर्भकुशकाशगुन्द्रेत्कटकत्तृणमूलानीति दशेमानि स्तन्यजननानि भवन्ति;

Virana (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash. ), sali (Oryza sativa Linn.), sastika ( a variety of Oryza sativa Linn.), iksuvalika ( Asteracantha longifolia Nees), darbha (Desmostachya bipinnata Staff.), kusa (a variety of Desmostachya bipinnata Staff.), kasa (Saccharum spontaneum Linn.), gundra (Soccharum sara), itkata (?) and kattrna (Cymbopogon schoenanthus Spreng. )-roots of these ten drugs are galactagogues.

(XVIII) पाठामहीषधसुदारुमुस्तमूर्वागुचीवत्सकफल किराततिक्तककटुरोहिणीसारिवा इति दशेमानि स्तन्यशोधनानि भवन्ति;

Patha (Cissampelos pareira Linn.), mahausadha (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), suradaru (Cedrus deodara Loud.), musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn.), murva ( Clematis triloba Roth.), Guduchi (Tinspora cordifolia Miers. ), fruit of vatsaka ( Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall.), kiratatikta (Swertia chirata Buch-Ham. ), katurohini (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.) and sariva (Hemidesmus indicus R. B.)-these ten drugs are galacto-purificators.

(XIX) जीवकर्षभककाकोलीक्षीरकाकोलीमुद्रपर्णीमाषपर्णीमेदा •लाकुलिङ्गा इति दशेमानि शुक्रजननानि भवन्ति, वृद्धरुहाजटि

~ Jwaka ( ? ), rsabhaka ( ? ), kakoli ( ? ), ksirakakoli ( ? ), mudgaparm (Phaseolus trilobus Ait.), masaparni ( Teramnus labialis Spreng.), meda ( ? ), vrddharuha ( Asparagus raemosus Willd. ), jaila (Nardostachys jatamamsi DC. ) and kulinga ( ? ) — these ten drugs are spermatopoietics.

(XX) कुष्ठैलवालुककट्फलसमुद्रफेनकदम्बनिर्यासेक्षुकाण्डेक्ष्विक्षुरकवसुकोशीराणीति दशेमानि शुक्रशोधनानि भवन्ति, इति चतुष्कः कषायवर्गः ॥ १२ ॥

Kustha ( Saussurea lappa C. B. Clarke. ), elavaluka (Brunus cerasus Linn.); katphala (Myrica nagi Thunb.), samudraphena (Internalcell of Sepia officinalis, ), gum of kadamba ( Anthocephalus indicus A. Rich. ), iksu ( Saccharum officinarum Linn. ), kandeksu ( Saccharum spontaneum Linn.), iksuraka (Asteracantha longifolia Nees.), vasuka (Indigofera enneaphylla Linn.) and usira (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash. )—these ten drugs are spermatopurificators. This is about the decoctives consisting of four groups. [12]

(XXI) मृद्धीकामधुकमधुपर्णीमेदाविदारीकाकोलीक्षीरकाकोलीजीवकजीवन्ती शालपर्ण्य इति दशेमानि स्नेहीपगानि भवन्ति;

Mrdvika ( Vitis vinifera Linn. ), madhuka ( Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn, ), madhuparni ( Tinspora cordifolia Miers. ), meda ( ? ), vidari ( Ipomoea paniculata R. Br. ),kakoli ( ? ), ksirakakoli ( ? ), jvaka (?), jivanti ( Leptadenia reticulata W. & A. ) and Falaparni ( Desmodium gangeticum D C. ) — these ten drugs are adjuvants of unction.

(XXII) शोभाञ्जन कैरण्डार्कवृश्चीर पुनर्नवायवतिलकुलत्थमाषबदराणीति दशेमानि स्वेदोपगानि भवन्ति;

Sobhainjanaka (Moringa oleifera Lam.), erandaka ( Ricinus communis Linn. ), arka ( Calotropis gigantea R. Br. ex Ait. ), vrscira (white variety of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.), punarnava ( red variety of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.), yava (Hordeum vulgare Linn.), tila ( Sesamum indicum Linn. ), kulattha ( Dolichos biflorus Linn. ), masa ( Phaseolus mungo L. ) and badara ( Kizyphus jujuba Lam. ) — these ten drugs are adjuvants of fomentation.

(XXIII) मधुमधुकको विदारकर्बुदारनी पविदुलविम्बीशणपुष्पीसदापुष्पाप्रत्यकपुष्पा इति दशेमानि चमनोपगानि भवन्तिः

Madhu (honey ),madhuka ( Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), kovidara (red variety of Bauhinia variegata Linn.), karbudara ( white variety of Bauhina variegata Linn. ), nipa (Anthocephalus indicus A. Rich.), vidula (Barringtonia acutangula Gaertn.), bimbi (Coccinia indica W. & A.), sanapuspi (Crotalaria verrucosa Linn.), sadapuspa (Calotropis gigantea R. Br. Ait.) and pratyakpuspa ( Archyranthes aspera Linn.)-these ten drugs are adjuvants of emesis.

(XXIV) द्राक्षाकाश्मर्थपरुषकाभयामलक बिभीतककुवल बद कर्कन्धुपीलूनीति दशेमानि विरेचनोपगानि भवन्ति;

Draksa (Vitis vinifera Linn.), kasmarya (Gmelina arborea Linn.), paruska (Grewia asiatica Linn.), abhaya (Terminalia chebula Linn.), malaka ( Embiica officinalis Gaertn.), bibhitaka (Terminalia belerica Roxb.), kuvala (Zizyphus sativa Gaertn.), badara (Zizyphus jujuba Lam.), karkandhu (Zizyphus nummularia W. & A.) and pilu ( Salvadora persica Linn. )-these ten drugs are adjuvants of purgation.

(XXV) त्रिवृबिल्वपिप्पलीकुष्ठ सर्पपवचावत्सकफलशतपुष्पामधुकमद्नफलानीति दशेमान्यास्थापनोपगानि भवन्ति;

Trivrt (Operculina turpethum R. B.), bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr.), pippali (Piper longum Linn.), kustha ( Saussurea lappa C. B. Clarke. ), sarsapa (Brassica nigra Koch. ) vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.), fruit of vatsaka (Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. ), Satapuspa (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), and fruits of madana (Randia dumetorum Lam.)-these ten drugs are adjuvants of asthapana type enema.

(XXVI) रास्नासुरदारुबिल्वमदनशतपुष्पावृश्चीरपुनर्नवाश्वदंष्ट्राग्निमन्थश्योनाका इति दशेमान्य नुवासनोपगानि भवन्ति;

Rasna (Pluchea lanceolata Oliver & Hiern.), suradaru ( Cedrus deodara Loud. ), bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr.) madana ( Randia dumetorum Lam.), satapuspa (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). vrscira (white variety of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.) punarnava (red variety of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.), Svadamstra ( Tribulus terrestris Linn.), agnimantha (Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f.), syonaka (Oroxylum indicum Vent. )-these ten drugs are adjuvants of anuvasana variety of enema.

(XXVII) ज्योतिष्मतीक्षव कमरिच पिप्पलीविडङ्गशिशुसर्पपापामार्गतण्डुलश्वेतामहाश्वेता इति दशेमानि शिरोविरेचनोपगानि भवन्ति, इति सप्तकः कषायवर्गः ।। १३ ।।

Jyotismati ( Celastrus paniculatus Willd. ) ksavaka ( Centipeda minima A. Br. et. Aschers. ), maricha ( Piper nigrum Linn. ), pippali ( Piper longum Linn. ), vidanga ( Embelia ribes Burm. f. ), sigru ( Moringa oleifera Lam. ) , sarsapa ( Brassica nigra Koch. ), seed of apamarga ( Achyranthes aspera Linn. ), fveta ( white variety of Clitoria ternatea Linn. ) and mahasveta ( a variety of Clitoria ternatea Linn.)-these ten drugs are adjuvants of elimination of dosas from head. This is about the decoctives consisting of seven groups. [ 13 ]

(XXVIII) इति दशेमानि छर्दिनिग्रहणानि भवन्ति; जम्ब्वाम्रपल्लवमातुलुङ्गाम्लबदरदाडिमयवयष्टिकोशीर मृल्लाजा

Jambu ( Syzygium cumini Skeels. ), tender leaves of amra (Mangifera indica Linn. ), matulunga ( Citrus decumana Linn. ), badara Kizyphus jujuba Lam. ) of sour variety, dadima ( Punica granatum Linn. ),yava ( Hordeum vulgare Linn. ), jastika ( Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn y, usira ( Vetiveria zizanioides Nash. ), mrt ( earth ), and laja ( fried paddy ) — these ten drugs are antiemetics.

(XXIX) नागरधन्वयवासकमुस्तपर्पटकचन्दन किराततिक्तकगुडूचीहीवेरधान्यकपटोलानीति दशेमानि तृष्णानिग्रहणानि भवन्ति,

Nagara ( Kingiber officinale Rosc. ), dhanwayasaka ( Fagonia cretica Linn. ), musta ( Cyperus rotundus Linn. ), parpataka ( Fumaria parviflora Lam. ), Chandana ( Santalum album Linn. ), kiratatikta ( Swertia chirata Buch. – Ham. ), Guduchi (Tinspora cordifolia Miers.), Hrivera ( Pavonia odorata Willd. ), dhanyaka ( Coriandrum sativum Linn. ) and patola ( Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn. ) —these ten drugs are thirst restraining.

(XXX) शटीपुष्करमूलब दरबीज कण्टकारिकावृहतीवृक्षरुहाभयापिप्पत्तीदुरालभाकुलीरशृङ्ग्य इति दशेमानि हिक्कानिग्रहणानि भवन्तिः इति त्रिकः कषायवर्गः ॥ १४ ॥

Sati ( Hedychium spicatum Ham. ex Smith. ), puskaramila ( Inula racemosa Hook. f. ), Stone of badara ( Kizyphus jujuba Lam. ), kantakarika ( Solanum xanthocar pum Schrad & Wendl. ), brihati (Solanum indicum Linn.), vrksaruha (Dendrophthoe falcata Linn. f.), abhaya (Terminalia chebula Linn.), pippali (Piper. longum Linn.), duralabha (Fagonia cretica Linn.) and kulirasrngi (Rhus succedenea Linn.)-these ten drugs cure hic-cough. This is about the decoctives consisting of three groups.

( XXXI ) प्रियङ्वनन्ताम्रास्थिक ट्वङ्गलोधमोचरससमङ्गाधात की पुष्पपद्मापद्मकेशराणीति दशेमानि पुरीषसंग्रहणीयानि भवन्ति;

Priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl.), ananta (Hemidesmus indicus R. B. ), stone of amra (Mangifera indica Linn.), katvanga (Oroxylum indicum Vent. ), lodhra (Symplocos racemosa Roxb.), mocarasa (Salmalia malabarica Schott & Endl. ), samanga (Mimosa pudica Linn.), flower of dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz.), padma ( Clerodendrum serratum Moon.) and filaments of padma (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) these ten drugs are bowel binding.

( XXXII ) जम्बुशल्लकीत्वकचरामधूकशाल्मलीश्रीवेष्टक भृष्टमृत्ययस्योत्पलतिलकणा इति दशेमानि पुरीषविरजनीयानि भवन्ति;

Jambu (Syzygium cumini Skeels. ), bark of sallaki (Boswellia serrata Roxb.), kacchura (?), madhuka (Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel.), Salmali (Salmalia malabarica Schott & Endl.), rivestaka (extract of Pinus roxburghii Sargent.), fried earth, payasya (Ipomoea paniculata R. B.), utpala (Nymphaea alba Linn.) and grains of tila (Sesamum indicum Linn. )-these ten drugs are bowel colouring.

(XXXIII ) जम्ब्वाम्रप्लक्षवटकपीतनो डुम्बराभ्वत्थ भल्लात काश्मन्त कसोम घल्का इति दशेमानि मूत्रसंग्रहणीयानि भवन्ति;

Jambu (Syzygium cumini Skeels.), amra (Mangifera indica Linn.), plaksa (Ficus lacor Buch-Ham. ), vata (Ficus bengalensis Linn.), kapitana (Albizzia lebbeck Benth.), udumbara (Ficus racemosa Linn.), asvattha (Ficus religiosa Linn.), bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn. f. y asmantaka ( Bauhinia racemosa Lam.) and somavalka (Acacia catechu Willd. ),-these ten drugs are antidiuretics.

(XXXIV) पद्मोत्पलनलिनकुमुद सौगन्धिकपुण्डरीकशतपत्रमधुकप्रियसुधात कीपुष्पाणीति दशेमानि मूत्रविरजनीयानि भवन्ति;

Padma (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.), utpala (Nymphaea alba Linn.), Nalina ( a variety of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.), kumuda (Nymphaea alba Linn.), saugandhika (?), pundarika (red variety of Nymphaea lotus Linn.), satapatra ( a variety of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.), madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. ) and flowers of dhataki (Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz.)-these ten drugs correct the colour of the urine (urinary antiseptic ).

(XXXV) वृक्षादनीश्वदंष्ट्राव सुकवशिरपाषाणभेददर्भकुशकाशगुन्द्रेत्कटमूलानीति दशेमानि मूत्रविरेचनीयानि भवन्ति, इति पञ्चकः

कषायवर्गः ॥ १५ ॥

Vrksadani (Dendrophthoe falcata Linn. f.), svadamstra ( Tribulus terrestris Linn.), vasuka ( Indigofera enneaphylla Linn.), vasira (Gynandropsis gynandra Briquet ), pasanabheda (Bergenia ligulata Engl.), darbha ( a variety of Desmostachya bipinnata Staff.), kusa (Desmostachya bipinnata Staff.), kasa (Saccharum spontaneum Linn.), gundra (Saccharum sara ), and root of itkata (?)-these ten drugs are diuretics. Thus ends the description about a group of five decoctives. [ 15 ]

(XXXVI) द्राक्षाभयामलकपिप्पलीदुरालभाशृङ्गीकण्टकारिकावृश्चीरपुनर्न वातामलक्य इति दशेमानि कासहराणि भवन्ति,

Draksa (Vitis vinifera Linn.), abhaya (Terminalia chebula Linn.), amalaka (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), pippali (Piper longum Linn.), duralabha (Fagonia cretica Linn.), srigi (Rhus succedanea Linn.), kantakarika (Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl. ), vrscira (white variety of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.), punarnava (red variety of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.) and tamalaki (Phyllanthus niruri Linn.), these ten drugs control cough.

(XXXVII) शटीपुष्करमूलाम्लवेतसैलाहिङ्ग्वगुरुसुरसातामलकीजीवन्ती चण्डा इति दशेमानि श्वासहराणि भवन्ति,

Sati (Hedychium spicatum Ham. ex Smith.), puskaramula (Inula racemosa Hook. f.), amlavetasa (Rheumemodi Wall. ), ela (Elettaria-cardamomum Maton. ), hingu (Ferula narthex Boiss.), aguru (Acquilaria agallocha Roxb.), surasa (Ocimum sanctum Linn.), tamalaki (Phyllanthus niruri Linn.), jivanti (Leptadenia reticulata W & A.) and canda (?)-these ten drugs control dyspnoea of various aetiology.

(XXXVIII ) पाटलाग्निमन्थश्योनाकबिल्वकाश्मर्यकण्टकारिकाबृहतीशालपर्णी पृश्निपर्णीगोक्षुरका इति दशेमानि श्वयथुहराणि भवन्ति

Patala (Stereospermum suaveolens DC.), agnimantha ( Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f.), sponaka (Oroxylum indicum Vent.), bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr.), kasmarya (Gmelina arborea Linn.), kantakarika (Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad & Wendl. ), brhati (Solanum indicum Linn.), salaparni (Desmodium gangelicum DC.), prsniparni (Uraria picta Desv.) and goksuraka (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) these ten drugs control inflammation.

( XXXIX ) सारिवाशर्करापाठा मञ्जिष्ठाद्राक्षापीलुपरूषकाभयामलकविभीतकानीति दशेमानि ज्वरहराणि भवन्ति,

Sariva (Hemidesmus indicus R. B.), sugar, patha (Cissampelos pareria Linn. ). manjistha ( Rubia cordifolia Linn.), draksa (Vitis vinifera Linn.), pilu (Salvadora persica Linn.), parusaka (Grewnia asiatica Linn.), abhaya (Terminalia chebula Linn.), amalaka (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) and vibhitaka (Terminalia belerica Roxb.), these ten drugs cure fevers.

(XL) द्राक्षाखर्जूरप्रियालवदरदाडिमफल्गुपरूषकेक्षुयवषष्टिका इति दशेमानि श्रमहराणि भवन्ति, इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः ॥ १६ ॥

Draksa (Vitis vinifera Linn.), kharjura (Phoenix sylvestris Roxb.), priyala ( Buchanania lanzan Spreng.), badara (Zizyphus jujuba Lam.), dadima (Punica granatum Linn.), phalgu (Ficus hispida Linn. f.), parusaka (Grewia asiatica Linn.), iksu ( Saccharum officinarum Linn.), yava (Hordeum vulgare Linn.) and sastika (a variety of Oryza sativa Linn. ),-these ten drugs are fatigue. dispelling.

Thus ends the description about a group of five decoctives. [16]

(XLI ) लाजाचन्दनकाश्मर्यफलमधूकशर्करानीलोत्पलोशीरसारिवागुडूचीहीबेराणीनि दशेमानि दाहप्रशमनानि भवन्ति,

Laja (fried paddy), Chandana (Santalum album Linn.), fruit of kasmarya (Gmelina arborea Linn.), madhuka (Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. ), Sugar, nilotpala (Nymphaea stellata Willd.), usira (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash. ), sariva (Hemidesmus indicus R. B.), Guduchi (Tinspora cordifolia Miers.) and hribera (Pavonia odorata Willd.)-these ten drugs alleviate burning sensation.

According to Jatukarna, Padmaka (Prunus cerasoides D. Don.) is to be used in place of Guduchi (Tinspora cordifolia Miers.).

The heating effect of Guduchi which normally would not be conducive to the cure of burning sensation led Jatukarna to hold this view. But, in fact Guduchi does have the curative value for burning sensation due to its prabhava (specific action).

(XLII ) तगरागुरुधान्यकशृङ्गवेरभूतीकवचा कण्टकार्यग्निमन्थश्योनाकपिप्पल्य इति दशेमानि शीतप्रशमनानि भवन्ति,

Tagara (Valeriana wallichi DC.), aguru (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.), dhanyaka (Cordiandrum sativum Linn.), srngavera (Zingiber officinale Rosc. ). bhutika (Trachysperum ammi Sprague. ), vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.), kantakari (Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad & Wandl. ), agnimantha ( Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f.), syonaka (Oroxylum indicus Vent.) and pippali (Piper longum Linn.), these ten drugs control the chill.

( XLIII ) तिन्दुकप्रियालबदर खदिरकदरसप्तपर्णाश्वकर्णार्जुनासनारिमेदा इति दशेमान्युदर्दप्रशमनानि भवन्ति,

Tinduka (Diospyros peregrina Gurke. ), priyala (Buchanania lanzan Spreng.), badara ( Zizyphus jujuba Lam.), khadira (Acacia catechu Willd.), kadara (a variety of Acacia catechu Willd.) saptaparna (Alstonia scholaris R. Br. ), asvakarna (Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb.), arjuna (Terminalia arjuna W. & A.), asana (Terminalia tomentosa W. & A.) and arimeda ( a variety of Acacia catechu Willd.)-these ten drugs control the urticaria.

(XLIV ) विदारीगन्धापृश्निपर्णीबृहतीकण्टकारिकैरण्डकाकोली चन्दनोशीरैलामधुकानीति दशेमान्यङ्गमर्दप्रशमनानि भवन्ति,

Vidarigandha (Desmodium gangeticum DC.), prsniparni (Uraria picta Desv.), brhati (Solanum indicum Linn.), kantakarika (Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad & Wendl. ), eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.), kakoli (?), Chandana (Santalum album Linn.), usira (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash. ), ela (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. )-these ten drugs cure the malaise.

( XLV ) पिप्पलीपिप्पलीमूलचव्यचित्रकशृङ्गवेरमरिचाजमोदाजगन्धाजाजीगण्डीराणीति दशेमानि शूलप्रशमनानि भवन्ति, इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः ॥ १७ ॥

Pippali (Piper longum Linn.), root of pippali, cavya (Piper chaba Hunter), Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.), srngavera (zingiber officinale Rosc. ), maricha (Piper nigrum Linn.), ajamoda (Trachyspermum roxburghianum), ajagandha (Gynandropsis gynandra Briquet. ). ajaji (Cuminum cyminum Linn.) and gandira (Euphorbia antiquorum Linn. )-these ten drugs are cure for colic pain.

Thus ends the description about a group of five decoctives. [17]

(XLVI ) मधुमधुकरुधिरमोचरस मृत्कपाललोधगैरिकप्रियङ्गशर्करालाजा इति दशेमानि शोणितस्थापनानि भवन्ति,

Honey, madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), rudhira (Crocus sativa Linn.), mocarasa (resin of Salmalia malabarica Schott & Endl.), earthenpot pieces, lodhra (Symplocos racemosa Roxb.), gairika (Ferrum haematite), priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl.), sugar and fried paddy-these ten drugs are haemostatics.

(XLVII) शालकट्फलकदम्बपद्मक तुम्बमोचरसशिरीषवञ्जुलैलवालुकाशोका इति दशेमानि वेदनास्थापनानि भवन्ति,

Sala (Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.), katphala (Myrica nagi Thunb.), kadamba (Anthocephalus indicus A. Rich. ), padmaka (Prunus cerasoides D. Don. ), tumba (Xanthoxylon alatum Roxb.), mocarasa (resin of Salmalia malabarica Schott and Endl.), sirisa (Albizzia lebbeck Benth. ), vanjula (Salix caprea Linn.), elavaluka (Brunus cerasus Linn.) and asoka (Saraca indica Linn. ),-these ten drugs are sedatives.

(LXVIII ) हिङ्गुकैटर्या रिमेदावचा चोर कवयस्थागोलोमीजटिलापलङ्कषाशोकरोहिण्य इति दशेमानि संज्ञास्थापनानि भवन्ति,

Hingu (Ferula narthex Boiss.), kaitarya (Murraya koenigii Spreng.), arimeda (a variety of Acacia catechu Willd.), vacha (Acorus calamus Linn. ), coraka (Angelica glauca Edgw.), vayastha (Bocopa monnieri Pennel. ), golomi ( a variety of Acorus calamus Linn.), jatila (Nardostachys jatamansi DC.), palankasa (Commiphora mukula Engl.) and asokarohini (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.)-these ten drugs are restoratives of consciousness.

( XLIX ) ऐन्द्रीब्राह्मीशतवीर्यासहस्रवीर्याऽ मोघाऽव्यथाशिवाऽरिष्टावाट्यपुष्पीविष्वक्सेनकान्ता इति दशेमानि प्रजास्थापनानि भवन्ति,

Aindri (Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. ), brahmi ( Bacopa monnieri Pennel.), satavirya (Cynodon dactylon Pers.), sahasravirya (a variety of Cynodon dactylon Pers. ),vamogha ( Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), avyatha ( Tinspora cordifolia Miers. ), asiva ( Terminalia chebula Linn.), arista (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth.), vatyapuspi (Sida rhombifolia Linn.) and visvaksenakanta (Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl. )–these ten drugs are fertility promoters.

(L) अमृताऽभयाधात्रीमुक्ताश्वेता जीवन्त्यतिरसामण्डूकपर्णीस्थिरापुनर्नवा इति दशेमानि वयःस्थापनानि भवन्ति, इति पञ्चकः कषायवर्गः ॥ १८ ॥

Amrita (Tinspora cordifolia Miers.), abhaya ( Terminalia chebula Linn.), Dhatri (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), mukta ( pearl), sveta (white variety of Clitoria ternatea Linn.), jivanti (Leptadenia reticulata W. A.), atirasa (Asparagus racemosus Willd.), mandukaparni (Centella asiatica Urban ), sthira (Desmodium gangeticum DC.) and punarnava ( Boerhaavia diffusa Linn.),-these ten drugs are longevity promoters.

Thus ends the description about a group of five decoctives. [18]

इति पञ्चकषायशतान्यभिसमस्य पञ्चाशन्महाकषाया महतां च कपायाणां लक्षणोदाहरणार्थ व्याख्याता भवन्ति ॥ १९ ॥

Thus five hundred decoctions which have been grouped into fifty and have been described by definitions and examples. [19]

नहि विस्तरस्य प्रमाणमस्ति, न चाप्यतिसंक्षेपोऽल्पबुद्धीनां सामर्थ्यायोपकल्पते, तस्मादनतिसंक्षेपेणानतिविस्तरेण चोपदिष्टाः । एतावन्तो ह्यलमल्पबुद्धीनां व्यव हाराय, बुद्धिमतां च स्वालक्षण्यानुमानयुक्तिकुशलानामनुक्तार्थज्ञानायेति ॥ २०॥

Unlimited are the details (of these drugs) and it is not advisable to take recourse to too much of brevity also, as it will not be grasped by the people of low intelligence. So the descriptions given here are neither too exhaustive nor too brief. What is stated here is enough for the use of persons to low intelligence. This will also help persons of high intelligence in exercising their own imagination (on the basis of the given details of the drugs) for grasping other drugs which have not been included here. [20]

As described above, the description of five hundred decoctives is neither too exhaustive nor too brief. Physicians of lower intelligence will, of course, find this list useful enough in the treatment of various diseases but those possessing high intellectual calibre need not confine themselves to this list. They may exercise their own imaginative power in finding out other similar drugs as well, according to the principles laid down in Ayurveda and keeping in view the requirements of the patients. For example jivoka (?), etc. by virtue of their qualities of unctuousness, coldness, sweetness and aphrodisiac properties is also listed as jivaniya ( vitality promoters ) among decoctives. But a physician with imagination may also prescribe the drugs like draksa (Vitis vinifera Linn. ), milk, vidari ( Ipomoea paniculata R. Br. ), etc. which possess identical properties.

एवंवादिनं भगवन्तमात्रेयमग्निवेश उवाच -नैतानि भगवन् ! पञ्च कषायशतानि पूर्यन्ते, तानि तानि होवाङ्गान्युपप्लवन्ते तेषु तेषु महाकषायेष्विति ॥ २१ ॥

While lord Atreya was explaining ( about these drugs ), Agnivesa enquired, “Respected Sir! to say that there are five hundred decoctives does not seem to be correct because the same drug is repeated in a number of groups of decoctives ?” [ 21 ]

तमुवाच भगवानात्रेयः – नैतदेवं बुद्धिमता द्रष्टव्यमग्निवेश | एकोऽपि ह्यनेकां संज्ञां लभते कार्यान्तराणि कुर्वन्, तद्यथा- – पुरुषो बहूनां कर्मणां करणे समर्थो भवति, स यद्यत् कर्म करोति तस्य तस्य कर्मणः कर्तृ-करणकार्यसंप्रयुक्तं तत्तद्गौणं नामविशेषं प्राप्नोति, तद्वदौषधद्रव्यमपि द्रष्टव्यम् । यदि चैकमेव किंचिद् द्रव्यमासायामस्तथागुणयुक्तं यत् सर्वकर्मणां करणे समर्थ स्यात्, कस्ततोऽन्यदिच्छेदुपधारयितुमुपदेष्टुं वा शिष्येभ्य इति ॥ २२ ॥

Then replied Lord Atreya, “A wiseman like yourself should not view things like that. Even one and the same person performing different acts, is called by different names. For example, a person who is capable of performing many acts gets different designations according to the act performed, nature of acts and the means adopted. Similar is the case with drugs as well. So if we could find one single drug possessing many curative properties to such an extent that it will be effective in curing all diseases, then who will care to enumerate or advise the use of any other drug to his disciples ?” [ 22 ]

As it will be seen, there are five hundred decoctives but they are grouped into fifty only. Numerically speaking, the drugs are not five hundred, as in many cases one and the same drug is repeated several times. But inspite of this repetition, considering the various functions of the drugs listed above, their placements in the several important formulae of decoction have some practical utility. Thus, it is quite appropriate to list one and the same drug under various important decoctions. This is based on a common analogy. One and the same person while performing different acts gets different designations by virtue of his position and association with the acts performed or the means adopted for such performance. For example, if he just cooks, he is a cook; if he makes pots, he is a potter by virtue of the act performed; if he digs earth by a shoul (khanitra), he is known as a khanitraka (digger), by virtue of his associations with the means adopted in the performance of the work. Similarly, one and the same drug having curative properties for many diseases can get different names in different contexts. For example, ksirakakoli (?) having envigorating, nourising and aphrodisiac properties can be called as jivaniya (invigorator), brmhaniya ( nourishing ) and sukrajanaka (spermatogenic ) respectively.

Are there no other drugs to be listed? Why should one and the same drug be repeated more than once in the list of five hundred decoctives ? To this, atreya’s reply is that if one and the same drug is capable of curing many diseases, there is no need of explaining many drugs unnecessarily. In fact, it is much more convenient and easier to explain a smaller number of drugs useful in different diseases than to explain many drugs, each useful in curing one single disease.

तत्र श्लोकाः —

यतो यावन्ति यैव्यैर्विरेचनशतानि षट्। उक्तानि संग्रहेणेह तथैवैषां षडाश्रयाः ॥ २३ ॥ रसा लवणवर्ज्याश्च कषाय इति संशिताः । तस्मात् पञ्चविधा योनिः कषायाणामुदाहृता ॥ २४ ॥ तथा कल्पनमप्येषामुक्तं पञ्चविधं पुनः । महतां च कषायाणां पञ्चाशत् परिकीर्तिता ॥ २५ ॥ पञ्च चापि कषायाणां शतान्युक्तानि भागशः । लक्षणार्थ, प्रमाणं हि विस्तरस्य न विद्यते ॥ २६ ॥ न चालमतिसंक्षेपः सामर्थ्यायोपकल्पते । अल्पबुद्धेरयं तस्मान्नातिसंक्षेपविस्तरः ॥ २७ ॥ मन्दानां व्यवहाराय, बुधानां बुद्धिवृद्धये । पञ्चाशत्को ह्ययं वर्गः कषायाणामुदाहृतः ॥ २८ ॥ तेषां कर्मसु बाह्येषु योगमाभ्यन्तरेषु च । संयोगं च प्रयोगं च यो वेद स भिषग्वरः ॥ २९ ॥ Summing up the contents :

All the six hundred purgatives along with their ingredients, various preparations of each one of them have been explained here in brief; and so their six sources have been explained. Drugs of all tastes except salt, are known as kasayas-thus there are five-fold sources of decoctives. Again fivefold pharmaceutical preparations of all the decoctives and fifty important groups of decoctive have been enumerated. These fifty important groups of decoctive are further divided into ten each thereby constituting five hundred decoctives-such grouping is for the convenience of description; there is no limit to the detailed description of these decoctions. Again, too much of brevity will not be conducive to the understanding of disciples of lower intelligence; so the description of decoction presented in this chapter is neither too brief nor too elaborate. view to guiding the disciples of lower intelligence and also to stimulate the imaginative power of the wise, these fifty groups of decoctives have been explained. The one who is acquainted with the internal use as well as external application and prescription by combination of all these drugs, alone is the real physician. [ 23-29 ] With a

इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृते श्लोकस्थाने षड् विरेचनशताश्रितीयो नाम चतुर्थोऽध्यायः इति भेषजचतुष्कः ।

Thus ends the fourth chapter on “the Six Hundred Purgatives of the Sutra section of Agnivesa’s work as redacted by Charaka. Thus, ends the quadiate on medicaments.


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