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Charaka SamhitaMatrashitiya Adhyaya - Quantitative Dietetics - Charakasamhita Sutrasthana Chapter 5

Matrashitiya Adhyaya – Quantitative Dietetics – Charakasamhita Sutrasthana Chapter 5


अथातो मात्राशितीय मध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः ॥ १ ॥ इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः ॥ २ ॥

We shall now expound the chapter on “Quantitative Dietetics.” Thus said Lord Atreya. [ 1-2 ]

As has been stated earlier, the objects of the science of medicine are two-fold, viz., the treatment of patients suffering from diseases and maintenance of positive health. In the first tetrad of chapters, the various methods of treatment of diseases have been explained. In the present tetrad of chapters, the various ways of maintenance of normal health are being described. Of all the factors for the maintenance of positive health, food taken in proper quantity occupies the most important position-vide, Susruta: Sutra: 28. So the present chapter deals with the quantity of foods to be eaten.

मात्राशी स्यात् । आहारमात्रा पुनरग्निवलापेक्षिणी ॥ ३ ॥

One should eat in proper quantity. The quantity of food to be taken, again, depends upon the power of digestion (including metabolism). [3]

For proper maintenance of positive health, one should first of all eat in proper quantity. Eating here includes all types of eatables which are taken by mouth.

Quantity to be eaten depends upon the power of digestion and metabolism. This, of course, applies to the eating of food and not of drugs; nor does it imply the extent of exercise one should resort to. Dosage of the drug, in fact, depends upon the seriousness of the disease as well as on the strength of the patient. Extent of exercise to be resorted to, is to be determined on the basis of the quantity of dosas required to be eliminated and the degree up to which the power of digestion including metabolism is to be enhanced. Of course, care is to be taken so that there is no over exertion or exhaution during the act of exercise. The power of digestion and metabolism, upon which depends the quantity of food intake, again varies according to the season as well as the age of the individual. Thus, the quantity of food to be taken depends upon a number of factors.

Quantity of food and digestion :

‘यावद्ध्यस्याशन मशितमनुपहत्य प्रकृति यथाकालं जरां गच्छति तावदस्य मात्राप्रमाणं वेदितव्यं भवति ॥ ४ ॥

The amount of food which, without disturbing the equilibrium (of dhatus and dosas of the body), gets digested as well as metabolised in proper time, is to be regarded as the proper quantity. [4]

The relation of the quantity of food and the power of digestion and metabolism, needs some explanation. How shall we know that a given amount of food is just enough for a particular individual? This can be known only by correlating the food taken with its proper digestion within a time limit. If food taken in the evening does not disturb the equilibrium of dosas as well as dhatus and gets digested and metabolised by the morning then that would be the standard measurement of food to be taken by the individual. This measurement will certainly vary from individual to individual. No standard measurement can be prescribed for all individuals. In fact, the power of digestion even of a single individual varies from time to time and so there is bound to be some variation in the standard measurement of food to be taken by him. But for all practical purposes, the standard measurement of food for an individual is to be determined on the basis of his digestive capacity.

It is not that the food that gets digested in time may not disturb the equilibrium. It does so, owing to some inherent defects in its components, processing, etc. For example, even though Edigested in time, Mandaka (premature curd), lakuca (Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb. ), etc. do disturb the equilibrium, irrespective of their quantity taken.

Measurement of food is, in fact, of two types, viz. food as a whole and of its different ingredients having different tastes like sweet, sour, etc. If food as a whole is taken according to the prescribed measurement but its ingredients having different tastes like sweet, sour, etc. are not in prescribed ratio, the equilibrium of dhatus and dosas gets definitely disturbed due to imbalance in the ratio of the composing rasas (tastes). Consequently the timely digestion of food as a whole will also be affected.

Quantity of food in relation to Quality of food:

तत्र शालिषष्टिकमुद्गलावकपिञ्जलैणशशशरभशम्बरादीन्याहारद्रव्याणि प्रकृतिलघून्यपि मात्रापेक्षीणि भवन्ति । तथा पिष्टेक्षुक्षीरविकृतितिलमाषा नूपौदकपिशितादीन्याहारद्रव्याणि प्रकृतिगुरुण्यपि मात्रामेवापेक्षन्ते ॥ ५ ॥

न चैवमुक्ते द्रव्ये गुरुलाघवमकारणं मन्येत, लघूनि हि द्रव्याणि वाय्वग्निगुणबहुलानि भवन्ति; पृथ्वीसोमगुणबहुलीनीतराणि, तस्मात् स्वगुणादपि लघून्यग्निसन्धुक्षणस्वभावान्यल्पदोषाणि चोच्यन्तेऽपि सौहित्योपयुक्तानि, गुरूणि पुनर्नाग्निसन्धुक्षणस्वभावान्यसामान्यात्, अतश्चातिमात्रं दोषवन्ति सौहित्योपयुक्तान्यन्यत्र व्यायामाग्निबलात्; सैषा भवत्यग्निवलापेक्षिणी मात्रा ॥ ६ ॥

Items of food like Sali (Oryza sativa Linn.), sastika ( a variety of Oryza sativa Linn.), mudga ( Phaseolus mango Linn.), common Quail, gray Partrige, antelop, rabbit, wapiti, Indian sambar, etc.;-even though light in digestion by nature are to be taken according to the measurement prescribed. Similarly preparations of flour, sugar-cane and milk, tila (Sesamum indicum Linn.), masa ( Phaseolus radiatus Linn. ), and meats of marsy and aquatic animals even though heavy in digestion by nature are also required to be taken in proper quantity.

But from this it should not be concluded that the description of heaviness or lightness does not carry any importance. Because, the light food articles are predominant in the qualities of Vayu and Agni and heavy one in prthvi and ap mahabhutas, Therefore, according to their qualities, the light articles of food, being stimulants of appetite and by nature are considered to be less harmful even if taken in excess of the prescribed quantity. On the other hand, heavy articles of food, being by nature, suppressors of appetite are exceedingly harmful if taken in excess unless there is a strong power of digestion and metabolism achieved by physical exercise. Thus the quantity of food depends upon the power of digestion including metabolism. [5-6]

By nature light food is said to be conducive to good health. Heavy food on the other hand is considered to be detrimental thereto. But for both types of food, if quantity is to be taken into account, lightness and heaviness of food do not seem to have any implication. Thus, it is true that the quantity rather than the heaviness or lightness of food is important in the present context. But as a matter of fact, light articles of food are dominated by the qualities of vayu and agni mahabhutas, and are by nature stimulants of appetite; thus, even if taken in excess, they are less harmful. The heavy articles of food on the other hand being dominated by the qualities of prithvi and ap mahabhutas are heterogenous in character in relation to appetite. So, if taken in excessive quantity they are certainly exceedingly harmful. Their harmfulness can be neutralised only when there is a corresponding stronger digestive power caused by the physical exercise.

न च नापेक्षते द्रव्यंः द्रव्यापेक्षया च त्रिभागसौहित्यमर्धसौहित्यं वा गुरूणामुपदिश्यते लघूनामपि च नातिसौहित्यमग्नेर्युक्त्यर्थम् ॥ ७ ॥

It is not so, that the proper quantity of food does not depend upon the nature of food articles. If the food article is heavy, only three fourth or half of the stomach capacity is to be filled up. Even in the case of light food articles exessive intake is not conducive to the maintenance of the power of digestion and metabolism. [7]

As stated in the sixth paragraph, the quantity of food is to be determined in accordance with the power of digestion and metabolism. But how is it that for an indvidual having the same power of digestion the execessive intake of light food articles is prescribed while only three fourth or half of the stomach capacity is to be consumed in the case of heavy food articles? The answer is that correct requirement cannot be determined without taking into account the food articles concerned. That is why food articles which are just slightly heavy are to be taken up to the extent of three fourth of the stomach capacity. Similarly, those which are heavier still, are to be taken still in lesser quantitythat is half of the stomach capacity. Thus the exact requirement of the heavy food articles is to be determined on the basis of the degree of heaviness. Even, in the case of light food articles, excessive intake is not prescribed. If taken in excessive quantity, even light food articles affect the normal process of digestion and metabolism. It might be argued that being homologous in nature, even if taken in excessive quantity light food need not affect digestion. But this is not correct. Mere homologous property does not, as a rule, determine conduciveness. Though homologous in character, excessive light affects the eye. Similarly a weapon is made of stone and it is even sharpened by stone but if dashed against the stone inappropriately, it gets blunted. Thus, even light food articles, if taken in inappropriate quantities do affect the power of digestion and metabolism.

The importance of food taken in poper quality :

मात्रावड्यशनमशितमनुपहत्य प्रकृति बलवर्णसुखायुषा योजयत्युपयोक्तारमवश्यमिति ॥ ८ ॥

Taken in appropriate quantity, food certainly helps the individual in bringing about strength, complexion, happiness and longevity without disturbing the equilibrium of dhatus and dasas of the body. [8]

Thus, the determination of the quantity of food depends upon the power of digestion and metabolism as well as the heaviness or lightness of the food articles concerned. Food taken in proper quantity, helps in bringing about the strength, complexion, happiness and longevity. Of course, there are other factors like inappropriateness of time, non-observance of ethical rules and unwholesomeness of auditory, tactile, visual, gustatory and olfactory sensations which might minimise the effects of taking wholesome food in proper time.-cf. Sutra 28 : 7. But then. other things being normal, food taken in proper quantity must do good to the body.

गुरु पिष्टमयं तस्मात्तण्डुलान् पृथुकानपि । न जातु भुक्तवान् खादेन्मात्रां खादेद्बुभुक्षितः ॥ ९ ॥

भवन्ति चात्र

OF After having taken food, one should never take such heavy articles like pastries, rice, prthuka (boiled and flattened rice ). Even when hungry one should take these articles only in proper quantity. [9]

Contra indicated foods :

वल्लूरं शुष्कशाकानि शालूकानि बिसानि च । नाभ्यसेद्गौरवान्मांसं कृशं नैवोपयोजयेत् ॥ १० ॥

कूर्चिकांश्च किलाटांश्च शौकरं गव्यमाहिषे । मत्स्यान् दधि च माषांश्च यवकांश्च नं शीलयेत् ॥ ११ ॥

One should not regularly take heavy articles such as vallura (dried meat), dry vegetables, lotus rhizomes and lotus stalk. One should never take meat of a diseased animal. Moreover, one should not regularly take kurcika (boiled buttermilk), kilata (inspissiated milk ), pork, beaf, meat of buffalo, fish, curd, masa ( Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) and yavaka ( a variety of Hordeum vulgare Linn. ). [ 10-11 ]

Indicated foods:

पष्टिकाञ्छालिमुद्रांश्च सैन्धवामलके यवान् । आन्तरीक्षं पयः सर्पिर्जाङ्गलं मधु चाभ्यसेत् ॥ १२ ॥

Que should regularly take sastika ( a kind of rice harvested in sixty days), sali (Oryza sativum Linn.), mudga ( Phaseolus mungo Linn.), rock salt, amalaka (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), rain water, ghee, meat of animals dwelling in arid climate and honey. [12]

Rock salt should be used in the preparation of food articles only; that too keeping in view its proper quantity; salt intake in excess is prohibited-cf. Vimana I: 18.

तच्च नित्यं प्रयुञ्जीत स्थ्यं येनानुवर्तते ।

अजातानां विकाराणामनुत्पत्तिकरं च यत् ॥ १३ ॥

One should regularly take such articles which are conducive to the maintenance of good health and are capable of preventing the attacks of diseases. [13]

This verse represents general advice about the wholesome diet. Only such food is to be regularly used which is conducive to the maintenance of good health and prevents attacks of diseases in future. Good health can be maintained in two ways, viz. by replenishing the used up dhatus ( tissue elements) of the body by proper diet and regimen and by removing the obstacles in the path of good health. The maintenance of the flame of a lamp may be cited here in this connection. The flame of the lamp is maintained by providing oil and wick thereto and also by removing its extinguishing factors like insects, wind, etc. The obstacles in the path of good health are of two kinds, viz. those vitiating vata, etc. due to non-observance of the ethical rules, and also those natural factors which are difficult to overcome like the exposure to hemanta or winter season which vitiate kapha. Thus, the first part of the verse deals with the factors responsible for the maintenance of good health while the latter half with the removal of obstacles in its way. The idea underlying the prevention of diseases is that one should take food and observe regimen with due regard to seasonal propriety so that the food taken, and the regimens observed, alleviate such of the dosas as are liable to be aggravated due to seosonal effects-cf. Sutra 7:45.

Personal hygiene: Collyrium etc.

अत ऊर्ध्वं शरीरस्य कार्यमक्ष्यञ्जनादिकम् । स्वस्थवृत्तिमभिप्रेत्य गुणतः संप्रवक्ष्यते ॥ १४ ॥ Hereafter will be explained the utilities of the application of collyrium in the eyes, etc. which are essential for the maintenance of positive health. [14]

The explanation that follows deals with the application of collyrium in the eyes, etc. only in relation to the maintenance of positive health rather than in relation to the cure of the diseases. The collyrium, etc. for the curative purpose will be explained in the respective chapters on the treatment of different diseases. Even though the curative values of therapies enumerated in this chapter can not altogether be ruled out, they are primarily meant here for the maintenance of the positive health.

Of the therapies enumerated here, collyrium occupies a most important position because it is related with the eyes which constitute the most important sense organ. As it has been said, “The wise consider the eyes as the most important amongst all the sense organs. It is like the sun amongst the heavenly bodies covered with the cloud and mist.”

Time for the use of collyrium :

सौवीरमनं नित्यं हितमक्ष्णोः प्रयोजयेत् । पञ्चरात्रेऽष्ट्ररात्रे वा स्त्रावणार्थे रसाञ्जनम् ॥ १५ ॥ चक्षुस्तेजोमयं तस्य विशेषाच्छ्लेष्मतो भयम् । ततः श्लेष्महरं कर्म हितं दृष्टेः प्रसादनम् ॥ १६ ॥ दिवा तन्न प्रयोक्तव्यं नेत्रयोस्तीक्ष्णमञ्जनम् । विरेकर्बला दृष्टिरादित्यं प्राप्य सीदति ॥ १७ ॥ तस्मात् स्राव्यं निशायां तु ध्रुवमञ्जनमिष्यते ।

One should regularly apply the collyrium made of antibecause it is useful for the eyes. Rasanjana (a preparamony tion of Berberis aristata DC.) is to be applied once in every five or eight nights for lacrymation of the eyes. .

Of all the mahabhutas, tejas dominates (in the composition of) the eyes; so they are specially susceptible to kapha. Therefore, the therapy (collyrium etc.) which alleviates kapha is good for keeping the vision clear.

A strong collyrium must not be applied to the eyes during the day time as the eyes weakened by drainage will be adversely affected at the sight of the sun. Thus, the collyrium meant for drainage should as a rule be applied only during night. [15-17]

The term ‘rasanjana’ is differently explained by different authors. According to the Bhavaprakasa it is a preparation of Berberi aristata DC. The following extract from M.W. regarding the meaning of the word ‘rasanjana’ may be found interesting in this regard, “Vitriol of copper a sort of collyrium prepared from it with the addition of Curcuma or according to some from the calx of brass with Amonium anthorrhiza or according to others from lead ore.”

As the main object of rasanjana is to alleviate vitiated kapha of the eyes, it is to be applied at regular intervals only during the nights. Its application during the day time is prohibited because the eyes weakened by drainage are adversely affected at the sight of the sun. Although the period of interval mentioned in the sloka is five or eight days, this is to be followed in spirit rather than words, i. e. according to the circumstances, the rasanjana should be used at regular intervals; the period of interval may be lesser or greater than five and eight days respectively.

As regards the collyrium of antimony, it is to be taken regularly. It is not strong enough nor does it cause drainage; it is just soothing to the eyes; so there is no harm from its being used even during day time.

Adavantages of Collyrium :

यथा हि कनकादीनां मलिनां विविधात्मनाम् ॥ १८ ॥ धौतानां निर्मला शुद्धिस्तैलचेलकचादिभिः । एवं नेत्रेषु मर्त्यानामञ्जनाइच्योतनादिभिः ॥ १९ ॥ दृष्टिर्निराकुला भाति निर्मले नभसीन्दुवत् ।

As different types of tarnished gold ( ornaments) are spotlessly cleaned by means of oil, cloth and hair brush, so also by the use of collyrium and aspersion, the eyes of human being become spotlessly bright like the moon in the clear sky. [18-19]

In fact, as in the case of gold ornaments so also in the case of eye sight, purification is in the very nature of the objects concerned. The purpose of applying oil, etc. to gold or collyrium, etc. to the eyes is not to bring about any external speciality but to bring back the natural brightness there. Even though the process of ascyotana or aspersion, i.e. sprinkling of liquid drugs in the eyes has not been explained here, it is implied in the present verse because the utility values of both collyrium and aspersion are the same. By implicatian, putapaka (a particular method of preparing drugs-the various substances being rapped up in leaves covered with clay and heated with fire M.W. ) etc; are also included here as cleansing factors for the eyes.

Personal hygiene: Smoking

हरेणुकां प्रियङ्गु च पृथ्वीकां केशरं नखम् ॥ २० ॥ ह्रीवेरं चन्दनं पत्रं त्वगेलोशीरपद्मकम् । ध्यामकं मधुकं मांसी गुग्गुल्वगुरुशर्करम् ॥ २१ ॥

न्यग्रोधोदुम्बराश्वत्थप्लक्षलोभ्रत्वचः शुभाः | वन्यं सर्जरसं मुस्तं शैलेयं कमलोत्पले ॥ २२ ॥ श्रीवेटकं शकी च शुक्रबर्हमथापि च ।

पिष्ठा लिम्पेच्छरेषीकां तां वर्ति यवसन्निभाम् ॥ २३ ॥ अङ्गुष्ठसंमितां कुर्यादष्टाङ्गुलसमां भिषक् ।

शुष्क निगर्भ तां वतिं धूमनेत्रार्पितां नरः ॥ २४ ॥

स्नेहाक्तामग्निसंव्लुष्टां पिबेत् प्रायोगिकीं सुखाम् । Harenua ( Pisum sativum Linn.), priyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl.), prthvika (Nigella sativa Linn.), kesara (Mesua ferrea Linn.), nakha (?), hrivera (Pavonia odorata Willd. ), Chandana (Santalum album Linn.), patra (Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberum), tvak (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), ela ( Elettaria cardamomum Maton), usira (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash ), padmaka (Prunus cerasoides D. Don. ), dhyamaka (Cymbopogon schoenanthus Spreng.), madhuka ( Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), mamsi (Nardostachys jatamansi DC.), guggulu (Commifora mukul Engl.), aguru (Aquilaria agallocha Roxb.), sarkara (sugar), bark of nyagrodha (Ficus bengalensis Linn.), udumbara (Ficus racemosa Linn.), asvattha (Ficus religiosa Linn.), plaksa (Ficus locor Buch-Ham. ), and lodhra (Symplocos racemosa Roxb.), vanya (Cyperus tenuiflorus), sarjarasa (resin of Vateria indica Linn.), musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn.), saileya (Permellia perforata), kamala (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.), utpala (Nymphaea alba Linn.), srivestaka (resinous extract from Pinus roxburghii Sargent ), sallaki (Boswellia serrata™ Roxb.), sukabarha (?),-all these drugs should be ground, made to a paste and applied to a reed, and then made into a cigar of the shape of a barley grain having the thickness (at the centre) of a thumb and length of eight fingers breadth; it should then be dried up and the reed be taken out of it: With the help of a pipe, one should regularly smoke that cigar after greasing it with some unctuous substance and applying fire to it. This is altogether harmless. [20-24]

It is true that application of collyrium in eyes helps eliminating the kapha element from the eyes but that is not enough. A part of the vitiated kapha of the head which is not easily eliminated by the application of collyrium is instantaneously eliminated by smoking. So, just after describing collyrium, the process of smoking has been described here.

वसाघृतमधूच्छिष्टैर्युक्तियुक्तैर्वरौपधैः वर्ति मधुरकैः कृत्वा स्नैहिकीं धूममाचरेत् ।

One should smoke unctuous cigars made of useful drugs of sweet taste along with fat of muscle, ghee, and bee wax according to the prescribed method. [25]

All these drugs are to be mixed in such a proportion that the resultant product can easily take the form of a cigar.

श्वेता ज्योतिष्मती चैव हरितालं मनःशिला ॥ २६ ॥ गन्धाश्चागुरुपत्राद्या धूमं मूर्धविरेचने ।

For the elimination of dosas from the head, smoking of cigars made of sveta ( white variety of Clitoria ternatea Linn. ), jyotismati ( Celastrus paniculatus Willd. ), orpiment, realgar and other fragrant articles like aguru (Aquilaria agalocha Roxb.), patra ( Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberum ), etc. is prescribed. [ 26 ]

Among the drugs coming under aguru (Aquilaria agalocha Roxb.), etc. such of the drugs as are exceedingly irritating, for example kustha (Saussurea lappa C. B. Clarke) and tagara (Valeriana wallichi DC.) are to be avoided as there is danger of the brain matter being oozed out there by-cf. Chikitsa 26 182. and Susruta: Chikitsa 40: 3.

Advantages of smoking :

गौरवं शिरसः शूलं पीनसार्धावभेदकौ ॥ २७ ॥ कर्णाक्षिशूलं कासश्च हिक्काश्वासौ गलग्रहः । दन्तदौर्बल्यमास्त्रावः श्रोत्रघ्राणाक्षिदोषजः ॥ २८ ॥ पूतिघ्रणास्यगन्धश्च दन्तशूलमरोचकः । हनुमन्याग्रहः कण्डूः क्रिमयः पाण्डुता मुखे ॥ २९ ॥ श्लेष्मप्रसेको वैस्वर्य गलशुण्ड्युपजिह्निका | खालित्यं पिञ्जरत्वं च केशानां पतनं तथा ॥ ३० ॥ क्षवथुश्चातितन्द्रा च बुद्धेर्मोहोऽतिनिद्रता । धूमपानात् प्रशाम्यन्ति बलं भवति चाधिकम् ॥ ३१ ॥ शिरोरुहकपालानामिन्द्रियाणां स्वरस्य च । न च वातकफात्मानो बलिनोऽप्यूर्ध्वजत्रुजाः ॥ ३२ ॥ धूमवककपानस्य व्याधयः स्युः शिरोगताः ।

Smoking cures heaviness of head, headache, rhinitis hemicrania, earache, pain in eye, cough, hic-cough, dyspnoea, obstruction in throat, weakness of teeth, discharge from the morbid ear, nose and eye, purulent smell from nose and mouth, toothache, anorexia, lock jaw, torticollis, pruritus, infective conditions, paleness of face, excessive salivation, impaired voice, tonsilitis, uvulitis, alopecia, greying of hair, falling of hair, sneezing, excessive drowsiness, loss of consciousness, and hypersomnia. It also strengthens hair, skull bones, sense organs and voice. Howsoever strong the diseases may be, pertaining to head and neck arising out of vata and kapha, they do not affect the person who is used to smoking by oral route. [27-32 ] Schedule for smoking :

प्रयोगपाने तस्याष्टौ कालाः संपरिकीर्तिताः ॥ ३३ ॥ वातश्लेष्मसमुत्क्लेशः कालेष्वेषु हि लक्ष्यते । स्नात्वा भुक्त्वा समुल्लिख्य क्षुत्वा दन्तान्निघृष्य च ॥ ३४ ॥ नावनाञ्जननिद्रान्ते चात्मवान् धूमपो भवेत् । तथा वातकफात्मानो न भवन्त्यूर्ध्वजत्रुजाः ॥ ३५ ॥ रोगास्तस्य तु पेयाः स्युरापानास्त्रिस्त्रयस्त्रयः ।

Eight times are prescribed for habitual smoking because vata, pitta and kapha get vitiated during these times. That is to say, one having self-control should smoke after bathing, eating, tongue scraping, sneezing, brushing the teeth, inhalation of medicated material, application of collyrium (and after sleep. This (smoking at these eight times) prevents diseases of head and neck resulting from the vitiation of kapha and vata, Smoking is to be done thrice-three puffs each time. [ 33-35 ]

Eight definite times have been prescribed for habitual smoking with a view to preventing diseases arising out of the vitiation of vata and kapha. The time prescribed for unctuous smoking is the period when vata gets vitiated because this variety of smoking is useful for curing diseases due to vata. Similarly the period when kapha gets vitiated is the time suited for the eliminative type of smoking because this is a prescribed therapy for the cure of diseases due to the vitiation of kapha.

Prayogika variety which is meant for habitual smoking is responsible for the maintenance of positive health; that is why timings of its administration are mentioned here. Some others hold the view that these timings are prescribed for all the three varieties of smoking, viz., prayogika (meant for habitual smoking,) snaihika or unctuous variety and vairecanika or eliminative variety because all of them are responsible for the maintenance of positive health-the latter two specially by preventing the occurrence of diseases due to vata and kapha respectively.

Whenever cigars are to be smoked, consecutively three puffs are to be taken each time. One is required to pause a little after smoking once (consisting of three puffs) and then repeat smoking for the second and third times in the same manner.

परं द्विकालपायी स्यादह्नः कालेषु बुद्धिमान् ॥ ३६ ॥ प्रयोगे, स्नैहिके त्वेकं, वैरेच्यं त्रिचतुः पिवेत् ।

During the prescribed times, a wise person should smoke twice for habitual variety of smoking, once for unctuous variety and three to four times for the eliminative variety of smoking. [ 36]

हत्कण्ठेन्द्रियसंशुद्धिर्लघुत्वं शिरसः शमः ॥ ३७ ॥ यथेरितानां दोषाणां सम्यक्पीतस्य लक्षणम् ।

Clarity of mind, throat and sense organs, lightness of head and elimination of the above mentioned dosas are features of correct smoking. [ 37 ]

Complications of smoking :

बाधिर्यमान्ध्यमूकत्वं रक्तपित्तं शिरोभ्रमम् ॥ ३८ ॥ अकाले चातिपीतश्च धूमः कुर्यादुपद्रवान् ।

If untimely done or overdone, smoking causes such troubles as deafness, blindness, dumbness, bleeding from different parts of the body and giddiness. [38]

Treatment of complications :

तत्रेष्टं सर्पिषः पानं नांवनाञ्जनतर्पणम् ॥ ३९ ॥ स्नैहिकं धूमजे दोषे वायुः पित्तानुगो यदि । शीतं तु रक्तपित्ते स्याच्छ्लेष्मपित्ते विरूक्षणम् ॥ ४० ॥

If such troubles ( due to untimely and over smoking ) arise, intake of ghee, administration of nasal drops, collyrium and demulscent drinks are prescribed. These should be prepared with unctuous drugs in the event of vitiation of vayu associated with pitta, with cooling drugs in the case of raktapitta, and with arid drugs in the event of vitiation of kapha and pitta. [ 39-40]

Contra-indications for smoking :

परं त्वतः प्रवक्ष्यामि धूमो येषां विगर्हितः । न विरिक्तः पिवेद् धूमंन कृते वस्तिकर्मणि ॥ ४१ ॥ न रक्ती न विषेणार्तौ न शोचन्न च गर्भिणी । न श्रमे न मदे नामे न पित्ते न प्रजागरे ॥ ४२ ॥ न मूर्च्छाभ्रमतृष्णासु नक्षीणे नापि च क्षते । न मद्यदुग्धे पीत्वा च न स्नेहं न च माक्षिकम् ॥ ४३ ॥ धूमं न भुक्त्वा दध्ना च न रूक्षः क्रुद्ध एव च । न तालुशोषे तिमिरे शिरस्यभिहते न च ॥ ४४ ॥ न शके न रोहिण्यां न मेहे न मदात्यये । एषु धूममकालेषु मोहात् पिबति यो नरः ॥ ४५ ॥ रोगास्तस्य प्रवर्धन्ते दारुणा धूमविभ्रमात् ।

Now I shall explain the situations (conditions) in which smoking is prohibited. A person after taking emesis or purgative or enema, or a person having bleeding through different orifices of the body, or one afflicted with toxins or a grief-stricken person should not smoke; a pregnant woman should also refrain from smoking; similarly one should not smoke when he is fatigued or intoxicated. Smoking is also prohibited in the event of the vitiation of digestion including metabolism vitiation of pitta, vigil, fainting, giddiness, morbid thirst, consumption and phthisis.

One should not smoke after having taken liquor or milk or fatty substances or honey or curd; nor one should smoke when there is roughness in his body or he is enraged. Smoking is also prohibited in the event of the dryness of palate, fainting, injury to the head, sankhaka ( a type of headache in the temporal region marked by exessive pain and swelling-usually killing a patient in three days ), rohini ( a condition characterised by extensive and painful swelling at the base of the tongue), diabetes and narcosis. One who, out of ignorance, smokes in contravention of these situations, subjects himself to various serious diseases. These diseases become severe due to the adverse effect of improper smoking. [ 41-45]

Routes of smoking :

धूमयोग्यः पिबेद्दोषे शिरोघ्राणाक्षिसंश्रये ॥ ४६॥

घ्राणेनास्येन कण्ठस्थे मुखेन घ्राणपो वमेत् । आस्येन धूमकवलान् पिबन् घ्राणेन नोइमेत् ॥ ४७ ॥

प्रतिलोमं गतो ह्याशु धूमो हिंस्याद्धि चक्षुषी ।

One for whom the smoking is prescribed should through the nose in the event of diseases relating to the head, nose and eyes, and through the mouth for diseases of the throat. While smoking through the nose, one should exhale through mouth but if one smokes through the mouth, he should not exhale through the nose because of the smoke moving in the reverse direction instantaneously affects the eyes. [ 46-47 ] ।।

smoke ऋज्वङ्गचक्षुस्तच्चेताः सुपविष्टस्त्रिपर्ययम् ॥ ४८

पिवेच्छिद्रं पिधायैकं नासया धूममात्मवान् ।

With the body erect, eyes looking front, mind concentrated and having self-control, one should sit at ease and smoke three times, thrice during each time, through one nostril while closing the other one. [ 48 ] 1917 be observ

The rules regarding smoking as explained in this verse are to ed for the entire duration of smoking.

Size and shape of the smoking pipe:

स्वाङ्गुलीभिर्विरेचने ॥ ४९ ॥ चतुर्विंशतिक नेत्रं द्वात्रिंशदङ्गुलं स्नेहे प्रयोगेऽध्यर्धमिष्यते ।

For the eliminative type of smoking, the length of the pipe should be twenty four fingers; for unctuous smoking, of thirty two fingers; while for habitual smoking, of thirty six fingers ( finger breadth is to be measurad with one’s own finger ). [ 49 ] कोलास्थ्यग्रप्रमाणितम् ॥ ५० ॥

ऋजु त्रिकोषाफलितं प्रशस्यते । धूमनेत्रं

बस्तिनेत्रसमद्रव्यं The best pipe is one which is straight, having three knots, whose mouth is of the size of the stone of a kola fruit (Zizyphus jujuba Lam.) and which is made of the same material as that of the enema pipe. [ 50]

दूराद्विनिर्गतः पर्वच्छिन्नो नाडीतनूकृतः ॥ ५१ ॥ नेन्द्रियं बाधते धूमो मात्राकालनिषेवितः ।

The prescribed dose The smoke used according to and time

dose not affect the sense organs as it is not inhaled directly. It is interrupted by knots and is attenuated by its flow through the passage of the pipe. [51]

Features of good smoking:

यदा चोरश्च कण्ठश्च शिरश्च लघुतां व्रजेत् ॥ ५२ ॥ कफश्च तनुतां प्राप्तः सुपीतं धूममादिशेत् ।

Signs like lightness of the chest, throat, head and liquification of kapha are the features of correct smoking. [ 52 ]

Features of insufficient smoking :

अविशुद्धः स्वरो यस्य कण्ठश्च सकफो भवेत् ॥ ५३ ॥ स्तिमितो मस्तकश्चैवमपीतं धूममादिशेत् |

Impairment of voice, presence of kapha ( phlegm ) in the throat and heaviness of the head are the features of insufficient smoking. [ 53 ]

Features of excessive smoking :

तालु मूर्धा च कण्ठश्च शुष्यते परितप्यते ॥ ५४ ।। तृष्यते मुह्यते जन्तू रक्तं च स्रवतेऽधिकम् । शिरश्च भ्रमतेऽत्यर्थं मूर्च्छा चास्योपजायते ॥ ५५ ॥ इन्द्रियाण्युपतप्यन्ते धूमेऽत्यर्थं निषेविते ।

If one smokes in excess, his palate, head and throat get dried up and become hot. One feels thirsty and he becomes unconscious; there is excessive bleeding; he gets excessive giddiness in his head. There is fainting and his sense organs become hot. [ 54-55]

Personal hygiene: Nasal drops

वर्षे वर्षेऽणुतैलं च कालेषु त्रिषु ना चरेत् ॥ ५६ ॥ प्रावृट्शरद्वसन्तेषु गत नभस्तले ।

One should inhale “Anu taila” every year during the three seasons, viz., the rainy season, the autumn and the spring, when the sky is free from cloud. [ 56]

Anu taila is a special preparation for nasal therapy which is useful for eradicating and preventing morbid conditions of inter-cellular spaces and channels of the body.

Advantages of nasal therapy :

नस्यकर्म यथाकालं यो यथोक्तं निषेवते ॥ ५७ ॥ न तस्य चक्षुर्न घ्राणं न श्रोत्रमुपहन्यते । न स्युः श्वेता न कपिलाः केशाः श्मश्रृणि वा पुनः ॥ ५८ ॥ न च केशाः प्रमुच्यन्ते वर्धन्ते च विशेषतः । शिरःशूलमर्दितं हनुसंग्रहः ॥ ५९ ॥ पीनसार्धावभेदौ च शिरःकम्पश्च शाम्यति । मन्यास्तम्भः सिराः शिरःकपालानां सन्धयः स्नायुकण्डराः ॥ ६० ॥ नावनप्रीणिताश्चास्य लभन्तेऽभ्यधिकं बलम् । मुखं प्रसन्नोपचितं स्वरः स्निग्धः स्थिरो महान् ॥ ६१ ॥ सर्वेन्द्रियाणां वैमल्यं बलं भवति चाधिकम् । न चास्य रोगाः सहसा प्रभवन्त्यूर्ध्वजत्रुजाः ॥ ६२ ॥ जीर्यतश्चोत्तमाङ्गेषु जरा न लभते बलम् ।

One who practises nasal therapy in time according to the prescribed method, his eyes, nose and ears are not affected (by any morbidity). His hair and beard never become white or grey; he never experiences hair fall; these rather grow luxuriously. Diseases like torticollis, headache, facial paralysis, lock jaw, rhinitis, hemicrania and tremors of the head are cured thereby. Being nourished by inhalation, his veins, joints, ligaments and tendons of head and neck gain greater strength. His face becomes cheerful and plumpy; and his voice becomes sweet, stabilised and stertorous. All his sense organs become clear and there is considerable strength ( in them ). Diseases relating to head and neck do not attack him all of a sudden. Even though, he might be growing old, old age does not affect his head (in the form of grey hair, etc. ) [57-62]

Preparatian of Anu taila :

चन्दनागुरुणी पत्रं दावत्वमधुकं वलाम् ॥ ६३ ॥ प्रपौण्डरीकं सूक्ष्मैलां विडङ्ग विल्वमुत्पलम् । हीवेरमभयं वन्यं त्वअनुस्तं सारिवां स्थिराम् ॥ ६४ ॥ जीवन्तीं पृश्निपणीं च सुरदारु शतावरीम् । हरेणुं बृहतीं व्याघ्रीं सुरभीं पद्मकेशरम् ।। ६५ ।। विपाचयेच्छतगुणे माहेन्द्रे विमलेऽम्भसि | तैलाशगुणं शेषं कषायमवतारयेत् ॥ ६६ ॥ तेन तैलं कपायेण दशकृत्वो विपाचयेत् । अथास्य दशमे पाके समांशं छागलं पयः ॥ ६७ ॥ दद्यादेषोऽणुतैलस्य नावनीयस्य संविधिः । अस्य मात्रां प्रयुञ्जीत तैलस्यार्धपलोन्मिताम् ॥ ६८ ॥ स्निग्धस्विन्नोत्तमाङ्गस्य पिचुना नावनैस्त्रिभिः | त्र्यहाव्यहाच सप्ताहमेतत् कर्म समाचरेत् ।। ६९ ।। निवातोष्णसमाचारी हिताशी नियतेन्द्रियः । तैल मेतत्त्रिदोषघ्नमिन्द्रियाणां बलप्रदम् ॥ ७० ॥ प्रयुञ्जानो यथाकालं यथोक्तानश्नुते गुणान्

Chandana (Santalum album Linn.), aguru (Aquilaria agalocha Roxb.), patra (Cinnamomum tamala Nees), bark of darvi (Berberis aristata DC.), (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), bala (Sida cordifolia Linn.), prapaunda rika (Nymphaea lotus Linn.), suksamaila (Elettaria cardamomum Maton), vidanga (Emblia ribes Brum. f.), bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr.), utpala (Nymphaea alba Linn.), hrivera ( Pavania odorata Willd.), abhaya (Vetiveria zizanioidse Nash.), vanya (Cyperus tenuiflorus ), tvac (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume f.), musta (Cyperus rotundus Linn.), sariva (Hemidesmus indicus R. B.), sthira (Desmodium gangeticum DC.), jivanti (Leptadenia reticulata W. and A.), prsniparni (Uraria picta Desv.), suradaru ( Cedrus deodara Loud. ), satavari (Asparagus racemosus Willd.), harenu ( Pisum sativum Linn.), brhati (Solanum indicum Linn.), vyaghri (Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl.), surabhi ( Pluchea lanceolata Oliver and Hiern), padmakesara ( filaments of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.), -these drugs should be boiled with hundred times of pure rain water (of the oil in quantity), till it is reduced to ten times of the oil ( in quantity). The oil should be boiled in that decoction for ten times. At the final (that is the tenth) stage of .boiling, equal quantity of goat’s milk should be added to it. This is the prescribed method for preparing Anu taila which is useful for inhalation. The prescribed dosages of the oil are half pala or 24 ml (this is the quantity to be used in twentyfour hours).

After oleation and fomentation of the head, Anu taila is to be administered into the nostril with the help of a cotton swab on alternate days-thrice daily-for seven days. This oil is useful for alleviating all the three dosas and gives strength to the sense organs. The benefit of this oil as envisaged above can be derived if it is used in proper time. The patient using it, should reside in a place which is neither too airy nor too warm, he should take wholesome food and have self-control. [ 63-70]

The quantity of water with which the drugs are to be boiled should be hundred times of the quantity of the oil. This view is corroborated by the observations of Jatukarna. The process of inhalation is to be repeated on alternate days-three times daily. This will continue for 13 days; that is to say the inhalation will be actually administered for seven days in all.

Oral hygiene: Teeth brushing

आपोथता द्वौ कालौ कषायकटुतितकम् ॥ ७१ ॥ भक्षयेद्दन्तपवनं दन्तमांसान्यवाधयन् ।

निहन्ति गन्धं वैरस्यं जिह्वादन्तास्यजं मलम् ॥ ७२ ॥ निष्कृष्य रुचिमाधत्ते सद्यो दन्तविशोधनम् ।

One should use the tooth-cleaning stick whose top portion is crushed and which is either astringent, pungent or bitter in taste. This should be done in such a way that the gums are not affected. This removes the foul smell and tastelessness. It removes the dirt of the tongue, teeth and mouth causing thereby the taste for food. This cleans the teeth instantaneously. [71-72]

Plants for dental brush:

करञ्जकरवीरार्कमालतीककुभासनाः शस्यन्ते दन्तपवने ये चाप्येवंविधा द्रुमाः । ॥ ७३ ॥

Karanja (Pongamia pinnata Merr.), karavira (Nerium indicum Mill.), arka (Calotropis gigantea R. Br. ex Ait.), malati ( Aganosma dichotoma K. Schum. ), kakubha (Terminalia arjuna W. & A. ), asana (Terminalia tomentosa W. & A. )-these and other trees having identical properties (tastes) are recommended for being used as tooth-cleaning stick. [73]

Oral hygiene Tongue scraping :

सुवर्णरूप्यताम्राणि त्रपुरीतिमयानि च ॥ ७४ ॥ जिहानिर्लेखनानि स्युरतीक्ष्णान्यनृजूनि च ।

Tongue scrapers, which should not be sharp edged and are curved, are to be made of metals like gold, silver, copper, and brass. [ 74]

जिह्वामूलगतं यच्च मलमुच्छ्वासरोधि च ॥ ७५ ।। दौर्गन्ध्यं भजते तेन तस्माजिह्वां विनिर्लिखेत् ।

The dirt deposited at the root of the tongue, obstructs expiration and gives rise to foul smell; so the tongue should be scraped ( regularly ). [ 75 ]

Oral hygiene : Chewing :

धार्याण्यास्येन वैशद्यरुचिसौगन्ध्यमिच्छता ॥ ७६ ॥

जातीकटुकपूगानां लवङ्गस्य फलानि च । कक्कोलस्य फलं पत्रं ताम्बूलस्य शुभं तथा ।

तथा कर्पूरनिर्यासः सूक्ष्मैलायाः फलानि च ॥ ७७ ॥

One desirous of clarity, taste and good smell of mouth should keep { in_mouth ), ( chew ), the fruits of jati ( Myristica fragran Houtt. ), katuka ( Hibiscus abelmoschus Linn. ), puga ( Areca catechu Linn. ), kakkola ( Piper cubeba Linn. ), suksmaila ( Elettaria cardamomum Maton. ), flower stalk of lavanga (Syzygium aromaticum Merr. & L. M. ) fresh leaf of tambula ( Piper betle Linn. ) and the extract of karpura ( Cinnamomum camphora Nees and Eberm. ). [ 76-77 ]

Oral hygiene: Gargles

हन्वोर्बलं स्वरबलं वदनोपचयः परः । स्यात् परं च रसज्ञानमन्ने च रुचिरुत्तमा ॥ ७८ ॥ न चास्य कण्ठशोषः स्यान्नौष्ठयोः स्फुटनाद्भयम् | न च दन्ताः क्षयं यान्ति दृढमूला भवन्ति च ॥ ७९ ॥ न शूल्यन्ते न चाम्लेन हृष्यन्ते भक्षयन्ति च । परानपि खरान् भक्ष्यांस्तैलगण्डूषधारणात् ॥ ८० ॥

Til oil gargling is beneficial for the strength of jaws, depth of voice, flabbiness of face, excellent gustatory sensation and good taste for food. One ( used to such gargles ) never dryness of throat, nor do his lips ever get cracked; his teeth will never be carious and will be deep-rooted; he will not have any toothache nor will his teeth set on edge by sour intake; his teeth can chew even the hardest eatables. [78-80]

Oiling of head :

नित्यं स्नेहाईशिरसः शिरःशूलं न जायते । न खालित्यं न पालित्यं न केशाः प्रपतन्ति च ॥ ८१ ॥ वलं शिरःकपालानां विशेषेणाभिवर्धते । दृढमूलाश्च दीर्घाश्च कृष्णाः केशा भवन्ति च ॥ ८२ ॥ इन्द्रियाणि प्रसीदन्ति सुत्वग्भवति चाननम् । निद्रालाभः सुखं च स्यान्मूर्ध्नि तैलनिषेवणात् ॥ ८३ ॥

One who applies til oil on his head regularly does not suffer from headache, baldness, greying of hair, nor do his hair fall. Strength of his head and forehead is specially enhanced; his hair become black, long and deep-rooted; his sense organs work properly; the skin of his face becomes brightened; applying til oil on the head produces sound sleep and happines. [ 81-83 ]

Oil is to be applied on the head in sufficient quantity so that the head actually becomes unctuous.

Oiling of ears :

न कर्णरोगा वातोत्था न मन्याहनुसंग्रहः । नोच्चैः श्रुतिर्न बाधिर्य स्यान्नित्यं कर्णतर्पणात् ॥ ८४ ॥

Ear diseases due to vitiated vata, torticollis, lock jaw, hardness of hearing and deafness are prevented if oil is regularly dropped into the ears. [ 84 ]

Oil massage as per Ayurveda and Acharya Charaka

स्नेहाभ्यङ्गाद्यथा कुम्भश्चर्म स्नेहविमर्दनात् । भवत्युपाङ्गादक्षश्च दृढः क्लेशसहो यथा ॥ ८५ ।। तथा शरीरमभ्यङ्गाद् दृढं सुत्वक् च जायते । प्रशान्तमारुताबाधं क्लेशव्यायामसंसहम् ॥ ८६ ॥

As a pitcher, a dry skin, and an axis ( of a cart ) become strong and resistant by the application of oil, so by the massage of oil the human body becomes strong and smooth-skinned; it is not susceptible to the diseases due to vata; it is resistant to exhaustions and exertions. [ 85-86]

स्पर्शनेऽभ्यधिको वायुः स्पर्शनं च त्वगाश्रितम् ।

त्वच्यश्च परमभ्यङ्गस्तस्मात्तं शीलयेन्नरः ॥ ८७ ॥

Vayu dominates in the tactile sensory organ, and this sensory

organ is lodged in the skin. The massage is exceedingly beneficial to the skin; so one should practise it ( oil massage ) regularly. [ 87 ]

Even though all the sense organs consist of all the five basic elements, still the vayu predominates in the tactile sensory organ.

Advantages of regular massage :

ना चाभिघाताभिहतं गात्रमभ्यङ्गसेविनः | विकारं भजतेऽत्यर्थे बलकर्मणि वा कचित् ॥ ८८ ॥ सुस्पर्शोऽपचिताङ्गश्च बलवान् प्रियदर्शनः । भवत्यभ्यङ्गनित्यत्वान्नरोऽल्पजर एव च ।। ८९ ।।

Of the one who practises oil massage regularly, the body, even if subjccted to injuries or strenuous work, is not much injured; his physique is smooth, flabby, strong and charming. By applying the oil massage regularly the onslaught of aging is slackened. [88-89]

खरत्वं स्तब्धता रौक्ष्यं श्रमः सुतिश्च पादयोः | सद्य एवोपशाम्यन्ति पादाभ्यङ्गनिषेवणात् ।। ९० ।। जायते सौकुमार्य च बलं स्थैर्य च पादयोः । दृष्टिः प्रसादं | लभते मारुतश्चोपशाम्यति ॥ ९१ ।। न च स्याद्गृध्रसीवातः पादयोः स्फुटनं न च । न सिरास्नायुसंकोचः पादाभ्यङ्गेन पादयोः ।। ९२ ।।

By massaging oil in the feet, roughness, immobility, dryness, fatigue and numbness are instantaneously cured; tenderness, strength and steadiness of feet are effected; the eye sight becomes clear and vata (vitiated ) is relieved thereby. ‘

Prevention from sciatica, cracking of feet, constriction of vessels and ligaments of feet is ensured if (oil) massage is applied to the feet. [ 90-92 ]

दौर्गन्ध्यं गौरवं तन्द्रां कण्डूं मलमरोचकम् । स्वेदबीभत्सतां हन्ति शरीरपरिमार्जनम् ॥ ९३ ॥

Unction over the body eliminates bad smell, cures heaviness, drowsiness, itching and removes undesirable dirt and unpleasantness due to sweating. [ 93]

Effects of bathing :

पवित्रं वृष्यमायुष्यं श्रमस्वेदमलापहम् । शरीरबलसन्धानं स्नानमोजस्कर परम् ॥ ९४ ॥

Bathing is purifying, libidinal stimulant and life-giving; it removes fatigue, sweating and dirt. It brings about strength in the body and is an aid par excellence for the enhancement of ojas. [ 94 ]

Role of clean dress in life

काम्यं यशस्यमायुष्यमलक्ष्मीघ्नं प्रहर्षणम् । श्रीमत् पारिषदं शस्तं निर्मलाम्बरधारणम् ॥ ९५

Wearing clean apparel adds to the bodily charm, reputation, longevity and prevents inauspiciousness. It brings about pleasure, grace, competence to participate in conferences and good look. [95]

Use of fragrance :

वृष्यं सौगन्ध्यमायुष्यं काम्यं पुष्टिवलप्रदम् । सौमनस्यमलक्ष्मीघ्नं गन्धमाल्यनिषेवणम् ॥ ९६ ॥

Use of scents and garlands stimulates libido, produces good smell in the body, enhances longevity and charm; it gives corpulence and strength to the body; it is pleasing to the mind and it prevents inauspiciousness. [96]

Use of ornaments :

धन्यं मङ्गल्यमायुष्यं श्रीमद्व्ययसनसूदनम् । हर्षणं काम्यमोजस्य रत्नाभरणधारणम् ॥ ९७ ॥

Wearing of gems and ornaments adds to the prosperity, auspiciousness, longevity, grace, prevents dangers from snakes, evil spirits, etc. It is pleasant and charming. It is also conducive to ojas. [ 97 ]

मेध्यं पादयोर्मलमार्गाणां पवित्रमायुष्यमलक्ष्मीकलिनाशनम् ।। शौचाधानमभीक्ष्णशः ।। ९८ ।।

If one frequently cleans the feet and excretory orifices (with water, earth, etc. ), it promotes intelligence, brings about purity, cleanliness and longevity; it also eliminates inauspiciousness and the bad effects of kali (i. e. age of vice MW. ). [98]

Care for hair and nails :

पौष्टिकं वृष्यमायुष्यं शुचि रूपविराजनम् । केशश्मथुनखादीनां कल्पनं संप्रसाधनम् ॥ ९९ ॥

The dressing and cutting of hair, beard (including mustaches) and nails, etc. adds to the corpulence, libidio, longevity, ·cleanliness and beauty. [99]

Use of foot wears :

चक्षुष्यं स्पर्शनहितं पादयोर्व्यसनापहम् ।

बल्यं पराक्रमसुखं वृष्यं पादत्रधारणम् ॥ १०० ।।

Use of foot wears is conducive to eye sight and skin (of feet) ; it protects the feet from reptiles, etc.; it gives strength. and facilitates the display of physical force and is libidinal stimulant. [ 100 ]

Libidinal stimulance and conduciveness to eyesight are caused empirically by the use of foot wear. In fact, the connecting channel ( nadi = nerve ? ) which supplies nutrition to the eyes is very intimately connected with feet. As the use of a footwear prevents obstruction in the path of this channel, it helps in the enhancement of the eyesight.

Use of umbrella :

ईतेः प्रशमनं बल्यं गुप्त्यावरणशङ्करम् । धर्मानिलरजोम्बुघ्नं छत्रधारणमुच्यते ॥ १०१ ॥

Use of umbrella averts the attacks of diseases, etc., it gives strength and protects one from evil spirits; it covers and brings about happiness; it guards against the sun, wind, dust and rain [ 101 ]

Use of hand stick :

स्खलतः संप्रतिष्ठानं शत्रूणां च निषूदनम् । अवष्टम्भनमायुष्यं भयघ्नं दण्डधारणम् ॥ १०२ ॥

The use of walking stick prevents slipping, and averts the enemy; it gives strength and longevity; it averts fear ( from the attacks of reptiles, etc. ). [ 102 ]

Simile on personal vigilance :

नगरी नगरस्येव रथस्येव रथी यथा ।

स्वशरीरस्य मेधावी कृत्येष्ववहितो भवेत् ॥ १०३ ।।

A wise person should be vigilant about his duties towards his own body like an officer-in-charge of a city and a charioteer towards the city and the chariot respectively. [ 103 ]

Both the similes are meaningful here. An officer-in-charge of a city is vigilant about his duties more towards the internal problems of the city while a charioteer, more towards the external problems of the chariot. While the former takes care to remove the impediments in the way of maintenance of peace in the city, the charioteer does so to avoid the external contacts of the chariot with the undesirable elements. A city may . be destroyed by coming in contact with undesirable citizens living inside the city; the chariot, likewise, may get destroyed by falling into a pit or following an uneven path. Similarly, a wise man has to be attentive towards his body, not only towards its external needs but also towards the maintenance of internal stability.

Selection of job :

भवति चात्रवृत्त्युपायान्निषेवेत ये स्युर्धर्माविरोधिनः । शममध्ययनं चैव सुखमेवं समश्नुते ॥ १०४ ॥

Thus it is said :

One should adopt only such of the means of livelihood as do not clash with virtuous path. One should follow the path of peace and engage himself in studies. This is how one can attain happiness. [ 104 ]

Wealth, virtue and desire-these three constitute the main worldly objects of human life. All these three are implied in the present verse.

तत्र श्लोकाः मात्रा द्रव्याणि मात्रां च संश्रित्य गुरुलाघवम् । द्रव्याणां गर्हितोऽभ्यासो येषां, येषां च शस्यते ॥ १०५ ।। अञ्जनं धूमवर्तिश्च त्रिविधा वर्तिकल्पना । धूमपानगुणाः कालाः पानमानं च यस्य यत् ।। १०६ ।। व्यापत्तिचिह्नं भैषज्यं धूमो येषां विगर्हितः | पेयो यथा यन्मयं च नेत्रं यस्य च यद्विधम् ॥ १०७ ।। नस्यकर्मगुणा नस्तःकार्य यच्च यथा यदा । भक्षयेद्दन्तपवनं यथा यद्यहुणं च यत् ।। १०८ ।। यदर्थ यानि चास्येन धार्याणि कवलग्रहे । तैलस्य ये गुणा दिष्टाः शिरस्तैलगुणाश्च ये ॥ १०९ ॥ कर्णतैले तथाऽभ्यङ्गे पादाभ्यङ्गेऽङ्गमार्जने । स्नाने वाससि शुद्धे च सौगन्ध्ये रत्नधारणे ॥ ११० ।। शौचे संहरणे लोम्नां पादत्रच्छत्रधारणे । गुणा मात्राशितीयेऽस्मिंस्तथोत्ता दण्डधारणे ॥ १११ ।।

To sum up :

Quantity of food, articles of food, quantity of food with reference to their heaviness and lightness, such of the diets which are permitted and those which are prohibited, collyrium, cigars for smoking, three types of cigars, the advantages of smoking, its timings and frequency of use, signs of complications and their treatment, individuals for whom smoking is prohibited, the manner of smoking, the materials which the cigar pipe is made of, different varieties of pipes for different categories of smoking, the therapeutic properties of nasaltherapy, the procedure, the therapy that should be used, the manner in which it is to be used and its timings; how and what kind of tooth cleaning stick is to be used and their individual properties, the drugs that are to be kept in mouth for chewing and its purpose; therapeutic utility of oil gargle, the benefits of applying oil on the head; benefits of dropping oil into the ears, massage, oil massage over the feet, unction, bathing, wearing of clean apparel, use of scents, use of THE gems, cleaning of excretory orifices, shaving and cutting of hair, use of foot wear, umbrella and walking stick-all these are described in this Chapter entitled “Matrasitiya, i. e. Quantitative of Dietetics.” [ 105-111 ]

• इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृते लोकस्थाने मात्राशितीयो नाम पञ्चमोऽध्यायः समाप्तः ।। ५ ।।

Thus ends the fifth chapter on the “Quantitative Dietetics” of the Sutra section of Agnivesa’s work as redacted by Charaka.


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