अथातो दिनचर्या नामाध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । इति ह स्माऽहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥१॥
We will now expound the chapter called Dinacharya (daily regimen); thus said atreya and other great sages. (1) Pratarutthana (time of getting up in the morning):
ब्राह्मे मुहूर्ते उत्तिष्ठेज्जीर्णाजीर्णं निरूपयन्। रक्षार्थमायुषः स्वस्थो जातवेगः समुत्सृजेत्।।२।।
The healthy person, in order to protect his life, should get up from his sleep in the Brahma muhurta, after considering the condition of digestion of food (of the previous night) whether properly done or not.(2)
Notes :- Indu, the commentator says that the last yama (the last three hours) of the night is known as Brahma muhurta because it ts the best time for obtaining Brahma or knowledge. Any time from 3.00A.M. to 6.00A.M. is the ideal time to get up from bed and begin the day. If one finds that the food taken in the previous night has not been fully digested he may sleep for some time more but not beyond sunrise on any day.
Malotsarga – voiding the excrements
उदङ्मुखो मूत्रशकृद्दक्षिणाभिमुखो निशि | वाचं नियम्य प्रयतः संवीताङ्गोऽवगुण्ठितः ॥ ३॥ प्रवर्त्तयेत् प्रचलितं न तु यत्नादुदीरयेत् । नामेध्यमार्गमृत्भस्मगोस्थानाकीर्णगोमये ॥४॥ पुरान्तिकाग्निवल्मीकरम्योत्कृष्टचितिद्रुमे । न नारीपूज्यगोर्केन्दुवाय्वन्नाग्निजलं प्रति ॥५॥
After getting the urge of urine and faeces naturally (of their own accord), the person should eliminate them, facing north and if still dark, facing south; silently, sitting,, covering the head with cloth, attending to the urge commenced on its own and without initiating the urge by force; avoiding places which are very dirty, centre of the road, heaps of mud or ash, a cowshed, place of assembly, cowdung heap (or pit) ramparts of the city, place set for fire altar, ant-hill, garden, ploughed land, burial ground or funeral place; in front of or on the trees; facing or in front of women, sacred thing, cow, sun, moon, wind, food, fire and water; and the naked ground (not covered with grass etc.).
न चातिरस्कृत्य महीं भयाशक्लयोस्तु कामतः
नवेगितोऽन्यकार्यः स्यान्नाजित्वासाध्यमामयम् ॥६॥
At times of fear (of being seen by others and of thieves, wild animals etc.) and persons who are debilitated, may void the excrements as they wish.
With urge of elimination being patent, one should not attend to any other work, just as no other therapy is undertaken without getting rid of the curable diseases. (3-6)
Notes The point to note here is neither to initiate the urges voluntarily nor to suppress it when manifest. Both these are the causes for many diseases.
निःशल्यादुष्टमृत्पिण्डीपरिमृष्टमलायनः । अभ्युद्धृताभिः शुचिभिरद्भिर्मृद्भिश्व योजयेत् ॥ ७॥
लेपगन्धापहं शौचमनुत्पतितबिन्दुभिः । स्पृष्ट्वा धातून्मलानश्रु वसाकेशनखांश्युच्तान् ॥८॥
स्नात्वा भोक्नुमना भुक्तवा सुप्त्वा क्षुत्वा सुरार्चने । रथ्यामाक्रम्य चाचामेदुपविष्ट उदङ्मुखः ।।९।।
प्राङ्मुखो वा विविक्तस्थो न बहिर्जानु नान्यद्दक। अजल्पनुत्तरासङ्गी स्वच्छैरङ्गुष्ठमूलगैः ॥१०॥
नोद्घृतैर्नानतो नोर्ध्वं नाग्निपकैर्न पूतिभिः । न फेनबुल्बुदक्षारैर्नैकहस्तार्पितैर्जलैः ॥ ११ ॥
नार्द्रैकपाणिन्र्नामेध्यहस्तपादो न शब्दवत् । वटासनार्कखदिरकरञ्जकरवीरजम् ।। १२ ।।
सर्जारिमेदापामार्गमालतीककुभोद्भवम् । कषायतिक्तकटुकं मूलमन्यदपीद्दशम् ।।१३।।
विज्ञातवृक्षं क्षुण्णाग्रमृज्वग्रन्थि सुभूमिजम् । कनीन्यग्रसमस्थौल्यं सुकूर्चं द्वादशाङ्गुलम् ।। १४॥
प्रातर्भुक्वा च यतवाग्भक्षयेद्दन्तधावनम् । वाप्यत्रिवर्गत्रितयक्षौद्राक्तेन च घर्षयेत् ॥ १५ ॥
शनैस्तेन ततो दन्तान् दन्तमांसान्यबाधयन् । 32
लिखेदनुसुखं जिह्वां जिह्वानिर्लेखनेन च ॥१६॥
तथास्यमलवैरस्यगन्धा जिह्वास्यदन्तजाः । रूचिवैशयलघुता न भवन्ति भवन्ति च ॥ १७॥
After elimination, the excretory orifices should be touched with a lump of good mud devoid of thorns, next these should be washed well with water taken out in a vessel or by hand (from a reservoir) to remove the adherents and smell, taking care that droplets of water do not fly up during washing. (7-8a).
Notes: Touching with mud and washing with water were purificatory measures. Indu, the commentator makes out pertinent warning not to dip the buttocks in water for ablution.
Acamana – purificatory rite
Acamana (sipping small quantity of water) should be done after contact with (inauspicious) things like tissues (blood, muscle, fat, etc,) excreta, tears, muscle-fat, hairs, nails etc. of animals, which have been cast off; after taking bath, at the beginning and end of meals, getting up from sleep, after sneezing, at the commencement of worship of gods, after a chariot ride and the usual daily ablutions.
Acamana should be done, sitting facing north or east, in solitude, keeping both the hands not outside the knees, not looking elsewhere, without talking, wearing an upper garment (also), with pure water (held in the palm) near the root of the thumb; poured (from a spoon) neither form a height nor (the spoon) touching the thumb; the hand being held neither very high nor very low; the water should not be boiled one, not having bad smell, froth or bubbles and not alkaline (in taste); it should not be done with only one hand holding the water (in other words taking out water by one hand); by moistening only one hand, without washing hands and feet (earlier) and it should be done without making sound (while sipping water).(8b-12a)
Notes:- Acamana is a purificatory ritual done daily by the orthodox Hindus especially the Brahmanas. Water is taken in Pancapatra (tumbler of copper or alloy of five metals) a copper spoon is held in the left hand, little quantity of water is transferred with it to the palm of the right hand and water sipped without making any sound. Afterwards the moist right hand is placed on different parts of the body, accompanied with chanting of sacred names of gods.
Danta dhavana – cleaning the teeth
Twigs of roots (branches) of vata, asana, arka, khadira, karanja, karavira, sarja, irimeda, apamarga, malati, kakubha or such other known trees which possess astringent, bitter and pungent tastes; the twigs should be the thickness of the little finger, straight, devoid of knots and obtained from the (tree grown in) good place, it should be of twelve angula in length. Its one end is made like a brush by chewing and the teeth cleaned with it in the morning and after meals, twice daily..
After cleaning the teeth, the gums are also cleaned without hurting them, by rubbing with (nice powder) of vapya (kustha) and three groups of three drugs (trikatu, triphala and trijataka) mixed with honey.
Next the tongue is to be cleaned by scraping it, comfortably with a tongue scrapper (made from metal etc.). This will remove the dirt, bad taste and smell of the tongue, mouth and teeth. It produces better taste, cleanliness and softness of the mouth, and dispels the diseases of the tongue, mouth and teeth. (12b-17)
Notes :- Tongue can be cleaned with scrapers of metal or any other suitable substances; scraping should be from the root of the tongue to tip but not in reverse direction.
नाद्यादजीर्णवमथुश्वासकासज्वरार्दिती । तृष्णास्यपाकहनेत्रशिरः कर्णामयी च तत् ॥ १८ ॥
Those suffering from indigestion, vomitting, dyspnoea, cough, fever, facial paralysis, thirst, ulcers of mouth, diseases of heart, eyes, head and ears should not make use of the tooth brush. (18)
Notes:- Forbidding the tooth brush does not mean that these persons should not clean their teeth at all. They are to use the soft powders of drugs previously mentioned for cleaning the teeth.
नैव श्लेष्मातकारिष्टबिभीतधवधन्वजान् । बिल्ववचुलनिर्गुण्डीशिग्रुतिल्वकतिन्दुकान् ॥ १९ ॥
कोविदारशमीपीलुपिप्पिलेङ्गुदगुल्गुलून् । पारिभद्रकमम्लीकामोचक्यौ शाल्मलीं शणम् ॥२०॥
स्वाद्वम्ललवणं शुष्कं सुषिरं पूति पिच्छिलम् ।
Twigs of slesmataka, arista, bibhitaka, dhava, dhanvan, bilva, vancula, nirgundi, sigru, tilvaka, tinduka, kovidara, sami, pilu, pippala, ingudi, gulgulu, paribhadraka, amlika, mocaka, salmali and sana should not be used as tooth brush. So also the twigs of those trees which have sweet, sour and salt tastes, which are very dry, hallow, emitting bad smell and gummy. (19-20 1/2)
पालाशमासनं दन्तधावनं पादुके त्यजेत् ॥ २१॥
Chair (stool or cot), tooth brush and footwear prepared from palasa tree should not be used.
दन्तान् पूर्वमधो घर्षेत् प्रातः सिञ्चेच्च लोचनं ।
तोयपूर्णमुखो ग्रीष्मशरदो: शीतवारिणा ||२२||
The lower row of teeth should be brushed first. Keeping the mouth filled with water (for gargling) the eyes are to be splashed with water every morning with cold water in grisma (summer) and sarat (autumn) seasons. (22)
Notes :- Splashing of cold water into the eyes every day morning, reduces the tension and tiredness of the eyes and improves vision. During cold seasons luke warm water can be used for splashing the eyes but hot water should never be used.
Pranama – obeisances
प्रणम्य देवान् वृद्धांच मङ्गलाष्टशतं शुभम् ।
शृण्वन् काञ्चनविन्यस्तं सर्पिः पश्येदनन्तरम् ||२३||
Gods and elders should be worshipped, the one hundred and eight sacred names of gods should be repeated; next the person should see his image in ghee kept in vessels of gold. (23)
Notes Seeing one’s own face in ghee was a custom in ancient India and was believed to bring good luck and dispel evils.
Anjana – collyrium
सौवीरमञ्जनं नित्यं हितमक्ष्णोस्ततो भजेत् । लोचने तेन भवतो मनोज्ञे सूक्ष्मदर्शने ॥२४॥ व्यक्तत्रिवर्णे विमले सुस्निग्धघनपक्षमणी ।
Sauviranjana (collyrium /eye-salve prepared with antimony sulphide) is good for the eyes and so should be applied to the eyes daily. By this the eyes become beautiful, capable of seeing even minute objects; all the three coloured parts, (of the eyes) will become well defined and clean. The eye lashes become smooth and firm. (24)
Notes: Sauviranjana (antimony sulphide) is available in natural form as shining black pebbles in the river beds of Baluchistan, Sind etc., eye-salves were being prepared from it by mixing some other medicinal herbs and so was known after the chief ingredient. This collyrium being black in colour is also known as Kajal.
चक्षुस्तेजोमयं तस्य विशेषात् लेमतो भयम् || २५ ॥ योजयेत्सप्तरात्रेऽस्मात् स्रावणार्थे रसाञ्जनम् ।
Eyes, are the repository of Tejas (light) and are endangered by slesma (kapha); hence rasanjana should be applied to the eyes once a week regularly to drain it ( the slesma) out. (25)
Notes:- Rasanjana is prepared by boiling daruharidra in water to a thick consistence. Used as an application to the eyes, it helps profuse flow of tears and so remove dirt. excess moisture etc.
Nasya – nasal medication
अणुतैलं ततो नस्यं ततो गण्डूषधारणम् ॥२६॥
Anu taila should be put into the nose and then gandusa done (filling the mouth with liquids to its full capacity and holding it for a few minutes ). (26)
Notes: Anu taila is the name of a medicated oil which will be described later.
घनोन्नतप्रसन्नत्वक्स्कन्धग्रीवास्यवक्षसः । सुगन्धिवदनाः स्निग्धनिस्वना विमलेन्द्रियाः ॥ २७॥ निर्वलीपलितव्यङ्गा भवेयुर्नस्यशीलिनः ।
Persons who begin to use Nasya (nasal drops) daily, will have their sikn, shoulders, neck, face and chest strong/firm, raised (prominant) and good looking; their mouth having pleasant smell, voice also pleasant, sense organs clean and efficient and they become devoid of wrinkles, grey hairs and black patches.
Gandusa – mouth wash
न स्युः स्वरोपघाताश्च स्नेहगण्डूषधारणात् । खदिरक्षीरिवृक्षारिमेदाम्बुकवलग्रहः॥२९॥
अरोचकास्यवैरस्यमलपूतिप्रसेकजित् । सुखोष्णोदकगण्डूपैर्जायते वक्रलाघवम् ||३०॥
Keeping the mouth filled with oil daily (for a few minutes in the mornings) will prevent cracking and roughness of the lips, dryness of the mouth, diseases of the teeth and disorders of voice.
Decoction of khadira, of ksiri vrksas (trees which have milky sap), irimeda, etc., used daily for Kavalagraha (mouth gargles) will cure loss of appetite, bad taste, dirt and excess salivation. Gandusa with warm water will make the mouth clean and good. (261/2-30)
Notes:- Gandusa is filling the mouth to its full capacity with liquid without allowing its movement inside and holding the liquid for a few moments. Kavalagraha, on the other hand, is holding little quantity of liquid in the mouth, make it move briskly inside and spitting out quickly. Both can be done with pure or medicated oils, ghee, decoction of drugs, luke-warm water or ordinary cold water. They are useful to promote health and also to cure diseases of the mouth, teeth, throat and face.
प्रायोगिकं ततो धूमं गन्धमाल्यादि चाचरेत् । धूमादस्योर्ध्वजत्रूत्था न स्युर्वातकफामयाः ॥३१॥
Next comes, the prayogika dhuma (inhalation of smoke), scents, garlands etc. By the use of inhalation, diseases of organs located above the shoulders and arising from the (increase of) vata and kapha will not develop. (31)
Notes:- Prayogika dhumapana is also called as samana (palliative) and madhyama (moderate) inhalation of smoke. The procedure of such inhalation will be described later in chapter 30.
अञ्जनोत्क्लेशितं नस्यैः कवलैर्नावनेरितम् । धूमेन कवलोत्लिष्टं क्रमाद्वातकफं जयेत् ||३२||
Increase of vata and kapha which are caused by the use of anjana (eye-salves), can be overcome by nasya (nasal medication); that caused by the use of navana (nasya) by kavala (mouth gargle) and that caused by use of kavala by dhuma (inhalation of smoke ) . ( 32 )
Gandha-malya – perfumes, garlands
गन्धमाल्यादिकं वृष्यमलक्ष्मीप्नं प्रसाधनम् । वासो न धारयेज्जीर्णं मलिनं रक्तमुल्बणम् ॥३३॥
माल्यं न लम्बं न बहिर्न रक्तं जलजाइते | नैव चान्येन विधृतं वस्त्रं पुष्पमुपानहौ ॥३४॥
Use of perfumes, garlands etc., acts as aphrodisiacs, dispels inauspiciousness and improves one’s appearance.
Cloth (dress) which are old ( worn out, torn), dirty and of gaudy-red colour should not be worn.
Garlands should not be very long, and not contain red flowers other than lotus; they should not be worn when going out of house. Clothes, flowers and footwear used by others should not be used. (33-34 )
Tambula – pan-chewing
रुचिवैशद्यसौगन्ध्यमिच्छन्वक्रेण धारयेत् । जातीलवङ्गकर्पूरकङ्कोलकटुकैः सह ॥३५॥
ताम्बूलीनां किसलयं हृद्यं पूगफलान्वितम् । रक्तपित्तक्षतक्षीणरूक्षोत्कुपितचक्षुषाम् ॥ ३६॥
विषमूर्च्छामदार्तानामपथ्यं शोषिणां च तत् । पथ्यं सुप्तोत्थिते भुक्ते नाते वान्ते च मानवे ॥३७॥
द्विपत्रमेकं पूगं च सचूर्णखदिरं च तत् ।
Those desirous of good taste, cleanliness and good smell of the mouth may keep in the mouth tender leaves of tambula along with jatiphala, lavanga, karpura, kankola and katuka along with pugaphala. This (tambula) is good to the heart.
It is harmful to those suffering from bleeding disorders, injury to the chest, emaciation, eye diseases caused by increase of dryness; poisons, fainting, intoxication and tuberculosis. It is beneficial, after getting up from sleep, after meals, bath and vomitting.
Two betel leaves, one arecanut, with little quantities of lime (slaked lime) and (extract of) khadira will be ideal (combination).(35-38a)
Notes: Tambula sevana or pan chewing is ancient custom in our country. It has its importance even as gesture of showing respect to elders and gods. Ayurvedic texts describe many of its useful properties. Though use of tobacco along with betel leaves is not mentioned any where in ancient books, it has become a practice now-a-days, with many people to add tobacco also. But tobacco being a poisonous substance should be avoided totally. It has now been established that tobacco produces cancer of the mouth, throat and lungs.
Vrtti – profession
उत्तिष्ठेत ततोत्यर्थमर्थेष्वर्थानुबन्धिषु ॥ ३८ ॥
निन्दितं दीर्घमप्यायुरसन्निहितसाधनम् । कृषिं वाणिज्यां गोरक्षामुपायैर्गुणिनं नृपम् ।।३९।।
लोकद्वयाविरुद्धां च धनार्थी संश्रयेत् क्रियाम् ।
Every person should adopt a profession to earn money for livelihood. It should be such, which will not bring bad name even though continued for the whole life; such as agriculture, trade, rearing cattle, service of a good king (or government) and which is not against the two worlds.(38-40a)
Notes: The profession chosen must be a noble one, respected, beneficial to himself and to others alike; professions which are of temporary gain, harmful, undignified should not be followed. ‘Two worlds’ means the present world (life) and the next world (life). Practice of a profession of righteousness (Dharmika vrtti) bestows happiness in this life (world) and makes for happiness in the next also (grants Moksa-liberation from the pangs of the births and deaths).
Sadvritta – regimen of good conduct
मुक्लवेगश्च गमनस्वप्नाहारसभास्त्रियः ॥४०॥
One should first relieve himself of the urges (of urine, faeces etc.) and then indulge in walking, sleeping, taking food, going to assembly or making love with women etc. (40)
पाणिनाsलभ्य निष्क्रामेद्रत्नपूज्याज्यमङ्गलम् । सातपत्रपदत्राणो विचरेयुगमात्रद्दक् ।।४१।।
निशि चात्ययिके कार्ये दण्डी मौली सहायवान् ।
प्रावृत्य पर्यटेद्रात्रौ न प्रावृत्य शिरोऽहनि ॥ ४२ ॥
While going out of the house, one should wear precious gems, touch sacred objects, ghee and other auspicious materials; take an umbrella, put on footwear and walk carefully, observing in front, for a distance of two arms lengths; in case of urgent work at nights, one should go out, holding a staff (baton), wearing a head dress and accompanied by assistants; it is good to wrap the head with cloth while going out at nights and it need not be so, during day. (41-42)
चैत्यपूज्यध्वजाशस्तच्छायाभस्मतुषाशुचीन् । नाक्रामेच्छर्करालोष्टबलिस्रानभुवो न च ॥४३॥
One should not tred on the shade of sacred tree, worshipful object, banner ( flag) and inauspicious things; or on heaps of ash, husk, dirty materials, sharp pebbles, huge rocks; places of bali (slaughter of animals for offering to gods) and place of bathing. (43)
मध्याह्ने सन्ध्ययो रात्रावर्धरात्रे चतुष्पथम् । न सेवेत न शर्वर्यां वृक्षचैत्यं न चत्वरम् ॥४४॥ सूनाटवीशून्यगृहश्मशानानि दिवाऽपि न ।
One should not stay at the place of meeting of four roads during midday, evenings, night or midnights; not take shelter at the places of killings, under trees and in buildings outside the towns; Slaughter house or forest where slaughtering is done, abandoned house and burial grounds should not be visited even during day. (44-441/2 )
न हुंकुर्याच्छवं पूज्यं प्रशस्तान्मङ्गलानि च ॥४५॥
नापसव्यं परिक्रामेन्नेतराण्यनुदक्षिणम् । चतुष्पथं नमस्कुर्यात् प्रज्ञातांश्च वनस्पतीन् ।।४६।।
One should not insult a dead body; not go round in reverse direction to objects of worship and auspicious things; and for others (inauspicious things) without avoiding the right side of the way; should offer salutations at the place of meeting of four roads, to scholars and sacred trees.
न व्यालव्याधिताशस्तैर्नादान्दक्षुत्पिपासितैः । न च्छिन्नपुच्छेर्नैकाक्षैगापृष्ठेन च न व्रजेत् ॥४७॥
नाऽतिप्रगेऽतिसायं वा न नभोमध्यगे रवौ । नासन्निहितपानीयो नातितूर्णं न सन्ततम् ॥४८॥
न शत्रुणा नाविदितैर्नैको नाधार्मिकैः सह ।
Should not ride on wild animals and which are sick, unsuitable, ` untamed, hungry and thirsty, whose tail has been cut and which have only one eye. Journey should not be undertaken on cow (or ox); at very early in the morning, very late in the evening, when the sun is in the middle of the sky (midday); without carrying water for drinking; very fast, continuous, in the company of foes, strangers, irreligious (unrightous) persons and even alone.(45-49a)
दद्याद्वर्त्माऽ र्तवृद्धस्त्रीभारीचक्रीद्विजन्मने ॥४९॥
स्नानभोजनपानानि वाहेभ्यो नाऽचरेत् पुरः । नदीं तरेन बाहुभ्यां नाग्निस्कन्धमभिव्रजेत् ॥५०॥
नाsरोहोद्विषमं शैलं नावं संशयितां तरुम् । निपातयेन लोष्टेन न फलेन फलं द्रुमात् ॥५१॥
न वार्यमाणः प्रविशेभाद्वारेण ना चाऽसने । स्वयं तिष्ठेत् परगृहे युक्तनिंद्रं न बोधयेत् ॥५२॥
नाऽचरेत् पाणिवाक्पादद्दङ्मेद्रोदरचापलम् । त्रिः पक्षस्य कचश्मश्रुनखरोमाणि वर्धयेत् ॥५३॥
न स्वहस्तेन दन्तैर्वा स्रानं चानु समाचरेत् ।
Right of the way (preference to go first) should be given to the sick, the aged, women, for those carrying heavy loads, riding on wheels, and to the twice-born (brahmanas) etc.
The carrying animals should be bathed, fed and given water to drink. first before one resorts to these himself.
One should not cross rivers by swimming, go near huge fire, climb dangerous hills or boats, climb trees which are of doubtful strength; make the fruits fall from the trees by pelting stones, or by using wooden poles.
Should not enter the house of others if prevented; not through places other than the door; not sit unless asked to do so, not wake those who are sleeping; not make movements (gestures) with the hands, voice, feet; eyes, genitals or abdomen (needlessly).
Hairs, mustaches, beards and nails should be got pared (cut) thrice in a fortnight, not with one’s own hand or teeth ( of himself) ; after such cutting the person should take a bath. (49-54a)
Abhyanga – oil massage
अथ जातानपानेच्छो मारुतः सुगन्धिभिः ॥५४॥
यथर्तुसंस्पर्शसुखैस्तैलैरभ्यङ्गमाचरेत् । अभ्यङ्गो वातहा पुष्टिस्वप्नदार्ढ्यबृहत्वकृत् ॥५५॥
दग्धभग्नक्षतरुजाक्लमश्रमजरापहः । रथाक्षचर्मघटवत् भवन्त्यभ्यङ्गतो गुणाः ॥५६॥
स्पर्शनेऽभ्यधिको वायुःस्पर्शनं च त्वगाश्रयम् । त्वच्यश्च परमभ्यङ्गो यस्मात्तं शीलयेदतः ॥५७॥
शिरः श्रवणपादेषु तं विशेषेण शीलयेत् । स केश्य: शीलितो मूर्ध्नि कपालेन्द्रियतर्पणः ||५८॥
हनुमन्याशिरः कर्णशूलघ्नं कर्णपूरणम् । पादाभ्यङ्गस्तु तत्स्थैर्यनिद्राइष्टि प्रसादकृत् ॥ ५९॥
पादसुप्तिश्रमस्तम्भसङ्कोचस्फुटनप्रणुत् । वर्ज्योभ्यङ्गः कफग्रस्तकृतसंशुद्धयजीर्णिभिः ॥६०॥ Next, after having developed desire for food and drinks, the person should take Abhyanga (oil-bath), using oils which possess the property of mitigating vata, good smell, suitable to the season and pleasant to touch.
Abhyanga mitigates vata, promotes strength, sleep, growth and firmness of the hairs; is useful in burns, fractures, wounds, pains, tiredness, debility and old age just as the axle of the chariot and the leather bottle become durable by oiling them (so also the body).
Vata is mainly responsible for tactile sensation and the tactile sensation is through the skin. Oil-bath is best for the skin and so it should be done daily.
Oil should be applied especially to the head, ears and feet; on the head it is good for the hairs, skull and the sensory organs; inside the ears it relieves the pain (diseases) of the lower jaw, neck, head and ears; applied to the feet (soles) it makes them strong, promotes sleep and vision; cures loss of sensation, tiredness, stiffness, contractures and cracking of the feet.
Oil-bath should be avoided by those suffering from diseases of kapha origin, who are undergoing purificatory therapies (like emesis, purgation etc.) and those having indigestion.(54-60)
Vyayama – exercises
शरीरायासजननं कर्म व्यायाम उच्यते । लाघवं कर्मसामर्थ्यं दीप्तोऽग्निर्मेदसः क्षयः ||६१॥
विभक्लंघनगात्रत्वं व्यायामादुपजायते । वातपित्तामयी बालो वृद्धोऽजीर्णी च तं त्यजेत् ॥ ६२॥
अर्द्धशक्लयानिषेव्यस्तु बलिभिः स्निग्धभोजिभिः । शीतकाले वसन्ते च मन्दमेव ततोऽन्यदा ॥ ६३॥
तं कृत्वाऽनुसुखं देहं मर्दयेज्च समन्ततः ।
Activities which produces tiredness to the body are known as Vyayama (exercise). Lightness of the body, increased capacity to work, keen appetite, reduction of body fat and parts of the body becoming distinct and firm are the good effects of exercise.
It should be avoided by persons suffering from diseases of vata and pitta origin; by young children, old persons and by those suffering from indigestion.
Strong persons and those who are accustomed to fatty foods, should do exercise to half their capacity during cold seasons (hemanta, sisira and vasanta rtu (spring) for others and in other seasons it should be still less.
After the exercise, the whole body is to be massaged well. (61-64a) Notes Half the capacity of the person is determined by appearance of sweat on the forehead, nose, axillae and joints of the limbs and dryness of the mouth.
तृष्णा क्षयः प्रतमको रक्तपित्तं श्रमः क्लमः ॥६४॥
अतिव्यायामतः कासो ज्वरश्च्छर्दिव जायते । व्यायामजागराध्वस्त्रीहास्यभाष्यादि साहसं ॥६५॥
गजं सिंह इवाऽकर्षन् भजन्नति विनश्यति ।
Too much of exercise leads to thirst, emaciation, pratamaka (severe difficulty in breathing, paroxysmal respiration), bleeding (from the nose, throat, lungs etc.) exhaustion, tiredness, ( even without work), cough, fever and vomitting.
Exercise, keeping awake at nights, walking ong distances, sexual intercourse, laughter, speaking and such acts of exertion ( in excess ) will destroy the body, just as a lion which fights with an elephant dies after winning (due to severe exhaustion ) . (64-651/2)
Udvartana – massage
उद्वर्त्तनं कफहरं मेदसः प्रविलायनम् ॥६६॥ स्थिरीकरणमङ्गानां त्वक्प्रसादकरं परम् ।
Udvartana (massaging the body) mitigates kapha, liquifies the fat, makes the body parts firm and is best for the health of the skin. (66b-67a)
Notes: Massaging is done by using a fine powder of astringent substances.
Snana – bath
दीपनं वृष्यमायुष्यं स्नानमूर्जाबलप्रदम् ||६७||
कण्डूमलश्रमस्वेदतन्द्रातृड्दाहपाप्मजित् । उष्णाम्बुनाऽधः कायस्य परिषेको बलावहः ॥ ६८ ॥
तेनैव तूत्तमाङ्गस्य बलहृत् केशचक्षुषाम् । नाsनाप्लुत्य शिरः स्त्रायान्त्र जलेऽल्पे न शीतले ॥६९॥
नोदकावतरणस्वप्नान् नग्नो न चाऽचरेत् । पञ्चपिण्डाननुद्धृत्य न स्त्रायात् परवारिणि ॥ ७० ॥
Snana (bath) improves appetite, sexual vigour, span of life, valour and strength; removes itching, dirt, exertion, sweat, stupor, thirst, burning sensation and sin.
Pouring hot water below the head is strengthening while the same over the head diminishes the strength of the hairs and eyes; bathing should not be done without wetting the head, with very little water or with very cold water.
Bathing, entering into reservoirs of water and sleeping should not be done naked (without any cloth).
When taking bath in a well or pond built by others, it (bathing) should not be done without taking out handfuls of mud from its floor, five times.(67-70)
Notes -Taking out mud signifies digging the well onself and making the well his own. This was another ancient Indian custom.
नात्मानमीक्षेत जले न तटस्थो जलाशयम् ।
न प्रतिस्फालयेदम्बु पाणिना चरणेन वा ॥७१॥
स्नात्वा न मृज्यात् गात्राणि धुनुयान शिरोरुहान् । निवसीतार्द्र एवाऽशु सोष्णीषे धौतवाससी ॥७२॥
न त्वम्बरं पूर्वधृतं न च तैलवसे स्पृशेत् । वासोऽन्यदन्यच्छयने निर्गमे देवतार्चने ॥७३॥
स्नानमर्दितनेत्रास्यकर्णरोगातिसारिषु । आध्मानपीनसाजीर्णभुक्तवत्सु च गर्हितम् ॥७४॥
One should not see his own image in the water, look down into the water standing on the bank, splash water either by hands or legs, or massage. the body with wet hands, beat out water from the hairs, cover the body with a wet cloth or with the headdress; use the same dress, oil etc., worn earlier to bathing.
Dress should be changed after bath, sleep; while going out of the house and before worshipping gods.
Bath is not good for persons suffering from facial paralysis, diseases of the eyes, mouth and ears; diarrhoea, distention of the abdomen, running in the nose, indigestion and soon after taking food. Bhojana (taking food)
अन्नपानविधानेन भुञ्जीतानं विनाऽत्ययात् । अभिनन्य प्रसन्नात्मा हुत्वा दत्वा च शक्तितः ।।७५।।
पाकं सजलमेकान्ते यथासुखमितिश्रुवन् । प्रयच्छेत्सर्वमुद्दिश्य पाचयेन्नाऽनमात्मने ॥७६ ॥
नाऽन्नमद्यान्मुमूर्षूणां मृतानां दुःखजीविनां । स्त्रीजितलीबपतितक्रूरदुष्कृतकारिणां ॥७७॥
गणारिगणिकासत्रधूर्त्ताभापणिकञ्च न । नोत्सङ्गे भक्षयेत् भक्ष्यान् जलं नाञ्जलिना पिबेत् ।।७८।।
सर्वश्च तिलसम्बद्धं नाऽयादस्तमिते रवौ । न भुक्तमात्र आस्येन्न निषिद्धं भजेत्सुखं ॥७९॥
Man should take food observing the prescribed regimen, without any hurry; after offering prayers to the food, offering it (food) with pleasant mind to the god of fire and to the poor and and destitute as charity along with drinking water, asking them to eat happly sitting in a secluded place.
One should NOT eat the food cooked solely for himself, food which is offered by or on behalf of a person who is going to die shortly, or on behalf of a deadman; offered by persons living in (poverty or) misery; offered by women, slaves, the impotent, the sinner, the cruel and the wicked; food served in big assemblies, by enemies, and prostitutes; food served in sacrifices, by badmen, and that sold in shops;
Food should not be eaten keeping it above (keeping it on a table, etc), water should not be drunk from the palms of the hands; all types of food prepared from tila (sesamum) should not be eaten after sun-set. After taking food, person should neither exert him-self nor indulge in forbidden comforts (by scriptures). (75-79)
Notes :- Chritable offering of food to the poor, asking them to eat happily was an essential daily ritual. During such an offering a Vedic hymn was being chanted, invoking them to be happy with the gift. Scriptures prescribe that food should be not be prepared for one’s own sake but it should be for the sake of others also.
He who eats alone without sharing it with others is a sinner. Similarly partaking of food offered just before or after the death of a person by his relatives was also considered inauspicious and sinful. The term ‘utsanga’ means any height above the level of the waist; keeping food on a table or holding in the hand above the level of the waist for purpose of eating is described here as bad.
Sadvritta / sadachara – regimen of right conduct
धर्मोत्तराभिरर्थ्याभिः कथाभिस्त्रिगुणात्मभिः । मध्यं दिनस्य गमयेदिष्टशिष्टस हायवान् ।। ८० ।।
Afternoons should be spent in the company of persons, who are liked, who are good and helpful; engaging oneself in reading stories dealing with the three qualities with Dharma (rightousness) predominating.(80)
Notes: The three qualities are the dharma (righteousness) artha (wealth) and kama (desires, passion, lust). “The stories should be such as having more of dharma, moderate artha and least of kama” says Indu, the Commentator.
न लोकभूपविद्विष्टैर्न सङ्गच्छेत नास्तिकैः ।
One should not associate with persons who are hated by the society and the king (government) and those who are atheists. (81a)
Notes :Society hates people who are mischievious, cruel, voilent, wicked and immoral; theives, robbers, murderers, traitors, spies and enemies are those hated by the king (government); atheists are those who have no faith in god, sacred scriptures or religion.
कलिवैररुचिर्न स्यात् धीरः सम्पद्विपत्तिषु ॥८१ ॥ श्रुतादन्यत्र सन्तुष्टस्तत्रैव च कुतूहली
Person should not harbor quarrelsomeness and cruelty in mind, but be courageous both during happiness and misery.(81b)
One should be contented with all things other than the scriptures, but not be contented with the scriptures (in other words, be ever interested).
Notes: Man is interested in many things such as food, drink, sports, sleep, sex, dress, perfumes, ornaments, company of friends, good knowledge and ever so many. All that he likes, wants or aspires for will not be available to him at all times to his heart’s content. At such times he is sure to get disappointed, depressed and worried. These, existing for some time will spoil the health of the person. Hence, it is very necessary for everyone to be “contented with what he has now” rather on desire for “more of what he has or for others which he has not got”. Scriptures describe the good and bad, the effects of proper and improper use, remedies and methods to overcome the bad effects and many such instructions. Hence the advise here, that one should be ever interested and inquisitive to learn more from the scriptures.
क्षान्तिमान् दक्षिणो दक्षः सुसमीक्षितकार्यकृत् ||८२॥
ह्रीमान् धीमान् महोत्साहः संविभागी प्रियातिथिः । अक्षुद्रवृत्तिर्गम्भीरः साधुराश्रितवत्सलः ||८३||
दाता पितृभ्यः पिण्डस्य यष्टा होता कृपात्मकः । अनुज्ञाता सुवार्तानां दीनानामनुकम्पकः ।।८४।।
आश्वासकारी भीतानां क्रुद्धानामनुनायकः । पूर्वाभिभाषी सुमुखः सुशीलः पूज्यपूजकः ॥८५॥
वित्तबन्धुवयोविद्यावृत्तैः पूज्या यथोत्तरम् ।
Person should remain calm and composed, be charitable, efficient, do all activities after careful consideration; be humble, intellegent, enthusiastic; treating all equally ( sharing things equally with others); loved by the guests (affectionate with guests ), not doing mean acts, be dignified, and cultured; be a protector of those who seek his help, offer oblations to the dead (ancestores), perform religious rites and sacrifices; be merciful, command politely, sympathetic towards the timid ( or poor), instill courage to the frightened, restrain the angry; himself start conversation first and similingly; possess good character and worship those who are to be worshipped; offer respects to persons such as the wealthy, the relatives, the aged, the learned and those possessing high moral character; more SO in the succeding order. (82-86a)
आत्महममर्यादं मूढमुज्झितसत्पथम् ||८६||
सुतरामनुकम्पेत नरकार्चिष्मदिन्धनम् । धर्म्यमर्थ्यं प्रियं तथ्यं मितं पथ्यं वदेद्वचः ||८७|| Persons who cheat others, show disrespect, who are fools and those who are following the wrong path (in all activities of life) should be shown utmost sympathy and reformed by explaining to them the horrors of the fire of the hell. (86-87)
Notes Persons of the above categories will be always committing bad deed. They should be told that by doing so they will be earning sin and so go to hell after death, to suffer the torture of fire etc. They should be convinced to abstain from doing such sinful activities and reformed into good men.
नाऽत्मानमवजानीयात्र स्तूयान्न च पीडयेत् । न हीनानवमन्येत् वृत्तार्थाङ्गबलश्रुतैः ॥८८ ॥
नाऽरुन्तुदः स्यान क्रूरो न तीक्ष्णो नोऽपतापवान् । हेतावीच तु फले पापं पापेऽपि नाचरेत् ॥ ८९ ।।
One should neither degrade, flatter nor injure himself (his own feeling), should not insult the have-nots by the strength of one’s profession, wealth, physique or scholarship, not speak with words which are injuring the vitals (heart-rending, causing mental agony), cruel, harsh and fault finding; not be jealous of the effect, but can be envious of the cause, not do a sinful act even towards a sinner. (88-89)
Notes: Jealousy and envy of the effect and cause respectively can be explained as follows Mr. X has earned a lot of the money through trade. Here money is the effect and trade is the cause. Mr. Y. should not feel jealous of the money of Mr. X and try to rob him of it but may envy his talent in his trade, adopt better talent and earn more money than Mr. X.
परस्य दण्डं नोद्यच्छेत् क्रुद्धो नैनं निपातयेत् । अन्यत्रपुत्राच्छिप्याद्वा शासनार्हाद्धिताशयः ॥९० ॥
One should not inflict penalty on others nor beat them in anger-except of course his son and disciple; even though they (others) deserve penalty but wish them good. (90)
नृत्यवादित्रगीतादि नोल्बणामाचरेत् क्रियाम् । प्रसिद्धकेशवाग्वेषशमसान्त्वपरायणः ॥ ९१ ।।
One should not indulge too much in dance, musical instruments or singing, should not wear hairstyles, dress ( ornaments etc) which are unpopular (not the fashion of the day).(91)
ऊर्ध्वं नाभेः शरीरस्य स्पृशेन्नाऽधरवाससा । न कुर्यान्मिथुनीभूय शौचं प्रति विलम्बनम् ।।९२॥
One should not touch the parts of the body above the umbilicus by the cloth (dress) worn beneath; should not delay the cleaning (of the body) after sexual intercourse. (92)
नाऽसंवृतमुखो हास्यक्षवोअरविजृम्भणम्। पाणिद्वयेन युगपत् कण्डूयेन्नात्मनः शिरः ।। ९३।।
वहेन भारं शिरसा युगपञ्चाग्निवारिणी । नासिकां न विकुष्णीयाद्दशनान्त्र विघट्टयेत् ॥ ९४॥
कुर्याद्विलेखनच्छेदभेदास्फोटनमर्दनम् । पादं पादेन नाऽक्रामेन कण्डूयेन शौचयेत् ॥ ५५ ॥
न कांस्यभाजने तौ च नोपविष्टः प्रसाधयेत् । अभीक्ष्णं निर्मलान् दध्यान्नखपादमलाशयान् ।।९६॥
One should not laugh, sneeze, belch or yawn without covering his mouth; not scratch the head by both hands together; should not carry heavy weights on the heads; nor fire and water together, should not blow the nose and grind the teeth (needlessly); nor scratch the ground; nor break, cut, explode or rub things unnecessarily.
One should not cross one leg over the other, scratch one by the other; neither wash them keeping in bronze plate nor tidy them without sitting. One should frequently clean the dirt from the nails, feet and excretory organs of the body. (93-96)
नाऽसमिद्धमुपासीत हुताशं नैव चाशुचिः | नाऽनुवातं न विवृतो न क्लान्तो नाऽन्यमानसः ॥ ९७॥
धमेन्नाऽस्येन न स्कन्देन्नाऽधः कुर्यान्न पादतः । सततं न निरीक्षेत चलसूक्ष्माप्रियाणि च ।। ९८ ।।
नाप्रशस्तं न विण्मूत्रं न दर्पणममार्जितम् । उद्यन्तमस्तमायान्तं तपन्तं प्रतिमागतम् ।।९९ ।।
उपरक्तं च भास्वन्तं वाससा वा तिरोहितम् । नाऽन्यदप्यतितेजस्वि न क्रुद्धभ्य गुरोर्मुखम् ॥१००॥
स्त्रियं स्त्रवन्तीं नोदक्यां न नग्नां नाऽन्यसङ्गताम् । न पत्नीं भोजनस्वप्रक्षुतजृम्भादुरासने ॥१०१॥
शयीत नैकशयने न चानीयात्तया सह । तामनीपर्यंश्च गोपायेत् स्वैरिणीं नाधिवासयेत् ।। १०२।।
नोच्छिष्टस्तारकाराहुतुहिनाशुदिवाकरान् । पश्येन्न यायान्न पठेन्न स्वप्यान्न स्पृशेछिरः ।। १०३ ॥
पाययन्तीं चरन्तीं वा नान्यस्मै गां निवेदयेत् । अर्केन्दुपरिवेषोल्काशतक्रतुधनूंषि च ।।१०४।।
नान्यद्देवार्चने कर्म कुर्याद्धावेन वर्षति । तिथिं पक्षस्य न ब्रूयात् नक्षत्राणि न निर्दिशेत् ॥ १०५ ॥
नाऽत्मनो जन्मलग्नर्क्षधनसारं गृहे मलम् । प्रकाशयेन्नावमानं न च निःस्नेहतां प्रभोः ।।१०६ ।।
One should not light the fire without using sacred faggots, without being clean; not against the breeze, not protecting it from breeze; not when tired or inattentive; nor blow it from his mouth; nor keep the fire (stove) either above or below the cot or chairs.
Should not look continously at objects which are moving, minute, unpleasant and inauspicious; not at the excretas like urine and faeces; nor look into a mirror which is not wiped clean; not gaze the disc of the sun at the time of its rising, setting, when burning very hot, or surrounded by a ring, during eclipses and through cloth concealing the sun; likewise, any other bright object also should not be seen
One should not see the face of the teacher when he is angry; nor see women who are urinating, menstruating, nude and engaged in coitus; not even his own wife in ugly posture, during meals, sleeping, sneezing, yawning etc,; should not sleep in a single bed with her nor eat (in a common plate) with her; not keep her jealous of anything. One should not allow a harlot (woman who has been rejected by her
husband and who is after others) to dwell in his house.
One should not see the star, eclipse, moon, and sun without intent (without any preparation), nor get into a boat, study, sleep or touch the head (without preparation).
One should not show others a cow which is feeding her calf, which is moving eating grass; so also the rings around the sun and the moon, the meteors and the rainbow.
Should not do any other work while engaged in worship of gods, should not run drenching in rain, not reveal the specific day of the fortnight nor the star of the day (of his birth).
One should not reveal to others the day, star, constellation etc., of his birth, the troubles and bads of his house, the insults he had, the misunderstanding between him and his master.(96-106)
पुरोवातातपरजस्तुषारपरुषानिलान् । अनृजुः क्षवथूगारकासस्वप्नानमैथुनम् ॥ १०७॥
सशब्दमलिनं हस्तभ्रूनेव्रोत्क्षेपवादिताम् । कूलच्छायां सुरापानं व्यालदंष्ट्रिविषाणिनः ॥१०८॥
हीनानार्यातिनिपुणसेवां विग्रहमुत्तमैः । सन्ध्यास्वभ्यवहारस्त्रीस्वप्नाध्ययनचिन्तनम् ।।१०९॥
आरोग्यजीवितैश्वर्यविद्यासु स्थिरमानिताम् । तोयाग्नि पूज्यमध्येन यानं धूमं शवाश्रयम् ॥११०॥
मद्यातिसक्लिं विस्त्रंभस्वातन्त्र्ये स्त्रीषु च त्यजेत् ।
One should avoid the eastern breeze, (or direct breeze) sunlight, dust, snowfall, rough wind, improper way of sneezing, belching, coughing, sleeping, dining and coitus; expelling flatus with a sound; raising of hands, eyebrows and eyes; the shade of embankments, ( supports, scaffolds, etc.,) drinking alchoholic beverages, company of wild animals, animals which have tusks or horns;
Serving the mean (person of low standard), uncivilised and very intelligent persons; quarrelling with good men; engaging in meals, sexual intercourse, sleeping, study and thinking ( discussion, debate etc., ) in the evenings; ( should be avoided).
Too much of pride in one’s own health, lifespan, wealth and learning; riding on animals in the midst of water, fire, places of worship; smoke of funeral pyre; too much indulgence in drinking; belief and freedom in women (be avoided).(107-110)
नैकाहमप्यधिवसेद्वास्तु तच्छास्त्रगर्हितम् ।।१११॥
न देशं व्याधिबहुलं नावैद्यं नाप्यनायकम् । नाधर्मिजनभूयिष्ठं नोपसृष्टं न पर्वतम् ।। ११२।। One should not reside even for a day in a house which not been properly consecreted according to Vastu rites (worshipping the god of the house, stars, planets etc.,) likewise in a country which is affected with many diseases, which has neither a physician nor a leader (administrator)
where majority of the people are irreligious, which is haunted by epidemics and which is very mountainous. (111-112)
वसेत् प्राज्याम्बुभैषज्यसमित् पुष्पतृणेन्धने । सुभिक्षक्षेमरम्यान्ते पण्डितैर्मण्डिते पुरे ॥११३॥
नरामराणां सिद्धानां शास्त्राणाञ्चाजुगुप्सकः । आधारकस्त्रिवर्गस्य यथायोग्यं जनस्य च ॥११४॥
दश कर्मपथाब्रक्षन् जयन्नभ्यन्तरानरीन् । हिंसास्तेयान्यथाकामं पैशुन्यं परुषानृतम् ॥ ११५॥
संभिन्नलापं व्यापादमभिध्यां दग्विपर्ययम् । पापं कर्मेतिदशधा कायवाङ्गनसैस्त्यजेत् ॥ ११६ ॥
One should dwell in places where water, herbs, sacrificial faggots, flowers, grass, and firewood are plentiful; where there is enough of food and other essentials; which is safe and beautiful, where learned men, gods (godlymen) ascetics and experts in many sciences, men who are self controlled, who support (follow) the three vargas (dharma, artha and kama) scrupilously and such other good people reside.
Person should avoid the following ten sinful activities and conquer the internal enemies. Himsa (cruelty), astheya (stealing) anyathakama (unlawful sex), paisunya (backbiting, carrying tales, maligning, slandering) parusa (vachan) (abusive words, scolding, harsh speech), anrta (vachana)- falsehood, untruth), sambhinnalapa (speech causing separation, dissention), vyapada (quarrel, hatredness) abhidya (jeolosy, confiscation, greed) and drgviparyaya (misunderstanding, finding fault, faithlessnes of the scripture); these ten sins pertaining to the body, speech and mind should be avoided. (113-116)
Notes Of the ten sins the first three pertain to the body, next four, to speech and last three to the mind.
परोपघातक्रियया वर्जयेदार्जनं श्रियः । अर्थानां धर्मलब्धानामदाताऽपिह्यसम्भवात् ।।११७।। स्वर्गापवर्गविभवानयत्नेनाधितिष्ठति ।
One should avoid earning money by harming others; because it may be difficult to find a person who donates money which he has earnt by righful means. Such a person conquers heaven and hell without any efforts.(117-118a)
समाहितमनाः शुचिः ॥११८॥ शास्तारमनुसंस्मृत्य स्वचर्या चाथ संविशेत् । देशे शुचावनाकीर्णे द्वित्राप्तपरिचारकः ।।११९ ।।
युक्तोपधानं स्वास्तीर्णं विस्तीर्णाविषमं सुखम् । जानुतुल्यं मृदु शुभं सेवेत शयनासनम्सा यं भुक्वा लघु हितं ।।१२०।।
प्राग्दक्षिणशिरा: पादावकुर्वाणो गुरून् प्रति । पूर्वापरदिशो भागे धर्ममेवानुचिन्तयन् ।।१२१।।
Having taken light and suitable food in the evening, person should go to sleep with pleasant mind, offering obeisances to gods; in his own bed, kept in a place which is clean, devoid of too many people but with two or three faithful attendants; furnished with suitable pillows which are broad, even and comfortable; the cot and the chairs etc., should be of the height of one’s knee, soft and beautiful. Head should be placed towards the east or south and legs not stretched towards teachers/elders etc. The bedroom should be either in the east or west of the house. Person should think of only dharma (rightousness) at the time of going to bed. (118-121)
आददीत सदा देहादित्थं सारमसारतः । बिभ्यत् प्रतिक्षणं मृत्योरयथातथचेष्टितात् ॥ १२२॥
आरोग्यविभवप्रज्ञावयोधर्मक्रियावतः । सुखमायुर्हितं चोक्तं विपरीतं विपर्यये ।।१२३।।
One should adopt what is the best (essence) for the life from this worthless (unprofitable) life, keeping in mind the fear of death every minute, which has its own ways in accordance with the good or the bad deeds of persons.
The life of a person which is endowed with health, wealth, learning and practice of dharma-kriyas (acts of benovalence) for long years is known as Sukha ayu (happy life) which is also Hita (suitable) one; while a life with opposite qualities is its opposite. (122-123)
Notes :- Sukha means happiness and Hita means suitable profitable or useful. A life in which health, wealth learning and practice of benevolent activities is possible is known as Sukhayu and Hitayu and it is to be desired and achieved by every one. That life which is full of ill-health, poverty, ignorance and malevalent activities is known as Dukhayu (life of misery) and Ahitayu (unsuitable or useless life), which is to be desisted.
सर्वतेजोनिधानं हि नृप इत्युच्यते भुवि । अदूषयन्मनस्तस्मात् भक्तिमांस्तमुपाचरेत् ।।१२४।।
पर्यस्तिकोपाश्रयकोपहास-विवादनिष्ठीवनजृम्भणानि । सर्वाः प्रकृत्यभ्यधिकाश्च चेष्टास्तत्सन्निधाने परिवर्जयेत्तु ॥ १२५ ॥
In the society, the King is the repository of all power; hence every one should act in such a way as not to insult him but serve him with devotion; so in his presence one should avoid showing one’s back and knees (legs) without covering them with cloth; sitting in indecent postures, indulge in anger, laughter, dispute (quarrel), spit, yawn and do such other acts even though they are natural. (124-125)
सत्वाद्यवस्था विविधाश्च तास्ताः सम्यक् समीक्ष्याऽत्महितं विदध्यात् ।
अन्योऽपि यः कश्चिदिहाऽस्ति मार्गो हितोपदेशेषु भजेत तं च ॥ १२६॥
The manifestations of the qualities of Satva etc. (satva, rajas and tamas) are many and varied (in life); each one should be considered on its merits or demerits and only those found suitable for one’s own life should be adopted. Any other good rule or regimen found elsewhere (apart from these described here so far) should also be adopted. (126)
Notes The three Mahagunas, the Satva, Rajas and Tamas make up of all the activities of all living beings. Satwa is considered as pure and beneficial to all. A life dominated by Satvaguna is the best, possessing all good features such as profound knowledge, intelligence descrimination, joy enthusiasm etc. It is to be desired and all attempts should be made to achieve it. But these-satwa, rajas and tamas are always found mixed together, with one or two of them predominant throughout life. Rajas is the quality whch is the cause for emotions like pleasure, attachment, desire, anger, hate and even cruelty. Tamas is the quality responsible for ignorance, foolishness, timidity and inactivity. Rajas and Tamas are considered as bad and even harmful. Upanisads (philosophical literature) and Dharmasastras (codes ofethics) have, in great detail, described the means and methods to increase Satva gunas by adopting different kinds of foods and activities during the period of life. The rules and regimen described so far are a few from those found in scriptures. Adopting these and many other such activities, Rajas and Tamogunas will be reduced and the Satvaguna dominates making one’s life happy, wholesome benovalent.
इति चरितमुपेतः सर्वजीवोपजीव्यं प्रथितपृथुगुणौधो रक्षितो देवताभिः | समधिकशतजीवी निर्वृतः
पुण्यकर्मा व्रजति सुगतिनिम्नो देहभेदेऽपि तुष्टिम् ॥१२७॥ A person adopting the best way of life embodying all the good characters will be praised by every body, as a ocean of best qualities, protected by gods and lives for a hundred years and more, doing acts of benovalence all through and following the path of Sugati, attains Tusti (permanant happiness, or moksa) after death. (127)
Notes: The code of right conduct (Sad vrtta and Sadacara) described in this chapter to be followed by every person is formulated not only for maintainance of health of individuals but also of the community. In ancient times, a river or lake which was the source of water for one or more villages could be polluted by wrong use and could cause many epidemic diseases. Likewise, the social behaviour of individuals would lead to disharmony and cruelty between communities and states. Taking all these factors into consideration, the learned sages regulated the behaviour of individuals thereby ensuring community health also.
All the do’s and dont’s prescribed herein were very relevant in ancient times. But as time passed on a lot of changes has taken place inevitably, in the mode of life, social and religious customs and manners. Hence, some of them have continued to be observed strictly, some others have disappeared; while some are irrelevant to the present day, some cannot be put to practice at all. Hence, it is quite likely that present day students may show scant respect for these ancient code of ethics. But with a little discriminatory thought, every one can understand the principles of health behind these regimen and adopt it with slight modifications, suitable to the living conditions of the present day.
I The term “sugati nimna” is significant as it can be interpreted in two ways – firstly to mean “path for the ideal goal” in the ordinary sense and as secondly to mean the ‘Path of the Sugata’ in a special sense to mean the Buddhism.
इति तृतीयोऽध्यायः Thus ends the third chapter.