अथाऽतः शिष्योपनयनीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । इतिह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥१॥
We will now expound the chapter called Sisyopanayaniya- ‘initiation of the student’. Thus said Atreya and other great sages. (1)
Sisyagunah – qualities of the student
गुरुभक्तोऽभियुक्तोऽतियुक्तो धीस्मृतिपाटवैः । ऋज्वास्यनासानयनस्तनुस्निग्धनखच्छविः ।।२।।
ब्रह्मचारी जितद्वन्द्वो धीरः सुचरितः स्थिरः | षण्मासानुषितः शक्लो लज्जाशौचकुलान्वितः ॥ ३॥
शिष्योऽध्याप्यो गतो यावदन्तं तत्रार्थकर्मणाम्
A student who is devoted to (serve) the teacher, who has a keen desire to study, endowed with great intelligence, memory and talent; whose face, mouth, nose and eyes are normal and pleasant to look at, who is a Brahmacari (celibate), who can withstand the duels, who is courageous, virtuous and steadfast, who has exhibited these qualities to the teacher for over six months, who is pure (in talk), humble (or shy) in behaviour, clean and endowed with many other good qualities should be initiated (for study) and taught till he attains mastery in the science and professional activities (2-3 1/2)
Notes: In ancient times in India, the students were being accepted by the teacher only after strict scrutiny of their physical and mental qualities and behaviour. A simple ceremony was being held in which both the teacher and the taught took oaths, the teacher to teach the science ungrudgingly and the student to be obedient, faithful and attached to the teacher and learn the science.
Brahmachari is an young boy who adheres to the rules of normal disciplines like celebecy, religious ferver etc., which are congenial for acquisition of knowledge. The term ‘Jitadvandva’ means he who has conqured some duels such as heat and cold, likes and dislikes, happiness and misery etc., in other words, capable of enduring difficulties.
Adhyayana Nisiddha Kala – unsuitable time for study
नाsकालविद्युत्स्तनिते भूकम्पे राहुदर्शने ॥४॥
पञ्चदश्यामचन्द्रायां परोक्षे वा गुरोः पठेत् । नातिच्छिन्नपदं नातिमन्दं नात्युच्चनीचकैः ॥५॥
The study should not be undertaken at inauspicious times, at times of thunderbolt ( rain and storm), earthquakes and eclipses, on days of full moon and new moon, during the absence of the (planet) Guru (jupitor). The study should be done without splitting the words too much, not very slow, neither in a very high pitch nor in very low pitch. (4-5)
Notes: Selection of proper time for study was to prevent its discontinuance in the middle by natural calamities and to ensure keen attention. The method of instructions being oral by repetition of verses, care was taken to preserve the words, syllables and sentences intact, to have clear pronunciation and also to avoid exertion to the body.
Sisyavrtti – conduct of the student
हीनान्यवेष आचार्यं पर्युपासीत राजवत् । शयीत सुप्त एवास्मिनुत्तिष्ठेतास्य पूर्वतः ॥६॥
न ब्रूयात् केवलं नाम नाऽसाध्वपि विनाटयेत् ।
The student should wear clothes / dress inferior (less) to that of his teacher; dress himself differntly ( than the teacher); he should serve the teacher like (serving) a king, should go to sleep only after the teacher has slept and get up early before he gets up; should not utter only the name of the teacher (without adding respectful words); should not imitate, making fun of any inadvertent word or act of the teacher. ( 6-7a)
Notes: These are the rules of conduct for the students and they are clear indications of the importance attached to development of moral character and cultured behaviour. Serving the teacher like serving a king means serving him with both fear and respect.
Bhisak laksana – qualities of the physician
अभेद्योऽनुद्धतः स्तब्धः सूनृतः प्रियदर्शनः ॥७॥
बहुश्रुतः कालवेदी ज्ञातग्रन्थोऽर्थशास्त्रवित् । अनाथान् रोगिणो यश्च पुत्रवत् समुपाचरेत् ॥ ८॥
गुरूणा समनुज्ञातः स भिषक्छब्दमश्नुते ।
He, who is invincible (in debate), unopposed, steadfast, friendly and polite with all; pleasing in appearance, who has read many sciences, knows the appropriate time (for every activity); who has mastered the science (of Ayurveda), is conversant with Arthsastra (etymology); who looks after the destitutes and the sick as his own children and who has obtained permission from his teacher (to practise medicine) deserves to be called a “Physician”.(7-9a)
यस्तु केवलशास्त्रज्ञः कर्मस्वपरिनिष्ठितः ॥९॥
स मुह्यत्यातुरं प्राप्य प्राप्य भीरुरिवाहवम |
यः पुनः कुरुते कर्म धाष्टर्याच्छास्त्रविवर्जितः ॥१०॥
स सत्सु गर्हामाप्नोति वधं चर्च्छति राजतः ।
He (the physician) who is conversant with the science but not skilled in his work, gets delusioned when he approaches the patient, just as a coward in a battlefield. He, who does his work with audacity without the knowledge of science, does not get respect from the wise, deserves the penalty of death by the king. (9-10)
हेतौ लिङ्गे प्रशमने रोगणामपुनर्भवे ॥११॥
ज्ञानं चतुर्विधं यस्य स राजार्हो भिषक्तमः ।
That efficient physician who possesses all the four kinds of knowledge of the disease their causes, symptoms, treatment and non-recurrence (prevention) – deserves to become the royal physician. (11-12a)
शस्त्रं शास्त्राणि सलिलं गुणदोषप्रवृत्तये ||१२||
पात्रापेक्षीण्यतः प्रज्ञां बाहुश्रुत्ोन बृंहयेत् ।
The good or bad of the weapon, science and water depend upon the
holder (user, receiver, vessel respectively). Hence one should enhance his knowledge by the study of many sciences. (12) Notes: A sharp instrument in the hands of a cruel person will be used by him to injure others while the same in the hands of a wise man will be used for useful purposes; so also the science, a wicked scientist uses his knowledge to harm others, whereas a wise one uses it for providing happiness to others. Hence every person should gain more knowledge by studying many sciences and thus gain wisdom to use his science for good purposes.
प्रदीपभूतं शास्त्रं हि दर्शनं विपुला मतिः ॥ १३ ॥
ताभ्यां भिषक् सुयुक्ताभ्यां चिकित्सन्नापराध्यति ।
Science is a torch and one’s wide intellect is the instrument to see things; the physician who has both of them adequately does not commit mistakes in the treatment of diseases. (13)
आहूत एव यो याति सुवेष: सुनिमित्ततः ॥१४॥ गत्वाऽ तुरार्थादन्यत्र न निधत्ते मनः कचित् ।
व्याधीन् परीक्षते सम्यनिदानादिविशेषतः ॥ १५॥ द्वेषणीयां च तद्वात्त न प्रकाशयते बहिः ।
सहसा न च तस्यापि क्रियाकालमहापयन् ॥ १६॥ जानाति चोपचरितुं स वैद्यंः सिद्धिमश्नुते ।
He (the physician) attains success who, visits the patient only after being called, who is pleasing to look at; sets out at auspicious omens, pays attention only to the patient at his house and to nothing else; examines the disease by its causes etc., does not reveal to others such facts of which the patient feels shy (or is ashamed of), who knows to start appropriate treatment quickly without allowing the disease to progress. (14-16)
नाददीताऽमिषं स्त्रीभ्यस्तदध्यक्षे पराङ्मुखे ॥१७॥
ताभिश्व रहसि स्थानं परिहासं च वर्जयेत् ।
The physician should neither receive any gift from any woman in the absence of her master ( husband, etc) nor talk to her in secrecy; and also avoid cutting jokes with her. (17b-18a)
आर्त्तं च नृपसद्वैद्यैर्द्विष्टं तद्वेषिणं द्विषम् ||१८||
चण्डं शोकातुरं भीरुं कृतघ्नं वैद्यमानिनम् । हीनोपकरणं व्यग्रमविधेयं गतायुषम् ।।१९।।
The physician should refuse treatment for a person (patient) who is hated by the king and the wise; or who hates them; who is cruel, grief stricken; who is coward, ungratful, who poses himself as physician, who is not having the equipments etc. (required for treatment); who is agitated (bewildered, very busy, exposed to dangers), disobedient and whose life is going to end soon. (18-19 1/2)
जिजीविषुर्व्याधितोऽपि पूर्वोक्तगुणवर्जितान् ।
क्रियाविक्रयिणो वैद्यान् मृत्योरग्रेसरा हि ते ॥२०॥
The person who, inspite of being a patient, has a desire to live should avoid the physician who is devoid of the qulatities mentioned earlier and, who sells his treatments (for earning money), for such physicians are the leaders (who march in front) of death.(20)
Notes In the above verses are described what is called ‘the professional ethics’, the do’s and dont’s for the physician. By following these rules the physician not only earns a good name for himself but also for his science. Medicine being a noble profession, requires its followers also to be noble and respected. He should select suitable patients and his treatment should be efficacious. Treating such patients who do not deserve, brings only bad name. The physician should not be very much after earning money alone but be compassionate towards his brothers, especially the sick.
Pada catustaya – four limbs of treatment
भिषग्द्रव्याण्युपस्थाता रोगी पादचतुष्टयम् । चिकित्सितस्य निर्दिष्टं प्रत्येकं तच्चतुर्गुणम् ॥ २१ ॥
The physician, the Drug, the Attendant (nurse) and the Patient – these are the four limbs of medical treatment; and each one has four qualities.
दक्षस्तीर्थात्तशास्त्रार्थो द्दष्टकर्मा शुचिर्भिषक् । बहुकल्पं बहुगुणं सम्पन्नं योग्यमौषधम् ॥ २२ ॥
अनुरक्तः शुचिर्दक्षो बुद्धिमान् परिचारकः ।
आढ्यो रोगी भिषग्वश्यो ज्ञापकः सत्ववानपि ||२३||
The physician should be efficient, posses perfect knowledge, be dextrous in action and clean.
The drug should be, fit to be used in many forms, posses many good propreties, potent and suitable.
The attendant should be affectionate (with the patient), clean efficient and intelligent.
The patient should be wealthy, obedient to the physician, possess good memory and strong will. (21-22)
यद्वैद्ये विगुणे पादा गुणवन्तोऽप्यनर्थकाः । स पादहीनानप्यार्तान् गुणवान् यच्च यापयेत् ||२४॥
चिकित्सायास्तमेवातः प्रधानं कारणं विदुः ।
Out of these four, if the physician is inefficient the remaining three will be useless even though they are good; but if the physician is efficient he can manage the treatment even though the others limbs are inefficient. Hence it is the physician who is the most important for medical treatment. (23-24)
Dvidha Vyadhi – two kinds of diseases
साध्योऽसाध्य इति व्याधिर्द्विधा तौ तु पुनर्द्विधा ॥ २५
सुसाध्य: कृच्छ्रसाध्यश्च याप्यो यश्चानुपक्रमः ।
Diseases are of two kinds Sadhya (curable) and Asadhya (incurable); each one is again of two kinds; Susadhaya ( easily curable); Krcchrasa-dhya (curable with difficulty); Yapya (controllable) and Anupakrama (Unmanageable). (25)
Sadhyasadhyalaksana – qualities of curable and incurable diseases
सर्वौषधक्षमे देहे यूनः पुंसो जितात्मनः ॥२६॥
अमर्मगोऽल्पहेत्वग्ररूपरूपोऽनुपद्रवः । अतुल्यदूष्यदेशर्तुप्रकृतिः पादसम्पदि ॥२७॥
ग्रहेष्वनुगुणेष्वेकदोषमार्गो नवः सुखः सुखसाध्यः सुखोपायः कालेनाल्पेन साध्यते ॥२८॥
Disease is easily curable and in short time if the body of the patient is capable of withstanding all types of therapies (treatment), if the patient is a youth, a male, has control over his sense organs; that disease which has few causes, mild prodromal symptoms and mild characteristic features; has no complications, in which the Doshas, Dusyas, ( tissues ) Desha (regions ) Kala (season ) and Prakrti (constitution of the body) are all dissimilar; when all the limbs of treatment are good, during auspicious (beneficial) planetary constellations; the disease arising from only one Dosha, manifesting in one pathway only and which is of recent onset. (25-26)
Notes: The condition in which the doshas and dhatus are of the same nature, is said to be tulya (similar) and when their nature are ( different), they are said to be atulya (dissimilar). combination of two of similar qualities will produce a powerful diesease whereas combination of two, of different qualities produces a mild disease. Hence, similarity in respect of doshas and dusyas make the disease incurable while their dissimilarity makes the disease curable. For example, a disease caused by the increase of kapha involving medas dhatu (fat) which is also of similar nature of kapha, will be incurable but if it involves asthi dhatu (bone) which is of different nature it will be easily curable. Lilewise a kapha disease arising during varsa rtu (rainy season) in a person of vata prakrti (constitution) and in jangala desha (desert-like, or arid region) all being of different nature are easily curable etc. Disease may be caused by one or more doshas, that which is caused by any one dosha will be mild and so curable but the disease caused by two or all the three doshas together, will be severe and so incurable. Diseases manifest in three different pathways the internal, middle and external -in the body, if they involve any one of them it is easily curable but involvement of more than one will be either difficult or incurable.
Susadhya (easily curable) means that which can be cured with simple methods and within a short time. (28 1/2)
कृच्छ्ररुपायैः कृछ्रस्तु महद्भिश्च चिरेण च । असाध्यलिङ्गसङ्कीर्णस्तथा शस्त्रादिसाधनः ।।२९।।
Krcharasadhya (curable with difficulty) means that which requires more than one difficult method of treatment, takes long time, has many incurable (distressing) symptoms, which might need surgical and other methods of treament. (29)
शेषत्वादायुषः पथ्यैर्याप्यः प्रायो विपर्यये । दत्वाऽल्पं सुखमल्पेन हेतुना स प्रतन्यते ॥३०॥
याति नाशेषतां रोगः कर्मणो नियतायुषः । प्रपतन्निव विष्कम्भैर्धार्यतेऽत्रातुरो हितैः ॥३१॥
Yapya is that disease which though generally opposite (in qualities) of the curable, still persist for the remaining period of life, giving slight relief by suitable pathya (diet and medicines), getting aggravated again by even trivial causes, does not get cured without leaving remnants, arising from the bad actions (of the patient), cotinuing long because the person has a certain definite span (duration) of life (hence unable to kill him), the person (patient) subsisting by the strength of suitable foods and drugs, just as a crumbling edifice by the (support of) pillars. (30-31)
परोऽसाध्यः क्रियाः सर्वाः प्रत्याख्येयोऽतिवर्तते । तस्मादुपेक्ष्य एवासौ स्थितोऽत्यन्तविपर्यये ||३२||
भ्रममोहारतिकरो द्दष्टरिष्टोऽक्षनाशनः ।
Asadhya – is that, other than the above, in which all treatments fail and so has to be rejected; because it possesses qualities entirely opposite of the curable and also because it produces giddiness, delusion, restlessness, appearance of fatal signs and loss of function of sense organs. ( 32 )
व्याधीन् पुरा परीक्ष्यैवमारभेत ततः क्रियाम् ||३३॥ स्वार्थविद्यायशोहानिमन्यथा ध्रुवमाप्नुयात् ।
The physician should examine the disease first and then start the treatment; otherwise he is sure to lose his wealth, knowledge and reputation. (33)
साध्ययोरपि संयोगो बलिनोर्यात्यसाध्यताम् ॥ ३४॥
विद्यादसाध्यमेवातः साध्यासाध्यमागमम् ।
नासाध्य: साध्यतां याति साध्यो यातित्वसाध्यताम् ॥ ३५॥
पादापचाराद्दैवाच्च यान्त्यवस्थान्तरं गदाः ।
Even curable diseases, if they are in strong combinations become incurable; likewise, the combination of curable and incurable diseases will be incurable only.
Incurable diseases will never become curable, but curable diseases can become incurable. By inefficiency of the limbs of treatment or by divine intent diseases may change from one kind to the other.
वरमाशीविषविषं दीप्तमग्निमयोऽपि वा || ३६॥
उपयुज्जीत न त्वार्त्तादामिषं कृपणाज्जनात् ।
Powerful snake poison, a burning torch (flame) or a red-hot iron rod are better than the gifts received from the sick man or a miser. (36)
बरो भूतदया धर्म इत्यार्तेषु भिषम्बरः || ३७॥ वर्त्तते यस्तु सिद्धार्थः स सर्वमतिवर्त्तते ॥
The physician who while treating patients has “compassion for all living beings” as his ideal surely achieves success and surpasses all. (37)
Thus ends the second chapter.