Namana (Obeisance) :
तृष्णादीर्घमसद्धिकल्पशिरसं प्रद्वेषचञ्चत्फणं कामक्रोधविषं वितर्कदशनं रागप्रचण्डेक्षणम् ।
मोहास्यं स्वशरीरकोटरशयं चित्तोरगं दारुणं प्रज्ञामन्त्रवलेन यः शमितवान्बुद्धाय तस्मै नमः ।।
Obeisances to the Buddha, who by the power of knowledge and spells has subdued the mighty serpent called the citta (mind), whose head is the prolonged, unrealistic and varied kinds of desires; whose hood the hatredness; whose poison the lust and anger; whose fangs the unreasonable logic; whose frightening eyes the greed; whose face is (the cause of) delusion and who dwells within the crevices of the body.
रागादिरोगा: सहजा: समूला येनाशु सर्वे जगतोऽप्यपास्ताः । तमेकवैद्यं शिरसा नमामि वैद्यागमज्ञांश्च पितामहादीन् ॥ १॥
I bow my head in reverence to that One (rare, unique) physician, who has dispelled from this world, quickly, all the rogas (diseases) commencing with raga (desire, lust) etc. and which are inborn (innate, born with) along with their mula (root, cause); likewise (I bow to) those who know (fully well) the science of medicine such as the Pitamaha etc. (1) Notes: The term ‘one unique physician’ refers to the Lord Buddha. Kama (lust), krodha (anger), lobha (greed), moha (delusion), mada (infatuation, arrogance), matsarya (jealousy), soka(grief), dvesa (hatred), bhaya(fear) and such other bad emotions are all included under the term ‘Raga etc’. The mula (root, cause) for all these diseases is ajnana (ignorance). The term ‘Pitamaha’ is usually applied to ‘Brahma’, generally
This verse is found in some editions of Ashtanga Sangraha but not in all. As it has not been commented upon by Indu the reputed commentator of this text, it is considered as an interpolation. However in view of poetical excellence and historical value, it is included herein.
in all ancient texts. But we may to take it as applied to the author’s grandfather also, who was a great scholar of Ayurveda and for whom the author had profound respect.
अथात आयुष्कामीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः ॥२॥
We will now expound the chapter named ‘Ayuskamiya-desire of long life’; thus said atreya and other great sages. (2)
आयुः कामयमानेन धर्मार्थसुखसाधनम् । आयुर्वेदोपदेशेषु विधेयः परमादरः ||३||
Persons who are desirous of a life which is the means (cause, source, instrument) to obtain dharma ( religious merit, righteousness), artha (wealth) and sukha ( happiness ), should bestow utmost faith in the teachings of Ayurveda. (3)
Notes:- Dharma, artha and sukha (kama and moksa) are known as purusarthas (aims of human life). To attain these a long and healthy life is essential. Ayurveda teaches how to have such a life. Hence the insistence on keeping full faith in the teaching of this science.
Ayurveda Avatarana – origin of ayurveda
आयुर्वेदामृतं सार्वं ब्रह्मा बुध्वा सनातनम् । ददौ दक्षाय सोऽश्विभ्यां तौ शतक्रतवे ततः ॥ ४॥
धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाणां विघ्नकारिभिरामयैः । नरेषु पीड्यमानेषु पुरस्कृत्य पुनर्वसुम् ॥ ५॥
धन्वन्तरिभरद्वाजनिमिकश्यपकाश्यपाः । महर्द्धयो महात्मानस्तथाऽऽलम्बायनादयः ।।६॥
शतक्रतुमुपाजग्मुः शरण्यममरेश्वरम् । तान्दृष्ट्वैव सहस्राक्षो निजगाद यथागमम् ॥ ७॥
आयुष: पालनं वेदमुपवेदमथर्वणः । कायबालग्रहोर्ध्वाङ्गशल्यदंष्ट्राजरावृपैः ॥ ८॥
गतमष्टाङ्गतां पुण्यं बुबुधे यं पितामहः । गृहीत्वा ते तमाम्नायं प्रकाश्य च परस्परम् ।।९।।
आययुर्मानुषं लोकं मुदिताः परमर्षयः | स्थित्यर्थमायुर्वेदस्य तेऽथ तन्त्राणि चक्रिरे ॥१०॥
कृत्वाऽग्निवेशहारीतभेडमाण्डव्यसुश्रुतान् । करालादश्चिं तच्छिप्यान् ग्राहयामासुरादृताः ॥ ११ ॥
स्वं स्वं तत्रं ततस्तेऽपि चक्रुस्तानि कृतानि च । गुरून् संश्रावयामासुः सर्पिसङ्घान् सुमेधसः ॥ १२॥
तैः प्रशस्तानि तान्येषां प्रतिष्ठां भुवि लेभिरे ।
Brahma having known the immortal and eternal science of Ayurveda, in full, taught it to Daksa, who transmitted it to the Asvini twins; they in turn taught it to Satakratu (Indra).
When diseases began to trouble the human beings, causing hinderance to acquisition of dharma (religious merit), artha (wealth), kama (desires) and moksa (salvation) sages like Dhanvantari, Bharadvaja, Nimi, Kasyapa, Kasyapa, Alambayana and others went to Indra, the lord of the immortals, making Punarvasu (Atreya) as their leader(to learn ayurveda from him).
Indra, being pleased to see the galaxy of sages, taught them that science which teaches the correct maintenance of life, which is the upaveda of Atharva veda, which is having eight branches such as Kaya (inner medicine), Bala (paediatries), Graha (demonology), Urdhvanga (treatment of diseases of the head and sensory organs), Salya (surgery Damstra (toxicology). Jara (geriatrics) and Vrsa (virlification therapy); which is sacred and which had been taught by Pitamaha (Brahma).
The sages having learnt the science and becoming satisfied with their new knowledge, exchanged views among themselves and came back happily to the world of men. To make their science-Ayurveda – long lasting in this world, they wrote books and also taught it to their disciples like Agnivesa, Harita, Bheda, Mandavya, Susruta, Karala and others, who received it with great reverence. They in turn, wrote their own treatises and recited them to their teachers seated in the assembly of learned sages. Those treatises which were adjudged as best, attained fame in this world (4-13a).
Notes:- This narration of the origin of Ayurveda varies slightly from the versions of other texts of Ayurveda – the Samhitas of Caraka, Susruta and Kasyapa and and purana text, the Brahmavaivarta. According to Caraka samhita, Lord Brahma, recollecting the science of life, taught it to Daksa Prajapati (the lord of living beings); Daksa in turn taught it to the Asvini twins, who in their turn taught Indra, the chief of the Gods. When diseases began to trouble the human beings in this world, the sages, met in an assembly at the slopes of the Himalaya mountains, desired to learn the science of Ayurveda from Indra and bring it to the earth for the benefit of mankind. Bharadvaja, who was one among them, volunteered for this task, the assembly gladly accepted the proposition and deputed him to Indra. Bharadvaja approaced Indra in heaven, to teach him the science of Ayurveda. Indra being pleased, taught Bharadvaja, who after learning it, came back to the earth and propagated it to the sages in the assembly. Punarvasu Atreya, ‘one among them, propagated this science of Ayurveda to- his disciples Agnivesa, Bheda, Jatukarna, Parasara, Harita and Ksarapani. Each one of them wrote books embodying the teachings of their preceptor. Out of those, the one written by Agnivesa was adjudged as the best and became popular in this world.
Susruta samhita’s version differs only after Indra. Divodasa, the king of Kasi, who says that he is the incarnation of Adideva Dhanvantari and learnt this science from Indra directly. He taught this to Aupadhenava, Vaitarana, Aurabhra, Pauskalavata, Karavirya, Gopuraraksita and Susruta, who wrote books on this science.
Kasyapa Samhita describes that four sages-Kasyapa, Vasista, Atri and Bhrgu learnt this science from Indra, and taught it to their sons and disciples.
Brahmavaivarta purana mentions Bhaskara, the Sun god as having learnt Ayurveda from Brahma directly.
Ashtanga Sangraha – nature of the text
तेषामेकैकमव्यापि समस्तव्याधिसाधाने ॥१३॥
प्रतितन्त्राभियोगे तु पुरूषायुषसंक्षयः । भवत्यध्ययनेनैव यस्मात् प्रोक्तः पुनः पुनः ॥ १४ ॥
तन्त्रकारैः स एवार्थ: क्वचित्कचिद्विषेशतः । तेऽर्थप्रत्यायनपरा वचने यच्च नादृताः ॥ १५ ॥
Any one treatise by itself is not enough to furnish the full knowledge of all the diseases; an entire life will be spent to study all the texts because the same topics will found described repeatedly, very brief in some and very elaborate in others; each having its own speciality. So the texts, being very didactic are incredible in their purport. (13-15)
सर्वतन्त्राण्यतः प्रायः संहत्याष्टाङ्गसङ्ग्रहः । अस्थानविस्तराक्षेपपुनरुक्तयादिवर्जितः ॥ १६॥
हेतुलिङ्गौषधस्कन्धत्रयमात्रनिबन्धनः । विनिगूढार्थतत्त्वानां प्रदेशानां प्रकाशकः ॥ १७॥
स्वान्यतन्त्रविरोधानां भूयिष्ठं विनिवर्तकः । युगानुरूपसन्दर्भों विभागेन करिष्यते ॥१८॥
नित्योपयोगिऽदुर्बोधं सर्वाङ्गव्यापि भावतः। संगृहीतं विशेषेण यत्र कायचिकित्सितम् ॥ १९ ॥
न मात्रामात्रमप्यत्र किंचिदागमवर्जितम् । तेऽर्थाः स ग्रन्थबन्धश्च सङ्क्षेपाय क्रमोऽन्यथा ॥ २० ॥
Hence, this treatise, Ashtanga Sangraha, has been composed with information collected from all the treatises and (written) devoid of irrelevant, elaborate, objectionable (statements) and repetitions; with only three main themes-the Hetuskandha (on the causes of diseases; aetiology), Linga skandha (on the signs and symptoms of diseases; symptomatology) and Ausadha skandha (on the treatment of diseases; therapeutics); shedding light on (explaining clearly) many of the moot points. It dispels many contradictions of itself and also of the other texts and arranged as suitable (to the trend of) to the present age.
Preference has been given to Kayacikitsa (inner medicine) especially, because of its constant and daily need, difficulty of understanding and also beacuse it pervades all the other branches (of Ayurveda).
There is no word (in this book) which is not found in the scriptures (ancient authoritative treatises); the only change, is in the arrangement of the text, aimed at brevity and for nothing else.(16-20)
वायुः पित्तं कफश्चेति त्रयो दोषाः समासतः । प्रत्येकं तेत्रिधा वृद्धिक्षयसाम्यविभेदतः ॥ २१ ॥
उत्कृष्टमध्याल्पतया त्रिधा वृद्धिक्षयावपि । विकृताऽविकृतादेहं घ्नन्ति ते वर्त्तयन्ति च ॥ २२॥
Vayu, Pitta and Kapha are, in brief, the three Doshas of the body; each one is of three kinds – vrddhi (increase), ksaya (decrease ) and samya (normal); both vrddhi (increase) and ksaya (decrease) are three kinds utkrsta (severe), madhya (moderate) and alpa (mild).
They (the dosas) destroy the body or sustain it when they are abnormal and normal respectively. (21-22)
Notes:- Samya (normalcy) of the dosas is to be understood in respect of their pramana (quantity), gunas (qualities) and karmas (functions). Bothvrddhi (increase) and ksaya (decrease) in any of these three aspects is Vikrti or vaisamya (abnormality). Dosas keep the body healthy when they are normal but when they become abnormal they produce diseases. Diseases are severe, moderate or mild depending upon the degree of abnormality of the dosas. Between vrddhi (increase) and ksaya (decrease) it is the former which produces majority of diseases.
ते व्यापिनोsपि हृन्नाभ्योरधोमध्योर्ध्वसंश्रयाः ।
Though present all over the body, they are predominantly found in the regions below, in between and above respectively of the area bound by the heart and the umbilicus. (23a)
वयोsहोरात्रिभुक्तनां तेऽन्तमध्यादिगाः क्रमात् ॥ २३॥
They are predominant respectively during the last, middle and first periods of life, day, night and food (digestion of food).(23b).
Notes: Dosas are present in every cell of the body, but in some special places they are found abundantly as described above. The organs of the trunk below the umbilicius are the chief sites of vata. Those in between the umbilicus and the heart are the chief sites of pitta and those above the heart are the chief sites of kapha. Vata is the predominant dosa during old age, evening of the day, last part of the night and last stages of digestion of food; Pitta is predominant during middle age, midday, midnight and middle stage of digestion of food; Kapha is predominat during childhood, morning, early part of the night and commencement of digestion of food.
Three kinds of Agni – digestive activity
तैर्भवेद्विषमस्तीक्ष्णो मन्दश्चाग्निः समैः समः ।
Visamagni, Tiksnagni and Mandagni are caused by their (dosas) predominance respectively; while Samagni is caused by the equilibrium (normalcy) of all dosas. (24 a)
Notes: ‘Agni’ means the digestive activity. Visamagni is unsteady or erratic type of digestion, which is changing from one day to the next or from day to night; very unpredicatable in accordance to qualities of vata; Tiksnagni is increased digestive activity, capable of digesting large quantities of food, very quickly and still desiring more, due to the nature and qualities of pitta; Mandagni is decreased digestive activity. incapable of digesting even the accutomed quantity of food within the scheduled time due to the nature and quantities of kapha. All these three are considered unhealthy leading to the production of many diseases. Only Samagni which is due to the normalcy of all the dosas is ideal for mainteinance of health.
Trividha kostha – nature of alimentary tract
कोष्ठः क्रूरो मृदुर्मध्यो मध्यः स्यात्तैः समैरपि ॥ २४ ॥
Kostha (nature of ailmentary tract. bowel movements, nature of elimination of faeces) will be krura (hard), mrdu (soft) and madhya (moderate) by the predominance of the dosas respectively. When all of them (dosas) are normal, then also kostha will be madhya (moderate). (24 b)
Notes: Predominance or increase of vata produces very hard faeces, with difficulty of elimination or even non-elimination; predominance or increase of pitta causes watery or semisolid faeces, moving out more than once or twice in a day; predominance or increase of kapha causes soft, solid faeces moving out smoothly. The last condition (madhya kostha) is ideal and is also found when all the dosas are in normal condition.
Trividha prakriti – three kinds of constitution
शुक्रार्तवस्थैर्जन्मादौ विषेणेव विषक्रिमेः । तैश्च तिस्रः प्रकृतयो हीनमध्योत्तमाः पृथक् ॥२५॥
समधातुः समस्तासु श्रेष्ठा निन्द्या द्विदोषजाः |
At the same time of commencement of life, by the union of the Sukra and artava, the dosas which are predominant confer their own character (to the embryo). Just as poisonous worms develop from poisonous material, there arise (are formed) from these (dosas), separately, three kinds of prakritis (constitutions) Hina (poor), Madhya (moderate) and Uttama (best); Samadhatu (prakrti) arising from the combination of all three dosas in equal proportion is ideal; Dvidosaja (prakrtis) arising from the combination of any two of the dosas are bad. (25-26 a)
Notes: Sukra is the seed from the male, artava the seed from the female; both of them unite to form embryo. Both of them contain the dosas and whichever dosa or dosas become predominant at the time of their union, the embryo, that gets formed, will inherit the specific characteristic feature of those dosa cr dosas. The example of worm/bacteria also points to this idea the worm developing from poisonous materials will inherit the same feature of poison as are found in the materials from which they are born. The three prakritis (constitutions)- the poor, moderate and best-arise from the predominance of vata, pitta and kapha dosas respectively; the constitutions arising form the combination of any two dosas (dvandva) viz., vata + pitta; vata + kapha; pitta + kapha- are not good. Only the samadhatu prakrti (arising from the combination of all the three) is ideal but it is very rare. –
Tridosha gunas – qulities of tridoshas
तत्र रूक्षो लघुः शीतः खरः सूक्ष्म चलोऽनिलः || २६॥
पित्तंसस्त्रेहतीक्ष्णोष्णंलघु विस्रं सरं द्रवम् ।
स्निग्धः शीतो गुरुर्मन्दः लक्ष्णो मृत्स्रः स्थिरः कफः ॥२७॥
संसर्गः सनिपातश्च तद्धित्रिक्षयकोपतः । तौ षोढा दशधा चोक्तवुत्कर्षादिविकल्पनात् ॥ २८॥
Ruksa (dryness), laghu (lightness, weightlessness), sita (coldness), khara (roughness), suksma (minuteness) and cala (movement, unsteadiness) are the qualities of Anila( vata).
Sasneha (slight unctousness), tiksna (penetrating), usna (hot, heat producing), laghu (lightness), visra (bad smell), sara (causing movement) and drava (liquidity) are the qualities of Pitta.
Snigdha (unctousness), sita (cold, producing coldness), guru (heavy), manda (sluggish, slow), slaksna (smoothness, slippery), mrtsna (shining) and sthira (firm, static) are the qualities of Kapha.
Combination of any two or three of them (dosas) either in the state of decrease or increase is known as Samsarga and Sannipata respectively; such combinations are, thus six and ten kinds respectively, depending upon permutation of their decrease and increase.(26 b-28) Dhatus and Malas (tissues and waste products):
रसासृङमां समेदोस्थिमज्जाशुक्राणि धातवः । सप्त दूप्या मला मूत्रशकृत्स्वेदादयोऽपि च ।।२९।।
Rasa (plasma), asrk (rakta, blood), mamsa (muscle), medas (fat), asthi (bone), majja (bone marrow) and sukra (semen, reproductive elements)- these are the Dhatus (supports, basic tissues); these seven are also called as Dusyas (those which get vitiated). Likewise the mutra (urine), sakrt (faeces), sveda (sweat) and others which are the Malas (waste products) of the body. (29)
Notes : Dhatus are so named because they support the body all through the life, they get vitiated by the three dosas quickly, when they will be called as dusyaas; thus vitiated they become the seat of diseases. Apart from urine, faeces and sweat there are many other waste products also such as excretions of the nose, eyes, cars and tissues etc. Dosas vitiate the malas and so even the malas are included under the category of dusyas.
रसादिस्थेषु दोषेषु व्याधयः संभावन्ति ये । तज्जानित्युपचारेण तानाहुर्घृतदाहवत् ।। ३० ।।
Diseases are produced by the dosas residing in the rasa and other dhatus (tissues); they (the diseases) are said as being born from the dhatus, categorically, just as saying ‘burns caused by ghee’. (30)
Notes: The dosas are present inside the dhatus (tissues) only. They undergo abnormality- vrddhi (increase) or (ksaya) decrease by the effect of different kinds of foods and activities. When the dosas become abnormal, they produce abnormalities even in the tissues supporting them. Both these abnormalities together, give rise to diseases, which start within the dhatu (tissue) involved. So, diseases are generally named as rasaja (born from rasa), raktaja (born from rakta) and so on. The example of ‘burns caused by ghee; means, hot ghee pured over the skin produces a burn (blister). We generally say the burns was due to ghee. But we do not usually mention the heat of the ghee though it is implied therein. We are to understand by this example, that the real cause of diseases are the dosas present in the dhatus (tissues), though while naming the diseases, the dhatus (tissues) are described as the cause.
प्रीणनं जीवनं लेपः स्नेहो धारणपूरणे । गर्भोत्पादश्च कर्माणि धातूनां क्रमशो विदुः ॥ ३१ ॥
शरीरं धारयन्त्येते धात्वाहाराश्च सर्वदा ॥ ३२।।
Prinana (satisfying, nourishing), jivana (supporting life), lepa (covering, adhering). sneha (oleating, lubricating), dharana (supporting). purana (filling the cavities) and garbhotpada (production of the embryo) are the functions of the dhatus (tissues) respectively. (31)
These (dhatus) support the body and also serve as food for the dhatus (for themselves) always. (32a).
Notes: The first dhatu the rasa-satisfies the other tissues by supplying them nourishment; the second dhatu-the rakta- supports life by producing heat, naking the heart work etc., the third dhatu, mamsa, covers the bony frame and gives contour to the body; the fourth, the medas provides lubrication, by its greasy nature; the fifth, the asthi supports the body by its hard frame, the sixth the majja, fills the cavity of the bones and the seventh dhatu, the sukra, of the male and its counter-part, artava (from the female) help the formation of the foetus. These are only the important functions and there are many other functions also for each dhatu.
Just as food is essential for the growth of the body. even so, for the growth of the tissues food is necessary. The preceding dhatu (tissue) produces the food for the succeeding dhatu’ is the doctrine suggested here. This theory will be described in detail in chapter 19.
वृद्धिः समानैः सर्वेषां विपरीतैर्विपर्ययः ||३२||
All things undergo Vrddhi (increase) by use of or association with similars and Ksaya (decrease) by use of or association with dissimilars.(32 b)
Notes:- Similarity and dissimilarity refer to the three aspects of substances viz., dravya (mass, material, substance), gunas (qualities, properties) and karmas (functions). This is applied in this science to explain the effect of different kinds of foods and activities on the dosas, dhatus etc. Foods or activities which are similar in (mass/material) in qualities and activities with any of the dosas make for their increase in the body whereas foods or activities which are dissimilar in mass/material, qulities or activities, make for decrease of the dosas. For example eating meat increases the muscles of the body by similarity of material substance, cold foods increase kapha by similarity of quality; exercise increases vata by similarity of actions. Dissimilarity should also be understood likewise. This doctrine known as ‘Samanya-Visesa Siddhanta’ is an important one in Ayurveda, being made use of in different contexts.
Shadrasa – six kinds of tastes
रसाः स्वाद्वम्ललवणतिक्तोषणकषायकाः । षड् द्रव्यमाश्रितास्ते च यथापूर्वं बलावहाः ॥३३॥
तत्राया मारुतं घ्नन्ति त्रयस्तिक्तादयः कफम् । कषायतिक्तमधुराः पित्तमन्ये तु कुर्वते ॥ ३४॥
Svadu (sweet), Amla (sour). Lavana (salt), Tikta (bitter), Usana (pungent), Kasaya (astringent) are the six Rasas (tastes) present in the substances. The earlier ones give more strength to the body, than their successive ones.
The first three of them mitigate Vata, the three commencing with Tikta mitigate Kapha; Kasaya; Tikta and Madhura mitigate Pitta; the others, cause their increase (aggravation) accordingly. (33b-34)
Notes: Svadu (sweet) taste gives more strength than amla (sour); between amla (sour) and lavana (salt) it is amla which gives strength better and so on.
Madhura (sweet), amla (sour) and lavana (salt) the first three tastes mitigate the (increased) vata; while tikta (bitter), katu (pungent) and kasaya (astringent) tastes cause increase of vata; kasaya (astringent), tikta (bitter) and madhura (sweet) tastes mitigate the (increased) pitta while amla (sour), lavana (salt) and katu (pungent) tastes cause increase of pitta; tikta (bitter), katu (pungent) and kasaya (astringent) tastes mitigate the (increased) kapha while madhura (sweet), amla (sour) and lavana (salt) tastes cause increase of kapha.
The properties of each taste can be described as follows: 1. Madhura (sweet) – mitigates vata and pitta; increases kapha. 2. Amla (sour) – mitigates vata increases pitta; and kapha. 3. Lavana (salt)- mitigates vata; increases pitta and kapha. 4. Tikta (bitter) – increases vata; mitigates pitta and kapha. 5. Katu (pungent) – increases vata and pitta; mitigates kapha. 6. Kasaya (astringent) – increases vata; mitigates pitta and kapha.
Trividha dravya – three kinds of substances
शमनं कोपनं स्वस्थहितं द्रव्यमिति त्रिधा
Substances (food, drugs etc.) are of three kinds; Samana (reducing the dosas), Kopana (increasing the dosas) and Svasthahita (suitable for maintenance of health. (35 a)
Notes : Substances coming under the last group-Svasthahita-do not cause either increase or decrease of any dosa but maintain their normalcy, so they promote health of person. Generally these are the articles of food which are accustomed since birth or by long usage.
Dvividha virya – two kinds of potencies
उष्णशीतगुणोत्कर्षात्तत्र वीर्यं द्विधा स्मृतम् ॥ ३५॥
Virya (potency), is usually counted as two-Usna (hot) and Sita (cold), because these two qualities only are very dominant. (35 b)
Notes: Virya is defined as ‘that principle present in a substance which is the cause of important action. Under this definition many gunas (qualitiies) may also be included but out of all such principles heat and cold are more powerful. Hence. their importance.
Trividha vipaka – three kinds of vipaka
त्रिधा विपाको द्रव्यस्य स्वाद्वम्लकटुकात्मकः ।
Vipaka (taste at the end of digestion) of substances is three – svadu (sweet), amla (sour) and katu (pungent).(36 a)
Notes : Substances which are used either as food or medicines, after undergoingdigestion in the alimentary tract, become converted into such substances having only one of the three tastes – sweet, sour, or pungent. This process of transformation is known as Vipaka. Substances possessing svadu (sweet) and lavana (salt) tastes become converted to madhura (sweet), substanaces of amla (sour) taste will get converted to amla (sour) itself; but substances possessing katu (pungent), tikta (bitter) and kasaya (astringent) tastes become katu (pungent).
Vimsatiguna – twenty qualities
गुरुमन्दहिमस्निग्धश्लक्ष्ण सान्द्रमृदुस्थिराः ॥३६॥ गुणाः ससूक्ष्मविशदा विंशतिः सविपर्ययाः ।
Guru (heaviness), manda (slow, slackness, sluggishness), hima (cold), snigdha (moistness, oilyness, unctousness), slaksna (smoothness, slippery) sandra (solidity, viscidity), mrdu (softness), sthira (firmness, static, non-moving), suksma (minuteness) and visada (clear, unslimy, nonadhering) these and their respective opposites are the twenty gunas (qualities). (36 b-37 a)
Notes:- The ten gunas (qualities) with their respective opposites are as follows
1. Guru (heavy) = Laghu (light) 2. Manda (slow) = Tiksna (quick, penetrating) 3. Hima/Sita (cold) = Usna (hot) 4. Snigdha (moist) = Ruksa(dry) 5. Slaksna (smooth) = Khara (rough) – 6. Sandra (solid)) = Drava (liquid) 7. Mrdu (soft) = Kathina (hard) 8. Sthira (firm) = Cala (sara) (moving) 9. Suksma (minute) = Sthula (big, large) 10. Visada (non-slimy) = Picchila (slimy)
Anya gunah – other qualities
इन्द्रियार्था व्यवायी च विकाषी चापरे गुणाः ॥३७॥
व्यवायी देहमखिलं व्याप्य पाकाय कल्पते । विकाषी विकषन् सन्धिबन्धान्विमुञ्चति ॥ ३८॥
सरतीक्ष्णप्रकर्षै तु कैश्चित्तौ परिकीर्त्तितौ । सत्त्वं रजस्तमश्चेति त्रयः प्रोक्ता महागुणाः ॥३९॥
Indriyarthas (objects of the sense organs), Vyavayi and Vikasi are also the other gunas (qualities).
Vyavayi is that quality which spreads to all the parts of the body first and undergoes digestion later.
Vikasi is that quality which harms the tissues of the body and causes loosening of the joints.
Some authorities opine that Vyavayi and Vikasi are the powerful aspects of sara and tiksna gunas respectively.
Satva, Rajas and Tamas are known as Mahagunas (extraordinary or great qualities). (37 b-39)
Roga – Arogya karana – causes for ill-health and health
कालार्थकर्मणां योगो हीनमिथ्यातिमात्रकः । सम्यग्योगश्च विज्ञेयो रोगारोग्यैककारणम् ॥ ४०॥
Hina (insufficient, decreased, poor), Mithya (perverse, opposite) and Ati (excessive, increased) Yogas (effects, correlation, association) of Kala (time, season), Artha (objects of sense organs) and Karma (activities of the body, mind and speech) are the chief causes of diseases; whereas their Samyag yoga (normal correlation) is the cause for health. (40)
Notes: The above statement can be described with examples as follows:
1. Kala (season) :
a) Hinayoga (or Ayoga) – heat of summer, cold of winter etc., decreasing than usual in a region.
b) Mithyayoga – appearance of cold in summer, heat in winter etc. c) Atiyoga the heat of summer, cold of winter etc., increasing more than usual.
2. Artha (senses and their objects)
a) Hinayoga – insufficient correlation of senses with their objects. For example, seeing objects in dim light, remaining in darkness; hearing very low sound, not hearing any sound; not smelling any thing, not tasting any thing, not touching anything etc.
b) Mithyayoga – perverse correlation of senses with their objects, for example, seeing objects which are unnatural, frightful, awesome; hearing of harsh, upleasant, abusive, sounds; smelling unpleasant, obnoxious decomposing. putrifying types of smells; tasting undesirable, unpleasant, foul and dirty substances; contact of hard weapons, dirty things, harmful insects etc.
c) Atiyoga – excess correlation of senses with their objects as for example, seeing very bright objects for long time; hearing very loud sounds; smelling very powerful substances like pepper, chillies, musk etc., eating of large quantities of substances of all tastes often; too much of heat, cold, massaging etc.
3. Karma (functions of the, body, mind and voice).
a) Hinayoga not doing any activity or doing very little of it, physically, mentally or vocally.
b) Mithyayoga – unusual or unaccustomed activities like falling from great height, jumping, riding, massaging, scratching, twisting of body parts, suppression or initiation of natural urges of urine, faeces etc, and other kinds fo tormenting the body.
c) Atiyoga – indulging in activities more than usual through the body, mind or speech. Excessive exercise, sexual intercourse, riding, too much of talking in high pitch for long periods, too much of mental work like thinking etc.
Roga – disease
रोगस्तु दोषवैषम्यं दोषसाम्यमरोगता । निजागन्तुविभागेन रोगाश्च द्विविधा मताः ॥४१॥ तेषां कायमनोभेदादधिष्ठानमपि द्विधा ।
Roga (disease) is the abnormalcy of the dosas whereas their normalcy is health. Diseases are of two kinds – Nija (organic, endogenous, internal) and Agantu (external, exogenous); likewise even their Adhisthana (abode, dwelling, seat) is also two – Kaya (body) and Manas (mind). (39)
Notes: Mere abnormality of dosas is not disease but disease is the product or effect of abnormality of dosas. So also is the case with health; normalcy of dosas help in the maintenance of health.
Manodosas – doshas of the mind
रजस्तमश्च मनसो द्वौ च दोषाबुदाहृतौ ||४२||
Rajas and Tamas are considered as the two dosas of the manas (mind) (40).
Notes :- According to the Upanisads everything in this universe is said to consist of the three Mahagunas – the Satva, Rajas and Tamas. Satva represents intelligence, joy, enthusiasm, purity and so is good and benevolent; Rajas represents activity, emotions, force, energy, quickness, and instability; Tamas stands for inactivity, ignorance, mass, lazyness and stability. These properties are present in all the things of the world in varying proportions.
As applied to the functions of the mind, Satva guna, when predominant gives rise to great intelligence, joy, enthusiasm, purity of thought and actions. Persons endowed with such qualities will be good in all respects. They are moral, polite, active, intelligent, joyous and always think good and do good to all. Hence, satva guna and persons having satva guna more, are the ideal and considered as healthy.
Rajas, when predominant gives rise to over-activity, instability, haste, emotions like anger, bravery, passion and attachment; persons of Rajo guna will be very emotional highly irritable get into fits of anger and violence most of the time; they are dreaded and hated by others.
Tamas, when predominant gives rise to ignorance, lack of enthusiasm, grief, timidity, lazyness and inactivity. Persons of Tamoguna, will be slow in all activities, foolish, dull, timid, grief stricken, worried and sleepy.
Satvaguna being good, is conducive to health. Both Rajas and Tamas are bad, not conducive to health and so considered as dosas or blemishes.
Rogi-Roga pariksa – methods of examination of the diseased and the disease
दर्शनस्पर्शनप्रश्नः परीक्षेत च रोगिणम् । रोगं निदानप्राग्रूपलक्षणोपशयाप्तिभिः ॥४३॥
The patient is to be examined by Darsana (inspection, seeing), Sparsana (palpation, touching) and Prasna (interrogation, questioning) etc; the disease is to be examined by its Nidana (aetiology, causes), Pragrupa (prodromal symptoms), Laksana (specific signs and symptoms), Upasaya (therapeutic tests) and Apti or Samprapti (pathogenesis) (43)
Notes :- Inspection, palpation and interrogation are three important methods of examination; there are some other methods also such as olfaction (smelling) and gustation (tasting) which are employed rarely. Likewise examination of the patient is to be done by restoring to pratyaksa (perception), Anumana (inference) and Apta vacana (expert testimony) etc.
Trividha desha – three kinds of regions
भूमिदेहप्रभेदेन देशमाहुरिह द्विधा । जाङ्गलं वातभूयिष्ठमानूपं तु कफोल्बणम् ॥४४॥ साधारणं सममलं त्रिधा भूदेशमादिशेत् ।
Here (in this science) Desa (place, seat, territory, region) is of two kinds Bhumi (land, geographical region) and Deha (the human body).
Jangala is that region in which breeze (and vatadosa) are prominent; Anupa is the region in which water (and kapha) are dominant; and Sadharana is the region in which all the malas (dosas) are in their normal proportion. (45 b).
Notes:- The names Jangala. Anupa and Sadharana are applicable both to the regions of land and also of the body.
क्षणादिर्व्याध्यवस्था च कालो भैषज्ययोगकृत् ॥ ४५ ॥
Kala time is used to denote Ksana and others (moment), second, minute, hour and other units of time measurement), and also the stages of diseases; and both these are related to the action of drugs. (45 b).
शोधनं शमनं चेति समासादौषधं द्विधा । शरीरजानां दोषाणां क्रमेण परमैषधम् ॥४६॥ वस्तिर्विरेको वमनं तथा तैलं घृतं मधु । धीधैर्यात्मादिविज्ञानं मनोदोषौषधं परम् ॥४७॥
In brief, Ausadha (treatment, therapy) is of two kinds, Sodhana (purificatory) and Samana (palliative).
Notes:- In fact, there are many other kinds of treatment such as brmhana (stoutening), langhana (thinning), snehana (lubricating) ruksana (dessicating), svedana (sudation). But all of them can be included under either sodhana or Samana. So they have not been mentioned here separately.
For the dosas of the body. Basti (enema), Vireka (purgation) and Vamana (emesis) are the best therapies respectively; so also taila (oil), ghrta (butterfat, ghee) and madhu (honey) the best medicines (respectively).
Dhi (discrimination), Dhairya (courage) and Atmadi vijnana (spiritual teachings) are the best medicines for the disorders of mind, (46-47).
Notes :- Administration of enemas and use of oil are indicated for treatment of increased Vata; Purgations and use of ghee for the treatment of incresased pitta; emesis and use of honey for the treatment of increased kapha. In the treatment of mental disorders, infusing courage, counselling, assurance of success in treatment etc., are more important than medicines.
Adhyaya Sangraha (enumeration of chapters of this treatise) :
तन्त्रस्यास्य परं चातो वक्ष्यतेऽध्यायसङ्ग्रहः । ।।४८॥
आयुष्कामीयशिष्यार्थदिनर्तुव्याध्यसम्भवाः द्रवानज्ञानसंरक्षाविरुद्धाभान्नपानिकाः । मात्राशितौषधज्ञानश्रेष्ठशुध्यादिसङ्ग्रहाः ॥४९॥
महाकषाय विविधद्रव्यादिरसभेदकाः । दोषादिज्ञानतद्भेदतक्रिया रोगभेषजम् ॥ ५० ॥
व्यैषधस्त्रेहनस्वेदशुध्यास्थापननावनम् । धूमगण्डूषदृक्सेकतृप्तियन्त्रजलौकसः ।।५१।।
सिराविधिः शल्यविधिः शस्त्रक्षाराग्निकर्मकाः । चत्वारिंशदिमेऽध्यायाः सूत्रम् –
Further on, will be enumerated the chapters of this treatise such as :
1. Ayuskamiya (desire for longevity)
(2) Sisyopanayaniya (initiation of the pupil)
(3) Dinacarya (daily regimen)
(4) Rtucarya (seasonal reglimen)
(5) Roganutpadaniya (prevention of deseases
(6) Dravadravya Vijnaniya (knowledge of liquid materials)
(7) Annasvarupa Vijnaniya (knowledge of nature of foods)
(8) Annasamraksaniya (protection of food)
(9) Viruddhanna vijnaniya (knowledge of unsuitable foods)
(10) Annapanavidhi (regimen of food and drinks)
(11) Matrasitiya (determination of quantity of food).
(12) Vividha ausadha vijnaniya (knowledge of different drugs
(13) Agryasangrahaniya (collection of best things)
(14) Sodhanadigana sangraha (groups of purificatory drugs) etc.
(15) Mahakasaya sangraha (collection of efficient decoctions)
(16) Vividha gana sangraha (collection of drugs of different groups)
(17) Dravyadi vijnaniya (knowledge of substance, qualities etc)
(18) Rasabhediya (classification of tastes)
(19) Dosadivijnaniya (knowledge of dosas etc)
(20) Dosabhediya (classifications of dosas etc)
(21) Dosopakramaniya (treatment of dosas etc)
(22) Rogabhediya (classification of diseases)
(23) Bheshajavacaraniya (planning of treatment)
(24) Dvividhopakramaniya (two kinds of treatment)
(25) Snehavidhi (oleation therapy)
(26) Svedavidhi (sudation therapy)
(27) Vamana Virecana vidhi (emesis and purgation therapy)
(28) Bastividhi (eneama therapy)
(29) Nasya vidhi (nasal therapy)
(30) Dhumapana vidhi (inhalation therapy)
(31) Gandu¯sadi vidhi (mouth gargle therapy)
(32) Ascotana Anjana vidhi (therapies for the eyes)
(33) Tarpana-Putapaka vidhi (therapies for the eyes)
(34) Yantrasastra vidhi (Use of appliances, intruments etc)
(35) Jalaukavacaraniya (application of leeches)
(36) Siravedha vidhi (venesection)
(37) Salyapaharana vidhi (removal of foreign bodies)
(38) Sastrakarma vidhi (surgical techniques)
(39) Ksarakarma vidhi (treatment with alkalies)
(40) Agnikarma vidhi (treatment by branding). These forty chapters make up the Sutrasthana (section on general principles) (48-50).
सिरामर्मप्रकृत्याख्या विकृताङ्गेहितामयाः ॥५३॥
सदूता द्वादशाध्यायाः – – शारीरमुच्यते ॥५२॥ पुत्रार्थगर्भावक्रान्तिचर्याव्यापच्छरीरजाः ।
The twelve chapters comprising Sarira sthana (section on Anatomy)
1. Putrakamiya (desire for male progeny)
2. Garbhavakranti (formation of the embryo)
3. Garbhopacaraniya (care of the pregnant woman and the new born child)
4. Garbhavyapat (disorders of the pregnant woman and the new born)
5. Angavibhagiya (divisions of the body)
6. Siravibhagiya (classifications of veins etc)
7. Marmavibhaga (classification of vital spots)
8. Prakrti bhediya (different constitutions)
9. Vikrti vijnaniya (knowledge of bad prognosis)
10. Vikrteha vijnaniya (knowledge of bad prognostic diseases)
12. Dutadi Vignaniya (knowledge about the messenger etc) (53-54).
– निदानं सार्वरौगिकम्
-ज्वरासृक्श्वासयक्ष्मादिमदायर्शेतिसारिणाम् ॥ ५४॥
मूत्राघातप्रमेहाणां विद्रध्यायुदरस्य च । पाण्डुकुष्ठानिलार्त्तानां वातास्रस्य च षोडश ॥ ५५ ॥
The sixteen chapters which comprise the Nidana sthana (section on diagnosis of diseases) are the following:
1) Sarvaroga nidana (common methods of diagnosis of all diseases)
(2) Jvara nidana (diagnosis of fevers)
(3) Raktapitta nidana (hemorrhagic disease)
(4) Svasa – Hidhma nidana (dyspnoea, hiccup)
(5) Rajayaksmadi nidana (pulmonary tuberculosis etc)
(6) Madatyayadi nidana (alcoholic intoxication etc.)
(7) Arsas nidana (haemorrhoids)
(8) Atisara-grahani nidana (diarrhoeas-duodenal disease, etc)
(9) Mutraghata nidana (suppression of urine)
(10) Prameha nidanam (polyurea, diabetes)
(11) Vidradhi-Vrddhi-Gulma nidanam (abscess, hernia, abdominal tumors)
(12) Udara-nidanam (enlargement of the abdomen)
(13) Pandroga-Kamala-sopha-Visarpa (anaemia-jaundice nidama, ―oedema-herpes)
(14) Kustha nidanam (leprosy and other skin diseases)
(15) Vatavyadhi nidanam (nervous diseases) and
(16) Vatarakta nidanam (gout) (54-55).
चिकित्साज्वरयोरस्रकासयोः श्वासयक्ष्मणोः ।
वमौ मदात्ययेऽर्शस्सु विशि द्वौ द्वौ च मूत्रिते ॥५६॥
विद्रधौ गुल्मजठरपाण्डुशोफविसर्पिषु । कुष्टश्वित्रानिलव्याधिवातास्रेषु चिकित्सितम् ॥५७॥
कल्पसिद्धिरतः परम् । कल्पो वमेर्विरेकस्य तत्सिद्धिर्बस्तिकल्पना ॥ ५८ ॥
The following twentyfour chapters form the Cikitsasthana (section on treatment of diseases)
1. Jvara cikitsa (treatment of fevers)
2. Jirnajvara (chronic fevers)
3. Raktapitta cikitsa (hemorrhagic disease)
4. Kasa cikitsa (coughs)
5. Ksata – Ksaya Kasa cikitsa (consumptive coughs)
6. Svasa – hidhma cikitsa (dyspnoea – hiccup)
7. Yaksma cikitsa-pulmonary tuberculosis)
8. Chardi hrdroga – trsna cikitsa (vomitting, heart disease and thirst)
9. Madatyayadi cikitsa (alcoholism etc).
10. Arsas cikitsa (diarrhoeas)
11. Atisara cikitsa (diarrhoeas)
12. Grahanidosa cikitsa (deodenal diseases)
13. Mutraghata cikitsa (suppression of urine)
14. Prameha cikitsa (diabetes)
15. Vidradhi – vrddhi cikitsa (abscess and hernias)
16. Gulma cikitsa (abdominal tumors)
17. Udara cikitsa (enlargement of the abdomen)
18. Panduroga cikitsa (anaemia)
19. Sopha cikitsa (dropsy oedema)
20) Visarpa cikitsa (herpes)
21. Kustha cikitsa (leprosy and other skin diseases)
22. Svitra krimi cikitsa (leucoderma and diseases due to parasites)
23. Vata vyadhi cikitsa (nervous diseases )
24. Vatarakta cikitsa (gout). (56-58)
कल्पश्च सिद्धबस्तीनां सिद्धिर्बस्त्यनुवासयोः । द्रव्यकल्पोऽष्टमः —
Further on, follows the Kalpa siddhi sthana (section on procedures and management of purificatory therapies) with eight chapters such as –
1) Vamana kalpa (procedure of emesis therapy)
2) Virecana kalpa (purgation therapy )
3 ) Vamanavirecana vyaapatsiddhi (management of complicationof emesis purgation)
4) Bastikalpa (procedure of enema therapy)
5) Siddhabasti kalpa (procedure of efficient enemas )
6) Bastivyapat siddhi ( management of complication of enemas)
7) Snehadi vyapat siddhi (management of complication of oleation and other therapies)
8 ) Bhesaja kalpa ( collection of herps, preparation of recipes, posology etc).
– स्थानमत उत्तमुत्तरम् ॥ ५९॥ बालोपचरणे व्याधिग्रहज्ञाननिषेधने । ने पृथग्रहे भूते द्वावुनमादे स्मृतिक्षये ||६०||
वर्त्मसन्धिगतौद्बौद्वौहंक्तमोलिङ्गेनाशिषु । सवहंक्स्यन्ददृक्पाकेकर्णनासामुखेषुच ।।६१।।
मूर्ध्नि व्रणे तथा द्वौ द्वौ सद्योभने भगन्दरे । गन्थ्यादौ क्षुद्ररोगेषु गुह्यरोगे पृथग्द्वयम् ||६२||
विषे द्वौ भुजगे कीटे द्वौ च लूतासु मुषिके । विषे विषोपयोगे च तथाऽध्यायो रसायने ॥६३ ॥
वाजीकरणमुद्दिश्य पञ्चशोऽष्टाङ्गपूराणः ।
Next follows the Uttara stana (last section) with the following fifty chapters.
1. Balopacaraniya (care of children)
2. Balamaya pratisedha (prevention of diseases of children)
3. Balagraha vijnaniya (knowledge of seizures by evilspirits in children )
4. Balagraha pratisdeha (prevention of such seizures)
5. Snana vidhi (procedure of bathing the children)
6. Pratyeka graha Pratisedha (prevention of nidividual evil spirits)
7. Bhutavijnaniya (demonology)
8. Bhutapratisedha (warding off demons)
9. Unmada pratisedha (prevention of insanity)
10. Apasmara pratisedha (prevention of epilepsy)
11. Vartmaroga vijnaniya (knowledge of diseases of the eyelids)
12. Vartmaroga pratisedha (treatment of diseases of the eyelids)
13. Sandhisitasita roga vijnaniya (knowledge of diseases of farniees, salera and cornea)
14. Sandhisitasita roga pratisedha (treatment of diseases of fornix, sclera and cornea)
15. Timira roga vijnaniya (knowledge of blindness)
16. Timira roga Pratisedha (treatment of blindness)
17. Linganasa pratisedha (treatment of blindness)
18. Sarvaksiroga vijnaniya (knowledege of diseases of whole eye)
19. Netrabhisyanda pratisedha (treatment of opthalmia)
20. Aksipaka-pilla pratisedha (treatment of ulcers and tumors of the eye)
21. Karnaroga vijnana (knowledge of diseases of the ears)
22. Karnaroga pratisedha (treatment of diseases of the ears)
23. Nasaroga vijnaniya (knowledge of diseases of the nose)
24. Nasaroga pratisedha (treatment of diseases of the nose)
25. Mukharoga vijnaniya (knowledge of diseases of the mouth)
26. Mukharoga Pratisedha (treatment of diseases of the mouth)
27. Siroroga vijnaniya (knowledge of diseases of the head)
28. Siroroga Pratisedha (treatment of diseases of the head)
29. Vranavibhakti vijana (knowledge of wounds)
30. Vrana pratisedha (treatment of wounds)
31. Sadyovrana pratisedha (treatment of traumatic wounds)
32. Bhanga pratisedha (treatment of fractures)
33. Bhagandara pratisedha (treatment of fistula-in-anus)
34. Granthyadi vijnana (knowdedge of tumors etc)
35. Granthyadi pratisedha (treatment of tumors etc)
36. Ksudra roga vijnana (knowledge of minor diseases)
37. Ksudra roga pratisedha (treatment of minor diseases)
38. Guhyaroga vignana (knowledge of veneral diseases)
39. Guhyaroga pratisedha (treatment of veneral diseases)
40. Visapratisedha (treatment of poisonous diseases)
41. Sarpavisa vijnana (knowledge of snakes)
42. Sarpavisa pratisedha (treatment of snake bites)
42. Kita visa pratisedha (treatment of poisonous animal bites)
44. Lutavisa pratisedha (treatment of spider bite)
45. Pratyekaluta pratisedha (treatment of individual spider bites)
46. Musika Alarka visa pratisedha (treatment of rat bite and rabies)
47. Visopadrava pratisedha (treatment of complications of poisons)
48. Visopayogiya (use of poisons in treatment of diseases)
49. Rasayana Adhyaya (rejuvenation, geriatrics)
50. Vajikarana Adhyaya (virilification, aphrodisiacs).
पञ्चाशदध्यायशतं षड्भिः स्थानैः समीरितम् ॥ ६४॥
Thus, there are, one hundred and fifty chapters in total, divided into six sections.
Thus ends the first chapter.