एकोनत्रिंशोऽध्यायः । अथातः स्वभावव्याधिप्रतिषेधनीयं रसायनं व्याख्यास्यामः, यथोवाच भगवान् धन्वन्तरिः ।।१।।
Now we shall discourse on the restorative and on the constructive agents (Rasayana) to arrest innate morbific tendencies and decay¹ (Svabhavika-Vyadhi Pratisedhaniya Rasayana). 1
ब्रह्मादयोऽसृजन् पूर्वममृतं सोमसंज्ञितम् । जरामृत्युविनाशाय विधानं तस्य वक्ष्यते ।। २ ।।
Metrical Text : In the days of yore the gods such as Brahma, etc. created a kind of Amrta (ambrosia) which is known by the epithet of Soma, for the prevention of death and decay of the body. We shall now deal with the mode of using this (ambrosia). 2
एक एव खलु भगवान् सोमः स्थाननामाकृतिवीर्यविशेषैश्चतुविंशतिधा भिद्यते ।।३।।
तद्यथा अंशुमान् मुञ्जवांश्चैव चन्द्रमा रजतप्रभः । दुर्वासोमः कनीयांश्च श्वेताक्षः कनकप्रभः।।४।।
प्रतानवांस्तालवृन्तः करवीरोंऽशवानपि ।
1. These are decrepitude, death, hunger, thirst, sleep, etc.
2. Here death may mean, according to some authorities, the death of tissues as well.
स्वयम्प्रभो महासोमो यश्चापि गरुडाहृतः ।।५।।
गायत्रस्त्रैष्टुभः पाङ्क्तो जागतः शाक्वरस्तथा । अग्निष्टोमो रैवतश्च यथोक्त इति संज्ञितः ॥६॥
गायत्र्या त्रिपदा युक्तो यश्चोडुपतिरुच्यते । एते सोमाः समाख्याता वेदोक्तैर्नामभिः शुभैः ।।७।।
सर्वेषामेव चैतेषामेको विधिरुपासने । सर्वे तुल्यगुणाश्चैव विधानं तेषु वक्ष्यते ।। ८ ।।
The one and the same divine Soma plant may be classified into twenty four species according to the difference of their habitats. structures, epithets and potencies. They are as follows : Ansuman, Munjavan, andramah. Rajataprabha. Durva-Soma, Kaniyan, Svetaksa, Kanaka prabha, Pratanavan, Tala vrnta, Karavira, Amsavan, Svayam-prabha, Maha-soma, Garudahyta, Gayatrya, Traistubha, Pankta, Jagata, Sakkara, Agni-stoma, Raivata, Yathokta and Udupati. All these kinds of Soma secure for the user a mastery of the Gayatri (and hence in the Vedas), and are known by the above auspicious names mentioned in the Vedas Their virtues and methods of using them are idntical with each other and are described below. 3-8
अतोऽन्यतमं सोममुपयुयुक्षुः सर्वोपकरणपरिचारकोपेतः प्रशस्तेदेशे
1. The whole of the hymns in the 9th Book of the Rg-veda, besides a few in other places, are dedicated to the honour of Soma, but these twenty-four names do not occur there. The plant is there represented as a god, and his worship must at one time have allaired a remarkable popularity. The extraordinary properties of the exhilarating juice of the Soma are frequently mentioned in the Rg-veda and the language throughout in which it is behymned could not be more eulogistic. As an instance of this we might refer to Rg-veda VIII 48.3 which has been metrically translated by Muir as follows: We’ve quaffed the Soma bright, And are immortal grown; We’ve entered into light, And all the gods have known. What morial now can harm, Or foeman vex us more? Through thee, beyond alarm, Immorial god, we soar. It should be mentioned, however, that as far as our knowledge goes, this Soma is now-a-days not within our reach.
Mode of using the Soma
त्रिवृतमागारं कारयित्वा हृतदोषः प्रतिसंसृष्टभक्तः प्रशस्तेषु तिथिकरणमुहूर्त्तनक्षत्रेषु अंशुमन्तमादायाध्वरकल्पेनाहृतमभिषुतमभिहुतं चान्तरागारे कृतमङ्गलस्वस्तिवाचनः सोमकन्दं सुवर्णसूच्या विदार्य पयो गृह्णीयात् सौवर्णे पात्रेऽञ्जलिमात्रम्, ततः सकृदेवोपयुञ्जीत नास्वादयन्, तत उपस्पृश्य शेषमप्स्ववसाद्य यमनियमाभ्यामात्मानं संयोज्य वाग्यतोऽभ्यन्तरतः सुहृद्भिरुपास्यमानो विहरेत् ।।५।।
Mode of using the Soma: A room or an inner chamber (Agara) at a commendable site protected with three walls on each side and provided with all kinds of accessories and attendants, should be first secured before taking (the expressed juice of) any of the aforesaid Soma plants. Then at an auspicious hour on an auspicious day marked by favourable astral combinations and lunar phase, the person desirous of using the Soma should have his Dosas eliminated well and be given the diet according to samsarjanakarma should enter the inner or central Chamber after having had his ceremonious bath got done by the priests and having been pronounced Mangal and Swasti indicating words. A (whole plant of the Amsuman (or of any other kind of) Soma should be procured in the manner to be observed at the time of collecting the Soma for an (Agni-stoma) sacrifice and (all) the (preliminary) rites of Homa should be performed (in the usual orthodox way). After that the buid (of the Soma plant) should be pricked with a golden needle and a quantity of the secreted milky exudation should be collected in a golden vessel. The patient (with the auspicious rites of protection, etc., done unto him) should drink of an Anjali (Kudava) measure of the secreted juice at a draught without tasting it, and the remainder, if any, should be cast into water. He should then wash and rinse his mouth with water in the manner of Acamana. Then having controlled his mind and speech with the vows of Yama (paramount duties¹ and Niyama (minor duties)² should stay in the protected inner chamber surrounded by his friends. 5
1. Patanjali, the propounder of the Yoga system of Philosophy, enumerates the Yamas as follows: “f” (harmlessness), “” (truthfulness), “” (abstinence from stealing). “” (continence) and “3” (non-acceptance of offering except in prescribed cases).
2. The Niyamas, according to the same authority, are: “” (purity–external or internal), “” (contentment) “7:” (penance). “” (religious study) and “-” (mediation of the Divine Being).
रसायनं पीतवांस्तु निवाते तन्मनाः शुचिः | आसीत तिष्ठेत् क्रामेच्च न कथञ्चन संविशेत् ॥ ६ ॥ .
Metrical Text: After having drunk the Rasayana (Elixir) one should reside in a windless (prescribed) chamber, spend his time in perfect control over his senses, sitting, standing or walking about in his chamber in a holy spirit and by no means indulging in sleep (which is injurious under the circumstances). 6
सायं वा भुक्तवानुपश्रुतशान्तिः कुशशव्यायां कृष्णाजिनोत्तरायां सुहृद्भिरुपास्यमानः शयीत, तृषितो वा शीतोदकमात्रां पिबेत् । ततः प्रातरुत्थायोपश्रुतशान्तिः कृतमङ्गलो गां स्पृष्ट्वा तथैवासीत | तस्य जीर्णे सोमे छर्दिरुत्पद्यते, ततः शोणिताक्तं कृमिव्यामिश्रं छर्दितवते सायं शृतशीतं क्षीरं वितरेत् । ततस्तृतीयेऽहनि कृमिव्यामिश्रमतिसार्यते, स तेनानिष्टभोजन(प्रतिग्रह) प्रभृतिभिर्विशेषैर्मुक्तः शुद्धतनुर्भवति, ततः सायं स्नाताय पूर्ववदेव क्षीरं वितरेत् क्षौमवस्त्रास्तृतायाञ्चैनं शय्यायां शाययेत् । ततश्चतुर्थेऽहनि तस्य श्वयथुः उत्पद्यते, ततः सर्वाङ्गेभ्यः कृमयो निष्क्रामन्ति, तदहश्च शय्यायां पांशुभिरवकीर्यमाणः शयीत । ततः सायं पूर्ववदेव क्षीरं वितरेत् । एवं पञ्चमषष्ठयोर्दिवसयोर्वत्तत, केवलमुभयकालमस्मै क्षीरं वितरेत् । ततः सप्तमेऽहनि निर्मांसस्त्वगस्थि- भूतः केवलं सोमपरिग्रहादेवोच्छ्वसिति । तदहश्च क्षीरेण सुखोष्णेन परिषिच्य तिलमधुकचन्दनानुलिप्तदेहं पयः पाययेत् ।। ७-अ ।।
Or the patient may, after taking his meal in the evening and hearing the benedictory words, lie down on a mattress of Kusa-grass covered with black-deer skin and thus pass the night among his friends and may take cold water when thirsty. Then having got out of his bed in the morning he should hear the benedictory words recited and have the benedictory rites performed unto him. He should then touch the body of a cow and sit down in the same manner (in his chamber). Vomitings mark the digestion of the Soma-juice and after vomiting the blood-streaked worm-infested matter, milk boiled and cooled should be given to him in the evening. Worm-infested stools follow on the third day (of its use) which help the system in purging off all filth and obnoxious matter (accumulated in the organism) through errors in diet and conduct, etc. The patient should in that case bathe in the evening and take cold boiled milk as before and lie down on a piece of Ksauma cloth stretched over (the aforesaid mattress). Swellings appear on the body on the fourth day (of its use) and worms are found to creep out from all parts of the body. The patient should lie down that day on a bed strewn over with dust and in the evening, he should be made to drink a potion of milk as before. He should pass the fifth and sixth day in the same manner, but milk should be given to him in the morning and in the evening (instead of only in the evening). The muscles become withered by this time and on the seventh day the patient is found to be a mere skeleton covered with a skin only and left with bare animation, the vital spark being retained by the potency of Soma. The body should be washed with tepid milk on that day and plastered with a paste of sesamum, Yasti-madhu and sandal wood, and milk (only) should be given to him to drink. 7-A
ततोऽष्टमेऽहनि प्रातरेव क्षीरपरिषिक्तं चन्दनप्रदिग्धगात्रं पयः पाययित्वा पांशुशय्यां समुत्सृज्य क्षौमास्तृतायां शाययेत्ः ततो मांसमाप्याय्यते, त्वक् चावदलति, दन्तनखरोमाणि चास्य पतन्ति; तस्व नवमदिवसात् प्रभृत्यणुतैलाभ्यङ्गः सोमवल्ककषायपरिषेकः । ततो दशमेऽहन्येतदेव वितरेत्, ततोऽस्य त्वक् स्थिरतामुपैति । एवमेकादशद्वादशयोर्वर्त्तेत । ततस्त्रयोदशात् प्रभृति सोमवल्ककषायपरिषेकः, एवमा षोडशाद् वर्त्तेत । ततः सप्तदशाष्टादशयोर्दिवसयोर्दशना जायन्ते शिखरिणः स्निग्धवज्रवैदूर्यस्फटिकप्रकाशाः समाः स्थिराः सहिष्णवः, तदाप्रभृति चानवैः शालितण्डुलैः क्षीरयवागूमुपसेवेत यावत् पञ्चविंशतिरिति । ततोऽस्मै दद्याच्छाल्योदनं मृदूभयकालं पयसा, ततोऽस्य नखा जायन्ते विद्रुमेन्द्रगोपकततणादित्यप्रकाशाः, स्थिराः स्निग्धा लक्षणसम्पन्नाः केशाश्च सूक्ष्मा जायन्ते, त्वक् च नीलोत्पलातसीपुष्पवैदूर्यप्रकाशा । ऊर्ध्वंञ्च मासात् केशान् वापयेत्, वापयित्वा चोशीरचन्दनकृष्णतिलकल्कैः शिरः प्रदिह्यात्, पयसा वा स्नापयेत् । ततोऽस्यानन्तरं सप्तरात्रात् केशा जायन्ते भ्रमराञ्जननिभाः कुञ्चिताः स्निग्धाः ।।७- ब ।।
On the morning of the eighth day, the body should be washed with milk, and plastered with sandal paste, and potions of milk should be prescribed for him after which the patient should be advised to leave his bed of dust and lie down on one covered with a piece of Ksauma cloth. From now the muscles of the body begin to show signs of fresh and vigorous growth, the skin becomes cracked, and the teeth, nails and hair begin to fall off. On and from the ninth day the medicinal oil known as Anu-Taila should be used to anoint (the body) and the decoction of Soma-valka for bathing (Pariseka). The same should be prescribed on the tenth day, and from thence the skin becomes firm. The eleventh and twelfth day should be passed in the same way. From the thirteenth till the sixteenth day (both the days inclusive) the body should be washed with the decoction of Soma-valka. New teeth wellformed, symmetrical, strong, hard and as clear as a diamond or crystal or ruby would appear on the seventeenth and eighteenth days. Gruels (Yavagu) prepared with old sali-rice and milk should form his diet till the twenty-fifth day. After that period well boiled Sali rice should be taken in the morning and evening with milk. There upon fixed, glossy and coral coloured finger-nails resembling the new rising sun in lusture would grow. Stable, glossy, good-omened and fine hair will also grow. The skin would assume the soft hue of a blue lotus (Nilotpala), Atasi flower or of a ruby stone. After a month the hair should be shaved and a plaster composed of Usira, Candana and black sesamum applied to the scalp, and the patient should take a milk-bath. Seven days after that hairs as black as bee or collyrium, curly, stable and glossy would grow. 7-B
ततस्त्रिरात्रात् प्रथमावसथपरिसरान्निष्क्रम्य मूहूर्त्तं स्थित्वा पुनरेवान्तः प्रविशेत्, ततोऽस्य बलातैलमभ्यङ्गार्थेऽवचार्य, यवपिष्टमुद्वर्त्तनार्थे, सुखोष्णञ्च पय: परिषेकार्थे, अजकर्णकषायमुत्सादनार्थे, सोशीरं कूपोदकं स्नानार्थे, चन्दनमनुलेपनार्थे, आमलकरसविमिश्राश्चास्य यूसूपविकल्पाः, क्षीरमधुकसिद्धञ्च कृष्णतिलमवचारणार्थे । एवं दशरात्रम्। ततोऽन्यद् दशरात्रं द्वितीये परिसरे वर्त्तेत । ततस्तृतीये परिसरे स्थिरीकुर्वन्नात्मानमन्यद्दशरात्रमासीत, किञ्चिदातफ्पवनान् वा सेवेत, पुनश्चान्तः प्रविशेत् । न चात्मानमादर्शेऽप्सु वा निरीक्षेत रूपशालित्वात्, ततोऽन्यदशरात्रं क्रोधादीन् परिहरेत् । एवं सर्वेषामुपयोगविकल्पः । विशेषतस्तु वल्लीप्रतानक्षुपकादयः सोमा ब्राह्मणक्षत्रियवैश्यैर्भक्षयितव्याः । तेषान्तु प्रमाणमर्धचतुर्थमुष्टयः ॥७॥
Then the patient should be allowed to come out from the innermost chamber only to re-enter in again after a stay of a Muhurta (forty-eight minutes) in the outer chamber. Thenceforth Bala taila (described before) should be used in anointing (Abhyanga) his body; pasted barley in rubbing (Udvartana); tepid milk in washing (Pariseka) and a decoction of Aja-karna in rubbing (Utsadana). Similarly well water (scented) with Usira should be used for the purpose of bathing (Snana); Sandal pastes as unguents (Anulepana) and the expressed juice of the Amalaka should be invariably mixed with any kind of Yusa or supa (he may take). Soup and black sesamum seeds boiled with milk and Yasti-madhu should be used (in the preparation of the food). These rules of diet and conduct should be observed for ten consecutive days.
The patient should stay in the second (outer) chamber for a second ten days. Then he should be made to come out and enter the third (outer most) chamber (verandah) and to remain there for ten days with a quiet control over the mind and should be allowed to take a short exposure to the sun and wind during this period (of ten days). He should then be made to re-enter again the inner compartment.
The patient should not look himself in a mirror or in the water during this time owing to his enhanced personal beauty and renounce all passions and anger for a further period of ten days. This rule holds good in respect of all kinds of Soma; but there is this distinction that Brahmanas, Kshatriyas and Vaisyas should take some in the form of creepers, grass, plants and tubers etc. Their dose should be one eighth of Pala. 7
अंशुमन्तं सौवर्णे पात्रेऽभिषुणुयात्, चन्द्रमसं राजते चोपयुज्याष्टगुणमैश्वर्यमवाप्येशानं देवमनुप्रविशति, शेषांस्तु ताम्रमये मृन्मये वा रोहिते वा चर्मणि वितते । शूद्रवर्जं त्रिभिर्वर्णेः सोमा उपयोक्तव्याः । ततश्चतुर्थे मासे पौर्णमास्यां शुचौ देशे ब्राह्मणानर्ययित्वा कृतमङ्गलो निष्क्रम्य यथोक्तं व्रजेदिति ।। ८ ।।
The expressed juice of the Amsuman (Soma) should be pressed and taken in a golden pot and that of the Candranmah (Soma) in a silver one. By its use a man is sure to develop the eight godly powers²
A Musti measures in equal to eight Tolas. 2. The eight godly powers, according to some authorities, are :
अणिमा लघिमा व्याप्तिः प्राकाम्यं महिमा तथा । ईशित्वञ्च वशित्वञ्च तथा कामावसायिता ।।
and is thus able to imitate the god Isana. The expressed juice of a Soma plant belonging to any other species should be taken in a copper or an earthen pot or in a (pot prepared of a) piece of red-coloured and stretched skin. A member of any of the three twice-born castes but none of the Sudra class is privileged to drink this ambrosial elixir (Soma). In the fourth mouth (of taking it) and under the auspices of a full moon a Soma-drinker should be allowed to come out of his chamber with the auspicious rites done unto him and to resume the daily avocations of his life after he had worshipped the Brahmanas in a holy place. 8
ओषधीनां पतिं सोममुपयुज्य विचक्षणः । दश वर्षसहस्त्राणि नवां धारयते तनुम् ।। ९ ।। नाग्निर्न तोयं न विषं न शस्त्रं नास्त्रमेव च । तस्यालमायुःक्षपणे समर्थानि भवन्ति हि ।। १० ।। षष्टिवर्षाणां प्रस्स्रुतानामनेकधा । कुञ्जराणां सहस्त्रस्य बलं समधिगच्छति ।।११।। भद्राणां क्षीरोदं शक्रसदनमुत्तरांश्च कुरूनपि । यत्रेच्छति स गन्तुं वा तत्राप्रतिहता गतिः । ॥ १२ ॥ कन्दर्प इव रूपेण कान्त्या चन्द्र इवापरः । प्रह्लादयति भूतानां मनांसि स महाद्युतिः ॥ १३ ॥ साङ्गोपाङ्गांश्च निखिलान् वेदान् विन्दति तत्त्वतः । चरत्यमोघसङ्कल्पो देववच्चाखिलं जगत् ॥१४॥
Metrical Texts : The use of the (expressed juice of) Soma plant, the lord of all medicinal herbs is followed by rejuvenation of the system of its user and enables him to witness ten thousand summers on earth in the full enjoyment of a new (youthful) body. Such a person bears a charmed life against fire, water, poison and weapon and develops a muscular energy in his limbs which would be in no way inferior to the combined strength of a thousand excited (rutted) elephants, of the Bhadra class (which are the most ferocious and irresistible) in their sixtieth year. Equipped with such an excellent physique, he can easily and without any opposition cross the Ksiroda (ocean) and go up to the abode of Sakra (the king of the gods) and roam to the extreme confines of Uttara (northern) Kuru or to any other place he likes. He is invested with a beauty of frame which belongs to Kandarpa (the god of love) and his complexion (lustre) view with the beams of the full moon. The presence of such a beautiful man gladdens the hearts of all and the entire Veda with all their allied branches¹ of knowledge instinctively dawn upon his consciousness. Like the gods, he knows no failure in life and roams about in the world in the full glory of divine majesty. 9-14
Distinctive features of the Soma Plants
सर्वेषामेव सोमानां पत्राणि दश पञ्च च। तानि शुक्ले च कृष्णे च जायन्ते निपतन्ति च ॥ १५ ॥ एकैकं जायते पत्रं सोमस्याहरहस्तदा । शुक्लस्य पौर्णमास्यान्तु भवेत् पञ्चदशच्छदः।।१६।। शीर्यते पत्रमेकैकं दिवसे दिवसे पुनः । कृष्णपक्षक्षये चापि लता भवति केवला ॥१७॥
Distinctive features of the Soma Plants: A Soma plant of whatever species is furnished with fifteen leaves which wax and wane with the waxing and the waning of the moon. Thus one leaf grows every day in the lighted fortnight attaining the greatest number (fifteen) in the night of the full moon and then the leaves begin to decrease in number dropping one by one every day till the bare stem of the creeper is left on the night of the new moon. 15-17
अंशुमानाज्यगन्धस्तु कन्दवान् रजतप्रभः । कदल्याकारकन्दस्तु मुञ्जवान् लशुनच्छदः ।।१८।।
चन्द्रमा: कनकाभासो जले चरति सर्वदा । गरुडाहृतनामा च श्वेताक्षश्चापि पाण्डुरौ । सर्पनिमकसदृशौ तौ वृक्षाग्रवलम्बिनौ ।।१९।।
तथाऽन्येमण्डलैश्चित्रैश्चित्रिता इव भान्ति ते । सर्व एव तु विज्ञेयाः सोमाः पञ्चदशच्छदाः ।
क्षीरकन्दलतावन्तः पत्रैर्नानाविधैः स्मृताः ॥ २० ॥
Their description: The Amsuman species of the Soma is
1. The allied branches of the study of the Vedas are six in number. They are :
शिक्षा कल्पी व्याकरणं निरुक्तं छन्दसां चयः । ज्योतिषामयनञ्चैव वेदाङ्गानि षड़ेव तु॥
characterised by a smell like that of clarified butter and has a bulb, while the Rajata-prabha is possessed of a bulb resembling a plantain in shape. The Munjavan puts forth leaves like those of a garlic while the Candramah species is possessed of a golden colour and is aquatic in its habitat. The Garudahrta and Svetaksa species are yellowish (Pandura) and look like the cast-off skins of a snake and are usually found to be pendent from the boughs of trees.
All other species are marked with parti-coloured circular rings. Possession of fiteen leaves of variegated colours, a bulb, a creeper-like appearance, and secretion of milky juice are the general characteristics of all the Soma plants. 18-20
तथा । हिमवत्यर्बुदे सह्ये महेन्द्रे मलये श्रीपर्वते देवगिरौ गिरौ देवसहे तथा । पारिपात्रे च विन्ध्ये च देवसुन्दे हृदे तथा । ॥ २१ ॥ महीधराः । उत्तरेण वितस्तायाः प्रवृद्धा ये महानदः ॥ २२ ॥ पञ्च तेषामधो मध्ये सिन्धुनामा हठवत् प्लवते तत्र चन्द्रमाः तस्योद्देशेषु चाप्यस्ति मुञ्जवानंशुमानपि ||२३|| काश्मीरेषु सरो दिव्यं नाम्ना क्षुद्रकमानसम्। गायत्रस्त्रैष्टुभः पाङ्क्तो जागत: शाक्करस्तथा । अत्र सन्त्यपरे चापि सोमाः सोमसमप्रभाः ॥२४॥ न तान् पश्यन्त्यधर्म्मिष्ठाः कृतघ्नाश्चापि मानवाः । भेषजद्वेषिणश्चापि ब्राह्मणद्वेषिणस्तथा ॥ २५ ॥ सोमसत्तमः ।
Their habitats : The Himalayas, the Arbuda, the Sahya, the Mahendra, the Malaya, the Sri-Parvata, the Deva-giri, the Devasaha, the Paripatra, the Vindhya mountains and lake Devasunda are the habitats of the Soma plants. Somas, of the Candramas species are often found to be floating like Hatha (Jala-kumbhi) here and there on the mighty stream of the river Sindhu (Indus) which flows down at the foot of five large mountains lying to the north bank beyond the Vitasta (river). The Munjavan and the Amsuman species may also be likewise found in the same locality while those known as the Gayatri, Traistubha, Pamkta, Jagata, Sakkara and others looking as beautiful as the moon are found to float on the surface of the divine lake known as the little Manasa in Kasmir.
The Soma plants are invisible to the impious or to the ungrateful as well to the unbeliever in the curative virtues of medicine and to those spiteful to the Brahmanas. 21-25
Thus ends the Twenty-ninth Chapter of the Chikitsa Sthana in the Susruta Samhita which deals with the Prophylactic elixirs for the innate maladies.