एकत्रिंशोऽध्यायः । अथातः स्नेहोपयौगिकं चिकित्सितं व्याख्यास्यामः, यथोवाच भगवान् धन्वन्तरिः ।। १ ।।
Now we shall discourse on the medicinal uses (both internal and external) of the Snehas¹, i.e., oleaginous substances (Snehopayaugika-Chikitsa). 1
स्नेहसारोऽयं पुरुषः, प्राणाश्च स्नेहभूयिष्ठाः स्नेहसाध्याश्च भवन्ति । स्नेहो हि पानानुवासनमस्तिष्कशिरोबस्त्युत्तरबस्तिनस्यकर्णपूरणगात्राभ्यङ्गभोजनेषूपयोज्यः।। २ ।।
A Sneha or an oleaginous substance forms the essential factor of the physical organism, and the self-conscious animated element (which contributes directly to its vitality and makes life possible) abounds in oleaginous principles; both are consequently in constant want of a Sneha. Snehas or oleaginous substances are enjoined to be administered in food and drinks as well as in Anuvasana, Mastiskya-siro-basti and Uttara-basti (urethral or vaginal enemas), errhines ( Nasya). ear-drops (Karna-purana) and unguents (Abhyanga ). 2
तत्र द्वियोनिश्चतुर्विकल्पोऽभिहितः स्नेहः स्नेहगुणाश्च । तत्र जङ्गमेभ्यो गव्यं घृतं प्रधानं, स्थावरेभ्यस्तिलतैलं प्रधानमिति ।। ३ ।।
1. The Sneha is of four kinds, viz., clarified butter, oil, lard and marrow, of which clarified butter and oil are generally used.
There are four kinds of Snehas which, however, are divided into two classes according to their origin : viz., vegetable and animal. Accordingly, their properties vary. Clarified butter prepared from cow’s milk is the best of the animal Snehas, while Sesamum oil is the best of the vegetable ones. 3
अत ऊर्ध्वं यथाप्रयोजनं यथाप्रधानञ्च स्थावरस्नेहानुपदेक्ष्यामः ।। ४ ।।
Now we shall describe the ends for which the different vegetable oils should be used as well as the modes in which they should be prepared and employed. 4
तत्र तिल्वकैरण्डकोशाम्रदन्तीद्रवन्तीसप्तलाशङ्खिनीपलाशविषाणिकागवाक्षीकम्पिल्लकशम्पाकनीलिनीस्नेहा विरेचयन्ति । जीमूतककुटजकृतवेधनेक्ष्वाकुधामार्गवमदनस्नेहा वामयन्ति । विडङ्गखरमञ्जरीमधुशिग्रुसूर्यवल्लीपीलुसिद्धार्थकज्योतिष्मतीस्नेहाः शिरो विरेचयन्ति ।। ५॥
The expressed oils prepared from ( the seeds of) Lodhra, Eranda, Kosamra, Danti, Dravanti, Saptala, Sankhini, Palasa, Visanika, Gavaksi, Kampillaka, Sampaka and of Nilini act as purgatives. The oils prepared from (the seeds of) Jimutaka, Kutaja, Krtavedhana, Iksvaku ( bitter gourd), Dhamargava and of Madana act as emetics. The expressed oils prepared from ( the seeds of ) Vidanga, Khara manjari, Madhu-sigru, Suryavalli, Pilu, Siddharthaka and of Jyotismafi act as errhines (Sirovirecana) 5
करञ्जपूतिककृतमालमातुलुङ्गेङ्गुदीकिराततिक्तकस्नेहा दुष्टव्रणेषूपयुज्यन्ते। तुवरककपित्थकम्पिल्लकभल्लातकपटोलस्नेहा महाव्याधिषु, त्रपुसैर्वारुककर्कारुकतुम्बीकूष्माण्डस्नेहा मूत्रसङ्गेषु, कपोतवङ्कावल्गुजहरीतकीस्नेहाः शर्कराश्मरीषु, कुसुम्भसर्षपातसी पिचुमर्दातिमुक्तकभाण्डीकटुतुम्बीकटभीस्नेहा: प्रमेहेषु, तालनारिकेलपनसमोचप्रियालबिल्वमधूकश्लेष्मातकाम्रातकफलस्नेहाः पित्तसंसृष्टे वायौ, बिभीतकभल्लातकपिण्डीतकस्नेहा: कृष्णीकरणे, श्रवणकङ्गुकटुण्टुकस्नेहाः पाण्डूकरणे, शिंशपागुरुसारस्नेहा दद्रुकुष्ठकिटिमेषु । सर्व एव स्नेहा वातमुपघ्नन्ति । तैलगुणाश्च समासेन व्याख्याताः।। ६-८।।
The expressed oil prepared from (the seeds of ) Karaja, Putika, Krtamala, Matulunga, Ingudi and of Kirata-tikta are used in cases of Dusta-vrana (malignant ulcers). The expressed oils of Tuvaraka, Kapittha, Kampillaka, Bhallataka and of Patola are used in cases of Maha-vyadhi (Kusta, etc.). The expressed oils of Trapusa, Ervaruka, Karkaruka, Tumbi and of Kusmanda are used in cases of Mutra-sanga (for diuretic purposes). The expressed oils of Kapota-vamka, Aval-guja and of Haritaki are used in cases of Sarkara-smari (gravels, stones, etc.). The expressed oils of Kusumbha, Sarsapa, Atasi, Picumarda, Atimuktaka Bhandi, Katu-tumbi and of Katabhi are used in cases of Prameha (urinary complaints). The expressed oils of the fruits of Tala, Narikela, Panasa, Moca, Priyala, Bilva, Madhuka, Slesmataka and of Amrataka are used in diseases due to the deranged Vayu acting in concert with the deranged Pitta. The expressed oils of Bibhitaka, Bhallataka and of Pinditaka are used in Krsna-karma (blackening the cicatrix of a healed ulcer, etc.). The expressed oils of Sravana, Kanguka and of Tuntuka are used in imparting a yellow colour (to a cicatrix). The expressed oils of the pith of Simsapa and of the Aguru are used in cases of Kustha known as Dadru (ring-worm) and Kitima.
The primary action of all kinds of Sneha (oil, clarified butter, etc.) is to subdue the aggravation of the deranged Vayu of the body, and the general virtues of all kinds of (vegetable) oil have been described above. 6-8
अत ऊर्ध्वं कषायस्नेहपाकक्रममुपदेक्ष्यामः । तत्र केचिदाहुस्त्वक्पत्रमूलादीनां भागस्तच्चतुर्गुणजलमावाप्य चतुर्भागावशेषं निष्क्वाथ्यापहरेदित्येष कषायपाककल्पः । स्नेहप्रसृतेषु षट्सु चतुर्गुणं द्रवमावाप्य चतुरश्चाक्षसमान् भेषजपिण्डानित्येष स्नेहपाककल्पः । एतत् तु न सम्यक, कस्मात् ? आगमासिद्धत्वात् ।। ९-१० ।।
Now we shall describe the process of preparing drugdecoctions and of medicating oils (therewith). According to several authorities, the bark, roots and leaves, etc., of the drugs to be used should be boiled with water weighing four times of their combined weight, and should be taken down with three fourths of the original water evaporated by boiling. This is the rule of preparing drug-decoctions (Kasaya). Six Prasrta (one Prasrta being equal to sixteen Tolas) weight of oil, twenty-four Prasrta weights of the liquid (decoction prepared before) and four Aksa measures (one Aksa being equal two to Tolas) or pasted drugs (as Kalka) are the proportions to be observed in cooking a medicated oil. But this is not correct. Why? Because it is not in conformity with the injunctions of the Scriptures (officinal standard). 9-10
पलकुडवादीनामतो मानन्तु व्याख्यास्यामः । तत्र द्वादश धान्यमाषा मध् यमाः सुवर्णमाषकः, ते षोड़श सुवर्णम् । अथवा मध्यमनिष्पावा एकोनविंशतिर्धरणम् । तान्यर्धतृतीयानि कर्षः । ततश्चोर्ध्वं चतुर्गुणमभिवर्धयन्तः पलकुडवप्रस्थाढकद्रोणा इत्यभिनिष्पद्यन्ते । तुला पलशतं, ताः पुनर्विंशतिर्भारः । शुष्काणामिदं मानमार्द्रद्रवाणाञ्च द्विगुणमिति ।। ११ ।।
We shall now proceed to explain the different measures of Pala, Kudava, etc.
Measures of Drugs : The weight of twelve middle-sized Dhanya-masas (corns of paddy) make one Suvarna-masaka. Sixteen Suvarna-masakas make one Suvarna. The weight of nineteen middle-sized Nispavas (pulse) make one Dharana. Three Dharanas and a half make one Karsa. Four Karsas make one Kudava. Four Kudavas make one Prastha. Four Prasthas make one Adhaka. Four Adhakas make one Drona. Hundred Palas make one Tula, Twenty Tulas make one Bhara. This is the measure in respect of dried substances. The quantity should be doubled in cases of fresh vegetables and fluid.² 11
तत्रान्यतमपरिमाणसम्मितानां यथायोगं त्वकृपत्रफलमूलादीनामात
1. Thirty-two Palas make one Prastha in respect of water; but in respect of nonoily substances a Prastha is equal to twenty Palas, where-as in respect of fresh drugs it is equal to only sixteen Palas.
2. Some drugs, viz: Vasa, Kutaja, Kusmanda, Prasarani Bala, Amrta and Nimba, etc., are invariably employed in their fresh state and the practice is not to take them in double measures in spite of their freshness. Two different kinds of measure have been adopted in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. One is called the Kalinga and the other the Magadha measure. Maharsi Charaka has adopted the first, but that adopted by Susruta is the second one.
The Kasaya – Paka Kalpa
पपरिशोषितानां छेद्यानि खण्डशश्छेदयित्वा भेद्यान्यणुशो भेदयित्वावकुटचाष्टगुणेन षोडशगुणेन वाऽम्भसाभिषिच्य स्थाल्यां चतुर्भागावशिष्टं क्वाथयित्वापहरेदित्येष कषायपाककल्पः । स्नेहाच्चतुर्गुणो द्रवः स्नेहचतुर्थांशो भेषजकल्कः, तदैकध्यं संसृज्य विपचेदित्येष स्नेहपाककल्कः।। १२-१३ ।।
The Kasaya – Paka Kalpa: The bark, roots and leaves, etc., of medicinal drugs should be dried in the sun and taken in any of the aforesaid measures, should be cut in small pieces, or pounded, as the case may be, and soaked in a quantity of water¹ weighing eight or sixteen times their combined weight. They should then be boiled over a fire and the decoction should be taken down from the oven with only a quarter part of the water left. This is the general rule for preparing a decoction ( Kasaya).
The Sneha-Paka Kalpa: One part of the Sneha (oil, clarified butter, etc.), four parts of (any one or more) liquid² substances, one fourth part of the medicinal pastes (Kalka) should be boiled together. This is the general rule for the preparation of a medicated Sneha (oil, clarified butter, etc.). 12-13
अथवा तत्रोदकद्रोणे त्वक्पत्रफलमूलादीनां तुलामावाप्य चतुर्भागावशिष्टं निष्क्वाथ्यापहरेदित्येष कषायपाककल्पः । स्नेहकुडवे भेषजपलं पिष्टं कल्कं चतुर्गुणं द्रवमावाप्य विपचेदिप्येष स्नेहपाककल्पः ।।१४।।
Alternative Methods: As an alternative, a Tula measure of the bark roots and leaves etc. (as the case mya be) of the drugs to be decocted, should be boiled with a Drona measure of water. The water in the preparation should be boiled down to a quarter part of
1. Water weighing four times as much as the drugs when the drugs are of a soft consistency and eight times as much when they are hard and sixteen times as much when they are very hard.
2. When there are more liquids to be used than one, the general rule is that the total weight of all the liquids would be four times that of the Sneha, if not otherwise directed. All this liquid part should, however, be boiled away and the Sneha part should be left before the Sneha is removed from the fire and before it can be fit for use. It should be noted that the oking of a Sneha should not be completed in one day. its original quantity and then considered as cooked and prepared. A Kudava measure of oil should be boiled and cooked with four times as much of the liquid and a Pala measure of pasted drugs (Kalka). This is another process of cooking medicated Snehas (oil, etc.). 14
भवतश्चात्रस्नेहभेषजतोयानां प्रमाणं यत्र नेरितम् । तत्रायं विधिरास्थेयो निर्दिष्टे तद्वदेव तु ।। १५ अनुक्ते द्रवकार्ये तु सर्वत्र सलिलं मतम् । कल्कक्वाथावनिर्देशे गणात् तस्मात् प्रयोजयेत् ।। १६ ।।
Memorable Verses: The foregoing rules should be adopted where no measures would be found to have been specifically given of the Sneha, the liquid and of the drugs, whereas in cases of specification, the specific quantities should be taken. Water should be used as the liquid, where no other liquid would be mentioned by name (in connection with medicating a Sneha, viz.. oil. clarified butter, etc., by cooking ). Both for the decoction and paste (Kalka). the drugs mentioned in the respective list should be used in preparing a medicated Sneha in the absence of any explicit and specific injunction to that effect. 15-16
अत ऊर्ध्वं स्नेहपाकक्रममुपदेक्ष्यामः । स तु त्रिविधः । तद्यथामृदुर्मध्यमः खर इति । तत्र स्नेहौषधिविवेकमात्रं यत्र भेषजं, स मृदुरिति । मधूच्छिष्टमिव विशदमविलेपि यत्र भेषजं, स मध्यमः । कृष्णमवसन्नमीष विशदं चिक्कणञ्च यत्र भेषजं, स खर इति । अत ऊर्ध्वं दग्धस्नेहो भवति, तं पुनः साधु साधयेत् । तत्र पानाभ्यवहारयोर्मृदुः, नस्याभ्यङ्गयोर्मध्यमः, बस्तिकर्णपूरणयोस्तु खर इति । । १७ ।।
Now we shall discuss the degrees of medically cooking a Sneha (oil or Ghrita ). Mild (Mrdu), middling or intermediate (Madhyama) and hard (Khara) are the three degrees which the boiling process undergoes in medically cooking a Sneha. A cooking is said to be mild (Mrdu-Paka) when the oil is found of drop off entirely from its drug-paste (Kalka) leaving it dry and sapless; whereas in an act of middle-cooking (Madhyama-Paka) the paste would be found to have become pellucid and non-sticky like wax; a cooking done until the paste (in the Sneha) assumes a little clear, glossy, frothless, black colour is termed strong (Khara-Paka). A Sneha cooked beyond the last-named degree is called a burnt Sneha. A Sneha should, therefore, be properly cooked. A mildly cooked Sneha should be administered in food and drinks. A middling-cooked one for the purposes of errhines and anointments, while a strongly cooked one should be used for the purposes of Basti-Karma and as ear-drops.¹ 17
भवतश्चात्रशब्दस्योपशमे प्राप्ते फेनस्योपरमे तथा । गन्धवर्णरसादीनां सम्पत्तौ सिद्धिमादिशेत् ।। १८ ।। घृतस्यैवं विपक्वस्य जानीयात् कुशलो भिषक् । फेनोऽतिमात्रं तैलस्य शेषं घृतवदादिशेत् ।। १९ ।।
Memorable Verses: The cooking of a Ghrita should be considered medically complete as soon as the froth and the sound would vanish and the peculiar smell, colour and taste of preparation would be manifest. The medically cooking of an oil resembles in all respects that of a Ghrita with this exception that an abundance of froth appears on the surface of the oil at the completion of the cooking. 18-19
अत ऊर्ध्वं स्नेहपानक्रममुपदेक्ष्यामः । अथ खलु लघुकोष्ठायातुराय कृतमङ्गलस्वस्तिवाचनायोदयगिरिशिखरसंस्थिते प्रतप्तकनकनिकरपीतलोहिते सवितरि यथाबलं तैलस्य घृतस्य वा मात्रां पातुं प्रयच्छेत् । पीतमात्रे चोष्णोदकेनोपस्पृश्य सोपानत्को यथासुखं विहरेत् ।। २० ।।
The process of taking a Sneha internally: Now we shall describe the process of taking a Sneha internally. A man with an empty stomach should be made to take a draught of a medicinal or medicated oil or Ghrita, just as the god of day (sun) would appear on the summit of the hill at drawn and lighten up the horizon with
1. Charaka, on the contrary, holds that a Khara (strongly cooked) Sneha should be used in anointing the body, a middling-cooked one for the purposes of drinks and Basti-karma and mildly cooked (Mrdu) one for the purposes of errhines. the first shoots of his vermiliontinted golden rays. Rites of benediction should be first done unto the patient before administering to him the oil or the Ghrita in an adequate dose according to his strength. After that he should wash his mouth with warm water and quietly stroll about with his shoes on. 20
रुक्षक्षतविषार्तानां हीनमेधास्मृतीनाञ्च वातपित्तविकारिणाम् । प्रशस्यते ।। २१ ।। सर्पिः पानं क्रिमिकोष्ठानिलविष्टाः प्रवृद्धकफमेदसः । पिबेयुस्तैलसात्म्याश्च तैलं दाढर्यार्थिनश्च ये || २२ ।। व्यायामकर्शिताः शुष्करेतोरक्ता महारुजः । महाग्निमारुतप्राणा वसायोग्या नराः स्मृताः ||२३|| क्रूराशया: क्लेशसहा वातार्ता दीप्तवह्नयः । मज्जानमाप्नुयुः सर्वे सर्पिर्वा स्वौषधान्वितम् ।। २४ ।। केवलं पैत्तिके सर्पिर्वातिके लवणान्वितम् । देयं बहुकफे चापि व्योषक्षारसमायुतम् ।। २५ । । दोषाणामल्पभूयस्त्वं संसर्ग समवेक्ष्य च। युञ्जयात् त्रिषष्टिधाभिन्नैः समासव्यासतो रसैः ।। २६ ।।
Metrical Texts: The use of a potion of a (medicated) Ghrita is recommended to patients suffering from an extremely parched or dry condition of the organism, or from ulcers, or from the effects of a poison, or from those due to the actions of the deranged Vayu and Pitta, as well as to persons of weak memory and intellect. Potions of (medicated) oils should be prescribed in aggravations of the Kapha and of fat, as well as in cases of worms (in the intesines) and incarcerated flatus (wind in the abdomen), or when the patient is found to be habituated to the internal use of any oil, or seeks the firmness of his body (muscles). The use of lard is recommended to persons emaciated with over-fatiguing physical labour, or to persons whose blood and semen are greatly diminished or to those suffering from an attack of Maha-vyadhi (due to the vitiated condition of the blood), or to persons of a voracious appetite (Mahagni). or of Vataja (nervous ) temperament, as well as to those possessed of great physical strength. The use of marrow or of medicated Ghritas mixed with appropriate drugs is beneficial to men of strong digestive capacity (Dipta-vahni) or to those afflicted with a deranged Vayu, or to those whose bowels are not easily moved, or who are capable to undergoing a large amount of physical hardship. Clarified butter, without any other thing added thereto, should be administered in the affections of the deranged Pitta; whereas it should be mixed with salt before use in the diseases due to the action of the deranged Vayu and with the admixture of Yava-kshara and powdered Trikatu in the affections of the aggravated and deranged Kapha. Oil or clarified butter should be administered through the medium of one, two or more of the sixty three different combinations¹ of the (six different Rasas flavour) according to the nature and intensity of the aggravated Dosa or Dosas involved in each case. 21-26
स्नेहसात्म्यः क्लेशसहः काले नात्युष्णशीतले । अच्छमेव पिबेत् स्नेहमच्छपानं हि पूजितम् ॥ २७ ॥ शीतकाले दिवा स्नेहमुष्णकाले पिबेन्निशि वातपित्ताधिको रात्रौ वातश्लेष्माधिको दिवा ।। २८ । वातपित्ताधिकस्योष्णे शीते वातकफार्तस्य तृणमूर्च्छान्मादकारकः । गौरवारुचिशूलकृत् ।। २९ ।। स्नेहपीतस्य चेत् तृष्णा पिबेदुष्णोदकं नरः । एवञ्चानुपशाम्यन्त्यां स्नेहमुष्णाम्बुना वमेत् । दिह्याच्छीतैः शिरः शीतं तोयञ्चाप्यवगाहयेत् ।। ३० ।।
Clear (filtered) oil, clarified butter, etc.. should be taken by a man habituated to its use and capable of enduring physical hardships during the months of the year which are neither too hot nor too cold² in-as much as the use of clear or transparent oil or Ghrita is above being commendable. A Sneha should be taken in the morning (lit. day-time) during the cold months of the year and in the night during the hot season, in case of the joint aggravation of the bodily Vayu and Pitta Sneha should be taken at night whereas it should be taken in the day time in cases of the joint aggravation of the bodily Vayu and Kapha. Potions of oil or clarified butter taken in summer by a person suffering from an aggravation of the bodily Vayu and Pitta may bring on thirst, epileptic fits and insanity. In the same manner draughts of oil or clarified butter taken in winter by a person suffering from an aggravation of the bodily Vayu of Kapha may be followed by a heaviness of the limbs, aversion to food and colic (sula). If a patient feels thirsty after ing a Sneha, he should take warm water, and be made to vomit the Sneha with ( further ) draughts of hot water in the event of the thirst still not subsiding. Cooling plasters should be applied to his head and a cold water bath should be prescribed. 27-30
1. Vide Uttara-Tantra, Chapter LXIII.
2. Both Vrnda and Cakrapani read this but with little difference. Both of them reading “काले नात्युष्णशीतले,” as in the text, to be a variant. We have the authority eading “काले नात्युणशीतले,” as in the text, be a variant. We have the authority of Charaka, however, to accept the reading of the text.
या मात्रा परिजीर्येत चतुर्भागगतेऽहनि । सा मात्रा दीपयत्यग्निमल्पदोषे च पूजिता ।। ३१ ।। मात्रा परिजीर्येत तथार्धदिवसे या गते । या सा वृष्या बृंहणी चैव मध्यदोषे च पूजिता ।। ३२ || मात्रा परिजीर्येत चतुर्भागावशेषिते। स्नेहनीया च सा मात्रा बहुदोषे च पूजिता ।। ३३ ।। या मात्रा परिजीर्येत् तु तथा परिणतेऽहनि । ग्लानिमूर्च्छामदान् हित्वा सा मात्रा पूजिता भवेत् ॥ ३४ ॥ अहोरात्रादसन्दुष्टा परिजीर्यति । या मात्रा तु कुष्ठविषोन्माद ग्रहापस्मारनाशिनी ।। ३५ ।। सा
The Dosage: The Dosage of Sneha which requires the quarter part of a day (i.c., three hours) to be digested, should be deemed appetising and beneficial in slight aggravations of the bodily Dosas, that which requires half a day to be digested should be regarded as invigorating, spermatopoietic, constructive and beneficial in moderate aggravations of the bodily Dosas. The dosage of a Sneha which takes three-quarter parts of a day to be digested, acts as a bodily emollient and should be prescribed in cases of extreme aggravation of the bodily Dosas, while the quantity which can only be digested in the course of an entire day (twelve hours) should be considered efficacious in all affections of the body and does not produce physical lassitude, fainting fits and delirious conditions. The measure of quantity of a Sneha which takes a whole day and night to be digested without undergoing any kind of vitiation (reactionary acidity) in the stomach, proves curative even in cases of Kustha ( Skin DIseases ), insanity, poisoning (effects of poison) and Apasmara (hysteric convulsions), ascribed to the baneful influences of the malignant stars. 31-35
The evil effects of Over-dosage
यथाग्नि प्रथमां मात्रां पाययेत विचक्षणः । प्राणसंशयम् ।। ३६ ।। पीतो ह्यतिबहुस्नेहो जनयेत् मिथ्याचाराद् बहुत्वाद् वा यस्य स्नेहो न जीर्यति । विष्टभ्य चापि जीर्येत् तं वारिणोष्णेन वामयेत् ।। ३७ ।। जीर्णाजीर्णविशङ्कायां स्नेहस्योष्णोदकं पिबेत् । तेनोद्गारो भवेच्छुद्धो भक्तं प्रति रुचिस्तथा । ॥ ३८ ॥
The evil effects of Over-dosage : A patient should be made to take as much of the Sneha as he would be able to easily digest inasmuch as an excessive over-dose may prove fatal. The patient should be made to vomit with draughts of hot water in a case of over-dose or abuse of a Sneha and in the event of its continuing in an undigested or partially digested state in the stomach. In cases of doubtful digestion, similar potions of hot water should be administered which would produce good eructations and bring on a fresh relish for food. 36-38
स्युः पच्यमाने तृड्रदाह – भ्रमसादारतिक्लमाः । परिषिच्याद्भिरुष्णाभिर्जीर्णस्नेहं ततो नरम् । यवागूं पाययेच्चोष्णां कामं क्लिन्नाल्पतण्डुलाम् ।। ३९ ।। देयौ यूषरसौ वाऽपि सुगन्धी स्नेहवर्ज्जितौ । कृतौ वाऽत्यल्पसर्पिष्कौ यवागूर्वा विधीयते ।। ४० ।।
When the Sneha begins to be digested, it is attended with thirst, vertigo, lassitude, weariness, a disturbed state of the mind and a burning sensation the patient should be sprinkled over with water. When the Sneha appears to have been fully digested a gruel prepared with only a small quantity of rice should be given lukewarm to the patient as a drink as he desires. As an alternative, a well-aromated soup (of Mudga, etc.) of meat-juice cooked without the addition of any Sneha (oil or Ghrita) or with only a small admixture of clarified butter should be given, or he may take Yavagu (pure and simple). 39-40
पिबेत् त्रयहं चतुराहं पञ्चाहं षडहं तथा । सप्तरात्रात् परं स्नेहः सात्म्यीभवति सेवितः ।। ४१ । । सुकुमारं कृशं वृद्धं शिशुं स्नेहद्विषं तथा । तृष्णार्तमुष्णकाले च सह भक्तेन पाययेत् ॥ ४२ ॥
A Sneha should be taken three, four, five or six days consecutively: used (continually) for more than a week it becomes habituated to the user. A Sneha should be taken with food (at the time of mid-day meal) by a weak, or an old man, or an infant, or a thirsty person, or one of a delicate constitution, or one avarse to its use in summer. 41-42
पिप्पल्यो लवणं स्नेहाश्चत्वारो दधिमस्तुकः । पीतमैकध्यमेतद्धि भृष्टासांसरसे स्निग्धा यवागूः सूपकल्पिता । सक्षुद्रा पीयमाना तु सर्पिष्मती पय: सिद्धा यवागूः सद्य: स्नेहनमुच्यते ।। ४४ ।। स्वल्पतण्डुला । सुखोष्णा सेव्यमाना तु सद्यः स्नेहनमुच्यते ॥ ४५ ॥ शर्कराचूर्णसंसृष्टे दोहनस्थे घृते तु गाम्। दुग्ध्वा क्षीरं पिबेद्रुक्षः सद्य: स्नेहनमुच्यते ।। ४६ ।। यवकोलकुलत्थानां क्वाथो मागधिकान्वितः । पयो दधि सुरा चेति घृतमप्यष्टमं भवेत् ।। ४७ ।। सिद्धमेतैर्घृतं राज्ञे राजसमेभ्यो वा पीतं सद्यः स्नेहनमुत्तमम् । देयमेतद् घृतोत्तमम् ।। ४८ ॥ मृद्वग्निस्त्रीहतात्मसु । बलहीनेषु वृद्धेषु अल्पदोषेषु योज्याः स्युर्ये योगाः सम्यगीरिताः ।। ४९ ।। सद्यः स्नेहनमुच्यते ।। ४३ ॥
Sadyah-Snehana: The administration of a potion composed of powdered Pippli and (Saindhava) salt mixed with curd and the four kinds of oleaginous substances (Sneha) constitute what is known as the Sadyah-Snehana (i.e., it produces the effects of the Sneha within a very short time). The use of a Yavagu well-cooked¹ with the soup of half-fried meat (instead of water) and a Sneha (clarified butter), and mixed with honey acts as a Sadyah-Snehana. A Yavagu prepared with milk² and a small quantity of rice and taken lukewarm with clarified butter produces the same result. The use of cow’s milk milched into a pot containing clarified butter and sugar produces an instantaneous emulsive effect ( Sadyah-snehana), if taken by a man with a parched state of the organism. Clarified butter cooked with three parts of the decoction of Yava, Kola and Kulattha pulse (taken together) along with the powder of long pepper and one part each of milk, curd, wine and clarified butter churned from milk should be boiled to make a (medicated Ghrita). It acts as an instantaneous demulcent (Sadyah-snehana) and is hence recommended to kings and king like personages. These potent emulsive measures (Sadyah snehana) should be prescribed for the persons of weak physique, old, the imbecile to females and to persons of sluggish appetite, as well as to sensitive persons and in diseases due to a slight aggravation of the bodily Dosas. 43-49
विवर्जयेत् स्नेहपानमजीर्णी तरुणज्वरी । दुर्बलो रोचकी स्थूलो मूर्च्छार्त्ता मदपीडितः ।। ५० ।। छद्यर्दितः पिपासार्तः श्रान्तः पानक्लमान्वितः । दत्तबस्तिर्विरिक्तश्च वान्तो यचापि मानवः ।। ५१।। अकाले दुर्दिने चैव न च स्नेहं पिबेन्नरः । अकाले च प्रसूता स्त्री स्नेहपानं विवर्जयेत् ।। ५२ ।। स्नेहपानाद् भवन्त्येषां नृणां नानाविधा गदाः । गदा वा कृच्छ्रतां यान्ति न सिध्यन्त्यथवा पुनः || ५३ || गर्भाशयेऽवशेषाः रक्तक्लेदमलास्ततः । पाचनं रुक्षमेव च। स्यु स्नेहं जह्यान्निषेवेत पाचनं दशरात्रात् ततः स्नेहं यथावदवचारयेत् ।। ५४ ।।
1. In place of “सपकल्पिता” (well-cooked). Chakradatta reads ‘स्वल्प-तण्डला’ (prepared with a small quantity of rice).
2. In place of “पय:सिद्धा” (prepared with milk), Chakradatta reads ‘बहुतिला’ (prepared with an abundance of sesamum which, according to Sivadasa, would constitute three parts with only one part of rice).
Forbidden cases of Sneha-pana
Forbidden cases of Sneha-pana: The internal use of a Sneha is forbidden to persons suffering from indigestion, acute fever, delirium, alcoholism, aversion to food and vomiting, as well as to weak, corpulent, thirsty, fatigued, or intoxicated persons. It is forbidden on a cloudy day, in an improper season of the year, after the application of Basti-measures, purgatives and emetics and after premature parturition. The internal use of a Sneha (oil or Ghrita) gives rise to a host of maladies in the foregoing cases, or the diseases become more serious or may even become incurable. It cases of premature parturition, there remains a quantity of blood mucus and vitiated lochia in the womb; therefore one should avoid Sneha. Stomachic (Pacana) and parching (Ruksa) drugs should be administered to females after child-birta. After a period of ten days, however draughts of oil or clarified butter should be given according to requirements. 50-54
पुरीषं ग्रथितं रुक्षं कृच्छ्रादन्नं विपच्यते । उरो विदहते वायुः कोष्ठादुपरि धावति । दुर्वर्णो दुर्बलश्चैव रुक्षो भवति मानवः ।। ५५ ।। सुस्निग्धा त्वग्विशैथिल्यं दीप्तोऽग्निर्मृदुगात्रता । ग्लानिर्लाघवमङ्गानामघस्तात् स्नेहदर्शनम् । सम्यस्निग्धस्य लिङ्गानि स्नेहद्वेषस्तथैव च ।। ५६ ।। पुरीषातिप्रवृत्तिश्च भक्तद्वेषो मुखस्रावो गुददाहः प्रवाहिका । भृशस्निग्धस्य रुक्षस्य स्नेहनं स्नेहैरतिस्निग्धस्य रुक्षणम् । श्यामाककोरदूषान्न- तक्रपिण्याकशक्तुभिः लक्षणम् ।। ५७ ।। ।। ५८।।
A dry or parched condition of the organism should be inferred from a general dryness of the body, the hard and knotty character of foecal matter (stools), a sluggish digestion with a burning sensation on the epigastrium (Uras) and un upward coursing of the Vayu from the abdomen (Kostha) as well as from the weakness and discoloration of the body. Lassitude, a sense of heaviness in the limbs, the oozing out of the Sneha through the lower orifices of the body and an aversion to any kind of oleaginous substance are the indications which mark the satisfactory action of an emulsive remedy in a human organism, while its abrupt excess or abuse is followed by aversion to food, salivation a burning sensation about the anus, dysentery and diarrhoea and such like symptoms. A condition of dryness in the organism should be remedied with a Sneha, while an excess of the latter should be corrected with meals of Syamaka or Kora-dusa grains, as well as with milk-curd (Takra), levigated sesamum paste (Pinyaka) and powdered barley (Saktu). 55-58
The good effects of Sneha-pan
दीप्तान्तरग्निः परिशुद्धकोष्ठः प्रत्यग्रधातुर्बलवर्णयुक्त । दृढेन्द्रियो मन्दजरः शतायुः स्नेहोपयोगी पुरुषो भवेत् तु ।। ५९ ।। स्नेहो हितो दुर्बलवह्निदेह-सन्धुक्षणे व्याधिनिपीडितस्य । बलान्वितौ भोजनदोषजातैः प्रमर्दितुं तौ सहसा न साध्यौ ।। ६० ।।
The good effects of Sneha-pana: The blessings which attend a person who has duly taken a Sneha are improved digestive capacity, regular and satisfactory motions of the bowels, a growth of all the vital principles of the body, strength and firmness of the organs, improvement of complexion, a delayed old age and the enjoyment of a hundred summers on earth. The application of a Sneha is potent enough to increase the strength and the digestive capacity of a weak person suffering from impaired digestion, and a person having his health and digestive capacity recouped (by the use of a Sneha) does not yield to the evil effects of errors of diet. 59-60
इति सुश्रुत संहितायां चिकित्सितस्थाने स्नेहौपयौगिकचिकित्सितं नामैकत्रिंशोऽध्यायः ।। ३१ । ।
Thus ends the Thirty-first Chapter in the Chikitsa Sthana of the Susruta Samhita which deals with the treatment of the diseases where oleaginous medicines are useful.