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ashtanga hridayaSIROROGA VIJNANIYA - Knowledge of diseases of the head - Ashtanga Hridaya...

SIROROGA VIJNANIYA – Knowledge of diseases of the head – Ashtanga Hridaya Chapter – 23

अथात: शिरोरोगविज्ञानीयं व्याख्यास्यामः ।

इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः । We shall now expound the chapter Siroroga Vijnaniyaknowledge of diseases of the head; thus said Atreya and other great sages.

धूमातपतुषाराम्बुक्रीडातिस्वप्रजागरैः उत्स्वेदाधिपुरोवातवाष्पनिग्रहरोदनैः अत्यम्बुमद्यपानेन उपधानमृजाभ्यङ्गद्वेषाधःप्रततेक्षणैः असात्म्यगन्धदुष्टामभाष्याद्यैश्च जनयन्त्यामयान् दोषाः ॥१॥ कृमिभिर्वेगधारणैः । ॥२॥ शिरोगताः ।

Exposure to smoke, sunlight and snow ( mist, dew), overindulgence in water sports, sleep and keeping awake, severe sweating, exposure to heavy breeze and direct/eastern breeze, suppressing tears or weeping too much, drinking too much of water and wine, presence of worms (intestinal), suppression of urges ( of urine etc.); avoiding pillow (cushion, bed), cleanliness ( bath) and anointing the body; looking down continuously for long periods; exposure to unaccustomed, abonxious and raw smell, too much of speaking etc; by these causes the dosas getting localised in the head produce diseases (of the head). 1-3

Sirastapa – sirahshula

तत्र मारुतकोपतः ॥ ३ ॥

निस्तुते भृशं शङ्खौ घाटा सम्भिद्यते तथा । भ्रुवोर्मध्यं ललाटं च पततीवातिवेदनम् ॥ ४ ॥

बाध्येते स्वनतः श्रोत्रे निप्कृष्येत इवाक्षिणी । घूर्णतीव शिरः सर्वं सन्धिभ्य इव मुच्यते ॥ ५ ॥

स्फुरत्यति सिराजालं कन्धराहनुसङ्ग्रहः । प्रकाशासहता घ्राणस्रावोऽकस्माद्य्वथाशमौ ॥ ६ ॥

मार्दवं मर्दनस्नेहस्वदेबन्धैश्च जायते। शिरस्तापोऽयम्

By aggravation of maruta (vata) appears symptoms such as severe pricking pain in the two temples, feeling of severe pain as though the ghata (area above the temples) gets open, the centre of the brows and forehead fall out; ears are painful and have noise in them; eyes feel as though being plucked out, the head reels and feels loose in all its joints, there is severe pulsations in the network of veins (blood vessels) rigidity of the lower jaw and the shoulders, intolerance to light, running in the nose, relief of pain (headache) without any reason occassionally and reduction in its severity by massaging, anointing with oil and fomentation. This is Sirastapa ( of vata origin). 4-7a.


अर्धे तु मूर्ध्नः सोऽर्धावभेदकः ॥ ७॥ पक्षात्कुप्यति मासाद्वा स्वयमेव च शाम्यति ।

अतिवृद्धस्तु नयनं श्रवणं वा विनाशयेत् ॥ ८ ॥

If it appears in half of the head it is called Ardhavabhedaka, it occurs either by fortnight or a month and subsides of its own accord; when greatly aggravated it destroys either the eye (sight) or ears (hearing). 7b-8.

शिरोभितापे पित्तोत्थे शिरोधूमायनं ज्वरः । स्वेदोऽक्षिदहनं मूर्च्छा निशि शीतैश्च मार्दवम् ॥ ९ ॥

In Sirasstapa of pitta origin there is a feeling of hot fumes comming out from the head, fever, profuse sweating, burning sensation in the eyes, fainting, pain becomes less at night and by cold things. 9.

अरुचिः कफजे मूर्ध्ना गुरुस्तिमितशीतता । शिरानिस्पन्दताऽऽलस्यं रुग्मन्दाऽयधिका निशि ॥ १० ॥

तन्द्रा शूनाक्षिकूटत्वं कर्णकण्डूयनं वमिः ।

In that born from kapha there is of taste, feeling of heaviness of the head, rigidity and cold, veins not pulsating, lassitude, pain is mild during day and severe at nights; stupor, swelling of the eye sockets, itching inside the ears and vomiting are present. 10-11a.

रक्तात् पित्ताधिकरुजः सर्वैः स्यात्सर्वलक्षणः ॥ ११ ॥

In that born from rakta, the pain is similar to that of pitta origin but more severe and in that caused by all the dosas, features of all of them will be present simultaneously.

सङ्गीर्णैर्भोजनैर्मूर्ध्नि क्लेदिते रुधिरामिषे । कोपिते सन्निपाते च जायन्ते मूर्ध्नि जन्तवः ॥ १२ ॥

शिरसस्ते पिबन्तोऽस्त्रं घोराः कुर्वन्ति वेदनाः । चित्तविभ्रंशजननीर्ज्वर: कासो बलक्षयः ॥ १३ ॥

रौक्ष्यशोफव्यधच्छेददाहस्फुरणपूतिताः । कपाले तालुशिरसोः कण्डूः शोषः प्रमीलकः ॥ १४ ॥

ताम्राच्छसिङ्घाणकता कर्णादश्च जन्तुजे ।

By indulgence in incompatable foods, the blood and muscles become more over hydrated and become vitiated by all the dosas and lead to growth of worms in the head. These, drinking blood from the head cause severe pain, disorders of the mind, fever, cough, loss of strength, dryness, swelling, pricking and cutting types of pain, burning sensation, throbbing and bad smell in the scalp, itching, dryness in the palate and head, lassitude, coppery-red and thin nasal discharge and noise in the ears. 12-15a.


वातोल्बणाः शिरःकम्पं तत्संज्ञं कुर्वते मलाः ॥ १५ ॥

Dosas with the predominance of vata produce shaking of the head known by that term Sriahkampa. 15b.


॥ १६ ॥ पित्तप्रधानैर्वाताद्यैः शङ्खे शोफः सशोणितैः ।

तीव्रदाहरुजारागप्रलापज्वरतृड्भ्रमाः तिक्तास्यः पीतवदनः क्षिप्रकारी स शङ्खकः ।

त्रिरात्राज्जीवितं हन्ति सिध्यत्यप्याशु साधितः ॥ १७ ॥

Vata and other dosas with the predominance of pitta associated with sonita (blood) produce swelling in the sankha (temples) accompanied with severe burning sensation, pain, redness, delerium fever, thirst, giddiness, bitter taste in the mouth, yellowish face and producing quick effect, kills the patient within three days; gets cured with immediate treatment sometimes (but not always); this disease is sankhaka. 16-17.


पित्तानुबद्धः शङ्खाक्षिभुललाटेषु मारुतः । रुजं सस्पन्दनां कुर्यादनुसूर्योदयोदयाम् ॥ १८ ॥

आमध्याह्नं विवर्धिष्णुः क्षुद्वतः सा विशेषतः । अव्यवस्थितशीतोष्णसुखा शाम्यत्यतः परम् ॥ १९ ॥ सूर्यावर्त : स

Maruta (vata) followed by pitta produces severe throbbing pain in the temples, eyes brows and forehead, commencing with the rise of the sun, increases in severity in the midday and on being hungry; of uncertain comfort to hot or cold and subsides later (after the sun sets); this disease is Suryavarta. 18-19.

इत्युक्ता दश रोगाः शिरोगताः ।

शिरस्येव च वक्ष्यन्ते कपाले व्याधयो नव ॥ २० ॥

Thus were described the ten diseases of the head;in this chapter itself will be described further on, the nine diseases of the kapala (scalp). 20.


कपाले पवने दुष्ठे गर्भस्थस्यापि जायते । सवर्णो नीरुजः शोफस्तं विद्यादुपशीर्षकम् ॥ २१ ॥

The scalp, when it is still in the womb, gets vitiated by pavana (vata) develops a swelling of the same colour (of the skin) and devoid of pain; this is known as Upasirsaka. 21.

यथादोषोदयं ब्रूयात् पिटिकार्बुदविद्रधीन् ।

Pitaka, Arbuda and Vidradhi also occur on the scalp which should be recognised by the features of the increased dosa. 22a.


कपाले क्लेदबहुलाः पित्तासृक्श्लेष्मजन्तुभिः ॥ २२॥ कङ्गुसिद्धार्थकनिभाः पिटिकाः स्युररुंषिकाः ।

Arumsika are eruptions on the scalp caused by pitta, asrk (blood), slesma (kapha) and jantu (worms, becteria) which have more of fluid; and resemble kangu and siddhartha (in size ). 22b-23a.


कण्डूकेशच्युतिस्वापरौक्ष्यकृत् स्फुटनं त्वचः ॥ २३ ॥ सुसूक्ष्मं कफवाताभ्यां विद्याद्दारुणकं तु तत् ।

Itching, falling ( loss ) of hairs, loss of tactile sensationdryness, causing minute cracks of the skin are the features of Darunaka, caused by kapha and vata. 23b-24a


रोमकूपानुगं पित्तं वातेन सह मूर्च्छितम् ॥ २४ ॥

प्रच्यावयति रोमाणि ततः श्लेष्मा सशोणितः । रोमकूपान् रुणद्धयस्य तेनान्येषामसम्भवः ॥ २५ ॥

तदिन्द्रलुप्तं रुज्यां च प्राहुश्चाचेति चापरे ।

Pitta present in the hair follicles associated with vata makes the hairs to fall off, then after slesma (kapha) along with sonita (blood) blocks the orifices of the hair follicles and so there is no growth of new hair. This disease is called as indralupta, and also as Rujya and Caca by others. 24b-26a.


खलतेरपि जन्मैवं शातनं तत्र तु क्रमात् ॥ २६ ॥ सा वातादग्निदग्धाभा, पित्तात्स्विन्नसिरावृता । कफाद्धनत्वग्वेर्णाश्च यथास्वं निर्दिशेत्

The origin of Kaphati is also similar; falling of the hair is gradual caused by vata, it (scalp) resembles as though burnt by fire; caused by pitta it is studded with a network of veins; caused by kapha it is thick and of the same colour as of the skin, thus the colour of the skin are to be understood (with relevence to dosas). 26b-27.

दौषैः सर्वाकृति सर्वैरसाध्या सा नखप्रभा । दग्धाग्निनेव निर्लोमा सदाहा या च जायते ॥ २८ ॥

That which is caused by all the dosas and having all the features, that which resembles the nail ( in colour) and hairless as though burnt by fire, that having burning sensation, are incurable. 28.


शोकश्रमक्रोधकृतः शरीरोष्मा शिरोगतः । केशान् सदोषः पचति पलितं सम्भवत्यतः ॥ २९ ॥

The heat of the body aggravated by grief, exertion and anger moving on to the head and getting mixed with the dosas cooks (ripens) the hairs and produces the disease Palita. 29.

तद्वातात्स्फुटितं श्यावं खरं रूक्षं जलप्रभम् । पित्तात्सदाहं पीताभं, कफात् स्निग्धं विवृद्धिमत् ॥ ३० ॥ स्थूलं सुशुक्लं, सर्वैस्तु विद्याद्व्यामिश्रलक्षणम्।

In that caused by vata, the hair are split (broken) black, rough dry and resembles water; in that caused by piita there is burning sensation in the scalp and the hairs are yellowish; in that caused by kapha the scalp is unctuous and hairs are growing thick and white; in that caused by all the dosas 30-31a. presence of all the features should be noticed.

शिरोरुजोद्भवं चान्यंद्विवर्णं स्पर्शनासहम् ॥ ३१ ॥

Another kind of palita is that caused by headache which 31bdiscolouration and intolerence of touch.

असाध्या सन्निपातेन खलतिः पलितानि च ।

Khalati and palita caused by sannipata are incurable. 32a.

शरीरपरिणमोत्थान्यपेक्षन्ते रसायनम् ॥ ३२ ॥

Those (khalati and pitta) which are due to changes in the body (metobolism, old age, effect of diseases etc.) require rasayana (rejuvinatory therapy). 32b.

इति श्रीवैद्यपतिसिंहगुप्तसूनुश्रीमद्वाग्भटविरचितायामष्टाङ्गहृदयसंहितायां

षष्ठे उत्तरस्थाने शिरोरोगविज्ञानीयो नाम त्रयोविंशोऽध्यायः ॥ २३ ॥

Thus ends the chapter-siroroga vijnaniya-the twenty third in Uttarasthana of Asangahrdaya samhita composed by Srimad Vagbhata, son of Sri Vaidyapati Simhagupta.


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