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Sushruta SamhitaKalpa SthanaSarpa dasta Visa Vijnaniya - Treatment of Poison of Snake bite -...

Sarpa dasta Visa Vijnaniya – Treatment of Poison of Snake bite – Sushrutasamhita Kalpasthana Chapter 4

चतुर्थोऽध्यायः । अथातः सर्पदष्टविषविज्ञानीयं कल्पं व्याख्यास्यामः, यथोवाच भगवान् धन्वन्तरि: ।। १ ।।

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter which treats of the specific features of the poison of a snake bite (Sarpa – dasta-VisaVijnaniya). 1

धन्वन्तरिं महाप्राज्ञं सर्वशास्त्रविशारदम्। पादयोरुपसंगृह्य सर्पसंख्यां सुश्रुतः परिपृच्छति ॥ २ ॥ च। दष्टलक्षणमेव विभागञ्ज ज्ञानञ्च विषवेगानां भगवन् ! तस्य तद् वचनं श्रुत्वा प्राब्रवीद् भिषजां वरः । असंख्या वासुकिश्रेष्ठा महीधराश्च वक्तुमर्हसि ।।३।। विख्यातास्तक्षकादयः ।। ४ ।। हुताग्निसमतेजसः । नागेन्द्रा ये चाप्यजस्त्रं गर्जन्ति वर्षन्ति च तपन्ति च ॥ ५॥ ससागरगिरिद्वीपा यैरियं धार्यते मही। क्रुद्धा निःश्वासदृष्टिभ्यां ये हन्युरखिलं जगत् । नमस्तेभ्योऽस्ति नो तेषां कार्यं किञ्चिच्चिकित्सया ।। ६ ।।

Having laid himself prostrate at the feet of the holy and wish Dhanvantari, the master of all the Sastras, Susruta addressed him as follows : “Enlighten and illumineus, O Lord, on the number and classification of snakes, on the nature of their poison and on the distinguishing marks of their respective bites”, where-upon Dhanvantari, the foremost of all physicians replied as follows: Innumerable are the families of serpents, of which Taksaka and Vasuki are the foremost and the most renowned. These are supposed to carry the earth¹ with the oceans, mountains and the islands on their heads and are as powerful and furious as the blazing fire, fed upon the libations of clarified butter. I make obeisance to those who constantly roar, bring down rain, scorch the whole world (with the heat of their hundred-headed venom) and are capable of destroying the universe with their angry looks and poisonous breath. It is fruitless, O Susruta, to enter into a discourse on the treatment of their bites as they are beyond the curative virtues of all terrestrial remedies. 2-6

ये तु दंष्ट्राविषा भौमा ये दशन्ति च मानुषान्। तेषां संख्यां प्रवक्ष्यामि यथावदनुपूर्वशः ।। ७।। अशीतिस्त्वेव सर्पाणां भिद्यते पञ्चधा तु सा । दवकरा मण्डलिनो राजिमन्तस्तथैव च। निर्विषा वैकरञ्जाश्च त्रिविधास्ते पुनः स्मृताः ।।८।। दवकरा मण्डलिनो राजिमन्तश्च पन्नगाः। तेषु दर्वीकरा ज्ञेया विंशतिः षट् च पन्नगाः ।।९।। द्वाविंशतिर्मण्डलिनो राजिमन्तस्तथा दश । निर्विषा द्वादश ज्ञेया वैकरञ्जास्त्रयस्तथा । वैकरञ्जोद्भवाः सप्त चित्रा मण्डलिराजिलाः ।। १० ।।

Classification : I shall, however, describe in due order, the classification of the terrestrial snakes whose poison lies in their fangs wherewith they bite the human beings (and other animals). They are eighty in number classified into five main genera, namely, the Darvvikara (hooded), Mandali (hoodless and painted with circular patches or rings of varied colours on their skin), Rajiman (hoodless and striped), Nirvisa (non-venomous or slightly venomous) and Vaikaranja (hybrid species). The last named is also, in its turn, divided into three subdivisions only, viz., the Darvi-kara (hooded), the Mandali (hoodless and ring-marked) and the Rajiman (striped ones) Of these there are twenty six kinds of Darvi-kara snakes, twentytwo of the Mandali species, ten of the Raji-man class, twelve of the Nirvisa (non-venomous ) species and three of the Vaikaranja (hybrid ) species. Snakes born of Vaikaranja parents are of variegated colours (Citra) and are of seven different species (three of these being Mandali (marked with rings) and (four) Rajila (marked with stripes). 7-10

1. In the Hindu mythology the earth is supposed to rest on the heads of snakes, the inmales of the internal region.

Classification of snake bites

पादाभिमृष्टा दुष्टा वा क्रुद्धा ग्रासार्थिनोऽपि वा। ते दशन्ति महाक्रोधास्त्रिविधं सर्पितं रदितं वापि तृतीयमथ सर्पाङ्गाभिहतं केचिदिच्छन्ति खलु भीमदर्शनाः ।। ११ ।। निर्विषम् । तद्विदः ।। १२ ।।

Classification of snake-bites : A snake trampled under foot, or in a fit of anger or hunger, or anywise terrified or attacked, or out of its innate malicious nature, will bite a man or an animal. The bites of these snakes highly enraged as they are, are grouped under three heads by men conversant with their nature, viz. Sarpita (deep-punctured), Radita (superficially punctured) and Nirvisa (non-venomous ) bites. Some of the authorities on snake-bites, however, add fourth kind viz., Sarpangabhihata (coming in contact with the body of a serpent). 11-12

पदानि यत्र दन्तानामेकं द्वे वा बहूनि च। निमग्नान्यल्परक्तानि यान्युद्वृत्य करोति चञ्ञ्जुमालकयुक्तानि हि ॥ १३ ॥

वैकृत्यकरणानि च । सङ्क्षिप्तानि सशोफानि विद्यात् तत् सर्पितं भिषक् ॥ १४ ॥

राज्य: सलोहिता यत्र नीलाः पीताः सितास्तथा । विज्ञेयं रदितं तत् तु ज्ञेयमल्पविषञ्च तत् ।। १५ ।।

अशोफमल्पदुष्टासृक् प्रकृतिस्थस्य देहिनः । तच्चिकित्सकः ।। १६ ।।

पदं पदानि वा विद्यादविषं सर्पस्पृष्टस्य भीरोर्हि भयेन कुपितोऽनिलः । कस्यचित् कुरुते शोकं सर्पाङ्गाभिहतन्तु तत् ।। १७ ।।

Their specific Symptoms: The bite in which one, two or more marks (punctures) of fangs of considerable depth are found on the affected part attended with a slight bleeding as well as those which are extremely slender and owe their origin to the turning aside and lowering of its mouth (head) immediately after the bite and are attended with swelling and the characteristic changes (in the system of the victim) should be known as the Sarpita bite. A ( superficial) puncture (or punctures) made by the fangs of a snake and the affected part being attended with reddish, bluish, whitish or yellowish lines or stripes is called the Radita bite, which is characterised by the presence of a very small quantity of venom in the punctured wound. A Nirvisa (non-venomous) bite is marked by the presence of one or more fang marks, an absence of swelling and the presence of slightly vitiated blood at the spot and is not attended with any change in the normal (physiological) condition of the person bitten. The contact of a snake with the body of a naturally timid person may cause the aggravation of his bodily Vayu and produce a swelling of the part. Such a man is said to be Sarpangabhihata (affected by the touch of a snake). 13-17

ज्ञेयान्यल्पविषाणि व्याधितोद्विग्नदष्टानि च। स्मृतम् ।। १८ ।।

तथाऽतिवृद्धबालाभि-दष्टमल्पविषं सुपर्णदेवब्रह्मर्षि-यक्षसिद्धनिषेविते विषघ्नौषधियुक्ते च देशे न क्रमते विषम् ।। १९ ।।

A bite by a diseased or agitated snake or by an extremely old or young one, should be considered as considerably less venomous. The poison of a snake is inoperative in a country resorted to by the celestial Garuda (the king of birds), or by the gods, Yaksas, Siddhas and Brahmarsis, as well as in one in which there are drugs of antivenomous virtues. 18-19

Characteristic features of the different species of snakes

रथाङ्गलाङ्गलच्छत्रस्वस्तिकाङ्कुशधारिणः ज्ञेया दर्वीकराः सर्पाः फणिनः शीघ्रगामिनः ।। २० ।।

मण्डलैर्विविधैश्चित्राः पृथवो मन्दगामिनः । ज्ञेया मण्डलिन: सर्पा ज्वलनार्कसमप्रभाः ।। २१ ।।

स्निग्धा विविधवर्णाभिस्तिर्यगूर्ध्वंन्तु राजिभिः । चित्रिता इव ये भान्ति राजिमन्तस्तु ते स्मृताः ।। २२ ।।

1. It should be noted here that coming in contact with thorns and nails, etc., if unnoticed, may also produce in the minds of persons the fear of having been bitten by a snake and may thus produce the effects of such poisoning.

Characteristic features of the different species of snakes : Those having hoods and marked with spots resembling a wheel or a plough, an umbrella or a cross (Svastika) or a goad (Ankusa) on their heads and are extremely swift, should be known as the Darvi-kara snakes. Those which are large and slow and marked with variegated colours ring-like or circular spots on their skin, and have the glow of the sum or fire should be known as Mandali snakes, while those which are glossy and whose bodies are painted with parti coloured horizontal, perpendicular and lateral stripes, should be known as the Rajiman species. 20-22

Features of the different castes amongst snakes

मुक्तारूप्यप्रभा ये च कपिला ये च पन्नगाः | सुगन्धिनः सुवर्णाभास्ते जात्या ब्राह्मणाः स्मृताः ।। २३ ।।

क्षत्रियाः स्निग्धवर्णास्तु पन्नगा भृशकोपनाः । सूर्यचन्द्राकृतिच्छत्र-लक्ष्म तेषां तथाऽम्बुजम् ।। २४।।

कृष्णा वज्रनिभा ये च लोहिता वर्णतस्तथा । धूम्रा: पारावताभाश्च वैश्यास्ते पन्नगाः स्मृताः ।। २५ ।।

महिषद्वीपिवर्णाभास्तथैव परुषत्वचः । भिन्नवर्णाश्च ये केचिच्छूद्रास्ते परिकीर्त्तिताः ।। २६ ।।

Features of the different castes amongst snakes: The snakes whose skin is lustrous like a pearl or silver, is coloured yellow and looks like gold and emits a sweet smell, should be regarded as belonging to the Brahmana species of snakes. Those which are glossy, extremely irritable in their nature and marked with spots on their skin resembling the discs of the sun and moon, or of the shape of a conchshell (Ambuja) or an umbrella, should be regarded as belonging to the Ksatriya species. The snakes of the Vaisya caste are coloured black or red or blackish grey or ash-coloured or pigeon-coloured and are (crooked or hard in their structures) like a Vajra. The snakes which resemble a buffalo or a leopard in colour and lustre or are roughskinned or are possessed of a colour other than the preceding ones should be considered as belonging to the sudra class. 23-26

कोपयन्त्यनिलं जन्तोः फणिनः सर्व एव तु । पित्तं मण्डलिनश्चापि कफञ्चानेकराजयः ।। २७ ।।

अपत्यमसवर्णाभ्यां ज्ञेयौ (यं) दोषैश्च दम्पत्यो द्विदोषकरलक्षणम् ।

The poison of all hooded snakes (Phani) deranges and aggravates the bodily Vayu, that of the Mandali (circular spotted) species aggravates the Pitta, while that of the Rajiman ( striped) class aggravates the bodily Kapha. The poison of a snake of hybrid (Vaikaranja) origin aggravates the two particular Dosas of the body which its parents would have separately aggravated–a fact which helps us to ascertain in the species to which its parents belong. 27

विशेषश्चात्र वक्ष्यते २८।। रजन्याः पश्चिमे यामे सर्पाश्चित्राश्चरन्ति हि । शेषपूक्ता मण्डलिनो दिवा दर्वीकराः स्मृताः ।। २९ ।।

Particular habits of different kinds of snakes: Now hear me describing the special habits of each of these families of snakes. A snake of the Rajiman species, is found abroad in the fourth or the last quarter of the night, the Mandali snakes are found to be out in the three preceding watches, while the Darvi-kara snakes are found to be abroad (in quest of prey) only in the day time. 28-29

मण्डलिनस्तथा । । मृत्युहेतवः ।। ३० ।। जायन्ते नकुलाकुलिता बाला वारिविप्रहताः कृशाः ।

वृद्धा मुक्तत्वचो भीताः सर्पास्त्वल्पविषाः स्मृताः ।। ३१ ।। दर्वीकरास्तु तरुणा वृद्धा राजिमन्तो वयोमध्या

A Darvi-kara snake of young age, amiddle-aged M dali snake and an old Rajiman snake are as fatal as personified death. A snake of extremely tender age, as well as the one roughly handled by a mungoose, or oppressed with water, as well as an extremely old and emaciated one, or one which is extremely frightened or has recently cast off its skin should be considered as mild-venomed. 30-31

Names of the different Species of Darvi-kara Snakes

तत्र, दर्वीकरा : – कृष्णसर्पा, महाकृष्णः, कृष्णोदरः, श्वेतकपोतो, महाकपोतो, बलाहको, महासर्पः, शङ्खकपालो, लोहिताक्षो, गवेधुकः, परिसर्पः, खण्डफणः, ककुदः, पद्मो, महापद्मो, दर्भपुष्पो, दधिमुखः, पुण्डरीको, भ्रुकुटीमुखो, विष्किरः, पुष्पाभिकीर्णो, गिरिसर्पः, ऋजुसर्पः, श्वेतोदरो, महाशिरा, अलगर्द, आशीविष इति ।। ३२ ||

Names of the different Species of Darvi-kara Snakes : Snakes known as Krsna- Sarpa, Maha-krsna, Krsnodara, Sveta-kapota, Mahakapota, Balahaka, Maha- Sarpa, Sankha-pala, Lohitaksa, Gavedhuka, Parisarpa, Khanda-phana, Kakuda, Padma, MahaPadma, Darbha-puspa, Dadhi-mukha, Pundarika, Bhrukuti- mukha, Viskira, Puspabhikirna, Giri-sarpa, Rju-sarpa, Svetodara, Mahasiras, Alagarda and Asivisa belong to the family of Darvi kara snakes. 32

Names of the different Species of Mandali Snakes

मण्डलिनस्तु – आदर्शमण्डलः, श्वेतमण्डलोः, रक्तमण्डलः, चित्रमण्डलः, पृषतो, रोध्रपुष्यो, मिलिन्दको, गोनसो, वृद्धगोनसः, पनसो, महापनसोः, वेणुपत्रकः, शिशुको, मदन:, पालिन्दिरः, पिङ्गलः, तन्तुकः, पुष्पपाण्डुः, पडङ्गो, अग्निको, बभ्रुः कषायः, कलुषः, पारावतो, हस्ताभरणः, चित्रकः, एणीपद इति ।। ३३ || ,

Names of the different Species of Mandali Snakes : Snakes known as adarsa-mandala, Sveta-mandala, Rakta-mandala, Citramandala, Prsata, Rodhra-puspa, Milindaka, Gonasa, Vrddha-gonasa, Panasa, Maha-panasa, Venu patraka, Sisuka, Madana, Palindira, Pingala, Tantuka, Puspa pandu, Sadnga, Agnika, Babhru, Kasaya, Kalusa, Paravata, Hastabharana, Citraka and Enipada belong to the family of the Mandali species of snakes. 33

Names of the different species of Rajiman Snakes

राजिमन्तस्तु – पुण्डरीको राजिचित्रोऽङ्गुलराजिर्बिन्दुराजिः कर्दमकस्तृणशोषकः सर्षपकः श्वेतहनुदर्भपुष्पश्चक्रको गोधूमकः किक्किसाद इति ।। ३४ ।।

Names of the different species of Rajiman Snakes : Snakes known as Pundarika, Raji-citra, Angula-raji, Bindu-raji, Kardamaka, Trna-sosakas, Sarsapaka, Sveta-hanu, Darbha-puspa, Cakraka, Godhumaka, Kikkisada belong to Rajiman family of snakes. 34

Names of the different species of Nirvisa snakes

निर्विषास्तु – गलगोली शूकपत्रोऽजगरो दिव्यको वर्षाहिकः पुष्पशकली ज्योतीरथः क्षीरिकापुष्पकोऽहिपताकोऽन्धाहिको गौराहिको वृक्षेशय इति ।। ३५ ।।

Names of the different species of Nirvisa snakes: The Galagoli, Suka-patra, Ajagara, Divyaka, Varsahika, Puspa-sakali, Jyoti-ratha, Ksirika Puspaka, Ahi-patakaka, Andhahika, Gaurahi and the Vrkse-saya belong to the Nirvisa (non-venomous ) group of snakes. 35

Names and Origin of the different species of Vaikaranja snakes

वैकरञ्जास्तु त्रयाणां दर्वीकरादीनां व्यतिकराज्जाताः । तद्यथामाकुलिः, पोटगलः, स्निग्धराजिरिति । तत्र, कृष्णसर्पेण गोनस्यां वैपरीत्येन वा जातो माकुलिः । राजिलेन गोनस्यां वैपरीत्येन वा जातः पोटगलः । कृष्णसर्पेण राजिमत्यां वैपरीत्येन वा जातः स्निग्धराजिरिति । तेषामाद्यस्य पितृवद् विषोत्कर्षः, द्वयोर्मातृवदित्येके ।। ३६ ।।

Names and Origin of the different species of Vaikaranja snakes: The Vaikaranja snakes are the cross-breeds of the above first three species, viz., Darvi-kara, etc., and are known as Makuli, Potagala and Snigdha-raji. Those born of a Krsna-sarpa father and Gonasi mother or the contrary are known as Makuli. A Rajila father and Gonasi mother or the contrary bring forth a (hybrid species known as the) Potagala and a Krsna-sarpa father and a Rajimati mother or the contrary produce a Snigdha-raji snake. According to several authorities, the poison of a snake of the first of these three hybrid sub families partakes of the nature of that of its father while that of the remaining two partakes of the nature of their mother. 36

Sub-families of the Vaikaranja Snakes

त्रयाणां वैकरञ्जानां पुनर्दिव्येलकरोध्रपुष्पकराजिचित्रका: पोटगलः पुष्पाभिकीर्णो दर्भपुष्पो वेल्लितकः सप्त । तेषामाद्यस्त्रयो राजिलवत्, शेषा मण्डलिवत् । एवमेतेषां सर्पाणामशीतिरिति ।। ३७ ।।

Sub-families of the Vaikaranja Snakes : Seven other subfamilies arise out of the three aforesaid families of Vaikaranja snakes and are known as Divyelaka, Rodhra-puspaka, Raji-citraka, Potagala, Puspabhikirna, Darbha-puspa and Vellitaka. Of these the first three species resemble the Rajila and the last four resemble the Mandali species of snakes. Thus we have finished describing the eighty different families of snakes. 37

Characteristic features of Male and female snakes

तत्र महानेत्रजिह्वास्यशिरसः पुमांसः । सूक्ष्मनेत्रजिह्वास्यशिरसः स्त्रियः, उभयलक्षणा मन्दविषा अक्रोधा नपुंसका इति ।। ३८ । ।

Characteristic features of Male and female snakes : The eyes, the tongue, the mouth and the head of a male serpent are large, while those of a female snake are small. Those which partake of both these features and are mild-venomed and not ( easily) irritable, should be considered as hermaphrodite (Napurnsaka). 38

General features of snake-bites

तत्र सर्वेषां सर्पाणां सामान्यत एव दष्टलक्षणं वक्ष्यामः । किं कारणं ? विषं हि निशितनिस्त्रिंशाशनिहुतवहदेश्यमाशुकारि मुहूर्त्तमप्युपेक्षितमातुरमतिपातयति, न चावकाशोऽस्ति वाक्समूहमुपसर्त्तुम् । प्रत्येकमपि दष्टलक्षणेऽभिहिते सर्वत्र त्रैविध्यं भवति, तस्मात् त्रैविध्यमेव वक्ष्यामः । एतध्यातुरहितमसम्मोहकरञ्च | अपि चात्रैव सर्वसर्पव्यञ्जनावरोधः ।। ३९-४०।।

Now we shall describe the general features of snake-bites: Why does snake-poison prove instantaneously fatal like a sharp sword, thunder-bolt or fire ? Why is it that a case of snake bite, if neglected even for a very short time (Muhurta) at the outset, terminates in the death of the patient without (even) giving him an opportunity of speaking?

From the general characteristics of the bites, it should be presumed that they may be divided into three kinds. We shall, therefore, describe in detail the specific features of the bites of these three kinds (instead of all of them separately). It will be both beneficial to the patient and will leave no room for the confusion of the physician. From the specific features of these three kinds of snake-bites should be inferred all other snake-bites. 39-40

Specific symptoms of a bite by a Darvi-kara snake

तत्र, दर्वीकरविषेण त्वङ्नयननखदशनवदनमूत्रपुरीषदंशकृष्णत्वं रौक्ष्यं शिरसो गौरवं सन्धिवेदना कटीपृष्ठग्रीवादौर्बल्यं जृम्भणं वेपथुः स्वरावसादो घुघुरको जडता शुष्कोद्गारः कासश्वासौ हिक्का वायोरूर्ध्वगमनं शूलोद्वेष्टनं तृष्णा लालास्त्रावः फेनागमनं स्त्रोतोऽवरोधस्तास्ताश्च वातवेदना भवन्ति ।। ४१ ।।

Specific symptoms of a bite by a Darvi-kara snake : A black colour of the skin, eyes, nails, tooth, face, urine and stool and the seat of the bite, roughness of the body and heaviness of the head, pain in the joints, weakness of the back, neck and waist, yawning, shivering, hoarseness of the voice, a rattling sound in the throat, lassitude, dry eructation, cough and difficult breathing, hiccough, upward course of the bodily Vayu, pain (sula) and consequent aching of the limbs, thirst, excessive salivation, foaming in the mouth, choking of the external orifices of the body (such as mouth and the nostrils) and peculiar pains (such as the pricking, piercing pain in the body) due to the aggravation of the bodily Vayu–these are the specific symptoms of a bite by a snake of the Darvi-kara species. 41

Specific symptoms of a bite by a Mandali snake

मण्डलिविषेण त्वगादीनां पीतत्वं शीताभिलाषः परिधूपनं दाहस्तृष्णा मदो मूर्च्छा ज्वरः शोणितागमनमूर्ध्वमधश्च मांसानामवशातनं श्वयथुर्दंशकोथः पीतरूपदर्शनमाशुकोपस्तास्ताश्च पित्तवेदना भवन्ति ।। ४२ ।।

Specific symptoms of a bite by a Mandali snake: Yellowness of the skin, etc., longing for cold, a sensation as if the whole interior is being burnt with scorching vapours, extreme burning sensation in the body, thirst, a sensation of intoxication, fainting, fever, haemorrhage through both the upper and the lower channels, sloghing of the flesh, swelling and suppuration in the affected part, a jaundiced sight, a rapid aggravation (of the Pitta) and the presence of various sorts of pain similar to the derangement of the bodily Pitta,– these are the specific symptoms of a bite by a snake of the Mandali species. 42

Specific symptoms of a bite by a Rajiman snake

राजिमद्विषेण शुक्लत्वं त्वगादीनां शीतज्वरो रोमहर्षः स्तब्धत्वं गात्राणामादंशशोफः सान्द्रकफप्रसेकश्छर्दिरभीक्ष्णमक्ष्णोः कण्डूः कण्ठे श्वयथुघुघुरक उच्छ्वासनिरोधस्तमः प्रवेशस्तास्ताश्च कफवेदना भवन्ति ।। ४३ ॥

Specific symptoms of a bite by a Rajiman snake: Whiteness of the skin, etc., Sita Jvara (catarrhal fever), horripilation, a numbness of the limbs, a swelling about the seat of the bite, flowing out of dense phlegm ( from the mouth), vomiting, constant itching of the eyes, a swelling of and a rattling sound in the throat, obstruction of breath, coma, similar pain and troubles characteristic of the deranged Kapha in the body–these are the specific symptoms of a bite by a snake of the Rajiman species. 43

Specific symptoms of bites by snakes of different sexes and ages

पुरुषाभिदष्ट ऊर्ध्वं प्रेक्षते, अधस्तात् स्त्रिया, सिराश्श्रोत्तिष्ठन्ति ललाटे । नपुंसकाभिदष्टस्तिर्यक्प्रेक्षी भवति, गर्भिण्या पाण्डुमुखो ध्मातश्च । सूतिकया कुक्षि शूलार्त्तो स रुधिरं मेहत्युपजिविका चास्य भवति । ग्रासार्थिनान्नं काङ्क्षति । वृद्धेन चिरान्मन्दाश्च वेगाः । बालेनाशु मृदवश्च । निर्विषेणाविषलिङ्गम्। अन्धाहिकेनान्थत्वमित्येके। ग्रसनादजगर : शरीर प्राणहरः, न विषात् । तत्र सद्यः प्राणहराहिदष्टः पतति शस्त्राशनिनिहत इव भूमौ, स्त्रस्ताङ्गः स्वपिति ।। ४४ ।।

Specific symptoms of bites by snakes of different sexes and ages, etc. The sight or the pupils of the eyes of a person bitten by a a male snake, is turned upward. A bite by a female serpent exhibits such symptoms as downcast eyes and appearance of veins on the forehead while that by a hermaphrodite (Napumsaka) snake makes the patient look sideways. A person bitten by a pregnant snake produces yellowness of the face and tympanites. A bite by a newly delivered snake causes Udar Sula (pain), bloody urination and an attack of tonsilites (Upa-jihvika) in the victim. A person bitten by a hungry serpent craves for food. A bite by an old serpent is marked by a slow and mild character of the different stages of poisoning. A bite by a snake of tender age is marked by a rapid setting of the characteristic poisonous symptoms which are found to be mild in their nature. A bite by a non-venomous serpent is marked by the absence of any of the specific symptoms of poisoning. According to several authorities, a bite by a blind serpent brings on blindness in its train. An Ajagara (Boa-constructor) is found to actually swallow up the body of its prey, to which should be ascribed the death of the victim in such a case (resulting from the crushing of bones and strangulation) and not to the effects of any poison. A person bitten by a snake of instantaneously fatal poison, drops down dead at the moment of the bite as if struck by a sharp weapon or by lightning. 44

Symptoms of the different stages of poisoning from the bites of a Darvi-kara Snake

तत्र सर्वेषां सर्पाणां विषस्य सप्त वेगा भवन्ति । तत्र दर्वीकराणां प्रथमे वेगे विषं शोणितं दूषयति, तत् प्रदुष्टं कृष्णतामुपैति; तेन काष्र्यं पिपीलिकापरिसर्पणमिव चाङ्गे भवति । द्वितीये मांसं दूषयति; तेनात्यर्थं कृष्णता शोफो ग्रन्थयश्चाङ्गे भवति । तृतीये मेदो दूषयति; तेन दंशक्लेदः शिरोगौरवं स्वेदश्चक्षुर्ग्रहणञ्च । चतुर्थे कोष्ठमनुप्रविश्य कफप्रधानान् दोषान दूषयति । तेन तन्द्राप्रसेकसन्धिविश्लेषा भवन्ति । पञ्चमेऽस्थीन्यनुप्रविशति, प्राणमग्निञ्च दूषयति; तेन पर्वभेदो हिक्का दाहश्च भवति । षष्ठे मज्जानमनुप्रविशति, ग्रहणीञ्चात्यर्थं दूषयति; तेन गात्राणां गौरवमतिसारो हृत्पीडा मूर्च्छा च भवति । सप्तमे शुक्रमनुप्रविशति, व्यानञ्चात्यर्थं कोपयति, कफञ्च सूक्ष्मस्त्रोतोभ्यः प्रच्यावयति; तेन श्लेष्मवर्त्तिप्रादुर्भावः कटीपृष्ठभङ्गः सर्वचेष्टाविघातो लालास्वेदयोरतिप्रवृत्तिरुच्छ्वासनिरोधश्च भवति । ॥ ४५ ॥

Symptoms of the different stages of poisoning from the bites of a Darvi-kara Snake: The poison of all species of snakes (snakebites) produces seven distinct stages of transfermation (in the organism of a person bitten by one of them). The poison of a snake of the Darvikara species affects and vitiates the blood (vascular system) in the first stage of its course or its physiological transformation in the body. The blood thereby turns black, imparting its hue to the complexion and giving rise to a sort of creeping sensation in the body, as if ants have been creeping over it. In the second stage the poison affects the principle of flesh, turns it deep black and produces swellings and Granthis all over the body. In the third stage it invades the principle of Medas (adipose tissues?) in the body, giving rise to a sort of mucous discharge from the seat of bite, heaviness in the head, perspiration and numbness of the eyes. In the fourth stage the poison enters the Kostha (abdomen?) and aggravates the Dosas, especially Kapha, producing somnolence, water-brash and a breaking sensation in the joints. In the fifth stage, it penetrates into the principle of bone, deranges the Prana (vital principle) and impairs the Agni (digestive fire), giving rise to hiccough, a burning sensation in the body and a breaking pain in the joints. In the sixth stage, it enters the principle of Majja (marrow) and greatly deranges the Grahani (the small intestines?) giving rise to a sense of heaviness of the limbs, dysentery, pain in the heart and epileptic fits. In the seventh stage it permeates the principle of semen, extremely aggravates the vital nerve-governing Vayu known as the Vyana, dislodges the Kapha even from the minutest capillaries, producing secretions of lump-like phlegm from the mouth, a breaking pain in the waist and the back, impaired functions of the mind and of the body, excessive salivation, perspiration and a suppression of breath. 45

Different stages of poisoning from the bites of a Mandali Snake

मण्डलिनां प्रथमे वेगे विषं शोणितं दूषयति तत् प्रदुष्टं पीततामुपैति; तत्र परिदाहः पीतावभासता चाङ्गानां भवति । द्वितीये मांसं दूषयति; तेनात्यर्थं पीतता परिदाहौ दंशे श्वयथुश्च भवति । तृतीये मेदो दूषयति; तेन पूर्ववच्चक्षुर्ग्रहणं तृष्णा दंशे क्लेदः स्वेदश्च । चतुर्थे कोष्ठमनुप्रवशिय ज्वरमापादयति । पञ्चमे परिदाहं सर्वगात्रेषु करोति । षष्ठसप्तमयोः पूर्ववत् ।। ४६ ।।

Different stages of poisoning from the bites of a Mandali Snake: In the first stage of bite by a Mandali snake, the poison affects the blood (vascular system), which being thus vitiated produces shivering (lit. coldness) followed by a burning sensation in the body and pallor (yellowness) of the skin. In the second stage the poison contaminates the flesh which causes an extreme yellowness of complexion attended with a burning sensation in the body and yellowness about the seat of the bite. In the third stage, the poison affects the principle of Medas (adipose tissues) producing numbness of the eyes, thirst, slimy exudation from the wound (bite) and perspiration as in the case of a bite by a Darvi-kara snake described before. In the fourth stage, it enters the Kostha (cavity of the trunk) and produce fever. In the fifth stage, it produces a burning sensation throughout the whole organism. The sixth and the seventh stage are identical with those of the foregoing (Darvi-kara bite). 46

Different stages of poisoning from the bite of a Rajiman Snake

राजिमतां प्रथमे वेगे विषं शोणितं दूषयति तत् प्रदुष्टं पाण्डुतामुपैति; तेन रोमहर्षः शुक्लावभासश्च पुरुषो भवति । द्वितीये मांसं दूषयति; तेन पाण्डुतात्यर्थं जाडचं शिरः शोफश्च भवति । तृतीये मेदो दूषयति; तेन चक्षुर्ग्रहणं दंशक्लेदः स्वेदो घ्राणाक्षित्रावश्च भवति । चतुर्थे कोष्ठमनुप्रविश्य मन्यास्तम्भं शिरोगौरवञ्चापादयति । पञ्चमे वाक्सङ्गं शीतज्वरञ्च करोति । षष्ठसप्तमयोः पूर्ववदिति ।। ४७।।

Different stages of poisoning from the bite of a Rajiman Snake: The poison of a Rajiman snake in the first stage of poisoning, vitiates the blood which is turned pale yellow producing the appearance of goose-skin of the victim who looks white. In the second stage, it contaminates the flesh, giving rise to an extreme paleness of complexion, prostration and swelling of the In the third stage, it affects the principles of Medas, giving rise to haziness of the eyes, deposit of filthy matter on the site of bite, perspiration and secretions from the nostrils and the eyes. In the fourth stage, it enters the Kostha (abdominal cavity) and produces paralysis of the nerves of the neck (Manya) and heaviness of the head. In the fifth stage, it gives rise to loss of speech and brings on Sita-Jvara (catarrhal fever). The sixth and the seventh stages of poisoning are identical with the preceding kind. 47

भवन्ति चात्र

धात्वन्तरेषु याः सप्त कलाः सम्परिकीर्त्तिताः । तास्वेकैकामतिक्रम्य वेगं प्रकुरुते विषम् ।। ४८ । ।

येनान्तरेण हि कलां कालकल्पं भिनत्ति हि । समीरणेनोह्यमानं तत् तु वेगान्तरं तत् तु वेगान्तरं स्मृतम् ।। ४९ ।।

Memorable Verses: A snake-poison is found to successively attack the seven Kalas or facia described before (in Chapter IV. Sarira-Sthana, and gives rise respectively to the seven stages of poisoning. The interval of time during which a deadly poison leaves a preceding Kala and, carried forward by the bodily Vayu, attacks the succeeding one, is called its Vegantara (the intervening stage ). 48-49

Different Stages of poisoning in cases of lower animals

शूनाङ्गः प्रथमे वेगे पशुर्ध्यायति दुःखितः । लालास्त्रावो द्वितीये तु कृष्णाङ्गः पीड्यते हृदि । । ५० ।।

तृतीये च शिरोदुःखं कण्ठग्रीवञ्च भज्यते । चतुर्थे वेपते मूढः खादन् दन्तान् जहात्यसून् ।

केचिद् वेगत्रयं प्राहुरन्तश्चै (ञ्चै) तेषु तद्विदः ।। ५१ ।।

Different Stages of poisoning in cases of lower animals : A lower animal bitten by a snake first becomes swollen and looks steadfast and distressed. In the second stage of poisoning, salivation, blackish discolouration and pain in the heart set in. The third stage is marked by pain in the head and drooping of the neck and of the shoulder. In the fourth stage, it shivers, gnashas its teeth, drops down becoming unconscious and expires. Some experts hold that there are only three stages of poisoning in the case of a lower animal, the fourth being included therein. 50-51

Different Stages of poisoning in cases of birds

ध्यायति प्रथमे वेगे पक्षी मुह्यत्यतः परम् । प्रोक्तस्तृतीये मृत्युमृच्छति । द्वितीये विह्वलः प्रोक्तस्तृतीये

विहङ्गेषु केचिदेकं मार्जारनकुलादीनां विषं विषवेगमुशन्ति नाति हि ॥ ५२ ॥ प्रवर्त्तते ।। ५३ ।।

Different Stages of poisoning in cases of birds : A bird, bitten by a snake, looks stead-fast and becomes unconscious in the first stage of poisoning. The second stage is marked by an extreme agitated condition of the bird and the third stage ends in death. According to several authorities there is only a single stage of poisoning in the case of a bird. A snake-poison cannot penetrate far into the body of a cat, mungoose, etc. 52-53

इति सुश्रुतसंहितायां कल्पस्थाने सर्पदष्टविषविज्ञानीयकल्पो नाम चतुर्थोऽध्यायः ।। ४ ।।

Thus ends the fourth Chapter of the Kalpa Sthana in the Susruta Samhita which treats of the specific features of the poison of a snake-bite.


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