Ashtanga Hridaya Sutrasthana 12th chapter describes the role and function of Tridosha throughout the body, categorizing each type and explaining why it grows or declines. This chapter is known as Doshabhediya Adhyaya.
Tridosha Dosha Sthana
Vata Dosha Sthana – Place of Vata Dosha site
Pakavasaya– Large Intestine; Kati– Waist line; Sakthi– Hip; Shrotra– Earbone Asthi Sparshanendriya Skin
Special Space- Large Intestine 1.
Pitta Dosha Sthana – Place of Pitta Dosha Site
Nabhi (Umbilicus), Amashaya – stomach and small intestinal tract, Sweda – sweat, Lasika-lymphatic system, Rudhira – blood plasma Druk – Eye, and Sparshanam – skin type and special seat : Nabhi region that lies within the Umbilicus for protection. 2
Kapha Dosha Sthana – Place of Kapha Dosha Site
Ura – Chest and Kantha – Throat, Shira (head), Kloma (pancreas), Parvani (bone joints), Amashaya Small and Stomach, Rasa-plasma, Meda(fat), Ghrana nose/nose and tongue are the seat of Kapha; Ura chest is special seat for Kapha.
Vata Dosha Types
Vata can be divided into five types, Prana Vata, Udana Vata, Vyana Vata, Samana Vata, and Apana Vata.
Prana Vata Sthana and Lakshana
Prana occupies the head, throat, and chest area. It regulates heartbeat, willpower, and sense organs as well as intellect and vision.
Udana Vata Sthana and Lakshana
It is situated in the chest region, also known as Udana. It contains receptors located near the nostril, umbilicus, and throat that function to initiate speech (vak), effort (Prayatna), passion (Urja), power (bala), color vision and complexion as well as memory (smruti).
Vyana Vata Sthana and Lakshana
Vyana is situated within the heart, moving across the body with great velocity.
It controls functions such as flexion/extension of muscles (locomotor movement), closure of eyelids, etc.
Vyana Vata governs all bodily functions. 6-7
Samana Vata Sthana Lakshana
Samana Vata Sthana are located near the digestive fire.
Kostha-digestive tract, Receiving food into the stomach aids digestion and divides it into useful and waste (Sara & Kitta) components before moving them along their normal routes. 8
Apana Vata Sthana and Lakshana
Apana Vata is located within the large intestine, located within the bladder, waist, and Genitals. This organ aids with tasks like ejaculation, menstruation cycle, defecation, voiding process and childbirth. 9
Five Types of Pitta Dosha and Lakshana
Pitta has five types. Pachaka Pitta, Ranjaka Pitta, Sadhaka Pitta Alochaka Pitta Bhrajaka Pitta are some of its varieties.
Pachaka pitta Lakshana and Sthana
Pachaka Pitta Sthana are located between the stomach and large intestine, between Amashaya and pakvashaya. Made up of five elemental elements (Panchamaha Bhuta), it is predominantly fire element and does not contain much water content.
Paka commonly refers to it by the name Anala, meaning fire, due to its role in processing and digestion ingredients.
It cooks food before separating into waste and essence.
Anala can confer grace and influence over other varieties of Pitta.
Pachaka pitta is the most sought-after variety among Pitta varieties.
Ranjaka Pitta Sthana and Lakshana
The pitta in the stomach, known as Ranjaka Pitta, converts digestion product into blood; this explains why Rasa Dhatu becomes Rakta Dhatu. 12 1/2
Sadhaka Pitta Sthana and lakshana
Sadhaka Pitta Sthana Sthana is In the Hrudaya-heart pitta is known as Sadhaka.
It assists us with mental processes such as understanding, intelligence, self–awareness etc. that further our life goals. 13 1/3
Alochaka Pitta Sthana and lakshana
Situated within the eyes, Alochaka Pitta helps us to see clearly.
Bhrajaka Pitta Sthana and Lakshana
Bhrajaka pitta sthana is on the skin which helps in displaying colors and skin texture. 14
Types of Kapha Dosha.
Kapha dosha is of five types.
Avalambaka Kapha Sthana and Lakshana
Situated within the chest area, Trika Pradesha–the region where neck, shoulder and back meet.
Avalambaka Kapha has inherent strength that derives from its water-related essence; therefore it can perform nourishment, lubrication and other functions associated with water. Furthermore, this energy influences different types of Kaphas. 15
Kledaka Kapha Sthana and Lakshana
In the Amasaya stomach, Kledaka Kapha Sthana that helps moisten food particles and aids digestion. This organ can also be found near other chakras for additional support.
Bodhaka Kapha Sthana and Lakshana
These structures are located inside the tongue, aiding in taste detection.
Tarpaka Kapha Sthana and Lakshana
Situated within the brain, this energy source provides nourishment for our sense organs.
Shleshaka Kapha Sthana and lakshana
These substances can be found in bones joints. Lubricates the joint while helping to strengthen it.
Tridosha can be found throughout the body, but they’re more concentrated in certain regions as previously noted.
Qualities that influence Tridosha growth and decrease.
NOTE: Please be aware that the description that follows contains certain technical terms.
Chaya: An initial growth in Doshas within one’s personal space.
Kopa Prakopa: Refers to an overflow of Doshas from one location to another that could result in disease.
Shama/ Prashama is the term used to signify the reduction of Dosha and restoration of health.
Qualities that Cause Vata Chaya, Kopa and Shama
Dryness or hot movement are examples of Qualities Causing Vata Chaya.
Kopa is caused by dryness and cold.
Snigdha (oilyness and unctuousness) as well as other characteristics like Guru (heavy), Usna (hot), pichila (stickiness) and sthira (stability) all play a role in creating Kopa. Hotness also drives Shamana in Vata. 19
Qualities that Cause Chaya, Kopa and Shama in Pitta
Qualities linked with cold such as Teekshna (piercing) along with other qualities like dryness or lightness cause Chaya slight increase in Pitta.
Hot weather often results in an increase in Pitta. Manda (viscous mildew) and other properties associated with cold can cause this imbalance to return and make Kopa Shama normal again. 20
Qualities that Lead to Chaya, Kopa and Shama of Kapha
Snigdha (unctuous oily) as well as many others that give off an impression of being sticky when combined with coldness are all qualities which may lead to Kapha Chaya (mild increase).
Ushna (hot) plus Ruksha (dryness) and their associated properties cause Vata Chaya, while Sheeta (cold) plus Ruksha (dryness) causes Vata Kopa. Meanwhile, Ushna plus Snigdha (unctuous and oily) causes Vata Shama.
Sheeta (cold) + Teekshna (piercing, strong) qualities cause Pitta Chaya Ushna (hot) + Teekshna (piercing, strong) attributes cause Pitta Kopa Sheeta (cold) + Manda (mild, dull) causes Pitta Shama.
Sheeta (cold) + Snigdha (unctuous and oily) cause Kapha Chaya Ushna Ushna plus Rooksha dryness leads to Kapha Shama.
Stages of Dosha Increase and Decrease Chaya and prakopa
Chaya refers to a slight increase in Dosha within one’s personal space. It causes feelings of resentment towards factors that might further amplify that particular Dosha, acting as a self-defense mechanism in the body that helps prevent diseases caused by Dosha from manifesting. 22
Prakopa indicates an increase of Dosha and its flow into other channels within the body, leading to symptoms associated with pre–disease. At this stage, signs of the disease begin to appear.
Sama Dosha समदोष
Sama (सम) means normalcy; the restoration or reduction of Dosha to normal levels.
Variation of Dosha Levels during Different Seasons
Avastha Dosha in Diverse Seasons
Dosha Chaya Prakopa Prasara Avastha according to Rupa
Vata experiences mild growth during summer due to plants with qualities like dryness and lightness; this is especially true for these kinds of plants. However, due to extreme summer heat (remember cold is an attribute in Vata), Vata does not undergo massive expansion as hot opposes Vata; thus there isn’t any excessive expansion.
Similar to that, Pitta experiences chaya during the season of rain due to Amla viplaka (sour taste at the end of digestion) from food and water. However, it does not expand further during dry weather due to coldness (remember heat is used to describe Pitta). Coldness serves to prevent further growth during rainy periods.
Kapha undergoes Chaya during winter due to the consumption of foods with cold and oily qualities, but does not undergo Prakopa since Kapha can solidify due to extreme cold that occurs between 25 and 27 degrees Fahrenheit during this period.
Activities and eating habits can cause either an increase or decrease in Dosha levels, just as seasonal changes can influence this balance. 28
Increased Dosha can have detrimental effects.
Action of Increased Dosha
Imagine an emergency flood where water rushes into cities at a rapid rate, but its recovery process is often quite slow. Higher Doshas can be found throughout the body, from head to foot, causing diseases; however, it takes time for them to reduce and return to normal. 29
Dosha is believed to be the primary cause of illness.
Dosha is the root cause of disease. Like a bird flying in the sky unable to escape its shadow, Tridosha lies at the root of all illnesses and affects mental faculties such as Satva, Raja and Tama. Doshas are diluted within our bodies which leads to loss of tissue (Dhatu) and other waste products (Mala) that may lead to diseases. 32-34 1/4
Three Causes of Dosha Increase
Three types of causes for Dosha increase can be identified. Primarily, these could include an increase in stress levels or physical ailments like allergies.
Heena yoga advocates less involvement of sense organs (heena yoga),
Mithya yoga advocates incorrect involvement (Mithya yoga),
Atiyoga advocates over-involvement of Artha, Kala and Season Karma Action.
Thus, either less, improper or greater Dosha imbalance can arise as a result. For further explanation on this subject please refer to the table provided.
Artha – The Senses and Their Relationship
Hinayoga: When sense organs do not receive enough stimulation (touch, sound, smell, sight or taste), or are otherwise impaired due to living in dim light conditions or other sensory deprivations – there may be no sensation at all.
Atiyoga is the indulgence of over-sight. Looking at objects that are small and bright for too long, as well as listening to loud music are all examples.
Mithya Yoga refers to any inappropriate indulgence of sense organs, such as visioning or hearing terrifying, near, faraway objects; 36-38 1/2.
Kala has three distinct seasons – hot, cold and rainy.
Hinayoga in Kala offers three seasons: milder temperatures in winter and summer, as well as less rain during monsoon season.
Atiyoga has more rain in rainy seasons and warmer temperatures during summers.
Mithyayoga manifests characteristics opposite to what nature intended – for instance, rain during summer and cold weather during summer – for example. 38 1/2 39
Karma Heena Mithya and Ati Yoga
Three types of activities related to body, mind and speech lead to Dosha imbalance.
Heenayoga: Very little talking; Less physical activity and less thought process.
Atiyoga: Excessive talking, physical inactivity and thoughtlessness
Mithyayoga: Wrong speech and physical actions taken. Bad, evil thinking suppressing natural impulses; inappropriate postures, abrupt leaping and falling; talking too often after meals; expressing desires – attachment, passion hate fear etc. 40-42 1/2
An increase in Doshas leads to an accumulation of imbalances, which can manifest as various ailments affecting viscera, brain, tissues, bones, joints and viscera.43-44
Rogamarga : Pathways to diseases
This section is divided into 3 segments to describe various ailments.
Internal path refers to the gastro-intestinal tract.
Bahi roga Marga:
External path comprises Rakta, Mamsa etc Dhatu tissues as well as skin.
Vital organs like heart, brain joints, blood vessels nerves etc are described using this term.
The concept is further explored below.
Bahya Rogamarga – Bahi Koshta – External Pathway
Raktha – Blood, other tissues such as bones, muscles, bone marrow, fat and sexually related glands and skin all take part in this external pathway of illness.
Anta Koshta – Antah Rogamarga – Internal Path
Amashaya and Pakwashaya refer to stomach, small intestine and large intestine, respectively.
The two above-mentioned channels together form the Mahasrota (major channel). This is also referred to as The Anta Koshta.
The most frequent diseases to impact this pathway include cough, vomiting, diarrhea and dyspnoea. They may cause abdominal enlargement due to fever hemorrhoids or dropsy stomach tumors as well as Visarpa (herpes) abscesses and vomiting.46
Madhyama Koshta/ Madhyama Rogamarga – The Middle Path
Madhyama rogamarga refers to a systemic path which encompasses not only the head, heart and urinary bladder but also joints of bones as well as blood vessels, ligaments and tendons. It can lead to consumption, hemiplegia or facial paralysis as well as disorders in other organs as well as stiffness/pain/loss of motion in bones/joints/waist area 47-48
Other symptoms caused by an increase in Dosha
Vata Vriddhi lakshana or Increased vata symptoms
Sramsa– Ptosis Drooping Down Vyasa – Dilation Vyadha – Cutting Pain
Loss of Sensibility when Swapa
Sada Weakening/Impairment of Ruk Pain
Toda means constant pain; Bhedanam means splitting pain. Sanga: Constriction
Sankocha: Shrinkage in organ size or decrease
Harshana: Tinging sensation
Parushya Roughness Parushya Saky is feeling of being empty
Shosha: Dryness spandana pulse Veshtana rigidity as when tied
Sthambha – stiffness Sthambha: stiffness within mouth Kashaya rasata
Aruna, Shyava Varna: blue or discoloration in red
These are abnormal symptoms and signs that indicate an increase in Vayu Vata. 49-50
Pitta Dosha Vriddhi Lakshana – Symptoms of increased pitta dosha
Daha is a burning sensation
Raga has reddish discolorations.
Ushmapakita and Kleda: Heat, Rise in temperature, Development of Ulcers and Pus
Sveda and Kleda: Inflammation with sensation of moistness or wetness
Sruti and Kotha: Putrefaction; Decomposition
Sadana and Murchana are debility ailments while Mada causes toxicities.
Katuka Amla Rasa: Enjoy an intensely bitter and sour flavor in your mouth with this vibrant orange pigment known as Pandu Aruna Varjitaha, with no yellowish white nor crimson hues. 51-52 1/2
Kapha Dosha Vriddhi Lakshana – Symptoms of increased Kapha dosha
Sneha: unctuousness or oiliness Kathinya: hardness Sheetatva: coldness Gaurava: heavy burden Bandha: obstruction
Upalepa: Feels as if one’s clothes are tied loose; Staimitya: Stiffness and lack of movement; Shopha: Inflammation
Atinidrata: Excessive sleep
Shveta Varna: White discoloration.
Svadu lavana rasa: Sweet, salty taste in the mouth Chirakarita: Delays all activities 52 1/2 to 53.
These characteristics of illness must be identified by the doctor through physical examination and other techniques of examination of patients. 54
Important Role of Observation with Patients: In order to comprehend the various stages of disease, doctors must observe their patients every minute.55
Importance of Patient Observation
Successful treatments require constant practice, just as the ability to judge gemstone quality requires deep insight into its science. 56
Trividha roga: Cause of Three Types of Illnesses
Three kinds of illnesses caused by Trividha roga include
an term for illnesses caused by wrong doings from either the present or past lives. Unfortunately, it’s often difficult to pinpoint exactly why these illnesses develop. 57
Conditions that arise due to specific causes that cause Dosha to rise and then manifest as disease symptoms.
Doshakarmaja A combination of bad actions and complicity in the causes of illness can lead to serious illnesses. Unfortunately, symptoms often follow suit. 58
Treatment Options for These Illnesses:
Treatment of doshaja karmaja and dosha karmaja vyadhi
Doshaja ailments are alleviated through food, sports, and medicines that have opposite properties to the root cause.
Karmaja ailments are addressed after the negative consequences of past or present acts have been addressed.
Dosha-Karmaja ailments are purified through the reduction of Dosha and removal of past deeds’ effects.59
Two distinct diseases caused by Dvividha roga
1.Svatantra Roga offers distinct, primary styles of relaxation to meet each person’s individual needs and objectives. Each offers unique motivations, soothing techniques, and clear capabilities.
2.Paratantra Roga – Secondary diseases with associated illnesses that don’t have an identifiable cause.
This condition is the second type.
Purvaja: Premonitory symptoms are indications that occur at the start of a medical condition.
The Upadrava: Complications from Disease, 60-61
In most cases, symptoms associated with Paratantra Roga improve once the primary disease has been managed. But if these complications don’t resolve themselves quickly, treatment must also be given for any secondary ailments that persist.
When the condition is acute, any secondary illnesses should be addressed promptly in order to avoid further debilitation of the body’s already compromised systems.
Name of the Disease in Ayurveda
Doctors shouldn’t feel embarrassed if they don’t know the correct name for an illness as there isn’t a law or custom that requires all diseases to have a label. 64
Doshas vary based on how they enter into various parts of the body and can lead to various diseases. Therefore, when treating a disease, its location of origin must be quickly assessed with an intimate knowledge of its symptoms. 65-66
Dashavidha Parikshya Bhava – Things to Look Out For in a Patient
Things to Look Out For in a Patient
Dashavidha Parikshya Bhava
When interviewing a patient, take some time to look over and decide.
Dushya– – Dhatus and Malas play an integral role in the development of any disease.
Desha – is the region of the body where disease manifests, also referred to as the patient’s location.
Bala refers to patient power; Kala-season indicates age or condition severity, and Anala refers to digestive capacity of the individual.
Prakriti: Body constitution
Vayas : Age of patient and disease
Satva-mind and tolerance towards illness
Satmya: Food habits that the patient is used to.
Ahara : eating habits, and other food preferences.
Avastha is an advanced stage of disease
When making a decision, doctors should look for factors that can influence their judgment. Once determined, they then proceed with determining the aggravation Dosha and prescribing appropriate treatment options. A doctor with such knowledge is unlikely to make mistakes during treatment. 67-68
Symptoms can have a major impact on both physical and psychological wellbeing for those affected by an illness. The severity of the condition depends on how strong or fragile one’s body and mind are, so physicians must remain alert. 69.
Doctors who fail to diagnose the severity of a disease and believe it to be mild may make incorrect treatment decisions due to not understanding its impact on Dosha balance. 70
He may administer drugs or treatments in small, ineffective doses. Unfortunately, this type of approach can lead to an escalation in the severity of their disease due to ineffective treatment.
However, if a patient overstates the severity of an illness and seeks treatment with Panchakarma and oral medications, it can have serious adverse effects on their health. 71- 72
Therefore, doctors must constantly study science to pinpoint the current state of each factor and then prescribe appropriate medications and treatments.73
Dosha Samyoga Samkhya Shloka – Number of combination of Dosha
There are 62 combinations possible when combined with Dosha Samyoga Samkhya, so the total that can be changed and decreased is equal to 62.
Vriddhi means three in a row and when combined with two doshas they become three; nine overall is when there is equal growth from all three doshas, six when one predominates over all others and 6 due to disproportionate subdivisions. Vriddhi itself measures 25 while kshaya measures 25 as well.
Six numbers are formed when you add up both normal, increase, and decrease in one dosha.
Additionally, these include six elements combined with the reduction of one dosha and addition of two new doshas.
Dosha change and decrease can be combined in amounts up to 62.
The 63rd state is achieved when all Doshas are balanced; this state is known as “health,” or the condition of being.78
Rasa, Rakta and their combinations create infinite combinations and effects on our minds. A physician must be cognizant of these symptoms and signs while keeping an open mind to possible causes.79
This concludes the chapter known as Doshabhediya Adhyaya – 12th of Sutrasthana Ashtanga Hridayam.
FAQ’s of Doshabhediya Adhyaya
- what is the sthana of vata dosha?
Pakavasaya, Kati, Sakthi, Shrota, Asthi, Sparshanendriya
- what is the sthana of pitta dosha?
- what is the sthana of kapha dosha?
- what are the types of vata dosha?
Prana, Udana, Vyana, Samana, Apana
- what is the sthana of prana vata?
- what is the sthana of udana vata?
- what are the prana vata functions?
regulates heartbeat,willpower and sense organs as well as intellect and vision.
- what are the udana vata functions?
speech,effort,passion,power,color vision, complexion and memory
- what is the sthana of vyana vata?
situated within the heart,moving across the body with great velocity.
- what are the vyana vata functions?
controls functions such as flexion/extension of muscles (locomotor movement), closure of eyelids, etc. Vyana Vata governs all bodily functions
- what is the sthana of samana vata?
located near digestive fire. kostha-digestive tract
- what are the samana vata functions?
Receiving food into the stomach aids digestion and divides it into useful and waste (Sara & Kitta) components before moving them along their normal routes.
- what is the sthana of apana vata?
Large intestione, located near bladder, waist and genitals
- what are the apana vata functions?
ejaculation, menstruation cycle, defecation, voiding process and childbirth.
- what are the types of pitta dosha?
pachaka, ranjaka, sadhaka, alochaka and bhrajaka
- what is the sthana of pachaka pitta?
between the stomach and large intestine, between Amashaya and pakvashaya.
- what are the pachaka pitta functions?
Paka commonly refers to it by the name Anala, meaning fire, due to its role in processing and digestion ingredients. It cooks food before separating into waste and essence.
- what is the sthana of ranjaka pitta?
- what are the ranjaka pitta functions?
converts digestion product into blood
- what is the sthana of sadhaka pitta?
- what are the sadhaka pitta functions?
Assists us with mental processes such as understanding, intelligence, self–awareness etc. that further our life goals.
- what is the sthana of alochaka pitta?
- what are the alochaka pitta functions?
- what is the sthana of bhrajaka pitta?
- what are the bhrajaka pitta functions?
helps in displaying colors and skin texture.
- which are the types of kapha dosha?
- what is the sthana of Avalambaka kapha?
Chest region and trika pradesha
- what are the avalambak kapha functions?
strength, nourishment, lubrication water and energy
- what is the sthana of kledaka kapha?
- what are the kledaka kapha functions?
moisten food particles and aids digestion
- what is the sthana of bodhaka kapha?
- what are the bodhaka kapha functions?
- what is the sthana of tarpaka kapha?
- what are the tarpaka kapha functions?
nourishment for our sense organs
- what is the sthana of shleshaka kapha?
bones and joints
- what are the shleshaka kapha functions?
Lubricates the joint while helping to strengthen it.