नवमोध्यायः अथातो धमनीव्याकरणं शारीरं व्याख्यास्यामः, यथोवाच भगवान् धन्वन्तरिः।। १।।
Now we shall discourse on the Sharira which treats of the description of the arteries, nerves and ducts, etc.’ (Dhamani-VyakaranaSharira). 1
चतुर्विंशतिर्धमन्यो नाभिप्रभवा अभिहिताः । तत्र केचिदाहुः – सिराधमनीस्रोतसामविभागः, सिराविकारा एव हि धमन्यः स्त्रोतांसि चेति । तत् तु न सम्यक्, अन्या एव हि धमन्यः स्रोतांसि च सिराभ्यः, कस्मात् ? व्यञ्जनान्यत्वान्मूलसन्नियमात् कर्मवैशेष्यादागमाच्च । केवलन्तु परस्परसन्निकर्षात् सदृशागमकर्मत्वात् सौक्ष्म्याच्च विभक्तकर्मणामप्यविभाग इव कर्मसु भवति || २ ||
There are twenty-four Dhamanis (ducts) in all, and all of them have their origins in the naval region (which includes the whole abdominal region²). Several authorities assert that no arbitrary distinctions should be made among the Siras (veins), Dhamanis (arteries), and the Srotas (Channels), since Dhamanis and Srotas are but different modifications of one original kind of Sira (vessels). But
1. Sans. Dhma to be filled with air, so called from the fact of their being distended with air after death.
2. So far, as in foetal life, allantoic arteries and the umbilical veins subserve the purposes of nutrition, excretion, etc. and reflects the rudimentary vascular system.
this opinion is not a sound one inasmuch as they have got different natures, origins and functions and as being described so in the Ayurveda. But owing to their adjacent positions, the existence of several authoritative dicta (Apta-vak)regarding the oneness of their character, similarity of their functions and the minute nature of their shape, they appear to be homologous in their action, even amidst the real diversities in their work and office. 2
तासान्तु नाभिप्रभवाणां धमनीनामूर्ध्वगा दश, दश चाधोगामिन्यः, चतस्रस्तिर्यग्गाः ।। ३॥
Of the twenty-four Dhamanis, which ( originally) have their roots in the naval region (Nabhi), ten have upward course, ten have downward course, and four flow laterally or transversely. 3
ऊर्ध्वगा: शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धप्रश्वासोच्छ्वासजृम्भितक्षुद्धसितकथितरुदितादीन् विशेषानभिवहन्त्यः शरीरं धारयन्ति । तास्तु हृदयमभिप्रपन्नास्त्रिधा जायन्ते-तास्त्रिंशत् । तासान्तु वातपित्तकफशोणितरसान् द्वे द्वे वहतस्ता दश । शब्दरूपरसगन्धानष्टाभिगृहणीते, द्वाभ्यां भाषते, द्वाभ्यां घोषं करोति, द्वाभ्यां स्वपिति, द्वाभ्यां प्रतिबुध्यते । द्वे चाश्रुवाहिण्यौ । द्वे स्तन्यं स्त्रिया वहतः स्तनसंश्रिते, ते एव शुक्रं नरस्य स्तनाभ्यामभिवहतः । तास्त्वेतास्त्रिंशत् सविभागा व्याख्याताः । एताभिरूर्ध्वं नाभेरुदरपार्श्वपृष्ठोर: स्कन्धग्रीवाबाहवो धार्यन्ते याप्यन्ते च ॥ ४॥
Functions of the up-coursing Dhamanis : The ten up-coursing Dhamanis (nerves) perform such specific functions of the body, as sound, touch, taste, sight, smell, inspiration, expiration, sighing, yawning, sneezing, laughter, speech and weeping etc. and tend to maintain the integrity of the body. These Dhamanis, reaching the heart, respectively ramify themselves into three branches, thus making thirty (ramifications in all). Ten of these serve the following purposes, viz., two serve as the channels of the bodily Vayu, two of the Pitta, two of the Kapha, two of the blood, and two of the Rasa (lymph chyle). Eight of the remaining ones (twenty), serve the following functions, viz., two of them carry sound, two sight or colour, two smell, and two taste. Moreover a man speaks with the help of another couple, produces sound with the help of other pair, sleeps through the instrumentality of another pair (couple), and wakes up with the help of another couple. Two of the Dhamanis (ducts ) carry the fluid of lachrymation, two of them (ducts) attached to the breasts of a woman, carry milk of her breasts, the same two carry semen coursing through the breast of a man. Thus we have described the thirty Dhamanis with their ramifications. These sustain and maintain the integrity (of the limbs and members of the body) above the (line of) umbilicus, such as the Udara, the sides, the back the chest, the neck, the shoulders and the arms. 4
भवति चात्र ऊर्ध्वंगतास्तु कुर्वन्ति कर्माण्येतानि सर्वशः । अधोगमास्तु वक्ष्यामि कर्म तासां यथायथम् ।। ५ ।।
Memorable Verse: The up-coursing Dhamanis duly perform the offices stated above. Now I shall describe the specific functions, etc., (i.e., nature, office, and situations, etc.,) of the down-coursing ones. 5
अधोगमास्तु वातमूत्रपुरीषशुक्रार्त्तवादीन्यधो वहन्ति । तास्तु पित्ताशयमभिप्र(ति) पन्नास्तत्रस्थमेवान्नपानरसं विपक्वमौष्ण्याद् विवेचयन्त्योऽभिवहन्त्यः शरीरं तर्पयन्ति, अर्पयन्ति चोर्ध्वं गतानां तिर्यग्गतानाञ्च, रसस्थानञ्चाभिपूरयन्ति, मूत्रपुरीषस्वेदांश्च विवेचयन्ति, आमपक्वाशयान्तरे च त्रिधा जायन्ते, तास्त्रिंशत् । तासान्तु वातपित्तकफशोणितरसान् द्वे द्वे वहतस्ता दश, द्वे अन्नवाहिन्यावन्त्राश्रिते, तोयवहे द्वे, मूत्रबस्तिमभिप्रपन्ने मूत्रवहे द्वे, शुक्रवहे द्वे शुक्रप्रादुर्भावाय, द्वे विसर्गाय, ते एव रक्तमभिवहतो विसृजतश्च नारीणामार्त्तवसंज्ञम् । द्वे वर्चोनिरसन्यौ स्थूलान्त्रप्रतिबद्धे, अष्टावन्यास्तिर्यग्गाणां धमनीनां स्वेदमर्पयन्ति । तास्त्वेतास्त्रिंशत् सविभागा व्याख्याताः । एताभिरधोनामे: पक्वाशयकटीमूत्रपुरीष- गुदबस्तिमेढ्रसक्थीनि धार्यन्ते याप्यन्ते च ॥ ६ ॥
Functions of the down-coursing Dhamanis : The downcoursing Dhamanis respectively form the channels, for the downward conveyance of Vayu (flatus), urine, stool, semen and catamenial fluid, etc. These Dhamanis reaching down into the Pittasaya (receptacle of the Pitta) separate the serum prepared out of the food and drink through the agency of the local heat (and Pitta), and carry it to the remotest parts of the organism maintaining their healthy moisture, supplying them with the necessary principles of nutrition and (ultimately) conveying them to the parts traversed by them respectively. Thus they indirectly serve to supply the heart with its quota of healthy Rasa (scrus fluid), if not in a direct way. Moreover they tend to separate the effetematter (urine, stool and sweat) from the fully transformed lymph-chyle in the abdomen, the stomach and the small intestines (Amasaya and Pakvasaya). Each of the down-coursing Dhamanis is found to ramify into three branches at a place midway between the Amasaya (stomach) and the Pakvasaya (intestines). Thus they number thirty in all. The functions of the ten out of these (thirty vessels) are as follows, viz., two serve to carry Vayu, two Pitta, two kapha two blood, and two Rasa (lymph-chyle). Two of these Dhamanis, running into the intestines, carry the food, another two carry the Toya¹ (watery) part, another two, running into the bladder, serve to carry out the urine (from the bladder), another two carry the semen, and another two serve as the channels of transmission and emission of the same fluid and serve to carry the ovarian discharge in women./The two Dhamanis, attached to the large intestine (Sthulantra), serve as the channels of faecal matter, while the remaining eight convey perspiration to the lateral-coursing Dhamanis. Thus we have finished describing these thirty Dhamanis with their ramifications. These sustain and maintain the integrity of the parts of the body below the naval region, such as the Pakvasaya (Intestine), the waist, the organic principles of stool and urine, the organs of generation, the anus, the bladder, and the lower limbs of the body (Sakthi) (according to their utility in the physical economy of the organism). 6 (
भवति चात्र ।
अधोगमास्तु कुर्वन्ति कर्माण्येतानि सर्वशः । तिर्यग्गाः प्रवक्ष्यामि कर्म तासां यथायथम् ।। ७ ।।
Memorable Verse: These down-coursing Dhamanis perform the afore-said functions. Now I shall describe the specific functions (i.e., nature, office, and situations, etc.,) of the lateral-coursing Dhamanis. 7
तिर्यग्गाणान्तु चतसृणां धमनीनामेकैका शतधा सहस्रधा चोत्तरोत्तरं विभज्यन्ते, तास्त्वसंख्येयाः। ताभिरिदं शरीरं गवाक्षितं
1. This watery part reaching the bladder is transformed into urine.
विबद्धमाततञ्च । तासां मुखानि रोमकूपप्रतिबद्धानि; यैः स्वेदमभिवहन्ति रसञ्चापि सन्तर्पयन्त्यन्तर्बहिश्च, तैरेव चाभ्यङ्गपरिषेकावगाहालेपनवीत्वचि विपक्वानि, तैरेव च स्पर्शं सुखमसुखं वा गृह्णाति । तास्त्वेताश्चतस्त्रो धमन्यः सर्वाङ्गगताः सविभागा व्याख्याताः ।। ८ ।। र्याण्यन्तःशरीरमभिप्रतिपद्यन्ते ।
Functions of the lateral-coursing Dhamanis : The four lateralcoursing Dhamanis, gradually ramifying themselves into hundreds and thousand of branches, simply baffle counting. The network of these Dhamanis spreads over the whole organism and maintain its integrity. Their exterior orifices are attached to the roots of hairs (pores of the skin) through which they convey the perspiration and the Rasa ( serum), thus supplying the body, both internally and externally, with the soothing nutritions (moisture of healthy lymph-chyle). The effects and potencies of the articles of anointment, sprinkling, immersion and platers, enter through these orifices into the internal organism through the agency of the heat in the skin, and sensation of a pleasant or painful contact are experienced through their instrumentality. Thus we have finished describing the four lateral-coursing Dhamanis with their ramifications throughout the whole organism. 8
भवति चात्र ।
यथा स्वभावतः खानि मृणालेषु विसेषु च । धमनीनां तथा खानि रसो यैरुपचीयते ।। ९ ।।
पञ्चाभिभूतास्त्वथ पञ्चकृत्वः पञ्चेन्द्रियं पञ्चसु भावयन्ति | पञ्चेन्द्रियं पञ्चसु भावयित्वा पञ्चत्वामायान्ति विनाशकाले ।। १० ।।
Memorable Verses: The Dhamanis have got pores in their sides through which they carry the Rasa (lymph-chyle) throughout the organism, like the filaments and fibres of water-lily and lotus. These Dhamanis furnish the self-conscious Ego, confined in the material body, which is the resultant of the combination of the five material elements, with a distinct sensations’ similar to each of the five senseorgans 2 and break up the combination (of the five material elements) at the time of death. 9-10
1. Hearing, touch, smell, taste and sight.
2. Eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin.
अत ऊर्ध्वं स्त्रोतसां मूलविद्धलक्षणमुपदेक्ष्यामः । तानि तु प्राणान्नोदकरसरक्तमांसमेदोमूत्रपुरीषशुक्रार्त्तववहानि, येष्वधिकारः, एकेषां बहूनि । एतेषां विशेषा बहवः ।। ११ ।।
Now we shall describe the symptoms produced by a Srota (duct or channel) pierced at its root or starting point. The ducts or channels respectively conveying the life, the food, the water, (the organic principle of) the Rasa ( serum), the blood, the muscles, the fat, the urine, the stool, the semen, and the catamenial blood, naturally fall within the scope of Surgery (Salya-tantra), Several authorities assert that the Srotas (vessels) are innumerable¹, and perform different functions in their different aspects. 11
तत्र प्राणवहे द्वे, तयोर्मूलं हृदयं रसवाहिन्यश्च धमन्यः; तत्र विद्धस्य क्रोशनविनमनमोहनभ्रमणवेपनानि मरणं वा भवति । अन्नवहे द्वे, तयोर्मूलमाभाशयोऽन्नवाहिन्यश्च धमन्यः; तत्र विद्धस्याध्मानं शूलोऽन्नद्वेषश्छर्दिः पिपासाऽऽन्ध्यं मरणं वा । उदकवहे द्वे, तयोर्मूलं तालु क्लोम च; तत्र विद्धस्य पिपासा सद्योमरणञ्च | रसवहे द्वे, तयोर्मूलं हृदयं रसवाहिन्यश्च धमन्यः; तत्र विद्धस्य शोष: प्राणवहविद्धवच्च मरणं तल्लिङ्गानि च ।। १२ ।। 2007″
The two Srotas ( channels) of Prana (bronchi) have their roots in the heart and the Rasa-carrying Dhamanis (pulmonary arteries ). An injury to any of these Srotas (vessels) produces groaning, bending down of the body, loss of consciousness (Moha), illusion and shivering, or may ultimately prove fatal. The food-carrying Srotas ( Esophagus ) have their roots in the Amasaya (stomach) and in the food-carrying Dhamanis (intestines ). An injury to or piercing of such a duct (Srota), gives rise to tympanitis, colic pain, aversion to food, vomitting, thirst, blindness or darkness of vision, or may even end in death. There are two water-carrying (Udaka-vaha) ducts or channels which have their roots in the palate and the Kloma, and a piercing of any of these makes the patient thirsty and ends in his instantaneous death (i.e., within seven days). The serum-carrying (Rasa-vaha) ducts are two in number
1. But this science does not take any cognisance of them, since the pain incidental to a piercing of, or an injury to, any of these extremely attenuated channels. must be slight in its character.
and have their roots in (the viscus of) the heart and the serum-carrying Dhamanis (vessels). An injury to or piercing of any of these ducts gives rise to Sosa (consumption) and symptoms identical with those developed by a hurt to the Prana-vaha channels of the body, ending in death. 12
रक्तवहे द्वे, तयोर्मूलं यकृत्प्लीहानौ रक्तवाहिन्यश्च धमन्यः; तत्र विद्वस्य श्यावाङ्गता ज्वरो दाहः पाण्डुता शोणितागमनं रक्तनेत्रता च। मांसवहे द्वे, तयोर्मूलं स्नायु॑त्वचं रक्तवहाश्च धमन्यः; तत्र विद्धस्य श्वयथुर्मासशोष: सिराग्रन्थयो मरणं वा । मेदोवहे द्वे, तयोर्मूलं कटी वृक्क च; तत्र विद्धस्य स्वेदागमनं स्निग्धाङ्गता तालुशोष स्थूलशोफता पिपासा च । मूत्रवहे द्वे, तयीर्मूलं बस्तिर्मेद्रञ्च; तत्र विद्धस्यानद्धबस्तिता मूत्रनिरोधः स्तब्धमेढ्रता च ॥ १३ ॥ deding l
The blood-carrying Srotas (channels) are two in number and have their roots in the spleen and the liver, and the blood-carrying Dhamanis (capillaries in general). An injury to any of these channels is attended with pallor, bluishness of complexion, fever. burning sensations, haemorrhage, and redness of the eyes. The two musclecarrying Srotas ( ducts or channels ) have their roots in the Snayu), nerves Tvak (serum), and the blood-carrying Dhamants (capilaries). An injury to any of these channels is characterised by swelling, loss or atrophy of the muscles, appearance of varicose veins or may (ultimately) result in death. The fat-carrying Srotas (ducts) are two in number and have their roots in the region of the Kati (waist) and the Vrkkas (kidneys ). An injury to any of these bring in ( a copious flow of) perspiration, oily gloss of the skin, parched condition of the palate. extensive swelling (of the affected locality) and thirst. The two urine carrying Srotas (channels) have their roots in the bladder and the penis (urethra). An injury to any of these is marked by constipation er epistaxis in the bladder, retention of urine, and numbness of the genitals. 13
पुरीषवहे द्वे, तयोर्मूलं पक्वाशयो गुदञ्च; तत्र विद्धस्यानाहो दुर्गन्धता ग्रथितान्त्रता च । शुक्रवहे द्वे, तयोर्मूलं स्तनौ वृषणौ च; तत्र विद्धस्य क्लीबता चिरात प्रसेको रक्तशुक्रता चा आर्त्तववहे द्वे, तयोर्मूलं गर्भाशय आर्त्तववाहिन्यश्च धमन्यः, तत्र विद्धाया वन्ध्यात्वं
मैथुनासहिष्णुत्वमार्त्तवनाशश्च । सेवनीच्छेदाद्वजाप्रादुर्भावः । बस्तिगुदविद्धलक्षणं प्रागुक्तमिति । स्रोतोविद्धन्तु प्रत्याख्यायोपचरेदुद्धृतशल्यन्तु क्षतविधानेनोपचरेत् ।। १४ ।।
The two Stool-carrying Srotas (ducts) have their roots in the Guda (anus) and the Pakvasaya (intestines); an injury to any of these is characterised by complete retention of stool (in the bowels), accompanied by a distension of the abdomen, foul smell and intussuception of the intestine (as in a case of enteritis), the two semencarrying Srotas (ducts) have their roots in the breasts and the testes. An injury to any of them leads to loss of manhood, delayed emission of semen, or blood-streaked character of that fluid. The two Artavacarrying Srotas (ducts) have their roots in the uterus as well as in the Dhamanis which carry the Artava (Ovarian product), An injury to any of these brings on sterility, suppression of the menses and incapacity for copulation. A cutting pain to the Sevani (median raphe of the perineum) exhibits symptoms identical with those of a case of injured bladder or anus, described before. A physician may take in hand the medical treatment in a case of Srota which has been pierced, but he shall not necessarily entertain any hope of ultimate success. (But time works wonders and such a case may sometimes end in recovery). A case of pierced duct, from which the dart (Salya, or the like piercing matter) has been extricated, may be medically treated (without holding out any prospect of recovery of the friends of the patient), according to the direction laid down under the head of ulcer (Vrana). 14
भवति चात्र | मूलात् खादन्तरं देहे प्रसृतन्त्वभिवाहि यत् । स्त्रोतस्तदिति विज्ञेयं सिराधमनिवर्ज्जितम् ।। १५ ।।
Metrical Text: The ducts emanating from the cavity of the heart. other than the Siras (veins), Dhamaniis (arteries), and found to course through the whole body, are called Srotas (lit. channels or currents). 15
इति सुश्रुतसंहितायां शारीरस्थाने धमनीव्याकरणशारीरं
नाम नवमोऽध्यायः ।। ९ ।।
Thus ends the ninth Chapter of the Sharira Sthana in the the Susruta Samhita which treats of the descriptions of the arteries, ducts and nerves.