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Charaka SamhitaCharakasamhita Sutrasthana Chapter 13 - Snehadhyaya - Chapter on Oleation

Charakasamhita Sutrasthana Chapter 13 – Snehadhyaya – Chapter on Oleation


अथातः स्नेहाध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः ॥ १॥ इति हि स्माह भगवानात्रेयः ॥ २ ॥

We shall now expound the Chapter on ‘Oleation.’ Thus said Lord atreya. [ 1–2 ]

In the preceding quadrate informations have been furnished about physician, medicine, etc. Now the various therapeutic measures helping in alleviation of the vitiated dosas, are going to be explained in the present quadrate. Such measures cannot be explained with an exposition of various therapies which in fact constitute them. Thus, oleation, fomentation, emesis and purgation therapies based on the drugs having unctuous and other properties are being explained here. In view of the lengthy details involved, the enema (basti) therapy has not been explained in this quadrate.

The present chapter deals with oleation therapy which constitutes the best remedy for alleviating the vata-the most important among all the dosas. Even otherwise, oleation therapy is the first to be administered before the application of the panchakarma therapy.

A Dialogue of teacher and taught :

सांख्यैः संख्यातसंख्येयैः सहासीनं पुनर्वसुम् । जगद्धितार्थ पप्रच्छ वह्निवेशः स्वसंशयम् ॥ ३

(Once upon a time), Lord Punarvasu was sitting with scholars well-versed in the science. Agnivesa placed ( some of ) his doubts before him for the sake of the well-being of the universe. [ 3 ]

Questions regarding oils and fats

किंयोनयः कति स्नेहाः के च स्नेहगुणाः पृथक् । कालानुपाने के कस्य कति काश्च विचारणाः ॥ ४ ॥ कति मात्राः कथंमानाः का च केषूपदिश्यते । कश्च केभ्यो हितः स्नेहः प्रकर्षः स्नेहने चकः ॥ ५ ॥ स्नेह्याः के के न च स्निग्धास्निग्धातिस्निग्धलक्षणम् । किं पानात् प्रथमं पीते जीर्णे किंच हिताहितम् ॥ ६ ॥ के मृदुक्रूरकोष्टाः का व्यापदः सिद्धयश्च काः । अच्छे संशोधने चैव स्नेहे का वृत्तिरिष्यते ॥ ७ ॥ विचारणाः केषु योज्या विधिना केन तत् प्रभो ! । स्नेहस्यामितविज्ञानं ज्ञानमिच्छामि वेदितुम् ॥ ८ ॥

1. What are the sources of unctuous substances ?

2. What are the types of unctuous substances ?

3. What are the qualities of different unctuous substances ? 4. What are the appropriate times and anupanas (substance to be taken with or after the intake of medicine) for administering different types of unctuous substances ?

What and how many are the recipes of unctuous substances ? [4] 5.

6. What are the different types of dosage and

7. What are the measures ?

8. Again, which specific dose should be prescribed for whom?

9. Which unctuous substance is beneficial for whom?

10. What are the maximum and minimum durations of oleation ? [5]

11. What are the indications and cortra-indications for oleation?

12. What are the features of proper oleation, non-oleation and excessive oleation?

13. What is beneficial and what is harmful before and after the intake of fats, and also after its complete digestion ? [6]

14. What are the features of mrdukostha ( laxed bowel) and krurakostha (costive bowel)?

15. What are the complications of oleation therapy and what are their managements ?

16. What is the regimen prescribed during oleation therapy of both types administered for elimination or as palliative measure ? [7]

17. What recipes should be given to whom and how are they to be prepared ?

I want to know all these about oils and fats, O my Lord! [8]

Unctuous substances can be administered in two different ways either alone or mixed up with other substances. The latter is known as vicarana (recipe).

Sources of oils and fats

अथ तत्संशयच्छेत्ता प्रत्युवाच पुनर्वसुः | स्नेहानां द्विविधा सौम्य योनिः स्थावरजङ्गमा ॥ ९ ॥

Then, with a view to removing the doubts of Agnivesa, Lord Punarvasu replied, “There are two sources of unctuous substances, viz vegetable and animal”. [9]

Vegetable and animal sources

तिलः प्रियालाभिषुको बिभीतकश्चित्राभयैरण्डमधूकसर्षपाः । कुसुम्भबिल्वारुक मूलकातसीनिकोचकाक्षोडकरञ्जशिकाः ॥ १० ॥

स्नेहाशयाः स्थावरसंज्ञितास्तथा स्युर्जङ्गमा मत्स्यमृगाः सपक्षिणः । तेषां दधिक्षीरघृतामिषं वसा स्नेद्वेषु मजा च तथोपदिश्यते ॥ ११ ॥ Tila (Sesamum indicum Linn.), Priyala (Buchanania lanzan Spreng.), abhisuka (Pistacea vera Linn.), bibhitaka (Terminalia belerica Roxb.), citra (Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg.), abhaya (Terminalia chebula Linn.), eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.), madhuka ( Madhuca indica J. F. Gmel. ), sarsapa Brassica nigra Koch. ), kusumbha (Carthamus tinctorius Linn.), bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr. ), aruka (Prunus persica Linn.), mulaka ( Raphanus sativas Linn.), atasi ( Linum usitatissimum Linn.), nikocaka (Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.), aksoda (Aleurites moluccana Willd.), karanja (Pongamia pinnata Merr.), and sigruka ( Moringa oleifera Lam.) -these are the vegetable sources of oil. The fish, four footed animals and birds constitute the sources of animal fat. Curd, milk, ghee, meat, (muscle) fat and (bone) marrow of these animals and birds are administered as unctuous substances. [10-11] The unctuous substances, enumerated above are those which are unctuous substances commonly used. Besides, there are other sources of like the oil of nimba ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss. ), etc.

Properties of Sesamum oil and castor oil

सर्वेषां तैलजातानां तिलतैलं विशिष्यते । बलार्थ स्नेहने चाग्यसैरण्डं तु विरेचने ॥ १२ ॥

वातश्लेष्महरं गुरु | योजितं पित्तन्त्रपि ॥ ११ ॥ ) ( कटूष्णं तैलमैरण्ड कषायस्वादुतिक्तैश्च

Of all the varieties, oil of tila ( Sesamum indicum Linn.) is the most efficacious for the purpose of strength and oleation; oil of eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) for purgation. Castor oil is katu ( pungent), hot, alleviator of vata and kapha and heavy. When mixed up with drugs possessing astringent, sweet and bitter tastes, it alleviates pitta also. [12]

Etymologically speaking, the word ‘taila’ means only oil extracted from tila (Sesamum indicum Linn.), but by convention, the term is used to denote all varieties of oils in view of similar method of extraction and properties-cf. Susruta: Sutra 45 : 130.

Types of unctuous substances

In spite of the fact that ghee transforms itself so as to imbibe roughness and hotness of Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) added to it it etc. ghee, oil, muscle

सर्पिस्तैलं वसा मज्जा सर्वस्नेहोत्तमा मताः । पषु चैवोत्तमं

Ghee, oil, muscle fat and bone marrow are the best unctuous substances of all. Amongst them ghee is the unctuous substance par excellence because of its power to assimilate effectively the properties of other substances. [ 13 ]

सर्पिः संस्कारस्यानुवर्तनात् ॥ १३ ॥

Of all the unctuous substances like curd, milk, fat and bone marrow are the most important ones because of the excellence in their unctuous qualities. Then again, ghee is the unctuous substance par-excellence. This is because, over and above the excellence in its unctuous qualities, ghee has a remarkable property to assimilate the properties of other substances when added to it. In other words, ghee has the capacity to transform itself so as to imbibe all the qualities of the substances added to it. This assimilating property is not so prominent in other unctuous substances like oil, etc.-cf. Nidana 1:39. It is particularly significant that ghee does not give up its own properties even if it is mixed up with substances possessing other properties. With its own qualities intact, it has the capacity to transform itself so as to inbibe the qualities of substances added to it. As it has been said, “Ghee alleviates the vata due to its unctuous quality and pitta due to its sweetness and coolness. Even though, kapha possesses qualities (like sweetness, coldness, unctuousness, etc.) homologous with ghee, the latter when mixed up with drugs possessing opposite qualities, alleviates the former has the capacity to maintain its own qualities like unctuousness and coldness. So, even if drugs possessing altogether contradictory qualities are added to it, it does not give up, its primary quality of unctuousness. Secondary qualities like coldness, etc. might of course sometimes be overcome by substances of contradictory qualities when added to it.

Others hold the view that assimilation of the properties of other drugs is complete only when the substance which assimilates the properties of others gives up its own qualities altogether. Judged from this angle, oil is the best unctuous substance in the sense that it does not only assimilate the substance added to it but also it foregoes its own properties. That is why for the alleviation of bodily heat during fever, oil mixed up with substances having cooling property like Chandana (Santalum album Linn.) is prescribed-of. Chikitsa 3: 258. Even though, oil itself is hot, when mixed up with drugs possessing cooling properties, it imbibes the cooling property in place of its own heating property. This radical transformation of qualities is not possible in ghee as explained above.

Properties of ghee

घृतं पित्तानिलहरं रसशुक्रौजसां हितम् । मृदुकरं स्वरवर्णप्रसादनम् ॥ १४ ॥ faatqui

Ghee alleviates pitta and vata, it is conducive to rasadhatu, sukradhatu (semen) and ojas. It has cooling and softening effect upon the body. It adds to the clarity of the voice and complexion. [14]

Properties of oils

मारुतघ्नं न च श्लेष्मवर्धनं बलवर्धनम् । त्वच्यमुष्णं स्थिरकरं तैलं योनिविशोधनम् ॥ १५ ॥

Oil alleviates vata. It does not, however, aggravate kapha. It promotes bodily strength. It is beneficial for the skin. It is hot, stabiliser and it controls the morbidity of the female genital organs. [15]

Properties of muscle fat

विद्धभग्नाहत भ्रप्रयोनिकर्णशिरोरुजि 1

पौरुषोपचये स्नेहे व्यायामे चेष्यते वसा ॥ १६ ॥

The (muscle) fat is prescribed for the treatment of injury, fracture, trauma, prolapse uterus, earache and headache. It enhances the virility of a person. It helps in oleation and it is useful for those who practise physical exercises. [16]

Properties of bone marrow


मज्जा विशेषतोऽस्थां च बलकृत् स्नेहने हितः ॥ १७ ॥

The (bone) marrow enhances, strength, sukra (semen). rasadhatu, kapha, medodhatu (fat) and majja (marrow). It adds to the physical strength, specially of the bones and is useful for oleation. [17]

Seasonal indications for different types of unctuous substances

सर्पिः शरदि पातव्यं वसा मज्जा च माधवे ।

तैलं प्रावृषि नात्युष्णशीते स्नेहं पिवेन्नरः ॥ १८ ॥

(bone) marrow in the month of during the rainy (pravrt ) season. Ghee is to be taken in autumn (sarat), (muscle ) fat and Vaisakha (April-may) and oil One should not take any of the unctuous substances when it is extremely hot or cold. [ 18 ]

Ghee is to be taken during the autumn because pitta gets aggravated in this season and ghee alone (of all the unctuous substances) is an antidote for pitta. The muscle fat and marrow are neither too hot nor too cold. Ghee alleviates pitta due to its coldness, taila alleviates vata and kapha due to hotness. The muscle fat and marrow being neither hot nor cold, their capacity to alleviate the dosas is of mediocre type. As it will be said, “Oil, muscle fat, marrow and ghee are useful in order of priority in so far as the alleviation of vata and kapha is concerned. For alleviating pitta, they are useful in order of posteriority. It will be seen that in both these cases, muscle fat and marrow occupy mediocre positioncf. Vimana 8: 150. Being themselves neither too hot nor too cold, the anupanas prescribed alongwith them are also neither too hot nor too cold. cf. Sutra 27: 295. So they are prescribed for use in the month of Vaisakha when the bodily strength and dhatus undergo diminishing process and the season is neither too hot nor too cold. They are useful because their hotness and coldness are of moderate nature and they are conducive to the enhancement of strength and dhatus. Caitra (MarchApril) even though having a moderate temperature is not the proper month for oleation therapy because kapha predominates during this time.

It is true, oleation therapy is not to be applied or administered when it is too hot or too cold. But it does not apply to patients suffering from acute diseases. In such cases, oleation therapy is prescribed even if it is too hot or too cold.

Time for the administration of fats

वार्तापित्ताधिको रात्रावृष्णे चापि पिवेन्नरः । लेष्माधिको दिवा शीते पिंवेच्चामलभास्करे ।। १९ ।।

In the event of the vitiation of vata and or pitta, and during the summer in general, oleation therapy should be administered in the evening. When the kapha is vitiated and in the winter in general, this therapy is to be administered in the midday. [ 19 ]

Vitiation of kapha in the above passage includes even such cases which are accompanied by the vitiation of vata and pitta as well. So even the patients, suffering from the diseases where both vata and kapha or pitta and kapha are vitiated, are required to be administered oleation therapy during the day time-cf. Susruta: Chikitsa-31 : 22.

Complications of untimely administration of fats

अत्युष्णे वा दिवा पीतो वातपित्ताधिकेन वा । मूर्च्छा पिपासामुन्मादं कामलां वा समीरयेत् ॥ २० ॥ शीते रात्रौ पिवन् स्नेहं नरः श्लेष्माधिकोऽपि वा । आनाहमरुचिं शूलं पाण्डुतां वा समृच्छति ॥ २१ ॥

If oleation therapy is administered during the day time in summer or to patients suffering from diseases dominated by the vitiation of vata or pitta, this may cause fainting, thirst, insanity or jaundice.

If one suffering from diseases dominated by the vitiation of kapha or any patient suffering from a disease during the course of the winter, is administered this therapy in the evening, he would fall a victim of anaha ( constipation), anorexia, colic pain and anaemia. [20-21]

The seriousness or otherwise of these complications enumerated above, would depend upon the combination of the prohibited timings and the vitiation of the dosas causing the concerned diseases. For example, if a person suffering from an acute disease dominated by the vitiation of kapha is administered oleation therapy in the evening during the winter, his susceptibility to anaha (constipation), etc. would be of the most serious type.

Anupana for unctuous substances

जलमुष्णं घृते पेयं यूपस्तैलैऽनु शस्यते । वसामज्ज्ञोस्तु मण्डः स्यात् सर्वेपूष्णमथाम्बु वा ॥ २२ ॥

Ghee is to be taken with the anupana of hot water, oil with that of yusa (vegetable soup), muscle fat and bone marrow with that of manda (thin gruel). Or all these unctuous substances may be taken with the anupana of hot water. [22]

The dosage of anupana may be determined according to the efficacy of the drugs concerned or according to the pharmaceutical process involved or the conventions set up by the experienced physicians.

Twenty four recipes of oils and fats

ओदनश्च विलेपीच रसो मांसं पयो दद्धि । यवागू: सूपशाकौ च यूषः काम्बलिकः खडः ॥ २३ ॥ सक्तवस्तिलपिष्टं च मद्यं लेहास्तथैव च । चोत्तरवस्तयः ॥ २४ ॥ भक्ष्यमभ्यञ्जनं बस्तिस्तथा गण्डूषः कर्णतैलं च नस्तःकर्णाक्षितर्पणम् । चतुर्विंशतिरित्येताः स्नेहस्य प्रविचारणाः ॥ २५ ॥

The following are the twenty four forms of preparation of unctuous substances;-(1) odana (porridge), (2) vilepin (a type of gruel prepared with four times.of water ), (3) rasa (meat soup), (4) meat, (5) milk, (6) curd, (7) yavagu ( type of gruel prepared with six times of water), (8) pulse, (9) curry, (10) vegetable soup, (11) kambalika (sour milk mixed with whay and vinegar MW), ( 12 ) khada (butter milk boiled with acid vegetables and spices MW. ), (13) saktu ( roasted grain flour), (14) pastry prepared of tila ( Sesamum indicum Linn.), (15) liquor, ( 16 ) linctus, ( 17 ) bhaksya ( food involving mastication in intake MW. ), (18) massage, (19) enema, (20) douche, (21) gargle, (22) ear drop, (23) inhalation, (24) preparations soothing to the ears and eyes. [23-25]

The twentyfour forms of preparation are enumerated in the above passage. Preparation of soup mixed up with vegetable leaves is known as khada. Kambalika preparation is the one which is slightly sour in taste due to its mixing up with curd, salt, unctuous substance, tila (Sesamum indicum Linn.), etc. The soup well cooked and mixed up in butter milk with kapittha (Feronia limohia Swingle), maricha (Piper nigrum Linn.), ajaji (Cuminum cyminum Linn.) and Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) is known as khada. The same is known as kambalika if it is boiled with curd together with salt, unctuous substance, tila ( Sesamum indicum Linn.) and masa (Phaseolus radiatus Linn.), and is acidic in taste.

Linctus is prepared by boiling an unctuous substance with sugar, etc. All these twenty four relate to the possible forms of preparation of unctuous substances.

Intake of simple (unmixed) inctuous substance in known as ‘acchapeya’. As regards abhyanjana form of preparation, it is also a product of unmixed unctuous substance. But it is used only externally and no internal administration is involved, thereby, it does not come in contact with jatharagni, Thus it is not included under the category of vicarana.

Importance of pure fat administration

अच्छपेयस्तु यः स्नेहो न तामाहुविचारणाम् । स्नेहस्य स भिषग्दृष्टः कल्पः प्राथमकल्पिकः ॥ २६ ॥

Intake of simple (unmixed) unctuous substance is not included under the category of vicarana (because on preparation as such is involved therein ). This intake of simple ( unmixed) unctuous substance is regarded by physicians as the best oleation therapy. [ [26]

Classification of fat preparations

रसैश्योपहितः स्नेहः समासव्यासयोगिभिः । षड् भित्रिषष्टिधा संख्यां प्राप्नोत्येकश्च केवलः ॥ २७ ॥ एवमेताश्चतुःषष्टिः स्नेहानां प्रविचारणा । ओकर्तुव्याधिपुरुषान् प्रयोज्या जानता भवेत् ॥ २८ ॥

Unctuous preparetions are of sixty three types depending on their association with the drugs having six rasas (tastes) in isolation or variant combination. Together with the simple (unmixed) ones, these substances are of sixty four types. A physician, conversant with the habit, seasons, diseases and individual requirements should accordingly administer these sixty four types of preparations of unctuous substances. [27-28 ]

The sixtyfour types of preparation, mentioned above, do not include acchapeya, that is, intake of simple unmixed substance. Only massage, etc. come under this category.

Not that all these preparations are to be administered everywhere. Specific preparations are to be administerd according to the requirements of individual patients with due regard to their habits, the season in which a disease has occured and his nature, age, strength and habit.

Dose schedule for fat administration

अहोरात्रमहः कृत्स्नमर्धाहं च प्रतीक्षते । प्रधाना मध्यमा ह्रस्वा स्नेहमात्रा जरां प्रति ॥ ९ ॥ इति तिस्रः समुद्दिष्टा मात्राः स्नेहस्य मानतः । तासां प्रयोगान् वक्ष्यामि पुरुषं पुरुषं प्रति ॥ ३० ॥ प्रभूतस्नेहनित्या ये क्षुत्पिपासासहा नराः । पावकश्चोत्तमवलो येषां ये चोत्तमा वले ॥ ३१ ॥ गुल्मिनः सर्पदष्टाश्च विसर्पोपहताश्च ये । उन्मत्ताः कृच्छ्रमूत्राच गाढवर्चस एव च ॥ ३२ ॥ पिवेयुरुत्तमां मात्रां तस्याः पाने गुणाञ्छृणु | विकाराञ्छमयत्येषा शीघ्रं सम्यक्प्रयोजिता ॥ ३३ ॥ दोषानुकर्षिणी मात्रा सर्वमार्गानुसारिणी । बल्या पुनर्नवकरी शरीरेन्द्रियचेतसाम् ॥ ३४ ॥ अरुष्कस्फोटपिडकाकण्डूपामाभिरर्दिताः । कुष्टिनश्च प्रमीढाश्च वातशोणितिकाञ्च ये ॥ ३५ ॥ नातिबहाशिनचैव मृदुकोष्ठास्तथैव पिवेयुर्मध्यमां मात्रां मध्यमाश्चापि ये बले ॥ ३६॥ मात्रैषा मन्दविभ्रंशा न चातिवलहारिणी । सुखेन च स्नेहयति शोधनार्थे च युज्यते ॥ ३७ ॥ तु वृद्धाश्च बालाश्च सुकुमाराः सुखोचिताः । रिक्तकोष्ठत्वमहितं येषां मन्दाग्नयश्च ये ।। ३८ ।। ज्वरातीसारकासाश्च येषां चिरसमुत्थिताः । स्नेहमात्रां पिवेयुस्ते ह्रस्वां ये चावरा बले ॥ ३९ ॥ परिहारे सुखा चैषा मात्रा स्नेहनबृंहणी । वृष्या बल्या निराबाधा चिरं चाप्यनुवर्तते ॥ ४० ॥ यें च ।

The dosage of the oleation therapy is of three types, depending upon the time taken for its digestion. The dose of unctuous substance that requires 24 hours for its digestion is of the first type ( superior ). The one requiring the whole day is of the second type (moderate ) and the one requiring six hours only is of the third type (inferior).

We shall now explain their administration according to the individual needs. Those who are in the habit of taking adequate quantity of unctuous substance and have resistance to hunger and thirst, whose power of digestion is strong enough, those who are themselves very strong, those suffering from gulma (abdominal tumour), snake bite, visarpa ( skin diseases characterised by an acute spread ), insanity, dysuria, hard stool should use the first (that is superior) type of dose of oleation therapy.

The following are the effects of its intake. If properly administered. it alleviates all ailments instantaneously; it eliminates the dosas, it pervades all the systems of the body; it strengthens and rejuvenates the body, sense organs and mind.

Those suffering from eruptions, boils, pimples, itching, papules, obstinate skin diseases including leprosy, obstinate urinary disorders and gouts (vatasonita ); those who cannot eat much, those who are of laxed bowels and those with moderate strength are advised to take this therapy in its second (that is moderate) type of dose. The oleation therapy, in this dosage, does not create much of complications nor does it affect the strength too much. It oleates comfortably and is used for purgation.

The old, the children, those with tender health, those who have been brought up in luxury, those for whom evacuation of bowel is not good, those whose power of digestion is weak, those who are chronic patients of fever, diarrhoea and cough, and those who are very weak, are advised to use oleation therapy in its third (inferior) type of dosage. This requires the least precautions; this helps oleation, nourishment, thus stimulates libido and gives strength. This is least harmful and can be continuously administered for a long time. [ 29-40 ]

The classification of the oleation therapy is based on the period of digestion of the unctuous substance. If it requires, for digestion, one full day and night (or twenty four hours) or even a part of the day and full night then this is to be regarded as the first (superior) type of dose. Similarly if it requires a full day for digestion, it is to be regarded as the second (moderate) type of dose. The third (inferior) type of dose requires helf a day for getting digested, During the intake of the first (superior) type of dose, the patient is required to observe complete fasting. That is why, only persons who can stand hunger and thirst are eligible for the first (superior) type of dose of oleation therapy.

If the dosage of oleation therapy of first (superior) type is not properly administered, it might lead to very serious complications. If properly administered, the therapy in this dose is exceedingly helpful in eliminating all dosas and as such is rejuvenator of the body, senses and the mind.

The oleation therapy in the first (superior) type of dose is to be administered only for the alleviation of dosas and not for their elimination; hence, it should not be administered as a part of the panchakarma therapy (five specific therapies for the elimination of dosas).

Indications for the administration of ghee :

आयुःप्रकर्षकामाश्च . चातपित्तप्रकृतयो वातपित्तविकारिणः । चक्षुःकामाः क्षताः क्षीणा वृद्धा वालास्तथाऽवलाः ॥ ४१ ॥ बलवर्णस्वरार्थिनः । पुष्टिकामाः प्रजाकामाः सौकुमार्यार्थिनश्च ये ॥ ४२ ॥ दीप्त्योजःस्मृतिमेधाग्निबुद्धीन्द्रियबलार्थिनः 1 frag: सर्पिरार्ताश्च दाहशस्त्रविषाग्निभिः ॥ ४३ ॥

Intake of ghee is prescribed for those whose bodily constitution is dominated by vata and pitta, who is suffering from diseases due to the vitiation of vata and pitta, those desirous of good eye sight, those suffering from phthisis and consumption, the old, children, the weak, those desirous of longevity, those desirous of strength, good complexion, voice, nourishment, progeny, tenderness ( of the body ), lustre, ojas, memory, intelligence, power of digestion, wisdom, proper functioning of sense organs and those afflicted with injuries due to burns, by weapens, poisons and fire. [ 41-43]

Persons suffering from the diseases due to the vitiation of vata and pitta are generally of vatika and paittika type in their physical constitution. Thus, apparently there was no necessity of categorizing those suffering from diseases due to the vitiation of vata and pitta as distinct from those of vatika and paittika constitution. But this has been done with a definite purpose in view. Intake of ghee is prescribed for those of vatika and paittika constitution even if they are suffering from diseases due to slight vitiation of kapha.

प्रवृद्धश्लेष्ममेदस्काञ्चलस्थूलगलोदराः वातव्याधिभिराविष्टा वातप्रकृतयश्च

Indications for the administration of oils

वलं तनुत्वं लघुतां दृढतां स्थिरगात्रताम् । स्निग्धलक्ष्णतनुत्वक्तां ये च काङ्क्षन्ति देहिनः ॥ ४५ ॥

कृमिकोष्ठाः क्रूरकोष्ठास्तथा नाडीभिरर्दिताः । पिवेयुः शीतले काले तैलं तैलोचिताश्च ये ॥ ४६ ।।

Intake of oil is prescribed even in the winter for those who are having kapha and medas in excess, whose throat and abdomen are loose but plumpy, those suffering from diseases due to the vitiation of vata and those of vatika constitution, those desirous of strength, slimness, lightness, sturdiness, steadiness ( of the body), tenderness and smoothness of the skin, those having worms and other infection in their bowels, those having costive bowel, those afflicted with sinuses and those who are accustomed to the intake of oil. [ 44-46 ]

Indications for the administration af muscle fat

वातातपसहा ये च रूक्षा भाराध्वकर्शिताः । संशुष्करेतोरुधिरा अस्थिसन्धिसिरास्नायु मर्म कोष्ठ महाराजः । बलवान्मारुतो येषां खानि चावृत्य तिष्ठति ॥ ४८ ॥ महच्याग्निबलं येषां वसासात्म्याश्च ये नराः । तेषां स्नेहयितव्यानां वसापानं विधीयते ॥ ४९ ॥ निष्पीतकफमेदसः ॥ ४७ ॥

Intake of muscle fat is prescribed for those who can stand the wind and the sun, those with roughness ( in their skin ), those who are emaciated due to the bearing of heavy loads or exertion from long walks, those with feeble semen and blood, those whose kapha and medas ( fat ) are below normal, those having excruciating pain, in bone joints, veins, ligaments, vital organs, kostha channels of circulation are ( abdominal viscera ), those whose affected by strong vata, those whose power of digestion is superb and those who are accustomed to the intake of fats. This is, however, to be administered only to such of the patients as are required to be given oleation therapy. [ 47-49 ]

Indications for the administration of Bone Marrow

दीप्ताग्नयः क्लेशसहा घस्मरोः स्नेहसेविनः । वातार्ता: क्रूरकोष्ठाश्च स्नेह्या मज्जानमाप्नुयुः ॥ ५० ॥

येभ्यो येभ्यो हितो यो यः स्नेहः स परिकीर्तितः ।

The intake of bone marrow is prescribed for those who have strong digestive power, those who can withstand stress and strain, a glutton, those accustomed to the intake of unctuous substances, those afflicted with vata and those with costive bowel. This is, however, to be administered only to such patients who are required to be given oleation therapy.

Thus, the indications for different types of oleation therapy useful for different types of patients have been explained. [ 50]

Course for fat administration

स्नेहनस्य प्रकर्षो तु सप्तरात्रत्रिरात्रकौ ॥ ५१ ॥

The maximum and minimum periods for the administration of oleation therapy are seven and three nights respectively. [ 51 ] The oleation therapy which is said to produce unctuousness instantaneously may also take three days to give the desired effect. If the oleation therapy is administered for more than seven days, the patient will get used to it and as such the therapy will cease to produce the desired effect – cf. Siddhi 1:7.

General indications for oleations therapy

स्वेद्याः शोधयितव्याश्च रुक्षा वातविकारिणः । व्यायाममद्य स्त्रीनित्याः स्नेह्याः स्युर्येच चिन्तकाः ॥ ५२ ।।

Oleation therapy in general is prescribed for those who are to be given fomentation or elimination therapy, those who have roughness in the skin, those suffering from diseases due to the vitiation of vata; those who indulge in physical exercise, wine and women, and those who suffer from mental strain. [ 52 ]

Contra-indications for fat administration

संशोधनादृते येषां रूक्षणं संप्रवक्ष्यते । न तेषां स्नेहनं अभिष्यण्णाननगुदा नित्यमन्दाग्नयश्च तृष्णामूर्च्छापरीताश्च गर्भिण्यस्तालुशोषिणः ॥ ५४ ॥ शस्तमुत्सन्नकफ मेदसाम् ॥ ५३ ॥ ये। अन्नद्विषश्छर्दयन्तो जठरामगरार्दिताः । दुर्बलाश्च प्रतान्ताश्च स्नेहग्लाना मदातुराः ॥ ५५ ॥ न स्नेह्या वर्तमानेषु न नस्तोवस्तिकर्मसु । स्नेहपानात् प्रजायन्ते तेषां रोगाः सुदारुणाः ॥ ५६ ॥

Oleation therapy should not be administered to such of the patients as are eligible for ruksana (drying) therapy except for the purpose of administering elimination therapy; also to those in whom kapha and medas (fat) are aggravated, those in whose cases. the aggravated condition of kapha reflects itself in the form of mucus secretion from the mouth and anus, those whose power of digestion is continuously weak, those suffering from thirst and fainting, the pregnant women, those whose palate gets dried up, those having aversion to food, those suffering from vomiting, abdominal diseases, diseases due to improper digestion as well as metabolism, those afflicted with gara type of poison, the weak, emaciated, those having aversion to the intake of unctuous substances, those intoxicated and those being administered inhalation and enema therapies. If oleation therapy is administered to such persons, they are likely to fall victims of disastrous complications. [53-56]

One of the functions of elimination therapy is to cause dryness in the body. When such a therapy is to be administered with a view to causing dryness in the body, then the oleation therapy automatically forms part thereof. But if dryness is caused by something else, oleation therapy does not come to the picture at all. The diseases where the ruksana (drying) therapy is to be administered are enumerated in Sutra 22:30.

Signs and Symptoms of incomplete oleation

पुरीषं ग्रथितं रूक्षं वायुरप्रगुणो मृदुः । पता खरत्वं रौक्ष्यं च गात्रस्यास्निग्धलक्षणंम् ।। ५७ ।।

Hard and dry stool, derangement of vayu, weak digestive power, roughness and dryness of the skin-these are the signs of under oleation. [57]

Signs and Symptoms of Proper oleation

वातानुलोम्यं दीप्तोऽग्निर्वर्च: स्निग्धमसंहतम् । मार्दवं स्निग्धता चाङ्गे स्निग्धानामुपजायते ॥ ५८ ॥

Evacuation of the flatus, good digestive power, unctuous and soft stool, tenderness and smoothness of the body-these are the signs of proper oleation. [58]

Signs and Symptoms of over oleation

पाण्डुता गौरवं जाड्यं पुरीषस्थाविपक्कता | तन्द्रीररुचिरुत्क्लेशः स्यादतिस्निग्धलक्षणम् ॥ ५९ ।।

Paleness, heaviness, stiffness, stool indicative of indigestion, drowsiness, anorexia, nausea are the signs of over oleation. [51]

Pre oleation management

द्रवोष्णमनभिष्यन्दि भोज्यमन्नं प्रमाणतः । नातिस्निग्धमसंकीर्ण श्वः स्नेहं पातुमिच्छता ।। ६० ।।

पिवेत् संशमनं स्नेहमन्नकाले प्रकाङ्क्षितः । शुद्धयर्थं पुनराहारे नैशे जीर्णे पिवेन्नरः ॥ ६१ ॥

A day preceding to the administration of oleation therapy, one should take food in proper quantity. The food should be liquid, hot and anabhisyandi ( that does not obstruct the channel of circulation). It should neither be too unctuous nor a mixture of two opposite qualities ( hot and cold ).

When hungry, one should take alleviation (samsamana) type of oleation therapy during lunch hours. As regards the elimination (samsodhana) type of oleation therapy, it should be administered when the food taken in the preceding night has been well digested. [60-61]

Elimination type of oleation therapy is to be administered in the morning hours when the food taken in the preceding night is well digested. The alleviation type is to be administered during lunch hours when the patient is having a good appetite.

The main object behind the elimination therapy is to excite the dosas in the body. The alleviation type of the therapy, on the other hand, suppresses the dosas. So if the alleviation type of oleation therapy is administered in the morning when there is no intensity of appetite, the unctuous substance will not get digested and it will adhere to the lumen of the intestine. This will excite the dosas, rather than suppress them. Therefore, alleviation type of oleation therapy should be administered when there is a good appetite, that is during lunch hours. This is however the general rule-vide sloka 19 of this chapter for exceptions. Management during oleation :

उष्णोदकोपचारी स्याद्ब्रह्मचारी शकृन्मूत्रानिलोद्गारानुदीर्णांश्च व्यायाममुच्चैर्वचनं वर्जयेदप्रवातं च सेवेत क्रोधशोकौ न क्षपाशयः । धारयेत् । ६२ ।। हिमातपौ । शयनासनम् ॥ ६३ ।। स्नेहं पीत्वा नरः स्नेहं प्रतिभुञ्जान एव च । स्नेहमिथ्योपचाराद्धि जायन्ते दारुणा गदाः ॥ ६४ ॥

While under the oleation therapy, one should use hot water, observe brahmacarya, one should not sleep during day time nor one should suppress urges for motion, urination, flatus, eructation, etc., one should avoid physical exercise, loud speech, anger,. anxiety, cold and sun, and one should lie down or sit in a place well protected from the wind. Even after the completion of the course of oleation therapy one might be required to take some more unctuous substance of homologous qualities, he should also observe all these regimen.

Adoption of wrong regimen during the course of oleation therapy is bound to result in serious complications. [ 62-64 ]

What are the wholesome and unwholesome regimen during the the two points course of oleation therapy and thereafter-these are explained in the above verses. During the course of oleation therapy, one has to follow the regimen as prescribed in verses 62 and 63. All of them are to be continued for some time even after the completion of the course.

Therapeutic test for the diagnosis of laxed bowel

स्निह्यत्यच्छोपसेवया । मृदुकोण स्त्रित करकोष्ठस्तु गुडमिथुर मस्तु पायसं कृशरां सर्पिः द्राक्षारसं पीलुरसं A मद्यं वा तरुणं पीत्वा विरेचयन्ति नैतानि भवति क्रूरकोष्ठस्य उदीर्णपित्ताऽल्पकफा मानवः ॥ ६५ ॥ सतरात्रेण क्षीरमुल्लोडितं दधि । काश्मर्यत्रिफलारसम् ।। ६६ ।। जलमुष्णमथापि वा । मृदुकोष्ठो विरिच्यते ॥ ६७ ॥ करकोष्ठं कदाचन । ग्रहण्यत्युल्वणानिला ॥ ६८ ॥ ग्रहणी मन्दमारुता । मृदुकोष्ठस्य तस्मात् स सुविरेच्यो नरः स्मृतः ॥ ६९ ॥

A person with laxed bowel, is properly oleated by taking unctuous substance for three consecutive nights and one with costive bowels for seven consecutive nights.

Sugar candy, sugarcane juice, mastu ( whey ), milk, cream from the curd, curd, payasa ( milk prepration ), gruel made from tila ( Sesamum indicum Linn ), rice and masa ( Phoseslus radiatus” Linn. ), ghee, juice of kasmarya ( Gmelina arborea Linn ), haritaki ( Terminalia chebula Linn. ), amalaki ( Emblica officinalis Gaertn. ), bibhitaka ( Terminalia belerica Roxb. ), draksa ( Vitis vinifera Linn.) and pilu ( Salvadora persica Linn. ), even hot water or fresh wine-in take of any of these serves as a purgative for those with laxed bowel. But these can not produce purgative effect for those with costive bowel because their grahani (duodenum including small intestine) is too much dominated by vata. Purgation is easy for those with laxed bowel, because their grahani is dominated by pitta and is least affected by kapha and vata. [ 65-69 ]

Purgation in the cases of those with costive bowel is very difficult because the vata belonging to the grahani (duodenum including small intestine) serves as an obstacle in the purgative nature of sugar candy, etc. The process of purgation on the other hand is easier for those with laxed bowel, because their duodenum and intestine are least affected by vata or even kapha which serve as obstacle in purgation. In these cases purgation is rather facilited by the domination of pitta which is conducive to the act of purgation. So any one of the drugs like sugar candy, etc. enumerated above, provides an easy purgation for persons with laxed bowel.

Side reactions of oleation and its managenent

पे उदीर्णपित्ता ग्रहणी यस्य चाग्निबलं महत् । भस्मीभवति तस्याशु स्नेहः पीतोऽग्नितेजसा ॥ ७० ॥ स जग्ध्वा स्नेहमात्रां तामोजः प्रक्षारयन् बली | स्नेहाग्निरुत्तमां तृष्णां सोपसर्गामुदीरयेत् ॥ ७१ ॥ नालं स्नेहसमृद्धस्य शमायान्नं सुगुर्वपि । स चेत् सुशीतं सलिलं नासादयति दह्यते । यथैवाशीविषः कक्षमध्यगः विषाग्निना ।। ७२ ।। अजीर्णे यदि तु स्नैहे तृष्णा स्याच्छर्दयेद्भिषक् । शीतोदकं पुनः पीत्वा भुक्त्वा रूक्षान्नमुल्लिखेत् ।। ७३ ।। न सर्पिः केवलं पित्ते पेयं सामे विशेषतः । सर्वे ह्यनुरजेद्देहं हत्वा संज्ञां च मारयेत् ॥ ७४ ।। तन्द्रा सोत्क्लेश आनाहो ज्वरः स्तम्भो विसंज्ञता । कुष्ठानि कण्डूः पाण्डुत्वं शोफाशंस्यरुचिस्तृषा ॥ ७५ ॥ जठरं ग्रहणीदोषः स्तैमित्यं वाक्यनिग्रहः । शूलमामप्रदोषाश्च जायन्ते स्नेहविभ्रमात् ॥ ७६ ॥ तत्रात्युल्लेखनं शस्तं स्वेदः कालप्रतीक्षणम् । प्रति प्रति व्याधिबलं बुद्ध्वा स्रंसनमेव च ।। ७७ ।। तक्रारिष्टप्रयोगश्च रूक्षपानान्नसेवनम् । सूत्राणां त्रिफलायाश्च स्नेहव्यापत्तिभेषजम् ॥ ७८ ।।

Unctuous substances taken by a person having the domination of pitta in the grahani (duodenum including small intestine) and having strong digestive power, gets digested (lit, burnt) quickly by virtue of the power of the digestive fire. Strong digestive fire, having consumed the heavy dose of unctuous substance displaces the ojas and aggravates the thirst with complications. Even very heavy food is not enough to satisfy the digestive fire excited by oleation. In the circumstances, unless he takes recourse to cold water, the patient may die (lit. be burnt to death) as a serpent lying in the midst of a heap of wood dies with the fire of its own poisonous breath. If a patient gets thirst due to indigestion of the unctuous substance taken, the physician should administer emesis. The patient should again be given emesis after being given cold water and unctuous food.

Unmixed ghee should not be taken in the event of the domination of pitta specially when pitta is associated with ama. Ghee taken in this condition brings about paleness (Jaundice) in the body and may prove to be fatal by impairing the consciousness.

If oleation therapy is not administered properly, drowsiness, nausea, acute constipation, fever, stiffness, unconsciousness, obstinate skin diseases including leprosy, pruritus, paleness, oedema, piles, anorexia, thirst, (obstinate abdominal diseases, diseases due to the malfunctioning of the intestine including duodenum, stillness, suppression of speech, colic pain and diseases due to improper digestion and metabolism will occur. In that case emesis, fomentation or fasting (till the previous intake of unctuous substance gets digested) is prescribed. Purgation may also be administered with due regard to the strength of Complications the disease depending on individual cases. arising out of the inappropriate oleation may also be neutralised by the intake of Takrarista (cf. Chikitsa 14: 72-75.), ununctuous drink and food, urine, haritaki (Terminalia chebula Linn.), amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) and bibhitaka (Terminalia belerica Roxb. ). [ 70-78 ]

Ojas is the essence of all the dhatus and is situated in the heart. Ghee is not to be taken while pitta accompanied with ama is dominant. Ghee mixed Unmixed ghee is specially prohibited in all such cases. with drugs having bitter taste might sometime help to neutralise the domination of pitta accompanied with ama by virtue of the digestive qualities of bitter drugs, etc. But the unmixed ghee would always be harmful in such cases. This applies to the intake of unctuous substance in general, that is to say no unctuous substance is to be taken during the domination of pitta, accompanied with ama. Even, where intake of ghee is prescribed, ghee to be taken is required to be mixed up with the appropriate drugs.

अकाले चाहितश्चैव मात्रया न च योजितः ।

स्नेहो मिथ्योपचाराञ्च व्यापद्येतातिसेवितः ॥ ७९ ॥

The oleation therapy gives rise to many complications, if it is administered at inappropriate times or is not taken in the taken properly but ) proper dose or taken in excess or (even followed by improper regimen. [79]

स्नेहात् प्रस्कन्दनं जन्तुस्त्रिरात्रोपरतः पिवेत् । स्नेहवद्भवमुष्णं च त्र्यहं भुक्त्वा रसौदनम् ॥ ८० ॥

Purgation is to be administered three days after the completion of the oleation therapy. During the interval of three days, the patient should take unctuous liquid and hot porridge together with meat juice. [80] पिवेत् ।

एकाहोपरतस्तद्वद्भक्त्या प्रच्छर्दनं

The enemis is to be administered one day after the completion of the oleation therapy. The food prescribed during this interval of one day is the same as indicated in the preceding verse.

स्यात्त्वसंशोधनार्थीये वृत्तिः स्नेहे विरिक्तवत् ॥ ८१ ॥

The regimen prescribed in connection with the purgation are to be followed with regard to the alleviation type of oleation therapy also. [ 81 ]

The regimen in connection with the purgation therapy are as enumerated in Sutra 15:17. All the prescriptions and prohibitions for purgation as well as emesis therapy are identical except thrat smoking is prescribed after emesis while it is prohibited after purgation. Smoking is also prohibited after oleation therapy in general-cf. Sutra 5: 43.

Indications for the administration of fat preparations

स्नेहद्विषः स्नेहनित्या मृदुकोष्ठाश्च ये नराः । क्लेशासहा मद्यनित्यास्तेषामिष्टा विचारणा ॥ ८२ ||

Unctuous preparations (rather than pure unctuous substancesto be prescribed for persons who have aversion for taking unctuous substance, those who are in the habit of regularly taking, unctuous substance, wine, those with laxed bowels those who cannot resist to physical strain. [ 82 ]

लावतैत्तिरमायूरहांसवाराहकौक्कुटाः । गव्याजौरभ्रमात्स्याश्च रसाः स्युः स्नेहने हिताः ॥ ८३ ॥ यवकोलकुलत्थाश्च स्नेहाः सगुडशर्कराः । दाडिमं दधि सव्योषं रससंयोगसंग्रहः ॥ ८४ ॥ स्नेहयन्ति तिलाः पूर्व जग्धाः सस्नेहफाणिताः । कृशराश्च बहुस्नेहास्तिलकाम्बलिकास्तथा ॥ ८५ ॥ फाणितं शृङ्गरं च तैलं च सुरया सह । पिवेद्रक्षो भृतैमसैर्जीर्णेऽद्दनीयाच्च तैलं सुराया मण्डेन वसां मज्जानमेव वा । भोजनम् ॥ ८६ ॥ पिवन् सफाणितं क्षीरं नरः स्निह्यति वातिकः ॥ ८७ ॥ धारोष्णं स्नेहसंयुक्तं पीत्वा सशर्करें पयः । नरः स्निह्यति पीत्वा वा सरं दध्नः सफाणितम् ॥ ८८ ॥ पाञ्चप्रसृतिकी पेया पायसो माषमिश्रकः । क्षीरसिद्धौ बहुस्नेहः स्नेहयेदचिरान्नरम् ।। ८९ ।। सर्पिस्तैलवसामजातण्डुलप्रसृतैः शृ (कृ) ता । पाञ्चप्रसृतिकी पेया पेया स्नेहनमिच्छता ।। ९० ॥ / ( शौकरो वा रसः स्निग्धः सर्पिलवणसंयुतः । पीतो द्विर्वासरे यत्नात् स्नेहयेदचिरान्नरम् ॥ १ ॥ )

The meat juice of lava (common quail ), partridge ), mayura ( peacock ), hansa (swan), tittira ( black varaha ( pig ) are and kukkuta ( red spur fowl ), go ( cow ), aja ( goat ), sheep ) and fish are useful in oleation.), aurabhra.

The drugs required to be mixed up with meat juice are yava (barley), kola (Zizyphus jujuba Lam.), kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Linn.), sugar candy, crystal sugar, dadima (Punica granatum Linn.), curd, sunthi (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), pippali (Piper longum Linn.) and maricha (Piper nigrum Linn.).

If seeds of tila (Sesamum indicum Linn.) together with unctuous substances, phanita (a preparation of sugar cane ), krsara (a type of gruel) added with sufficient quantity of unctuous substance and kambalika (sour milk mixed with whey and vinegar MW. ) prepared with sesammum-seed, are taken before meals, they are useful in oleation.

One having dryness should take phanita (a preparation of sugar cane), juice of srngavera (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), and oil together with wine. After they have been digested he should take his meal with minced meat.

A person with vatika constitution can be oleated by taking oil, together with the upper portion of wine, muscle fat, marrow, milk and phanita (a preparation of sugar cane).

One gets oleated by taking warm milk fresh from the cow mixed up with sugar and unctuous substance or cream of the curd along with phanita. Pancaprasrtiki type of gruel prepared with milk and masa (Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) and added with unctuous substance in sufficient quantity oleates immediately

Pancaprasytikipeya is prepared of ghee, oil, muscle fat, marrow and rice-prasrta ( 96 g.) of each. This is prescribed for one in need of oleation therapy.

Juice of pork made unctuous by adding ghee and salt, if taken properly twice a day oleates immediately. [ 83-90]

Specific Contra-Indications of substances used in oleation Therapy

ग्राम्यानूपौदकं मांसं गुडं दधि पयस्तिलान् । कुष्ठी शोथी प्रमेहीच स्नेहनेन प्रयोजयेत् ।। ९१ ।। स्नेहैर्यथाई तान् सिद्धैः स्नेहयेदविकारिभिः । पिप्पलीभिर्हरीतक्या सिद्धैत्रिफलयाऽपि वा ।। ९२ ।। द्राक्षामलकयूषाभ्यां दना चाम्लेन साधयेत् । व्योषगर्भ भिषक् स्नेहं पीत्वा स्निह्यति तं नरः ।। ९३ ।। यवकोलकुलत्थानां रसाः क्षारः सुरा दधि । क्षीरसर्पिश्च तत् सिद्धं स्नेहनीयं वृतोत्तमम् ॥ ९४ ॥

One suffering from obstinate skin diseases including leprosy, oedema and obstinate urinary disorders should not use meat juice of domesticated, marshy and aquatic animals, sugar candy, curd, milk and sesammum seeds. If necessary, such patients should be oleated by means of ghee duly prepared with therapeutically useful drugs or with pippali (Piper longum Linn.), haritaki (Terminalia Chebula Linn.) and triphala (Terminalia chebula Linn., Emblica officinalis Gaertn. and Terminalia belerica Roxb. ).

A physician should prepare unctuous drink with the juice of draksa (Vitis vinifera Linn.) and amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), sour curd, funthi (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), pippali (Piper longum Linn.) and maricha (Piper nigrum Linn.). By taking this, one gets oleated.

The medicated ghee best suited for the purpose of oleation therapy is to be prepared with the decoction of yava (barley), kola (Zizyphus jujuba Lam.), kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Linn.), alkalies, wine, curd and ghee prepared out of milk. [91-94]

Oleation therapy in genital disorders

तैलमज्जवसासर्पिर्य दर त्रिफलारसैः योनिशुक्र प्रदोषेषु साधयित्वा प्रयोजयेत् ॥ ९५ ॥

Therapeutic preparation for oleation in the treatment of diseases of the female genital tract and semen is to be made with oil, marrow, muscle fat, ghee and the decoction of badara (Zizyphus jujuba Lam.), haritaki (Terminalia chebula Linn.), amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) and bibhitaka (Terminalia belerica Roxb. ). [95]

Simile regarding the effect of quick oleation

गृह्णात्यम्बु यथा वस्त्रं प्रस्रवत्यधिकं यथा । यथाग्नि जीर्यति स्नेहस्तथा स्रवति चाधिकः ॥ ९६ ।।

यथा वाऽऽक्लेद्य मृत्पिण्डमासिक्तं त्वरया जलम् । स्त्रवति स्रंसते स्नेहस्तथा त्वरितसेवितः ।। ९७ ।।

As a cloth absorbs certain amount of water but oozes out the water in excess, so the oleation theraphy used just in proportion with the digestive power gets digested (that is, it is ineffective for the purpose of oleation); it oleates only when it is administered in excess. Or as water poured on a clod of earth in quick succession oozes out after slightly saturating the latter, so, oleation therapy administered in quick succession in a day, goes waste without oleating properly. [ 96-97 ]

Role of common salt in oleation

लवणोपहिताः स्नेहाः स्नेहयन्त्यचिरान्नरम् ।

तद्ध्यभिष्यन्द्यरूक्षं च सूक्ष्ममुष्णं व्यवायि च ।। ९८ ।।

Unctuous drink prepared with salt oleates an individual instantaneously because salt is by nature abhisyandi ( that obstructs the channel of circulation), unctuous, suksma (that passes through subtle channels), hot, yavayi ( which gets digested only after its absorption and pervasion in the whole body ). [98]

Routine for the administration of differrent therapeutic measures

स्नेहमग्रे प्रयुञ्जीत ततः स्वेदमनन्तरम् । स्नेहस्वेदो संशोधनमथेतरत् ॥ ९९ ॥

Oleation therapy is required to be administered first; then fomentation therapy is to be applied; finally elimination therapy is to be administered after the administration of oleation and fomentation. [99]

तत्र श्लोकः स्नेहाः स्नेहविधिः कृत्स्नव्यापत्सिद्धिः सभेषजा । यथाप्रश्नं भगवता व्याहृतं चान्द्रभागिता ॥ १०० ।।

To sum up-Lord Punarvasu has described in response to the question, the various types of oleation, the procedure for oleation, all the complications arising out of this therapy and the preparations of various drugs useful for this therapy. [100] इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृते लोकस्थाने स्नेहाध्यायो नाम त्रयोदशोऽध्यायः ॥ १३ ॥

Thus, ends the thirteenth Chapter on “Oleation” of Sutra section of Agnivesa’s work as redacted by Charaka.


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