अथात आत्रेयभद्रकाप्यीय मध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः ॥ १ ॥ इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः ॥ २ ॥
We shall now expound the chapter on the “Discourse among atreya and Bhadrakapya etc.”
Thus said Lord Atreya. [ 1-2] After having described some of the most wholesome and unwholesome diets and regimen in the previous chapter, it is now proposed to describe rasa (taste) virya ( potency ) vipaka (taste of the food after digestion) etc., with a view to elucidating the wholesomeness or otherwise of the entire range of drugs. Among rasa, virya and vipaka, rasa is the most important one; hence the discussion in this chapter is initiated with the description of rasa ( taste ).
Participants of the sympsium on taste and diet
आत्रेयो भद्रकाव्यश्च शाकुन्तेयस्तथैव पूर्णाक्षश्चैव मौद्गल्यो हिरण्याक्षश्च कौशिकः ॥ ३ ॥ यः कुमारशिरा नाम भरद्वाजः स चानघः । श्रीमान् वार्योविदश्चैव राजा मतिमतां वरः ॥ ४ ॥ निमिश्च राजा वैदेहो वडिशश्च महामतिः । काङ्कायनश्च बाह्रीको वाह्नीकभिषजां वरः ॥ ५ ॥ एते श्रुतवयोवृद्धा जितात्मानो महर्षयः । च । वने चैत्ररथे रम्ये समीयुर्विजिहीर्षवः ॥ ६ ॥ तत्रोपविष्टानामियमर्थवती कथा । तेषांबभूवार्थविदां सम्यग्रसाहारविनिश्चये ॥ ७ ॥
Once upon a time Atreya, Bhadrakapya, Sakunteya, Purnaksa Maudgalya, Hiranyaksa-Kausika, Kumarasiras-Bharadvaja, the king Varyovida, Nimi the king of Videha, Badisa, Kankayana the best among the physicians of Bahlika ( Balkh ) — all enlightened and aged sages having self control-assembled in the pleasant woods of Caitraratha on a pleasant trip. They sat together and then started discussing some of the vital problems relating to correlation between rasa ( taste ) and diet. [ 3-7 ]
It is with a view to creating an ardent desire for learning that the answers are furnished after raising a query attributing it to the opinion of sages. Upto the verse 56, rasas ( tastes) alongwith their various attributes have been described. The remaining portion of this chapter relates to the description of the attributes of food like vipaka (taste of the food after its digestion) etc. Therefore queries about both rasa ( taste ) and food have been raised here.
Different views of members on the number of rasas
एक एव रस इत्युवाच भद्रकाप्यः, यं पञ्चानामिन्द्रियार्थानामन्यतमं जिह्वावैषयिकं भावमाचक्षते कुशलाः, स पुनरुदकादनन्य इति । द्वौ रसाविति शाकुन्तेयो ब्राह्मणः, छेदनीय उपशमनीयश्चेति । त्रयो रसा इति पूर्णाक्षो मौद्गल्यः, छेदनीयोपशमनीयसाधारणा इति । चत्वारो रसा इति हिरण्याक्षः कौशिकः, स्वादुर्हितश्च स्वादुरहितश्चास्वादुर्द्दितश्चास्वादुरहितश्चेति । पञ्च रसा इति कुमारशिरा भरद्वाजः, भौमौदकाग्नेयवायव्यान्तरिक्षाः। पड्सः इति वार्योविदो राजर्षिः, गुरुलघुशीतोष्णस्निग्धरूक्षाः । सप्त रसा इति निमिवैदेहः, मधुराम्ललवणकटुतितकपायक्षाराः । अष्टौ रसा इति वडिशो धामार्गवः, मधुराम्ललवणकटुतिक्तकषायक्षाराव्तक्ताः । अपरिसंख्येया रसा इति काङ्कायनो बाहीकभिषक, आश्रयगुणकर्मसंस्चादविशेषाणामपरिसंख्येयत्वात् ॥ ८ ॥
The table given below would indicate the various theories about the number of rasas propounded by different sages. Name of the sage No. of rasa (taste) Bhadrakapya One Explanation Rasa is the object of tongue
Sakunteya Brahmana Two Purnaksa Maudgalya Three,Hiranyaksa Kausika Four
Kumarasiras Bharadvaja Five, which is one of the five senses. This is not different from jalamahabhuta.
Nourishing and emaciating. Nourishing, emaciating, and having both the properties.
1. Palatable and wholesome
2. Palatable and unwholesome
3. Unpalatable and wholesome
4. Unpalatable and unwholesome
1. Parthiva 2. Apya 3. Taijasa 4. Vayavlya 5. Akasiya.
Name of the sage No. of rasa (taste)
Royal sage – Six
Varyovida – Seven
Nimi the king of Videha
Dhamargava Badisa Eight
Kankayana the physician of Bahlika Innumerable
Explanation. 1. Guru ( heavy )
2. Laghu (light)
3. Sita (cold )
4. Usna (hot)
5. Snigdha (unctuous)
6. Ruksa (nonunctuous)
1. Madhura (sweet) 2. Amla sour) 3. Lavana (Saline) 4. Katu ( pungent ) 5. Tikta ( bitter)
6. Kasaya ( astringent) 7. Ksara (alkaline)
Sweet, sour, saline, pungent, bitter, astringent, alkaline and avyakta (imperceptible). Because of the innumerability of the material substrata, qualities like unctuousness and heaviness, actions like enhancement or reduction of dhatus (tissue elements ) and the variation in tastes. 
Both the presence and absence of any taste are perceived by the tongue for which the term ‘bhava’ has been used in this context. Rasa is said to be the same as jalamahabhuta. This has been mentioned here only as purvapaksa or the first part of the argument. Similarly Kapila has also described rasa tanmatra, gandhatanmatra etc. where the attributes are not separated from their material substrata.
Rasa is manifested in various material substrata. The material substrata happen to be the cause and rasa or taste is the effect. Since there is variation in the material substrata which is the cause, obviously, there will be variation in the rasa or taste which is the effect. Similarly the attributes and actions are dependent upon the rasa or taste which the latter is the cause. Since the actions and attributes which are effects are different, this obviously indicates the variation in the cause that is rasa or taste. Sugar cane, milk and sugar-candy are all said to be sweet. But there is an obvious difference in the taste of these materials all having sweet taste.
All the above are stated to be purvapaksa or the first part of the argument. The second part of the argument which is known as uttarapaksa, furnishing solutions to these different queries is described in the paragraph below.
Concluding remarks by Chairman-Lord Punarvasu
षडेव रसा इत्युवाच भगवानात्रेयः पुनर्वसुः, मधुराम्ललवणकटुतिक्तकषायाः । तेषां षण्णां रसानां योनिरुदकं, छेदनोपशमने द्वे कर्मणी, तयोमिंश्रीभावात् साधारणत्वं, स्वाद्वस्वादुता भक्तिः, हिताहितौ प्रभावौ, पञ्चमहाभूतविकारास्त्वाश्रयाः प्रकृतिविकृतिविचारदेशकालवशाः, तेष्वाश्रयेषु द्रव्यसंक्षकेषु गुणा गुरुलघुशोतोष्णस्निग्धरूक्षाद्याः; क्षरणात् क्षारः, नासौ रसः, द्रव्यं तदनेकरससमुत्पन्नमनेकरसं कटुकलवणभूयिष्ठमने केन्द्रियार्थसमन्वितं करणाभिनिर्वृत्तम्, अव्यक्तीभावस्तु खलु रसानां प्रकृतौ भवत्यनुरसेऽनुरससमन्विते वा द्रव्ये; अपरिसंख्येयत्वं पुनस्तेषामाश्रयादीनां भावानां विशेषापरिसंख्येयत्वान्न युक्तम्, एकैकोऽपि ह्येषामाश्रयादीनां भावानां विशेषानाश्रयते विशेषापरिसंख्येयत्वात्, न च तस्मादन्यत्वमुपपद्यते; परस्परसंसृष्टभूयिष्ठत्वान्न चैषामभिनिर्वृत्तेर्गुणप्रकृतीनामपरिसंख्येयत्वं भवति; तस्मान्न संसृष्टानां रसानां कर्मोपदिशन्ति बुद्धिमन्तः । तचैव कारणमपेक्षमाणाः पण्णां रसानां परस्परेणासंसृष्टानां लक्षणपृथक्त्वमुपदेक्ष्यामः ॥ ९ ॥
Lord Punarvasu said, “There are only six types of tastes viz., madhura ( sweet ), amla ( sour ), lavana ( saline ), katu ( pungent ), tikta ( bitter ) and kasaya ( astringent ). The source material for the manifestation of all these tastes is jalamahabhuta; nourishment and emaciation. are their actions; combination of these two leads to the manifestation of tastes having a general action; palatability or otherwise is the subjective reaction ( bhakti ); wholesomeness or unwholesomeness constitutes, the specific action; manifestations of (vikara) the five mahabhutas are the substrata and they are conditioned by nature, modification, combination, location and time; the attributes of the material substrata are heaviness, lightness, cold, heat, unctuousness, dryness etc., because of its corrosive nature ( ksaranat ) it is known as ksara or alkali; it is not a taste by itself; this is manifested by the combination of many tastes and it possesses itself many tastes dominated by pungent and saline ones; it is the object of many senses and it involves a special method of preparation. Impercebtibility of tastes is effected only in jalamahabhuta or in the after taste or where the quantity of material having a specific taste is not added or added in inadequate quantity.
It is not correct to say that the tastes are innumerable, simply because of the innumerability of the specific material substrat.. for each one of these elements (substrata, quality, action and variation in taste) depend on certain concomittant variations. However inspite of such innumerable variations the taste as such remains the same. Different tastes may manifest themselves in many different forms, depending on the various permutations and combinations but this does not amount to any variation in the original qualities and as such the question of innumerability of tastes does not arise. That is why the wise do not advocate any action in combined tastes. So we shall now explain the specific characteristics and distinctive features of the six tastes separately. 
The various theories regarding the number of rasas as mentioned in the preceding para are being refuted in the above paragraph. The difference between the cause, that is jalamahabhuta and the effect, that is rasa or taste is very conspicuous in as much as it can be observed directly. It has been clearly elaborated in Sutra 1 : 64 that the substratum of rasa or taste is jalamahabhuta and not prthvi. As to the action of rasas, two specific actions viz., emaciation and nourishment are shown above. Besides, it is stated that a common action representing the combination of both these actions, that is emaciation and nourishment is also possible. Now the question arises, is it possible to combine the above two ‘actions which are by nature abstract? The solution is that even though the two actions cannot combine, the substrata of these actions can certainly combine together and bring about the desired combined effect of emaciation and nourishment. Palatability is a relative sensation. A thing which may be palatable to one individual may not be so to another. Hence, palatability or otherwise of a substance cannot be attributed to tastes. The five mahabhutas are only the substrata for tastes and they themselves are not tastes. This has been emphasised by the use of the term ‘tu’. For the manifestation of rasa these mahabhutas are conditioned by each of the following factors. Prakyti or nature : Mudga ( Phaseolus mungo Linn.) is astringent (dominated by prthvi and vayu mahabhutas ) and sweet (dominated by prthvi and jalamahabhutas) in taste. According to tastes, it should be heavy for digestion but in reality it is light by nature.
Vikyti or modification: By nature salt rice is heavy. When sali rice is fried (laja) it becomes light. So also masa (Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) becomes light and the roasted corn flour becomes heavy even though by nature the source materials of these are heavy and light respectively. Vicarana or combination: By combination of drugs, new properties which were absent in the original substances are developed. For example, neither honey nor ghee possesses toxic property, but when mixed in equal quantity they produce toxicity. So also a poison when added with medi. cines gives up its own toxic action and acts as a curative for diseases.
Desa or Location: It is of two types viz. geographical habitat and the living beings including patients. Meat from different parts of the animal body is said to possess different, qualities-cf. Sutra 27 : 334. So also the plant sveta kapoti (?) growing over an ant-house is considered to be anti-toxic and drugs that grow in the Himalayas are considered to be efficacious par-excellence.
Time Age or Season: Age of certain plants often determines their therapeutic action. Radish when quite young, alleviates the doshas whereas grown up radish is considered to vitiate all the three doshas-cf. Sutra 27: 168. Further, different parts of the plant are said to be therapeutically more effective in different seasons-cf. Kalpa 1 : 10.
Some other conditioning factors are also included here by implication. They are food, habitat, constitution, dhatus (tissue elements ), activity, sex, size and measures-cf. Sutra 27: 331. So also other factors mentioned in this connection in Vimana 1 : 27 are included here.
Like unctuousness and dryness, other qualities viz. sharpness and softness are to be treated not as tastes but as attributes of matter. As explained above, it is not the taste but the substrata. thereof that have specific action. Judging from this principle, alkalinity cannot be treated as a separate taste. Corrosion being its specific action, alkali is to be treated as matter rather than taste. Even etymologically speaking the term ‘ksara’ implies some thing which goes down (ksarana). As people say, “We pour down ksara.” In Cikistsa 5:59, the corrosive property of alkali has further been specifically mentioned. There are other reasons also for which alkalinity cannot be treated as a taste. Alkalies are prepared by the combination of drugs like muskaka (?) and apamarga ( Archyranthes aspera Linn.) each of them having different tastes. The effect is controlled by the cause. Since in the cause, that is the raw drug, there are many tastes, the effect, that is, alkali must be of a compound taste. Pungent and saline-these two tastes are dominant in alkalies. These apart, there are also many other subsidiary tastes in it. Alkalies can be verified by smell and touch; hence they are matter and not qualities like taste where there is neither touch nor smell. Further, preparation of alkalies involves a definite procedure like filteration (parisruvana) but the manifestation of a rasa does not involve any such procedure.
Due to certain reasons tastes of some drugs may not be perceptible; but there is no separate entity as imperceptible taste. There might be a sensation of taste (in the tongue) without any specificity like sweet and sour; this may be considered as ‘avyakta rasa’ or imperceptible taste. Such a characteristic feature exists in water. Manifestation of any specific taste is said to inflict a bad quality in water-cf. Susruta : Sutra 45 11. Water is also said to have imperceptible taste before it falls on the ground-cf. Sutra 27 : 200. When a substance without having any perceptible taste is tasted, people usually say, “It tastes like water.” There are certain drugs like poison (aconite) where the taste is said to be imperceptible or unmanifested-cf. Chikitsa 23: 34. Imperceptibility of the taste may also arise because of high dilution. If a substance having a particular taste in insignificant quantity is added to another substance then also the specific taste of the former becomes imperceptible. For example, when a small quantity of black piper is added to a drink of sugar the pungent taste of black piper becomes imperceptible.
It is not correct to say that tastes are innumerable. The material substrata, qualities, actions and variations in the specificity of tastes,-all these are attributable to six tastes. Thus, because of the variations in in the substrata etc., there need not be any variation in the dependant factor viz., taste. There are various substances like sull rice, mudga (Phaseolus mungo Linn.), ghee and milk-all having sweet taste but sweetness is common to all of them as whiteness is commonly present in a crane, milk and cotton. Similarly, even if there is variation in the qualities like heaviness, sliminess, unctuousness, and in actions like rejuvenation and promotion of longevity and complexion, the sweet taste remains the same and being associated with different qualities (attributes) it acts differently. Even if there is variation in the degree of sweetness, all of them belong to the same category, that is sweet taste, as all variations of black colour are included under blackness itself. Further when a substance possesses more than two tastes, no new action becomes manifested there due to this combination of tastes but only a mixture of the qualities like heaviness and lightness and actions like promoting longevity attributable to each taste are manifested there. No doubt, like doshas, rasas (tastes) are also said to have several combinations but such combinations do not manifest new qualities. or actions which were non-existent in the individual tastes. Even the qualities and actions already existent in the individual tastes do not undergo any change. When there is combination of tastes-it does neither increase nor decrease. Therefore, in this text as also in other allied texts, qualities and actions of such combinations of tastes are not described. The specific characteristics of the six tastes are described in para 43 of this chapter and their distinctive features will be described in verses 74-79.
Observations regarding the classification of matter
अग्रे तु तावद्रव्यभेदमभिप्रेत्य किंचिदद्भिधास्यामः । सर्व द्रव्यं पाञ्चभौतिक मस्मिन्नर्थे; तच्चेतनावदचेनं च, तस्य गुणाः शब्दादयो गुर्वादयश्च द्रवान्ताः, कर्म पञ्चविधमुक्तं वमनादि ॥ १० ॥
Hereafter we shall make some observations regarding the classification of matter. According to this science, all matter is constituted of five mahabhutas; some of them are animate and some others are inanimate. Their attributes are sabda (sound), sparsa (touch), rupa (vision), rasa ( taste) and gandha (smell) and also the twenty qualities beginning with heaviness etc., and ending with liquidity as enumerated in the 36th para of the previous chapter. They are useful for emesis, purgation, niruha anuvasana and inhalation therapies. [ 10 ]
Matter is the substratum for the manifestation of rasa or tastes. Hence before going in for the description of tastes, only the relevant aspects of their substratum ( i.e. matter) in its manifested from are being described here. Attributes like paratva ( superiority ) aparatva (inferiority) are not relevant from the stand point of treatment; hence they are not described here. Some attributes of this category like yukti (propriety), samyoga (combination), parimana ( measurement), samskara (transformation) and abhyasa (repetition) are no doubt very relevant in connection with the treatment of diseases but they do not indicate any specific distinctive feature of matter like sabda (sound) etc. They simply represent the various conditions of matter. Therefore, they are not mentioned here.
Physical properties of PanchaMahabhutas
तत्र द्रव्याणि गुरुखकठिनमन्दस्थिरविशदसान्द्रस्थूलगन्धगुणवहुलानि पार्थिवानि, तान्युपचयसङ्घातगौरवस्थैर्यकराणि, द्रवस्निग्धशीतमन्दमृदुपिच्छिलरसगुणबहुलान्याप्यानि, तान्युपक्केदस्नेहवन्धविष्यन्दमार्दव प्रह्लादकराणि उष्णतीक्ष्णसूक्ष्मलघुरुक्षविशदरूपगुणबहुलान्याग्नेयानि, तानि दाहपाकप्रभाप्रकाशवर्णकराणि, लघुशी तरुक्षखर विशदसूक्ष्मस्पर्शगुणवहुलानि वायव्यानि, तानि रौक्ष्यग्लानिविचारवैशद्यलाघवकराणि; मृदुलघुसूक्ष्मलक्ष्णशब्दगुणबहुलान्याकाशात्मकानि, तानि मार्दवसौषिर्यलाघवकराणि ॥ ११ ॥
Substances that are heavy, tough, hard, dull, stable, nonslimy, dense, gross and abounding in the quality of smell are dominated by prthvi; they promote plumpness, compactness, heaviness and stability. Substances that are liquid, unctuous, cold, dull, soft, slimy and abounding in the qualities of taste are dominated by jala; they promote stickincs, unctuousness, compactness, moistness, softness and happiness. Substances that are hot, sharp, subtle, light, nonunctuous, non-slimy and abounding in the qualities of vision are dominated by tejas; they promote combustion, metabolism, lustre, radiance and colour. Substances that are light, cold, nonunctuous, rough, non-slimy, subtle, and abounding in the qualities of touch are dominated by vayu. They promote roughness, aversion, movement, non-sliminess and lightness. Substances that are soft, light, subtle, smooth and dominated by the qualities of sound are dominated by akasa; they promote softness, porosity and lightness. 
All the drugs and diets are composed of all the five mahabhuta viz. prthvii, jala, tejas, vayu and ukasa. Their classification as parthiva, jaliya etc; as stated above is however based on the predominance of one of the mahabhutas.
Universal therapeutic utility of matter
अनेनोपदेशेन नानौषधिभूतं जगति किंचिद्रव्यमुपलभ्यते तां तां युक्तिमर्थ च तं तमभिप्रेत्य ॥ १२ ॥
As explained in the preceding paragraph there is nothing in the world which does not have therapeutic utility in appropriate conditions and situations. 
In the preceding paragraph the distinctive features and effects of drugs and deits dominated by each of the five mahabhutas have been mentioned. Drugs or diet abounding in the properties of a given mahabhuta are useful in making good the deficiency of that mahabhuta in the body.
There is nothing in the world which does not have therapeutic values and at the same time everything cannot be used for treatment of every disease. A drug is useful in specific conditions and situations; so the selection of drugs is to be made in accordance with the propriety of its administration and therapeutic needs.
There are however, certain compound drugs (for example milk and fish, ghee and honey-the latter two in equal quantity ) which are considered to be always unwholesome. But they are unwholesome only when conditioned by certain combination, mode of preparation, location, time etc. In the absence of such conditioning factors they are also as wholesome as any other drug in proper conditions and situations. Even such of the drugs as are unwholesome by nature like immature curd and poison can produce wholesome effect if properly used, e.g. in udararoga (obstinate abdominal disease including ascites ), poison (aconite or venom) of the quantity of a sesamum seed is said to be givencf. Chikitsa 13: 178. What to speak of other drugs, even straw and dust are useful for therapeutic purposes like fomentation etc.
Pharmacodynamics of drugs
न तु केवलं गुणप्रभावादेव द्रव्याणि कार्मुकाणि भवन्ति; द्रव्याणि हि द्रव्यप्रभावाद्गुणमभावाद्रव्यगुणप्रभावाच्च तस्मिंस्तस्मिन् काले तत्तदधिकरणमासाद्य तां तां च युक्तिमर्थं च तं तमभिप्रेत्य यत् कुर्वन्ति, तत् कर्म; येन कुर्वन्ति, तद्वीर्य, यत्र कुर्वन्ति, तदधिकरणं; यदा कुर्वन्ति, स कालः; यथा कुर्वन्ति, स उपायः यत् लावयन्ति, तत् फलम् ॥ १३ ॥
It is not that the various drugs and diets act only by virtue of their qualities. In fact they act by virtue of their own nature or qualities or both on a proper occasion, in a given location, in apropriate condition and situations; the effect so produced is considered to be their action (-karman ); the factor responsible for the manifestation of the effect is known as virya; where they act is the adhisthana ( location ); when they act is the time, how they act is the upaya or mode of action; what they accomplish is the achievement. [ 13 ]
Some drugs act by virtue of their own nature; e.g, danti (Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg.) is purgative and precious stones are antitoxic. Some other drugs act by virtue of their qualities; e.g. fever is cured by drugs having bitter taste and coldness by the heat of the fire. Some other drugs act by virtue of their own nature as well as their qualities; e.g. cow milk boiled with a gold ring is considered to be aphrodisiac-cf. Chikitsa 2 : 3:11, by virtue of the very nature of gold as well as its circularity.
The various aspects of drugs and diets as mentioned in the above passage can be illustrated as follows: When errhines are administered they eliminate do from the head-that is their action. The factor like heat which is responsible for this action is virya (potency) relating either to the drug or its quality. The site where the elimination takes place i.e. is the adhikarana ( location ); errhines do not act when administered elsewhere. The spring season or the time when the head is heavy is the appropriate time or kala for the administration of this therapy. This therapy is not effective in other seasons or occasions. This therapy is to be administered in accordance with the prescribed procedure. Pradhamana and avapidana are to be administered while the patient lies on a bed covered with a bed sheet; his head is projected out of the bed and his eyes are closed. This is upaya or mode of administration. By the administration of this therapy, heaviness and pain etc., of the head are cured: This is phala or the object or treatment.
Types of rasas
भेदश्चैषां त्रिषष्टिविधविकल्पो द्रव्यदेशकालप्रभावाद्भवति, तमुपदेक्ष्यामः ॥१४॥ :
There are sixty three types (combinations) of rasas ( tastes) depending upon the variation of the nature of the substance, location and time. They are being explained here.  The classification of substances has been shown in paragraph 11. Now the various types of tastes (rasas) are being described. Variations of tastes may be effected by virtue of the nature of the substance, for example, when jala mahabhuta dominates a substance, it becomes sweet in taste. Location also affects the taste e.g. grapes and pomegranates growing in the Himalayas are sweet in taste whereas those growing elsewhere are sour. The time or age of the substance may also be responsible for the variation in taste; e.g. a very young mango fruit is astringent in taste; after some time it becomes sour and when ripe it is sweet in taste. In hemanta (November-January ) drugs become sweet in taste but in rainy season they become sour. For the variation in taste there are other factors also viz. application of heat etc. They are included either in time or in the nature of the substance.
Sixty three types of rasas
स्वादुरम्लादिभियगं शेषैरग्लादयः पृथक् । यान्ति पञ्चदशैतानि द्रव्याणि द्विरसानि तु ॥ १५ ॥ पृथगम्लादियुक्तस्य योगः शेषैः पृथग्भवेत् । मधुरस्य तथाऽम्लस्य लवणस्य कटोस्तथा ॥ १६ ॥ त्रिरसानि यथासंख्यं द्रव्याण्युक्तानि विंशतिः । वक्ष्यन्ते तु चतुष्केण द्रव्याणि दश पञ्च च ॥ १७ ॥ स्वाद्वम्लौ सहितौ योगं लवणाद्यैः पृथग्गतौ । योगं शेषैः पृथग्यातश्चतुष्करससंख्यया ॥ १८ ॥ सहितौ स्वादुलवणौ तद्वत् कट्वादिभिः पृथक् । युक्तौ शेषैः पृथग्योगं यातः स्वादूषणौ तथा ॥ १९ ॥ कट्वाचैरम्ललवणी संयुक्तौ सहितौ पृथक् । यातः शेषैः पृथग्योगं शेषैरम्लकटू तथा ॥ २० ।। युज्यते तु कषायेण सतिक्तौ लवणोषणौ । षट् तु पश्चरसान्याहुरेकै कस्या पवर्जनात् ॥ २१ ॥ षट् चैवैकरसानि स्युरेकं षड्समेव तु । इति त्रिपष्टिव्याणां निर्दिष्टा रससंख्यया ॥ २२ ॥
The sixty three variations are as follows:
A. By the combination of two rasas—15 in number
A. 1. Sweet and sour. 2. Sweet and saline. 3. Sweet and pungent. 4. Sweet and bitter. 5. Sweet and astringent. 6. Sour and saline. 7. Sour and pungent. 8. Sour and bitter. 9. Sour and astringent. 10. Saline and pungent. 11. Saline and bitter. 12. Saline and astringent. 13. Pungent and bitter. 14. Pungent and astringent. 15. Bitter and astringent.
B. By the combination of three rasas -20 in number 16. Sweet, sour and saline. 17. Sweet, sour and pungent. 18. Sweet, sour and bitter. 19. Sweet, sour and astringent. 20. Sweet, saline and pungent. 21. Sweet, saline and bitter. 22. Sweet, saline and astringent. 23. Sweet, pungent and bitter. 24. Sweet, pungent and astringent. 25. Sweet, bitter and astringent. 26. Sour, saline and pungent. 27. Sour, saline and bitter. 28. Sour, saline and astringent. 29. Sour, pungent and bitter. 30. Sour, pungent and astringent. 31. Sour, bitter and astringent. 32. Saline, pungent and bitter. 33. Saline, pungent and astringent. 34. Saline, bitter and astringent. 35. Pungent, bitter and astringent.
C. By the combination of four rasas-15 in number
36. Sweet, sour, saline and pungent. 37. Sweet, sour, saline and bitter. 38. Sweet, sour, saline and astringent. 39. Sweet, sour, pungent and bitter. 40. Sweet, sour, pungent and astringent. 41. Sweet, sour, bitter and astringent. 42. Sweet, saline, pungent and bitter. 43. Sweet, saline, bitter and astringent. 44. Sweet, saline, astringent and pungent. 45. Sweet, pungent, bitter and astringent. 46. Sour, saline, pungent and bitter. 47. Sour, saline, bitter and astringent. 48. Sour, saline, astringent and pungent. 49. Sour, pungent, bitter and astringent. 50. Saline, pungent, bitter and astringent.
D. By the combination of five rasas-6 in number
51. Sour, saline, pungent, bitter and astringent. 52. Sweet, saline, pungent, bitter and astringent. 53. Sweet, sour, pungent, bitter and astringent. 54. Sweet, sour, saline, bitter and astringent. 55. Sweet, sour, saline, pungent and astringent. 56. Sweet, sour, saline, pungent and bitter.
E. Without any combination-6 in number
57. Sweet. 58. Sour. 59. Saline. 60. Pungent. 61. Bitter. 62. Astringent.
F. By the combination of all the six rasas-1 in number
63. Sweet, sour, saline, pungent, bitter and astringent. [15-22]
त्रिषष्टिः स्यात्वसंख्येया रसानुरसकल्पनात् । रसास्तरतमाभ्यां तां संख्यामतिपतन्ति हि ॥ २३ ॥
The number may still go up to the extent of innumerability if anurasa (after tastes or subsidiary tastes) and their relative degrees are taken into account. [ 23 ]
Manifestation of anurasa (after-tastes) is generally not possible in the six simple tastes, even though such after-tastes might be present in a latent form. But the fifty seven other varieties of compound tastes abound in the various combinations of tastes as well as after-tastes. If such after-tastes are taken into account, the number of tastes would still go up even to the extent of innumerability.
संयोगाः सतपञ्चाशत् कल्पना तु त्रिषष्टिधा ।
रसानां तत्र योग्यत्वात् कल्पिता रसचिन्तकैः ॥ २४ ॥
In view of their therapeutic utility, fifty-seven combinations and sixty-three types of rasas ( tastes) are enunciated.  Such combination and types are enunciated because they are useful in connection with maintenance of health and cure of diseases.
General principles of rasa therapy
क्वचिदेको रसः कल्प्यः संयुक्ताश्च रसाः क्वचित् । दोषौषधादीन संचिन्त्य भिषजा सिद्धिमिच्छता ॥ २५ ॥
द्रव्याणि द्विरसादीनि संयुक्तांश्च रसान् बुधाः । रसानेकैकशो वाऽपि कल्पयन्ति गदान् प्रति ॥ २६ ॥
A physician may prescribe drugs having one taste or combination of several tastes, with due regard to the nature of the doshas vitiated, the resultant manifestation of the disease and specific actions of drugs etc., for the maintenance of health. Similarly for the cure of diseases, drugs having one or more tastes may be prescribed. [ 25-26 ]
For the maintenance of positive health, drugs and diets having one taste or combination of several tastes are to be prescribed with due regard to the nature of drugs, specific action of drugs, location, time, strength etc. Combination of tastes is effected by combining many drugs having different tastes or by selecting a drug having many tastes. When the effect of only one taste is desired, drugs having that very taste should be selected.
By very nature, some drugs have two or more tastes, for examble mudga (Phaseolus mungo Linn.) has two tastes viz., astringent and sweet; bhavya (Dillenia indica Linn.) has three tastes viz., sweet, sour and astringent-cf. Sutra 27: 131 tila (Sesamum indicum Linn.) has four tastes viz., sweet, bitter, astringent and pungent-cf. Sutra 27 : 30 amalaki ( Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) and haritaki ( Tarminalia chebula Linn.) have five tastes. Drugs having six tastes are not specified here. Poison (venom ) is of course considered to have all the six tastes in a latent form. Harita has described meat of ena ( antelope ) as having all six tastes in a manifested form.
Verse-25 above perhaps deals with the regimen for the maintenance of the positive health. Verse-26 however, prescribes certain regimen for persons suffering from diseases
Importance of the knowledge of the classification of rasa and dosha
यः स्याद्रसविकल्पज्ञः स्याच्च दोषविकल्पवित् ।
न स मुह्येद्विकाराणां हेतुलिङ्गोपशान्तिषु ॥ २७ ॥
A physician, well acquainted with the classification of rasa ( tastes) and doshas, seldom commits blunders in ascertaining the etiology, symptomatology and treatment of dieases. 
By the knowledge of the classification of rasa ( tastes), one can acquaint himself with the factors that are responsible for the causation of diseases (etiology). Similarly aquaintance with the classifiacation of doshas helps in knowing the syptomatology of diseases. The knowledge of the classification of both the tastes as well as doshas helps in prescribing effective treatment for diseases. Drugs are fully known by their tastes and the line of treatment that should be adopted for curing a disease is determined by the knowledge of the dosha vitiated and the resultant manifestation of a disease. Even the knowledge of the classification of rasa alone may help in ascertaining the etiology, symptomatology and the treatment of diseases. Drugs and diets having particular tastes cause diseases and as such they are responsible for producing particular symptoms and if administered with due care, they can also cure diseases. Similarly, the knowledge of the classification of doshas helps in ascertaining the etiology, symptomatology and treatment of diseases.
Identification of rasa and anurasa in a given substance
व्यक्तः शुष्कस्य चादौ च रसो द्रव्यस्य लक्ष्यते ।
विपर्ययेणानुरसो रसो नास्ति हि सप्तमः ॥ २८ ॥
The gustatory effect of the initial as well as final contact of a dry as well as wet substance with the tongue is known as rasa or taste. When such an effect is not distinctly perceptible but is inferred only by its actions, it is known as anurasa (aftertaste). It is included in one of the six tastes and there is no separate seventh taste. 
The above verse is interpreted differently by some commentators. The rasa of a substance is only the taste which is perceptible in the dry state of the substance. Conversely the taste which is perceptible in the wet state of a substance but which does not follow in the dry state is its anurasa. For example, while wet (green and ripe) pippali (Piper longum Linn.) produces a sweet taste, in its dry state it produces pungent taste. So the rasa (taste) of pippali is pungent, its anurasa ( after-taste) is sweet. In the case of draksa (grape) etc. where sweet taste is equally perceptible both in its wet and dry states, sweet is the taste there. On the other hand the taste (viz. sour) which is perceptible in the sour gruel and butter-milk which are always used in liquid form is to be regarded as rasa. The bitter taste which only follows the sour taste in such cases could be regarded as anurasa (after-taste ).
The above interpretation is however, not borne out by facts. Wet (green and ripe) pippali (Piper longun Linn.) does always have sweet taste as evident from Sutra 27: 297. If sweetness is regarded as anurasa, it will not be possible for a green and ripe pippali to cause heaviness, aggravation of kapha, etc. So it may be concluded that the perceptible taste of green and ripe pippali is sweet and that is its rasa. Sweetness, of course, constitutes an anurasa (after-taste or subsidiary taste) of pippali.
General attributes of drugs used in processing and prescribing of drug
परापरत्वे युक्तिश्च संख्या संयोग एव च । विभागश्च पृथक्त्वं च परिमाणमथापि च ॥ २९ ॥ संस्कारोऽभ्यास इत्येते गुणा ज्ञेयाः परादयः । सिड्युपायाश्चिकित्साया लक्षणैस्तान् प्रचक्ष्महे ॥ ३० ॥ देशकालवयोमानपाकवीर्यरसादिषु परापरत्वे, युक्तिश्च योजना या तु युज्यते ॥ ३१ ॥ संख्या स्याद्गणितं, योगः सह संयोग उच्यते । द्रव्याणां द्वन्द्वसर्वैककर्मजोऽनित्य एव च ॥ ३२ ॥ विभागस्तु विभक्तिः स्याद्वियोगो भागशो ग्रहः । पृथक्त्वं परिमाणं पुनर्मानं, भावाभ्यसनमभ्यासः इति स्वलक्षणैरुक्ता स्यादसंयोगो वैलक्षण्य मनेकता ॥ ३३ ॥ संस्कार करणं मतम् । शीलनं सततक्रिया ॥ ३४ ॥ गुणाः सर्वे परादयः । चिकित्सा यैरविदितैर्न यथावत् प्रवर्तते ॥ ३५ ॥
The following are attributes belonging to the category beginning with para ( superiority ) etc. All these are useful for the accomplishment of treatment; superiority and inferiority (rela. ting to the place, time, age, measurement, vipaka, potency and taste), propriety ( proper application ), number ( for enumeration), combination (of two things, many things and one thing with another such combinations are temporary), division (absence of combining factor ), separation (consisting of noncombination, distinctness and plurality), measurement, transformation (method of preparation), repetition (of the samething time and again ).
Thus the attributes belonging to the category beginning with para (superiority) have been defined and explained. Without knowing them, a physician cannot do well in treatment. [29-35]
Superiority and inferiority in relation to place, time, age, measurement, vipuka, virya and rasa may be illustrated as follows: The desert is superior to marshy land; the period of elimination (visarga kala) is superior to that of absorption (adanakala); young age is superior to other ages. The measurement as explained in Sarira 7: 15 are superior to other measurements, and the vipaka, virya ( potency) and rasa (taste) which are wholesome are superior to unwholesome ones. Similarly, certain types of constitution and bodily strength are superior to the other ones. If the terms ‘paratva’ and ‘aparatva’ are taken in Vaisesika sense, then a place which is comparatively far off will be regarded as para, the nearer one would be apara; on the same principle old age would be para in relation to young age. The age is in fact included in the time. It is separately mentioned here only for elucidation. As a matter of fact, the age cannot be treated as a separate attribute. For age is nothing but measurement of time and measurement itself is another attribute which will not allow any other attribute to be ascribed to it.
Propriety implies selection of proper therapy with due regard to the nature of the doshas vitiated. The inappropriate selection of therapy is no selection at all, as the imaginary son who is not born is no son at all. Like the age, the propriety also is in fact not to be treated as a separate attribute, included as it is under combination, measurement, meathod of preparation etc. But as it occupies a very pre-dominent role in therapeutics, it is separately mentioned.
Combination is of three types viz;
1. Combination of two things e.g. fighting between two sheep.
2. Combination of many things e.g. addition of masa ( Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) in a pot having many such grains;
3. Combination of one thing with another, e.g. sitting of crow on a tree;
Separation is of three types viz;
1. Non-combination e.g. the separation of the Meru and the Himalayas;
2. Distinctness, e.g. separation of one type from another type;
3. Plurality e.g. separation of one type of musa (Phaseolus radiatus Linn) from other types.
Such of the factors as can bring about a change in the properties of drugs, diets etc. are known as samskara (transformation )-cf. Vimana 1:22.
Habitual intake of sasthika type of rice. physical exercise etc. come under the category of abhyasa (repetition).
Properties attributed to rasas really belong to dravyas
गुणा गुणाश्रया नोक्तास्तस्माद्रसगुणान् भिषक् । विद्याद्रव्यगुणान् कर्तुंरभिप्रायाः पृथग्विधाः ॥ ३६ ॥
There cannot be an attribute within another attribute; so rasa itself being an attribute of drugs, diets etc. there cannot really be any attribute assigned to rasa as such. The attribetes so mentioned above in fact relate to those of the drugs, diets etc. which constitute the substrata for rasas ( tastes). The ideas underlying the instructions of the author vary from place to place. 
The various attributes including combination (samyoga) have been ascribed to rasas in verses 29-35. Attributes like unctuousness etc. will further be explained in verses 73-79. All such attributes are in fact meant to be ascribed to the substrata of rasa e.g. drugs, diets etc., and not to rasas themselves. For, the rasas or tastes being themselves attributes of matter cannot have attributes of their own. Guna possesses inseparable concomitance; it is the cause devoid of effects cf. Sutra 1 : 51. The reason why these attributes are ascribed to rasas in the text is that the attributes like unctuousness etc, do invariably follow the rasas like sweet etc., and it is through the intrinsic association of former with the latter that unctuousness, coldness etc., may also be associated with drugs and diets. With a view to showing this intrinsic relationship between the rasas and attributes like unctuousness etc., the latter have been stated to be attributes of rasas. But the statements of the author are to be interpreted with due regard to his intentions, and as explained above he intends to convey both the points very clearly viz. 1. These attributes are ultimately the attributes of matter and not of rasas.
2. These attributes are secondarily associated with the respective rasas as evident from the context and their therapeutic utility.
To explain apparent contradictions
अतश्च बुद्ध्वा देशकालान्तराणि च । तन्त्रकर्तुरभिप्रायानुपायांश्चार्थनादिशेत्
In the event of the texts conveying apparently conflicting views, the interpretation should be based on the contextual, local and temporal propriety, the intention of the author and the rules of interpretation ( tantrayukti ). [ 37 ]
As explained in the above verse the texts having apparently conflicting views are to be interpreted according to contextual propriety etc., for example it has been said that ksura (alkali preparation in the form of ashes), ksira (milk ), phala (fruit), and puspa (flower) etc., belong to the drugs of vegetable origin-cf. Sutra 1:73. Here the contextual propriety rules out the possibility of interpreting the term ‘ksira’, as milk of any animal and so the term is interpreted as latex of snuhi (Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.) etc. Similarly to the course of the elimination of doshas from the head in Sutra 2: 6 the term krimivyadhi means the disease of the head caused by the germs; this interpretation is based on local propriety. So in the course of the description of emesis the term pratigraha is taken to mean vessels and not holding up. The example of the textual interpretation on the basis of the intention of the author is as indicated in the commentary in verse 36 of this chapter.
Genesis of rasa from Panchamahabhutas
षड्विभक्तीः प्रवक्ष्यामि रसानामत उत्तरम् ।
षट् पञ्चभूतप्रभवाः संख्याताश्च यथा रसाः ॥ ३८ ॥
Now we shall explain the six fold division of rasas and also how the six rasas are manifestated from the five mahabhutas. 
Role of water in mainfestation of rasas
सौम्याः खल्वापोऽन्तरिक्षप्रभवाः प्रकृतिशीता लछ्यश्चाव्यक्तरसाश्च तास्त्वन्तरिक्षाद्धाश्यमाना भ्रष्टाश्च पञ्चमहाभूतगुणसमन्विता जङ्गमस्थावराणां भूतानां मूर्तीरभिप्रीणयन्ति, तासु मूर्तिषु षडभिमूर्च्छन्ति रसाः ॥ ३९ ॥
The moon is the presiding diety of water. The water in the atmosphere (before it falls on the ground) is by nature cold and light, and its rasa is not manifested at this stage. The moment it starts falling from atmosphere and after it falls on the ground, it gets impregnated with the qualities of the five mahabhutas and it noursishes the individuals belonging to the vegetable and animal kingdom. At this stage the six tastes manifest themselves in these individuals. 
The taste as such does not manifest itself while the water is in the atmosphere. As soon as it starts falling on the ground, it comes in contact with the atoms of the five mahabhutas impelled by the atmosphere itself and there comes the first stage of the manifestation of rasa. The culminating point of this manifestation is however reached when the water falls on the ground and it comes in contast with the individuals of the vegetable and animal kingdoms. In a way water at this stage does not only nourish but also creates such individuals.
Predominance of mahabhutas in individual Rasa
तेषां पण्णां रसानां सोमगुणातिरेकान्मधुरो रसः पृथिव्यग्निभूयिष्ठत्वादम्लः, सलिलाग्निभूयिष्ठत्वाल्लवणः, वाग्वग्निभूयिष्ठत्वात् कटुकः, वाय्वाकाशातिरिक्तत्वातिक्तः, पवनपृथिव्यतिरेकात् कषाय इति । एवमेषां रसानां षत्वमुपपन्नं न्यूनातिरेक विशेषान्महाभूतानां भूतानामिव स्थावरजङ्गमानां नानावर्णाकृतिविशेषाः; षडृतु कत्वाञ्च कालस्योपपन्नो महाभूतानां न्यूनातिरेकविशेषः ॥ ४० ॥
Of the six tastes, sweet taste abounds in the qualities of jala mahabhuta, sour taste of prthvi and agni, saline taste of jala and agni pungent taste of agni and vayu, bitter taste of vayu and akasa and astringent taste of vayu and prthvi. So like the individuals belonging to the vegetable and animal kingdom of diverse types, depending upon their colour and shape ( owing to the predominence or otherwise of the various mahabhutas), the rasas are also six in number due to the predominance or otherwise of the five mahabhutas. The predominance or otherwise of five mahabhutas in turn depends on the six seasonal variations. [ 40 ]
As a matter of fact, all the five mahubhutas are there in all the six rasas but the manifestation of the various rasas depends on the predominance or otherwise of the qualities of one or more of the mahabhuta, for example, jala mahabhuta is the root cause of all the six rasas but it predominates in sweet taste and as such it constitutes a distinctive causative factor thereof. According to Susruta, saline taste is dominated by the qualities of prthvi and agni. observation made above. But as a This apparently goes against the matter of fact there is no contradiction in so far as the manifestation of saline taste is concerned. One might ask if the saline taste is caused by the predominance of agni and jala which are hot and cold respectively the resultant substant having saline taste should also have both hot and cold qualities; but how is it that salt is said to be of hot quality? The reply is, it is not that the mahabhutas involved in the composition of substance always manifest all of their qualities; by nature they manifest only some of their inherent qualities for example, jala mahabhuta brings about sweetness and not unctuousness in makusthaka ( Phaseolus aconitifilius Jacq.); similarly even though agni mahabhuta predominates in the composition of rock salt, the latter does not possess heating property. The combination of the mahabhutas in a particular way and the diversity of their manifestation are guided by some imperceptible factors which can only be inferred from the manifested effect of the substance. For example, salt possess heating and sticking properties and so it is inferred that agni and jala mahabhutas dominate in its composition. In fact we mortals cannot easily comprehend such combinations and their effects. They can only be ascertained from scriptures. To cite another example, we cannot offer any rational explanation as to how the mahabhutas in isolation (other than jala) do not cause any other rasa. This proves that there is something inherent in the five mahabhutas themselves which is responsible for their combinations and manifestation of their effects in various ways. The five mahabhutas constitute the effecient cause for the manifestations of the specific types of rasa like sweetness etc. It is therefore immaterial whether all the mahabhutas in themselves possess rasas or not. Agni for example does not possess any rasa but it is still an efficient cause for the manifestation of a rasa like sourness.
The seasonal variations result in the predominance or otherwise of the qualities of the five mahabhutas and bring about the manifestation of the various rasas thereby. For example, in hemanta (November-January) the qualities of jala mahabhuta manifest themselves in excess, resulting in the production of drugs and deits having sweet taste; in sisira (JanuaryMarch) vayu and akasa predominate, resulting in the manifestation of bitter tastes. Even day and night and some other imperceptible factors are responsible for the predominance of the one or the other of the mahabhutas. Thus it is not that in the hemanta (November-January) every drug and diet will always have sweet taste. There is a possibility of manifestation of other rasas as well, depending on the effect of other imperceptible factors. As a matter of fact the predominance of mahabhutas is responsible for the seasonal variations and vice-versa. This inter-dependence may be compared to the inter-dependence of the seed and the embryo.
Flow of Rasas
तत्राशिमारुतात्मका रसाः प्रायेणोर्ध्वभाजः, लाघवादुत्प्लवनत्वाच्य वायोरुर्ध्वज्वलनत्वाच्च वह्नेः सलिलपृथिव्यात्मकास्तु प्रायेणाघोभाजः, पृथिव्या गुरुत्वानिम्नग त्या चोदकस्य; व्यामिश्रात्मकाः पुनरुभयोभाजः ॥ ४१ ॥
Rasas abounding in the qualities of agni and vayu have a tendency of upward movement. This is because of the lightness and upward mobility of vayu and upward flames of agni. The rasas abounding in the qualities of jala and prthvi on the other hand have a tendency for downward movement because of the heaviness of prthvi and downward flow of jala. The rasas abounding in both the categories of substances mentioned above share both the qualities [ 41 ]
Vayu is not only mobile but also light; so like cotton, owing to the lightness combined with mobility it has an upward movement generally. तेषां षण्णां रसाना मेकैकस्य यथाद्रव्यं गुणकर्माण्यनुव्याख्यास्यामः ॥ ४२ ॥ We shall now explain the properties and actions of each one of the six rasas as they are found in various drugs and diets. 
Action of Sweet Taste
तन्त्र, मधुरोरसः शरीरसात्म्याद्रसरुधिर मांस मेदोस्थिमज्जौजःशुक्राभिवर्धन आयुष्यः पडिन्द्रियप्रसादनो बलवर्णकरः पित्तविषमारुतप्रस्तृष्णादाहप्रशमनस्त्वव्यः केशयः कण्ठ्यो बल्यः प्रीणनो जीवनस्तर्पणो बृंहणः स्थैर्यकरः क्षीणक्षतसन्धानकरी घ्राणमुखकण्ठोष्ठजिल्हाप्रहादनो मूर्च्छाप्रशमनः षट्पदपिपीलिकानामिटतमः बिग्धः शीतो गुरुश्च । स एबंगुणोऽप्येक एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमानः स्थौल्वं माईवमालस्यमतिश्वप्नं गौरवमनन्नाभिलाष मग्नैदौर्बल्य मास्य कण्ठयोमसाभिवृद्धि भ्यासकालप्रतिघ्यायालसकशीतज्वरानाहास्य माधुर्यव मथुसंज्ञास्वरप्रणाशगलगण्ड• गण्डमालाम्लीपद्गलशोफब स्विधमनी गलो पलेपाक्ष्यामयाभिष्यन्दानित्येवंप्रभृतीन् फफजान विकारानुपजनयति ( १ );
Drugs and diets having sweet taste are wholesome to the body and as such they add to the growth of rasa (body fluid ), blood, muscle, fat, bone, marrow, ojas (?), semen and longevity. They are soothing to the six sense organs. They promote strength and complexion, alleviate pitta, vata, and effects of poison, They relieve thirst and burning sensation, promote healthy skin, hair, voice and strength. They are soothing, invigorating and nourishing. They bring about stability and heal up emaciation and consumption. They are soothing to the nose, mouth, throat, lips and tongue and relieve fits. They are much liked by the bees and ants. They are unctuous, cold and heavy. , when used in excess in
Inspite of all these good qualitiesisolation they cause vitiation of kapha resulting in obesity, tenderness, laziness, hypersomnia, heavinees, loss of appetite, loss of the power of digestion, abnormal growth of muscles in the mouth and throat, dysuria, cough, coryza, alasaka ( intestinal torpor) fever preceded with cold anaha ( constipation) sweetness in mouth, vomiting, loss of sensation and voice, scrofula, cervical lymphadenitis, elephantiasis, galasopha ( pharyngitis ), adhesion in the blader, vessels, throat and eye diseases like abhisyanda ( conjuctivitis) etc. [43-i]
Of all the six tastes, sweetness plays the most important role as it is one of the most useful factors for longevity and is generally liked by the people.
A reference about sweetness being liked by bees and ants in the above passage has a therapeutic significance. For example, as stated in Chikitsa 6:14 the urine of persons suffering from diabetes mellitus ( madhumeha ) is infested with ants and as such it constitutes the premonitory sign of this disease. Similary, when the flies are attracted towards a person even after he has taken his bath it is considered to be a bad prognostic sign-cf. Indriya 5:16.
Action of Sour Taste
अम्लो रसो भक्तं रोचयति, अग्निं दीपयति, देहं बृंहयति ऊर्जयति, मनो ब्रोधयति, इन्द्रियाणि दृढीकरोति, बलं वर्धयति, वातमनुलोमयति, हृदयं तर्पयति, आस्यमास्त्रावयति, भुक्तमपकर्षयति क्लेदयति जरयति, प्रीणयति, लघुरुष्णः स्त्रिधश्च । स एवंगुणोऽप्येक एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमानो दन्तान् हर्षयति, तर्षयति, संसीलयत्यक्षिणी, संवेजयति लोमानि, कर्फ विलापयति, पित्तमभिवर्धयति, रक्तं दूषयति, मांसं विदहति, कार्य शिथिलीकरोति, क्षीणक्षतकृशदुर्बलानां श्वयथुमापादयति, अपि च क्षताभिहतदष्टदग्धभग्नशून प्रच्युतावसूत्रित परिल र्पित मर्दितच्छिन्नभिन्नविश्लिष्टोद्विद्धोत्पिष्टादीनि पाचयत्याग्नैयस्वभावात्, परिदहति कण्ठमुरो हृदयं च ( २ );
Drugs and diets having sour taste add to the deliciousness of food, stimulate appetite, nourish and energise the body, enlighten the mind, strengthen the sense organs, promote strength, alleviate pata, nourish the heart, cause salivation, help in swallowing, moistening and digestion of food; they are refreshing, light, hot and unctuous.
Inspite of all these good qualities, if used in excess in isolation, they cause thirst, morbid sensitiveness of teeth, closure of eyes, horripilation, liquification of kapha, aggravation of pitta, vitiation of rakta, decomposition of muscle, flaviness of body, oedema in patients suffering from emaciation, consumption, cachexia and weakness, Due to heating property they cause suppuration of wounds caused by ulceration, trauma, contagious bites, burn, fracture, swelling, dislocation, poisonous urine, contact with poisonous animals ( viz. snakes like karanda ? ), bruise, excision, incision, separation, perforation and crushing. . They cause burning sensation in throat, chest and cardiac region. [ 43-ii ]
Action of Saline Taste
लवणो रसः पाचनः क्लेदनो दीपनश्च्यावनश्छेदनो भेदनस्तीक्ष्णः सरो विकास्यधःसंस्थवकाशकरो वातहरः स्तम्भवन्धसङ्घातविधमनः सर्वरसप्रत्यनीकभूतः, आस्यमास्त्रावयति, कर्फ विष्यन्दयति, मार्गान् विशोधयति, शर्वशरीरावयवान् मृदूकरोति, रोचयत्याहारम्, आहारयोगी, नात्यर्थं गुरुः स्निग्ध उष्णश्च । स एवंगुणोऽप्येक एवात्यर्थपयुज्यमानः पित्तं कोपयति, रक्तं वर्धयति, तर्षयति, मूर्च्छयंति, तापयति, दारयति, कुष्णाति मांसानि, प्रगालयति कुष्ठानि, विषं वर्धयति, शोफान् स्फोटयति, दन्तांश्च्यावयति, पुंस्त्वमुपहन्ति, इन्द्रियाण्युपरुणद्धि, वलिपलितखालित्यमापादयति, अपि च लोहितपित्ताम्लपित्तवीसर्पवातरक्तविचर्चिकेन्द्रलुप्तप्रभृतीन्विकारानुपजनयति ( ३ ) ;
Drugs and diets having saline taste help in carmination, production of stickiness, digestion, osnosia, excision and incision; they are sharp, mobile, vikasi ( clear or antispasmodic ) and laxative, avakasakara ( deobstruent ); they alleviate vata, cure stiffness, obstruction and accumulation; they nullify the effect of all other tastes, cause salivation, liquify kapha, clarify the channels of circulation, bring about tenderness of all the bodily organs, and cause deliciousness of food. They are essential ingredients of food. They are neither very heavy, unctuous nor hot.
Inspite of all these good qualities, if used in excess in isolation, they cause vitiation of pitta, aggravation of rakta, thirst, fainting, heating sensation, erosion, depletion of muscle tissue, sloughing in the parts of the body afflicted with obstinate skin diseases including leprosy, aggravation of poisonous symptoms, bursting of inflamed parts. dislodgement of teeth, reduction of manhood, obstruction of the function of senses and production of premature wrinkling, graying and baldness.
They also cause diseases like raktapitta (a condition characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body) amlapitta (acid dyspepsia), visarpa ( an acute spreading disease of the skin), vatarakta ( gout ), vicaracika ( a type of skin eruption ) alopacia etc. [ 43-iii ]
Action of Pungent Taste
कटुको रसो वक्त्रं शोधयति, अग्निं दीपयति, भुक्तं शोषयति, घ्राणमास्त्रावयति, चक्षुर्विरेचयति, स्फुटीकरोतीन्द्रियाणि, अलसकश्वयथूपचयोदर्दाभिष्यन्द स्नेहस्वेदक्लेदमलानुपहन्ति, रोचयत्यशनं, कण्डूर्विनाशयति, व्रणानवसादयति, क्रिमीन् हिनस्ति, मांस विलिखति, शोणितसङ्घातं भिनन्ति, बन्धांछि नत्ति, मार्गान् विवृणोति, श्लेष्माणं शमयति, लघुरुष्णो रूक्षश्च । स एवंगुणोऽप्येक एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमानो विपाकप्रभावात् पुंस्त्वमुपद्दन्ति, रसवीर्य प्रभावान्मोहयन्ति, ब्लापयति, सायति, कर्शयति, मूर्च्छयति, नमयति, तमयति, भ्रमयति, कण्ठं परिदद्दति, शरीरतापमुपजनयति, बलं क्षिणोति, तृष्णां जनयति; अपि च बाय्वनिगुणबाहुल्याद्भ्रमदवथुकम्प तोदभेदैश्चरणभुजपार्श्वपृष्ठप्रभृतिषु मारुतजान् विकारानुपजनयति ( ४ );
Drugs and diets having pungent taste keep the mouth clean, promote digestion, help in the absorption of food, cause secretion through nose, lacrimation, help proper action of sense organs, -cure diseases like intestinal torpor, obesity, urticaria, chronic conjuctivitis, help in the elimination of the waste products which are sticky in nature and produce the oleation and fomentation therapies, cause deliciousness in food, cure itching, allay excessive growth of ulcers, kill germs, corrode the muscle tissues, break blood clots and other obstructions, clarify the passages and alleviate kapha. They are light, hot and unctuous.
Inspite of all these good qualities if used in excess in isolation, they destroy man-hood by virtue of their vipaka; they affect potency by their taste and they also cause unconsciousness, weariness, asthma, emaciation, fainting choking, giddiness, burning sensation in throat, production of great heat and thirst, and diminution of strength by virtue of their specific action.
Because of the dominance of vayu and agnimahabhutas they also cause giddiness, burning sensation, tremour piercing and stabbing pain in legs, hands, back etc. [ 43-iv ]
Action of Bitter Taste
तिक्तो रसः स्वयमरोचिष्णुरप्यरोचकघ्नो विषघ्नः क्रिमिघ्नो मूर्च्छादाहकण्डूकुष्ठतृष्णाप्रशमनस्त्वड्यांसयोः स्थिरीकरणो ज्वरो दीपनः पाचनः स्तन्यशोधनो लेखनः क्लेदमेदोवसामज्जलसीकापूयस्वेदमूत्रपुरीषपित्तश्लेष्योपशोषणो कक्षः शीतो लघुश्च । स एवंगुणोऽप्येक एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमानो रौक्ष्यात्खरविषद्स्वभावाश्च रसरुधिरमांसमेदोस्थिमज्जशुक्राण्युच्छोषयति, स्रोतसां खरत्वमुप पादयति, बलमादत्ते, कशयति, ग्लपयति, मोहयति, भ्रमयति, वदनमुपशोषयति, अपरांश्च वातविकारानुपजनयति ( ५ ) ;
Drugs and diets having bitter taste are by themeselves not delicious but when added with other things they promote deliciousness. They are antitoxic and germicidal. They cure fainting, burning sensation, itching, obstinate skin diseases including leprosy, thirst, and fever. They promote firmness of the skin and muscles. They promote carmination and digestion, purify milk, cause drying and help in the depletion of moisture, fat, muscle fat, bone marrow, lymph, pus, sweat, urine, stool, pitta and kapha. They are unctuous, cold and light.
Inspite of all these good qualities, if used in excess in isolation, by virtue of their unctuousness, roughness and non-sliminess they deplete the plasma, blood, muscle fat, bone-marrow and semen. They produce roughness in the circulatory channels, reduce strength, cause emaciation, weariness, unconsciousness, giddiness, dryness of mouth and produce other diseases due to the vitiation of vata. [ 43-v]
Action of Astringent Taste
कषायो रसः संशमनः संग्राही सन्धानकरः पीडनो रोपणः शोषणः स्तम्भनः लेष्मरक्तपित्तप्रदामनः शरीरक्लेदस्योपयोक्ता रूक्षः शीतोऽलघुश्च । स एवंगुणोऽव्येक एवात्यर्थमुपयुज्यमान आस्यं शोषयति, हृदयं पीडयति, उदरमाध्मापयति, वाचं निगृह्णाति, स्रोतांस्यववनाति, श्यावत्वमापादयति, पुंस्त्वमुपहन्ति, विष्टभ्य जयं गच्छति, वातसूत्रपुरीषरेतांस्यवगृह्णाति, कर्शयति, ग्लपयति, तर्षयति, स्तम्भयति, खरविशद्रूक्षत्वात् पक्षवधग्रहापतानकार्दितप्रभृतींश्च वात विकारानुपजनयति ॥ ४३ ॥
Drugs and diets having astringent taste are sadative and constipative. They produce pressure on the affected part and cause granulation, absorption and stiffness. They alleviate kapha and raktapitta (a disease characterised by bleeding form various parts of the body). They absorb the body fluid and are dry, cold and heavy.
Inspite of all these good qualities, if used in excess in isolation they cause dryness of mouth, affliction of the heart, distention of abdomen, obstruction of speech, constriction of circulating channels, black complexion and destruction of man-hood. They get digested slowly and obstruct the passage of flatus, urine, stool and semen, cause emaciation, weariness, thirst, stiffness and by virtue of their roughness, dryness and non-sliminess they produce diseases like hemiplegia, spasm, convulsion, facial paralysis etc. due to the vitiation of vata. [ 43 ]
इत्येवमे षड्रसाः पृथक्त्वेनैकत्वेन वा मात्रंशः सभ्यगुपयुज्यमाना उपकाराय भवन्त्यध्यात्मलोकस्य, अपकारकराः पुनरतोऽन्यथा भवन्त्युपयुज्यमानाः; तान् विद्वानुपकारार्थमेव मात्रशः सम्यगुपयोजयेदिति ॥ ४४ ॥
So all these rasas properly used jointly or severally in proper dose bring about happiness to all living beings. Otherwise they are equally harmful to all. So a wise person should use them properly in proper dose in order to have good results. 
Virya determination according to Rasa
भवन्ति चात्रशीतं वीर्येण यद्रव्यं मधुरं रसपाकयोः । तयोरम्लं यदुष्णं च यद्रव्यं कटुकं तयोः ॥ ४५ ॥ .
Thus it is said :
The drugs and diets which are sweet in rasa (taste) and vipaka ( taste after digestion) are of fitavirya (that is potentially cold); those with sour or pungent taste and vipaka are of usnavirya ( that is potentially hot ). [ 45 ]
Only such of the drugs and diets which are sweet in taste as well as ipaka are of sitavirya. One cannot determine sitaviryatva ( or potential coldness) of drugs and diets only on the basis of sweet taste. The same principle is applicable to the drugs and diets of usna type as well.
Substances following the rule
तेषां रसोपदेशेन निर्देश्यो गुणसंग्रहः । वीर्यतोऽविपरीतानां पाकतश्चोपदेक्ष्यते ॥ ४६॥
यथा पयो यथा सर्पिर्यथा वा चव्यचित्रको । एवमादीनि चान्यानि निर्दिशेद्रसतो भिषक् ॥ ४७ ॥
The properties of such of the drugs and diets as possess virya and vipaka in conformity with rasa are explained here only in terms of rasas concerned. Thus the physician may explain the properties of milk, ghee, chavya ( Piper chaba Hunter ) and chitraka ( Plumbazo zeylanica Linn. ) on the basis of their tastes. [ 46-47 ] As stated in verse 45, drugs and diets having sweet taste and sweet vipuka are generally of sitavirya (potentially cold ). Similarly those of sour and pungent taste and pungent vipaka are usna virya ( potentially hot). In the case of such of the drugs and diets where virya and vipaka are in conformity with rasa, their properties are explained in terms of rasa only. As for example the properties of milk and ghee both of which are sweet in taste and vipaka and sitavirya can be ascertained in terms of their taste only. The above principle does not apply in the cases of such of the drugs and diets where virya ( potency) is not in conformity with rasa.
Substances whose Viryas are contradictory to Rasa
मधुरं किंचिदुष्णं स्यात् कषायं तिक्तमेव च । यथा लवणं महत्पञ्चमूलं यथाऽब्जानूपमामिषम् ॥ ४८ ॥ सैन्धवं नोष्णमम्लमामलकं तथा । तिक्तानामुष्णमुच्यते ॥ ४९ ॥ अर्कागुरुगुडूचीनां
Some drugs having sweet taste are of usnavirya (potentially hot ) e. g. the meat of aquatic and marshy animals. Some drugs having astringent and bitter tastes are also of usnavirya ( potentally hot ) e. g. drugs belonging to mahat panchamula group ( Aegle marmelos Corr. }, Oroxylum indicum Vent., Gmelina arboria Linn, Stereos permum suaveloens Dc., Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f.), arka Calotropis gigantea R. Br. ), aguru ( Aquilaria agalocha Roxb. ) and Guduchi ( Tinospora cordiofolia Miers ) — all the latter three having bitter taste. Similarly rock salt having saline taste and amalaka (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) having sour taste are hot of usna virya ( potentially hot ). [ 48-49]
In verse 45, there is no mention of the corresponding virya (potency) of astringent, bitter and saline tastes. However, they are mentioned here in accordance with the context.
Variation in the action of substances of similar tastes
किंचिदम्लं हि संग्राहि किंचिदम्लं भिनत्ति च । यथा कपित्थं संग्राहि भेदि चामलकं तथा ॥ ५० ॥ पिप्पली नागरं वृष्यं कटु चावृष्यमुच्यते । कषायः स्तम्भनः शीतः सोऽभयायामतोऽन्यथा ॥ ५१ ॥ तस्मादसोपदेशेन न सर्व द्रव्यामादिशेत् । हृष्टं तुल्यरसेऽप्येवं द्रव्ये द्रव्ये गुणान्तरम् ॥ ५२ ॥
Some drugs having sour taste are costive, e.g. kapittha ( Feronia limonia Swingle ), ; some are laxative, e.g. amalaka ( Emblica officinalis Gaertn ). Even though drugs having.pungent taste are generally non-aphrodisiac, still pippali ( Piper longum Linn. ) and sunthi ( Zingiber officinale Rosc. ). having such taste are aphrodisiac. Similarly drugs having astringent taste are generally of sitavirya and costive but haritaki (Terminalia chebula Linn.) is an exception to it-it is usnavirya and laxative, Thus it is not possible to explain the properties of all the drugs and diets simply in terms of rasa because individual drugs having identical tastes very in relation to their properties. [ 50-52 ]
Relative superiority of Tastes based on certain qualities
परः ॥ ५३ ।। रौक्ष्यात् कषायो रूक्षाणामुत्तमो मध्यमः कटुः । तिक्तोऽवरस्तथोष्णानामुष्णत्वाल्लवणः मध्योऽम्लः कटुकश्चान्त्यः स्निग्धानां मधुरः परः । मध्योऽम्लो लवणश्चान्त्यो रसः स्नेहान्निरुच्यते ॥ ५४ ॥ मध्योत्कृष्टावराः शैत्यात् कषायस्वादुतिक्तकाः । स्वादुर्गुरुत्वादधिकः कषायालवणोऽवरः ॥ ५५ ॥ अम्लात् कटुस्ततस्तित्तो लघुत्वादुत्तमोत्तमः । केचिल्लघूनामवरमिच्छन्ति लवणं रसम् ॥ ५६ ॥ गौरवे लाघवे चैव सोऽवरस्तूभयोरपि ।
The relative superiority or infertority of the tastes of drugs of various categories are as below:
Some authors are of the view that among light drugs and diets, those having saline taste are inferior. Thus drugs and diets having saline taste are inferior both in heaviness and lightness. [ 53-56]
It has been stated above that salt is inferior both in heaviness and lightness. This establishes the heaviness of salt as compared with drugs and diets having sour, pungent and bitter tastes. This also shows that the lightness of salt is inferior even to the drugs having sour taste. It should not be argued that as drugs having sour taste are composed of prthvi and those having saline taste of jala, the latter should be lighter than the former for heaviness or lightness cannot be determined on the basis of the predominance of the mahubhutas concerned. Even the sweet taste which is composed of jala is heavier than astringent taste which latter is composed of Prithvi.
The Vipaka of substances
परं चातो विपाकानां लक्षणं संप्रवक्ष्यते ॥ ५७ ॥ कटुतिक्तकषायाणां विपाकः प्रायशः कटुः । अम्लोऽम्लं पच्यते स्वादुर्मधुरं लवणस्तथा ।। ५८ ।।
Now we shall explain the vipaka (taste after digestion ). Vipaka of drugs and diets having pungent, bitter and astringent testes is pungent; that of sour taste is sour and that of sweet and saline tastes is sweet. [ 57–58 ]
After intake, the food gets digested by the jutharagni (digestive enzymes). The properties that emerge thereafter are known as vipuka cf. Astangahrdaya : Sutra 1 : 20. It is not the taste but the drugs having different tastes which undergo transformation in the form of vipaka.
Rasa’s role in evacuation
मधुरो लवणाग्लौ च स्निग्धभावान्त्रयो रसाः । चातमूत्रपुरीषाणां प्रायो मोक्षे सुखा मताः ॥ ५९ ॥ कटुतिक्तकषायास्तु रूक्षभावान्त्रयो रसा। दुःखाय मोझे दृश्यन्ते वातविण्मूत्ररेतसाम् ॥ ६० ॥
Owing to their unctuousness drugs and diets having sweet, sour and saline tastes are useful for the elimination of flatus, urine and stool. On the other hand, drugs and diets having pungent, bitter and astringent tastes create difficulty in the elimination of flatus, stool, urine and semen in view of their drying property. [ 59-60]
To sum up Sweet and saline tastes undergo sweet vipuka and sour tastes, sour vipaka. Both sweet and sour vipukas help in the elimination of stool etc. Similarly, pungent, bitter and astringent tastes undergo pungent vipaka and create obstacles in the elimination of stool etc. Action of vipaka on dosha and evacuation :
शुक्रहा वद्धविण्सूत्रो विपाको वातलः कटुः । मधुरः सृष्टविण्सूत्रो विपाकः कफशुक्रलः ॥ ६१ ॥ पित्तकृत् सृष्टविण्मूत्रः पाकोऽम्लः शुक्रनाशनः । तेषां गुरुः स्यान्मधुरः कटुकाम्लावतोऽन्यथा ॥ ६२ ॥
Pungent vipaka aggravates vata, reduces semen and obstructs the passage of stool and urine. Sweet vipaka aggravates kapha, promotes semen and helps in the proper elimination of stool and urine. Similarly sour vipaka aggravates pitta, reduces semen and helps in the proper elimination of stool and urine. Sweet vipaka is heavy; pungent and sour ones are light. [ 61-62 ]
Relative superiority of vipaka
विपाकलक्षणस्याल्पमध्यभूयिष्ठतां प्रति ।
द्रव्याणां गुणवैशेष्यात्तत्र तत्रोपलक्षयेत् ॥ ६३ ॥
The relative superiority or inferiority of various types of vipaka can be determined on the basis of the relative superiority and inferiority of the various properties of different drugs and dicts. 
Some commentators are of the view that every rasa has its own vipaka. Accordingly, there are six vipukas corresponding to the rasas. Some others say that if there are more than one rasa, only the strongest of them predominates. So the vipaka cannot be correctly predicted. Susruta on the other hand does not agree with any of the two views enunciated above about the unpredictability of vipaka. In his opinion there are two vi pukas viz, sweet and pungent In such of the drugs and diets where prthvi and jala mahabhutas are dominant, the vipaka is sweet; where the lighter mahabhutas like tejas, vayu and akasa are dominant, the vipaka is pungent- cf. Susruta: Sutra 40: 11-12. It is true that according to the theory which admits of one corresponding vipuka for each of the rasas and also according to the theory which establishes the fact that only the strongest rasa predominates in the vipaka stage, the drugs and diets do not undergo any change in the vipaka stage. That is to say the properties of their rasas continue to be the same even in vipuka stage. Thus the stand taken by Susruta in disregarding these two views is quite justified. The only flaw in Susruta’s view point is that he does not accept the third vipka which is sour. If this sour vipaka is not accepted, vrihi (a type of paddy) and kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Linn.) which are of sweet and astringent taste repectively but whose vipaka is sour will remain unexplained and the statement regarding their action viz. the aggravation of pitta would not hold good. It is not correct to say that vrihi etc., cause the aggravation of pitta due to their hot potency. Even if it is accepted that vrihi is of hot potency, this potentiality would rather get superceded by the sweetness in its taste as well as its vipaka. Moreover, the pitta aggravated by vrihi etc., abounds in sour taste. Had it been due to the hot potency of vrihi, it would have rather abounded in pungent taste which is not corroborated by actual experience. For the eructation after the intake of vrihi etc. is always of sour taste. Besides according to Susruta, sweet vipaka is caused by the predominance of prthvi and or jala mahabhutas and pungent vipaka by the predominance of the rest. Now the question arises what would be the vipuka if there is overlapping in the combination of the mahabhutas? The resultant vipaka cannot be either sweet or pungent but a third one which as mentioned above, can only be the sour vipaka. Or better we may leave out the discussion as to whether there is a sour vipaka or not. What Charaka characterises as sour vipaka, Susruta explains as of hot potency. There is in fact no contradiction whatsoever about the properties of the various drugs and diets in either of the theories. Susruta would have, however, done well not to point our any flaw (vide Susruta : Sutra 40:10) in the sour vipuka theory enunciated by Charaka.
Saline taste results in sweet vipuka, and bitter and astringent tastes in pungent vipuka. But how is it that drugs and diets.having saline taste cause aggravation of pitta and rakta, and those with bitter and astringent taste alleviate pitta? Even if the saline taste results in sweet vipaka, its hot potency is responsible for the aggravation of pitta and rakta. Normally, sweet vipuka is responsible for the alleviation of both pitta and rakta but being overpowered by the hot potency it is ineffective. Sweet vipuka of such drugs and diets however manifests itself in the form of the proper elimimation of stool and urine etc. Thus the sweet vipaka may not be effective in so far as the aggravation of pitta and vata is concerned but it is effective with regard to the therapeutic aspects as mentioned in verse 61 above. Similarly, the pungent vipuka of drugs and diets having bitter and astringent tastes cannot be explained.
Some commentators have tried to explain verse 58 above in a slightly different manner. They connect the clause ‘lavanastatha’ with ‘amlam’ and so they interpret it to mean that vipaka of saline taste is also sour rather than sweet and as such they find it more convenient to explain the correlation between saline taste and aggravation of pitta and rakta. But Jatukarna is very clear in his statement about three-fold classification of vipakas as follows: The vipaka of pungent, astringent and bitter tastes is pungent, that of sour taste, sour and that of sweet and saline tastes, sweet.
Why cannot we accept six vipakas corresponding to the six tastes ? We cannot. Because the three-fold classification of vipukas depends on the real process of transformation of the five mahabhutas which cannot be questioned.
As stated above, there is apparently no difference between the rasa and vipaka of drugs and diets having sweet, sour and pungent tastes. It may now be argued that such of the vipakas where there is some variation from the original taste (viz. sweet vipaka for saline taste or pungent vipaka for bitter and astringent tastes) could well be explained in order to avoid confusion. But what was the necessity of explaining the vipakas of identical tastes ? It was necessary to recognise the two distinct levels as the original rasa and vipaka (that is the taste after the substance is digested). That is why the original pungent taste of pippali (Piper longum Linn.) is therapeutically useful for the elimination of phlegm from the throat and purification of mouth. But its sweet vipuka renders it aphrodisiac in its final effect.
One thing is however clear. Where the original taste and vipuka are identical, the properties of drugs and diets are more effective. They are not so in the cases where there is variation between the original taste and vipuka.
The theree-fold classification of vipuka as described above is different from the three avasthupukas described in the fifteenth chapter of Chikitsasthana. While the latter confines itself to the various stages of digestion, the former is specific to individual drugs and diets. All drugs and diets having various tastes undergo the three avasthapakas but vipaka varies form individual to individual.
The Eight and the Two types of Virya
मृदुतीक्ष्णगुरुलघुस्निग्धरूक्षोष्णशीतलम्वी र्यमष्टविधं केचित् केचिव्हिविधमास्थिताः ॥ ६४ ॥ शीतोष्णमिति, वीर्य तु क्रियते येन या क्रिया । नावीर्यं कुरुते किंचित् सर्वा वीर्यकृता क्रिया ॥ ६५ ।।
Some are of the view that the potency (virya) of the various drugs and diet are of eight types viz. mrdu (mild), tiksna (sharp), guru (heavy), laghu (light) snigdha (unctuous ), ruksa (ununctuous) usna (hot) and sita (cold ). Some others hold the view that it is only of two types viz., sita (cold ) and usna ( hot ).
In its wider sense, the term potency (virya) represents that aspect of drugs and diets by virtue of which they manifest their action (on human body ). There cannot be any action without potency; all actions are caused by potency (virya ). [64-65 ]
In the science of medicine that aspect of drugs and diets which, apart from their taste, (rasa) and vipuka (taste after digestion), is pre-eminently responsible for therapeutic actions is known as virya. According to some medical authorities, this virya is of eight types as mentioned in verse sixty four above. There is no doubt some other qualities such as sliminess and non-sliminess which is also responsible for therapeutic actions of given drugs and diets. But by and large such qualities act upon the human body not in contradistinction with the effects of rasa. So such qualities are not mentioned among the eight types of virya. The qualities mentioned here are only those which are capable of overcoming the effects of rasa. For example the effect of pungent taste in pippali (Piper longum Linn.) could normally be the aggravation of pitta but by virtue of its mrdu (mild) and cold potencies, pippali (Piper lougum Linn.) alleviates rather than aggravates pitta. The taste of Brhat panchamula (Aegle marmelos Corr., Oroxylum indicum Vent,, Gmelina arborea Linn., Steriospermum suaveolens DC., Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f.) being astringent and their anurasa (after taste or subsidiary taste), bitter, they should apparently aggravate vata. But again being overcome by its hot potency, they alleviate rather than aggravate vata. Otherwise the connotation of the term virya meaning potency is too wide to be enumerated. Thus all factors like taste, vipuka, specificaction and qualities such as heaviness, superiority etc., which are responsible for nourishment, refreshment and alleviation of doshas may be regarded as virya in wider sense of the term cf. Susruta : Sutra 41 : 5.
Determination of Rasa, Vipaka and Virya
रसो निपाते द्रव्याणां, विपाकः कर्मनिष्ठया यावदधीवासान्निपाताञ्चोपलभ्यते ॥ ६६ ॥
Rasa or taste of drugs and diets can be ascertained immediately after their contact with the tongue; their vipaka by the action (in the from of aggravation of kapha etc.). Their virya can be determined (in between the stages of rasa and vipaka) while in association with the body and or even immediately after coming into contact with the body. 
The potency of drugs and diets can be ascertained while they are in association with the body and or immediately after they come in contact with the body. For example, hot potency of meat of marshy animals is ascertained while it is under the process of digestion and metabolism. Sharpness of marica (Piper nigrum Linn.) can be determined immediately after its contact with the tongue. This can also be ascertained while it is in the process of digestion and metabolism.
Thus in epistemological terms the rasa or taste is known by direct perception, vipuka can only be inferred from its action. As regards virya it may sometimes be inferred from its action, e.g. cold potency of rock salt or hot potency of meat of marshy animals can be inferred from their action on the body. Sometimes the virya or potency can also be known by direct perception. e.g. the knowledge of the sharpness of rajika (Brassica juncea Czer & Coss.) is based on olfactory perception. Similarly sliminess, non-sliminess, unctuousness and ununctuousness can be known by direct visual perception.
Potency may either be natural or artificial. Natural heaviness or lightness of masa ( Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) and mudga ( Phaseolus mungo Linn.) respectively comes under the first category whereas the lightness of laja (fried rice) etc., under the second category.
Definition of Prabhava
रसवीर्यविपाकानां सामान्यं यत्र लक्ष्यते ।
विशेषः कर्मणा चैव प्रभावस्तस्य स स्मृतः ॥ ६७ ॥
Where there is similarity in two drugs in relation to their rasa ( taste ), vipaka and virya ( potency) but inspite of this similarity these two drugs differ with regard to their action, the distinctive feature responsible for their distinctive effects not supported by their taste, vipaka and potency is regarded as ‘prabhava’ or specific action. [ 67]
Examples of Prabhava and the supremacy of Prabhava
कटुकः कटुकः पाके वीर्योष्णश्चित्रको मतः । मानवम् ॥ ६८ ॥ तद्वदन्ती प्रभावात्तु विरेचयति विषं विषघ्नमुक्तं यत् प्रभावस्तत्र कारणम् । ऊर्ध्वानुलोमिकं यच्च तत् प्रभावप्रभावितम् ॥ ६९ ॥ मणीनां धारणीयानां कर्म यद्विविधात्मकम् । तत् प्रभावकृतं तेषां प्रभावोऽचिन्त्य उच्यते ॥ ७० ॥ सम्यग्विपाकवीर्याणि प्रभावश्चाप्युदाहृतः । किंचिद्रसेन कुरुते कर्म वीर्येण चापरम् ॥ ७१ ॥ द्रव्यं गुणेन पाकेन प्रभावेण च किंचन । रसं विपाकस्तौ वीर्य प्रभावस्तानपोहति ॥ ७२ ॥ बलसाम्ये रसादीनामिति नैसर्गिकं बलम् । 1
Both chitraka ( Plumbago zeylanica Linn. ) and danti ( Balisspermum montanun Muell-Arg.) are pungent in taste as well as vipaka and they are hot in potency. But inspite of this similarity, danti (Baliospermum montamum Muell Arg.) acts as a purgative while chitraka ( Plumbago zeylanica Linn. ) does not. The purgative effect of_danti ( Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg. ) there. fore, can be explained only by taking recourse to its prabhava or specific action. The anti-toxic property of toxins, actions leading to the upward and/or downward slimination of doshas and various effects of precious stones (mani) when worn over the body all these are due to their speific action which are beyond all plausible explanations. Thus, vipaka, virya ( potency ) and prabhava ( specific action ) are illustrated.
Certain drugs manifest their action by virtue of their taste; some by virtue of their potency or other qualities, some by vipaka and others by their specific action. In case the taste, vipaka, potency and specific action are all of equal strength, by nature, teste is superceded by vipaka, both of them in turn are superced by potency and specific action overcomes all of them. [ 68-72]
The various effects of the wearing of precious stones include antitoxic and anodyne actions. Besides, such of the properties of drugs like inviforation (jivaniya and promotion of memory (medhya) manifest their therapeutic effects by virtue of their specific action.
The specific action is nothing but the inherent active principle of drugs. The principle again is not different from the drugs themselves (like the circle and circumferance). The active principles are identical with the drugs concerned; they are not something different from the drugs. The same principle holds good about the effects of other properties of drugs to be explained later. It may however, be argued that if danti (Baliospermum montanum Muell Arg.) etc., manifest their purgative effects themselves why do they not manifest such actions when soaked in water? But this argument does not disprove the identity of active principles of the concerned drugs. Drugs manifest their specfic action only so long as they are not overpowered by any other extraneous forces. In the example, cited above, soaking with water serves as the inhibiting factor for the manifestation of the specific action.
The explanation of the Naiyayikas about the antitoxic properties of toxins, their mutually contradictory properties in the form of upward and downward movements of toxins also supports the above theory. That is to say according to them the downward moving property of toxins neutralise the effects of the upward going ones and vice versa. The manifestation of such effects is due to the specific action of both types of toxins. Similary the purgative and emetic effects of drugs can be explained due to the specific action based on the mahabhautika composition of drugs.
Different action of drugs depending on the various factors may be illustrated as follows. Honey by virtue of its astringent taste alleviates pitta, plants of mahat panchamula group (Aegle marmelos Corr., Oroxylum indicum Vent., Gmelina arborea Liun., Stereospermum suaveolens DC., Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn. f.) inspite of their astringent and bitter tastes all elleviate vata rather than pitta because of their hot potency. Honey again cures kapha due to its ununctuousness. Inspite of its pungent taste sunthi (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) alleviates vata because of its sweet vipuka. Inspite of its pungent taste and vipaka and also hot potency danti (Baliospermum montanum Muell-Arg.) serves as a laxative because of its specific action.
When the taste, vipaka, potency and specific action are all of equal strength, the succeeding ones prevail over the preceding ones. For example, sweet taste of honey is overcome by its pungent vipaka, that is to say, inspite of its sweetness honey does not aggravate kapha. Both the rasa and vipaka of the meat of aquatic and marshy animals are sweet but the taste and vipuka in this case are overcome by the hot potency of meat with the result that it aggravates rather than alleviates pitta. The taste and vipaka of wine is sour and it is of hot potency. But inspite of this wine is considered as lactogenic due to its specific action. Similarly,
inspite of its pungent taste and vipaka, and also of its hot potency danti (Baliospermum montanum Muell Arg.) acts as a purgative due to its specific action. So taste, potency and vipuka are all superceded by specific action.
Characteristics of the Six Tastes
पण्णां रसानां विज्ञानमुपदेक्ष्याम्यतः परम् ॥ ७३ ॥ स्नेहनप्रीणनाहादमार्दवैरुपलभ्यते मुखस्थो मधुरश्चास्यं व्यामुवँल्लिम्पतीव च ॥ ७४ ॥ दन्तहर्षान्मुखात्रावात् स्वेदनान्मुखबोधनात् । विदाहाच्यास्यकण्ठस्य प्राश्यैवाम्लं रसं वदेत् ॥ ७५ ।। प्रलीयन् क्लेदविष्यन्दमार्दवं कुरुते मुखे । यः शीघ्रं लवणो ज्ञेयः स विदाहान्मुखस्य च ।। ७६ ।। संवेजयेद्यो रसनां निपाते तुदतीव च । विदहन्मुखनासाक्षि संस्रावी स कटुः स्मृतः ॥ ७७ ॥ प्रतिहन्ति निपाते यो रसनं स्वदते न च । स तितो मुखवैशद्यशोष प्रह्लादकारकः ।। ७८ ।। वैशद्यस्तम्भजाड्यैर्यो रसनं योजयेद्रसः । बनातीव च यः कण्ठं कषायः स विकास्यपि ॥ ७९ ॥
We shall now explain the characteristics of the six Sweetness is ascertained from unctuousness, deliciousnessghtfulness and softness. When taken in, it pervades all mouth adhering as it were.
Sourness is ascertained from setting of tooth on edge (dantaharsa ), salivation, sweeting, clarity of mouth and burning sensation in the mouth and throat.
Drugs and diets having saline taste get quickly dissolved in the mouth resulting in stickiness, moistness and softness They also produce burning sensation in the mouth.
Drugs and diets having pungent taste cause irritation and pain in tongue, burning and watering in the mouth, nose and eyes.
Drugs and diets having bitter taste weaken the taste perception of the tongue. Such substances by themselves are not tasteful; they cause non-sliminess, dryness of tongue and delightfulness.
Those having astringent taste cause non-sliminess, stiffness, inaction in the tongue and obstruct the throat as it were; they are not good for heart. [73-79]
Drugs and diets having bitter taste cause delightfulness, because they overcome anorexia and make the patient relish other food articles.
Agnivesa’s question on unwholesome drugs and diets
एवमुक्तवन्तं भगवन्तमात्रेयमग्निवेश उवाच -भगवन् ! श्रुतमेतदवितथमर्थसंपयुक्तं भगवतो यथावद्रव्यगुणकर्माधिकारे वचः, परं त्वाहारविकाराणां वैरोधिकानां लक्षणमन तिसंक्षेपेणोपदिश्यमानं शुश्रूषामह इति ॥ ८० ॥
After Lord Atreya explained the above theory, Agnivesa enquired, “O ! Lord, we have listened to what you have stated about the drugs and diets-their properties and actions together with all relevant details. We would like to know in detail about the unwholesome properties of certain diets (that is those which cause vitiation of the bodily dhatus).” 
Lord Atreya’s reply:
तमुवाच भगवानात्रेयः- देहधातु प्रत्यनीकभूतानि द्रव्याणि देहधातुभिर्विरोधमापद्यन्ते; परस्परगुणविरुद्धानि कानिचित्, कानिचित् संयोगात्, संस्कारादपराणि, देशकालमात्रादिभिश्चापराणि, तथा स्वभावादपराणि ॥ ८१ ।।
Lord Atreya replied, “Such of the drugs and diets as are unwholesome for the normal dhatus ( tissue elements) and doshas of the body, are in fact opposed to the proper growth of such tissue elements and doshas; 1. Some act due to their mutually contradictory qualities; 2. Some by combination; 3. Some by the method of preparation; 4. Some by virtue of the place ( land and body ), time and dose and 5. Some others by their ( inherent ) nature. 
All the various categories of unwholesome diets and drugs enunciated above are illustrated in paragraphs 82-84. Some substances are unwholesome due to their mutually contradictory qualities; e. g. fish and milk. Ripe nikuca (Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.) and soup of masa (Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) are unwholesome when taken in combination. The difference between the drugs that are unwholesome due to mutually contradictory qualities and those due to combination is that the drugs of the former category are essentially those which possess mutually contradictory qualities while those of the latter category are unwholesome simply by their combination, irrespective of their qualities. The unwholesomeness of the drugs and diets possessing mutually contradictory qualities is mostly due to their specific action. So inspite of apparent contradiction in sweet and sour tastes or cold and hot potencies, the combination of all drugs and diet possessing these properties need not always be regarded as unwholesome.
The meat of kapota (pigeon) fried in inustard oil is unwholesome due to the method of preparation. Ashes and dust are responsible for causing unwholesomeness in drugs and diets. Similarly, honey is unwholesome when used by a person whose body is afflicted with heat. Kakamachi ( Solanum nigrum Linn. ) when staled, that is kept for some days, may cause death of the animal. Substances that are against any particular dosha or bodily constitution are also to be included in the 4th category. Some drugs and diets are unwholesome by nature, e.g. poison ( venom ).
तत्र यान्याहारमधिकृत्य भूयिष्ठमुपयुज्यन्ते तेषामेकदेशं वैरोधिकमधिकृत्योपदेक्ष्यामः-न मत्स्यान् पयसा सहाभ्यवहरेत्, उभयं ह्येतन्मधुरं मधुरधिपार्क महाभिष्यन्दि शीतोष्णत्वाद्विरुद्धवीर्य विरुद्धवीर्यत्वाच्छोणितप्रदूषणाय महाभिष्यन्दि त्वान्मार्गोपरोधाय च ॥ ८२ ॥
तन्निशम्यात्रेयवचवमनु भद्रकाप्योऽग्निवेशमुवाच — सर्वांनैव मत्स्यान् पयसा सहास्यवहरेदन्यत्रैकस्माञ्चिलिचिमात्, स पुनः शकली लोहितनयनः सर्वतो लोहितराजी रोहिताकारः प्रायो भूमौ चरति, तं चेत् पयसा संहाभ्यवहरेनिःसंशयं शोणितजानां विबन्धजानां च व्यावीनामन्यतसमथवा मरणं प्राप्नुयादिति ॥ ८३ ||
We shall now explain some aspects of unwholesomeness of diets which are commonly used. Fish should not be taken together with milk, both of them have sweet taste, but due to the contradiction in their potency (fish is hot and milk is cold ) they vitiate the blood and obstruct the channels of circulation.
Having listened to Lord Atreya, Bharadvaja said to Agnivesa, “One can take all kinds of fish except cilicima (?) together with milk. The cilicima (?) fish has scales; its eyes are red and it has red spot all over the body; it is like the rohita (red carp fish) fish and moves on the ground. If this fish is taken with milk, it is bound to cause constipation and diseases relating to ‘blood and it may even cause death. [ 82-83]
नेति भगवानात्रेयः सर्वानेव मत्स्यान्न पयसा सद्दाभ्यवहरेहिशेषतस्तु बिलिचिमं, स हि महाभिष्यन्दित्वात स्थूललक्षणतरानेतान् व्याधीनुपजनयत्यामविषमुदीरयति च । ग्राम्यानूपौदकपिशितानि च मधुतिलगुडपयोमाषमूल कबिसैर्विरूढधान्यैर्वा नैकध्यमद्यात्, तन्मूलं हि बाधिर्यान्ध्यवेपथुजाड्यकल सूकूतासैष्मिण्यमथवा मरणमाप्नोति। न पौष्करं रोहिणीकं शाकं कपोतान् वा सर्पपतलभ्रष्टाम्मधुपयोभ्यां सहाभ्यवहरेत् तन्मूलं हि शोणिताभिष्यन्दधमनीप्रवि (ति) चयापस्मारशङ्खकगलगण्डरोहिणीनामन्यतमं प्राप्नोत्यथवा भरणमिति । न मूलकलशुनकृष्णगन्धार्जकसुरसादीनि भक्षयित्वा पयः सेव्यं, कुष्ठाबाधभयात् । न जातुकशाकं न निकुचं पक्कं मधुपयोभ्यां सहोपयोज्यम्, एतद्धि मरणायाथवा बलवर्णतेजोवीर्योपपरोधायालघुव्याधये पाण्ढयाय चेति । तदेव निकुचं पक्कं न मापसूपगुडसपिर्भिः सहोपयोज्यं वैरोधिकत्वात् । तथाऽऽम्राम्रातकमातुलुङ्गनिकुचकरमर्दमोचदन्तशठबदरकोशाम्रभव्यजाम्बवकपित्थतिन्तिडीकपारावताक्षोडपनसनालिकेरदाडिमामलकान्येवंप्रकाराणि चान्यानि द्रव्याणि सर्व चाम्लं द्रवमद्रवं च पयसा सह विरुद्धम् । तथा कडवनकुमकुष्टककुलत्थमापनिष्पावाः पयसा सह विरुद्धाः । पद्मोत्तरिकाशाकं शार्करो मैरेयो मधु च सहोपयुक्तं विरुद्धं वातं चातिकोपयति । हारिद्रकःसर्षपतैलभृष्टो विरुद्धः पित्तं चातिकोपयति । पायसो मन्थानुपानो विरुद्धः श्लेष्माणं चातिकोपयति । उपोदिका तिलकल्कसिद्धा हेतुरतीसारस्य । बलाका वारुण्या सह कुल्मापैरपि विरुद्धा, सैव शूकरवसापरिभृष्टा सद्यो व्यापादयति । मयूरमांसमेरण्डसीसकावसक्तमेरण्डाग्निप्लुटमेरण्डतैलयुक्तं सद्यो व्यापादयति । हारिद्रकमांसं हारिद्रसीसकावसक्तं हारिद्राग्निप्लुष्टं सद्यो व्यापादयति; तदेव भस्मपशुपरिध्वस्तं सक्षौद्रं सद्यो मरणाय । मत्स्यनिस्तालनसिद्धाः पिप्पल्यस्तथा काकमाची मधु च सरणाय । मधु चोष्णप्रुष्णार्तस्य च मधु मरणाय । मधुसर्पिषी समधृते, मधु वारि चान्तरिक्षं समधृतं, मधु पुष्करवीजं, मधु पीत्वोष्णोदकं, भल्लातकोष्णोदकं, तक्रसिद्धः कम्पिल्लकः, पर्युषिता काकमाची, अङ्गारशूल्यो भासश्चेति विरुद्धानि । इत्येतद्यथाप्रश्नमभिनिर्दिएं भवतीति ॥ ८४ ॥
Lord Atreya while disagreeing with the above view said, “One must not take milk alongwith fish specially with cilicima type of fish. Cilicima (?) fish considerably obstructs the channels of circulation and causes the above mentioned diseases whose symptoms are very clear; it also produces amavisa (toxin due to imporper digestion as well as metabolism).
Meat of domestic, marshy and aquatic animals should not be taken together with honey, sesamum seeds, sugarcandy, milk, masa ( Phaseolus radiatus Linn. ) radish, lotus stalk or germinated grains. By doing so, one gets affficted with deafness, blindness, trembling, loss of intelligence loss of voice and nasal voice, it may even cause death.
One should not take vegetable of puskara (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) and rohini or meat of kapota (dove) fried in mustard oil together with honey and milk, for this obstructs channels of circulation and causes dilatation of blood vessels, of blood vessels, epilepsy, sankhaka (a disease of the head characterised by acute pain in temporal region ), galaganda ( scrofula ), rohit ( diphtheria ) or even death.
Milk should not be taken after the intake of radish, garlic, krsnagandha ( Moringa oleifera Lam. ), arjaka ( Ocimum gratissimum Linn. ), sumukha ( ? ) surasa ( Ocimum sanctum Linn. ), etc; this may cause obstinate skin diseases including leprosy. Leaves of jatuka (Ferula narehex Boiss) or ripe fruit of nikuca (Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.) should not be taken with honey and milk; it may cause loss of strength, complexion and semen, sterility and other serious types of diseases which may lead to death. Ripe fruit of nikuca (Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.) should not be taken with the soup of masa ( Phaseolus radiatus Linn.), sugar candy and ghee because they are mutually contradictory. Amra (Mangifera indica Linn.), amrataka (Spotandias pinnata Kurz. ), matulunga (Citrus decumana Linn.), nikuca (Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.), karamarda (Carissa karandas Linn.), moca (Salmalia malbarica Schett & Endl. ), dantasatha (Citrus medica Linn.), badara (Zizyphus jujuba Lam.) kosamra (?) bhavya (Dillenia indica Linn. ), jambava (Syzygium cumini Skeels ), kapittha (Feronia limonia Swingle), tintidi (Tamarindus indica Linn.), meat of paravata (pigeon), aksoda (Juglans regia Linn.), panasa (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.), narikela (coconut), dadima (Punica granatum Linn.), amalaka ( Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) and such other solid and liquid matrials which are sour in taste become mutually contradictory when taken with milk. Similarly kangu (Setaria italica Beruv. ), vanaka (?) makustha ( Phaseolus aconitifolius Jacq.), kulattha (Dolichos biflorus Linn.), masa ( Phaseolus radiatus Linn.) nispava (?) when taken with milk are mutually contradictory.
Padma (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.); leaves of uttarika (?) sarkara type of wine, maireya type of wine and honey, if taken together are unwholesome and they aggravate, doshas specially vata. Meat of haritala bird (?) fried with mustard oil is unwholesome and they aggravate doshas and specially pitta.
Payasa (milk preparation) when taken with mantha (thin gruel) is unwholesome and they aggravate doshas, specially kapha. Upodika ( Basella rubra Linn.) prepared with the paste of tila ( Sesamum indicum Linn.), causes diarrhoea.
Meat of a crane either with varuni type of wine or kulmasa (paste of barley mixed up with hot water and slightly boiled so as to form a cake ) is unwholesome; again if fried with lard, it will cause instantaneous death.
Meat of peacock roasted on a castor spit, if burnt with castorwood fuel and mixed with castor oil causes instantaneous death.
Similarly the meat of haridraka (?) roasted on a turmeric spit and burnt with the fuel of turmeric wood and/or when mixed with ashes, dust and honey, causes instantaneous death. Pippali (Piper longum Linn.) prepared witn fish fat and Kakamachi mixed with honey causes death. Hot honey or intake of honey by a person afflicted with heat causes death.
Honey and ghee or honey and rain water both in equal quantity, honey together with the seeds of puskara ( Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ) intake of hot water after taking honey, bhallataka ( Semecarpus anacardium Linn. f. ) together with hot water; kampillaka (Mallotus philippinensis Muell Arg.) boiled with butter-milk, staled Kakamachi ( Solanum nigrum Linn. ) and meat of bhasa ( beared vulture ) roasted with the spit or fire-brand are unwholesome. So everything in accordance with the questions has been explained. [ 84 ]
Cause of indisposition
भवन्ति चात्र लोकाः
यत् किश्चिद्दोषमास्राव्य न निर्हरति कायतः । आहारजातं तत् सर्वमहितायोपपद्यते ॥ ८५ ॥
All drugs and diets which dislodge the various doshas but do not expel them out of the body are to be regarded as unwholesome. [ 85 ]
As distinct from unwholesome drugs and diets, emetics and purgatives expel the vitiated doshas out of the body after they (doshas) have been dislodged.
Other similar causes :
यच्चापि देशकालाग्निमात्रासात्म्यानिलादिभिः । संस्कारतो वीर्यंतश्च कोष्ठावस्थाक्रमैरपि ॥ ८६ ॥ परिहारोपचाराभ्यां पाकात् संयोगतोऽपि च । विरुद्धं तच्च न हितं हृत्संपद्विधिभिश्च यत् ॥ ८७ ॥ विरुद्धं देशतस्तावदूक्षतीक्ष्णादि धन्वनि । आनूपे स्निग्धशीतादि भेषजं यन्निषेव्यते ॥ ८८ ॥ कालतोऽपि विरुद्धं यच्छीतरुक्षादिसेवनम् । शीते काले, तथोष्णे च कटुकोष्णादिसेवनम् ॥ ८९ ॥ विरुद्धमनले तद्वदन्नपानं चतुर्विधे । मधुसर्पिः समघृतं मात्रया तद्विरुध्यते ॥ ९० ॥ कटुकोष्णादिसात्म्यस्य स्वादुशीतादिसेवनम् । यत्तत् सात्म्यविरुद्धं तु विरुद्धं त्वनिलादिभिः ॥ ९१ ॥ या समानगुणाभ्यासविरुद्धान्नौषधक्रिया | संस्कारतो विरुद्धं तद्यद्भोज्यं विषवद्भवेत् ॥ ९२ ।। परण्डसीसकासक्तं शिखिमांसं यथैव हि । विरुद्धं वीर्यतो ज्ञेयं वीर्यतः शीतलात्मकम् ॥ १३ ॥ तत् संयोज्योष्णवीर्येण द्रव्येण सह सेव्यते । क्रूरकोष्ठस्य चात्यल्पं मन्दवीर्यमभेदनम् ॥ ९४ ॥ मृदुकोष्ठस्य गुरु च भेदनीयं तथा बहु | एतत् कोष्ठविरुद्धं तु, विरुद्धं स्यादवस्थया ॥ ९५ ॥ श्रमव्यवायव्यायाम सक्तस्थानिलकोपनम् निद्रालसस्यालसस्य भोजनं श्लेष्मकोपनम् ॥ ९६ ॥ यच्चात्नुसृज्य विमूत्रं भुङ्के यश्चाबुभुक्षितः । तश्च क्रमविरुद्धं । स्याद्यच्चातिक्षुद्वशानुगः ॥ ९७ ॥ यत् । परिहारविरुद्धं तु वराहादीन्निषेव्य सेवेतोष्णं घृतादींश्च विरुद्धं पाकतश्चापि अपक्कतण्डुलात्यर्थपक्कदग्धं च पीत्वा शीतं निषेवते ॥ ९८ ॥ दुष्टदुर्दारुसाधितम् । यद्भवेत् । संयोगतो विरुद्धं तद्यथाऽम्लं पयसा सह ॥ ९९ ॥ अमनोरुचितं यच्च हृद्धिरुद्धं संपद्विरुद्धं तद्विद्यादसंजातरसं तदुच्यते । तु यत् ॥ १०० ।। अतिक्रान्तरसं वाऽपि विपन्नरसमेव वा । ज्ञेयं विधिविरुद्धं तु भुज्यते निभृते न यत् । तदेवंविधमन्नं स्याविरुद्धमुपयोजितम् ।। १०१ ।।
Drugs and diets which are at variance with, place, time, power of digestion, doshage, habit, doshas, mode of preparation, potency, bowel, state of health, order, proscriptions and prescrip tions, cooking, combination, palatability, richness of quality and rules of eating are all unwholesome. They are illustrated below :
Place :— Intake of dry and sharp substance in deserts; unctuous and cold substance in marshy land.
Time :—Intake of cold and dry substance in winter; pungent and hot substance in the summer.
Power of digestion :-Intake of heavy food when the power of digestion is mild ( mandagni ); intake of light food when the power of digestion is sharp ( tiksnagni ). Similarly intake of food at variance with irregular and normal power of digestion come under this category.
Dosage -Intake of honey and ghee in equal quantity. Habit-Intake of sweet and cold substance by persons accustomed to pungent and hot substance.
Dosha :-Utilisation of drugs, diets and regimen having similar qualities with doshas but at variance with the habit of the individual.
Mode of Preparation :-Drugs and diets which when prepared in a particular way produce poisonous effects, for example, meat of peacock roasted on a castor spit.
Potency :-Substances having cold potency in combination with those of hot potency
Bowel -Administration of a mild purgative in a small dose for a person of costive bowel and administration of strong purgatives in strong doses for a person having laxed bowel.
State of Health :-Intake of vata aggravating food by a person after exhaustion, sexual act and physical exercise or intake of kapha aggravating food by a person after sleep or drowsiness.
Order:If a person takes food before his bowel and urinary bladder are clear (empty) or when he does not have appetite or after his hunger has been aggravated.
Proscriptions and Prescriptions :-Intake of hot things after taking pork etc., and cold things after taking ghee.
Cooking :-Preparation of food etc., with bad or rotten fuel and undercooking, overcooking or burning during the process of preparation.
Combination :-Intake of sour substance with milk.
Palatability :-Any substance which is not pleasant in taste. Richness of quality :-Intake of substance that are not matured, over matured or putrified.
Rules for eating – Taking meals in public
वाण्ढयान्ध्यवीसर्पदकोदराणां विस्फोटकोन्मादभगन्दराणाम् । मूर्च्छामदाध्यानगलग्रहाणां पाण्ड्डामयस्यामविषस्य किलालकुष्ठग्रहणीगदानां शोथाम्लपित्तज्वरपीनसानाम् । सन्तानदोषस्य तथैव मृत्योर्विरुद्धमनं प्रवदन्ति हेतुम् ॥ १०३ ॥ चैव ॥ १०२ ॥
Intake of unwholesome food is responsible for the causation of sterility, blindness, visarpa ( an obstinate skin disease characterised by an acute spread ), ascitis, eruptions, insanity, fistula, fainting, intoxication, tympanitis, spasmodic obstruction in throat, anemia, poisoning due to ama, kilasa type of skin disease, obstinate skin diseases including leprosy, sprue, oedema, acid dyspepsia, fever, rhinitis, foetal diseases and even death. [ 102-103 ]
The above description of unwholesomeness is subject to certain exception, for example, in certain situations, intake of garlic with milk is in fact prescribed cf. Chikitsa 5: 94. Presumably the intake of garlic with milk is not unwholesome when many other drugs are added to it. In the absence of such multiple combinations, garlic with milk would certainly amount to unwholeness. Similarly, honey which is prescribed to be taken with hot water for emesis is not unwholesome because it comes out alongwith the vitiated doshas through vomiting.
एषां खल्वपरेषां च वैरोधिकनिमित्तानां व्याधीनामिमे भावाः प्रतिकारा भवन्ति । तद्यथा-वमनं विरेचनं च, तद्विरोधिनां च द्रव्याणां संशमनार्थमुपयोगः, तथाविधैश्च द्रव्यैः पूर्वमभिसंस्कारः शरीरस्येति ॥ १०४ ॥
Diseases caused by the intake of uwholesome diets and drugs can be cured by emesis, purgation or administration of antidotes and by taking prophylactic measures. [ 104]
विरुद्धाशनजान् रोगान् प्रतिहन्ति विरेचनम् । वमनं शमनं चैव पूर्व वा हितसेवनम् ॥ १०५ ॥ सात्म्यतोऽल्पतया वाऽपि दीप्ताग्नेस्तरुणस्य च । स्निग्धव्यायामबलिनां विरुद्धं वितथं भवेत् ।। १०६ ।।
Thus it is said :
Purgation, emesis, antidotes and prophylaxis—these four cure the diseases caused/to be caused by the intake of unwholesome drugs and diets. If an individual is habituated to the intake of unwholesome drugs and diets or if they are taken in small quantity or taken by a person having strong digestive power or by a young person or by the one who has undergone oleation therapy or who is of strong physique due to physical exercise, the unwholesomeness of the various drugs and diets does not have any effect. [ 105-106 ]
मतिरासीन्महर्षीणां या या रसविनिश्चये । द्रव्याणि गुणकर्मभ्यां द्रव्यसंख्या रसाश्रया ॥ १०७ कारणं रससंख्याया रसानुरसलक्षणम् । परादीनां गुणानां च लक्षणानि पृथक्पृथक् ॥ १०८ ॥ पञ्चात्मकानां षट्त्वं च रसानां येन हेतुना । ऊर्ध्वानुलोमभाजश्च यहुणातिशयाद्वसाः ॥ १०९ ।। पण्णां रसानां षट्वे च सविभक्ता विभक्तयः । गुणकर्मणि ।। ११० ॥ गौरवादिषु । वीर्यसंख्या विनिश्चयः ॥ १११ ! उद्देशश्चापवादश्च द्रव्याणां प्रवरावरमध्यत्वं रसानां पाकप्रभावयोर्लिङ्ग पण्णामास्वाद्यमानानां रसानां यत् स्वलक्षणम् । यद्यद्विरुध्यते यस्माद्येन यत्कारि चैव यत् ॥ ११२ ॥ वैरोधिकनिमित्तानां व्याधीनामौषधं च यत् । आत्रेयभद्रकाप्यीये तत् सर्वमवदन्मुनिः ॥ ११३ ॥
To sum up :
Discussion among the sages about the tastes, properties and actions of drugs of various categories, number of drugs depends ing upon their tastes, factors determining the number of tastes; definitions of taste ( rasa ) and anurasa (after or subsidiary taste); definition of attributes like para (superiority ) etc; factors leading to the formation of sixfold tastes out of the five mahabhutas; qualities responsible for the upward and downward physical action of tastes; various permutations and combinations of six tastes; attributes and actions of various types alongwith their exceptions. Superiority, mediocrity and inferiority of tastes for producing heaviness etc., definitions of vipaka and prabhava (specific action); determination of the number of virya ( potency ); secific manifestations of the drugs having six tastes when administered; mutually contradictory drugs and diets; cause of contradiction and their specific manifestations; treatment of diseases produced by the intake of drugs and diets having mutually contradictory properties all these have been discussed in this chapter entitled “Atreyabhadrakapyiya”. [ 107–113 ]
इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरक प्रतिसंस्कृते लोकस्थाने आत्रेयभद्रकाप्यीयो नाम षड्विंशोऽध्यायः ॥ २६ ॥
Thus ends the twenty sixth chapter on “Discourse among Atreya, Bhadrakapya etc.,” of the Sutra section of Agnivesa’s work as redacted by Garaka.