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Charaka SamhitaCharaka samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 11 - Tistraishaniya Adhyaya - Three Basic Desires...

Charaka samhita Sutrasthana Chapter 11 – Tistraishaniya Adhyaya – Three Basic Desires of Life


अथातस्तिस्त्रैषणीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः ॥ १॥ इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः ॥ २ ॥

Now we shall expound the chapter on the “Three Basic Desires of Life.” Thus said Lord Atreya. [ 1-2 ]

In the preceding chapter, the fourfold therapeutic aspects, the means for maintaining the positve health and for curing the diseases have been discussed. Now the question arises. What for, one should live if he has attained a good health. He should certainly take proper care of his life; earn wealth and should perform virtuous acts. These are the three basic desires which every human being possesses. This chapter dealing as it does with the three desires is designated as Tisraisaniya (Tisra+ Esana+cha ). (The word “Tisraisana’ is formed by joining Tisra+Esana simply as an imitation from the original Tisras+Esana, and being a form of imitation, the elision (lopa) of ‘a’ (< <) is treated as absolutely negative in character and not simply as a zero alternant of (*). Even though, there are many other words that could convey the above sense, still, this word, being most suitable among them, has been adopted as the title of the chapter.

The three basic desires or Pursuits

इद्द खलु पुरुषेणानुपहतसत्त्वबुद्धिपौरुषपराक्रमेण हितमिह चामुष्मिंश्च लोके समनुपश्यता तिस्र एषणाः पर्येष्टव्या भवन्ति । तद्यथा- प्राणैषणा, धनैषणा, परलोकैषणेति ॥ ३ ॥

A person of normal mental faculty, intelligence, strength and energy, desirous of his well-being pertaining to this world and the world beyond has to seek three basic desires, viz., desire to live, desire to earn and desire to perform virtuous acts. [3]

These three desires belong only to such persons as are after enjoyment of happiness in this world and the world beyond. The threefold classification of desires, therefore, does not apply to such persons to whom the salvation alone is the summum bonum of life nor even to such persons as have not gone above the animal instincts and so are incapable of having these three basic human desires.

Desire to satisfy passions is also there but it is in fact included under desire to live and desire to earn because satisfaction of passion cannot be achieved without wealth and life. Or it might be said that the desire to satisfy passion constitutes the natural instinct of mankind and as such it is too axiomatic to be discussed.

Desire for longevity

आसां तु खल्वेषणानां प्राणैषणां तावत् पूर्वतरमापद्येत । कस्मात् ? प्राणपरित्यागे हि सर्वत्यागः । तस्यानुपालनं- स्वस्थस्य स्वस्थवृत्तानुवृत्तिः, आतुरस्य विकारप्रशमनेऽप्रमादः, तदुभयमेतदुक्तं वक्ष्यते च तद्यथोक्तमनुवर्तमानः प्राणानुपालनादीर्घमायुरवाप्नोतीति प्रथमैषणा व्याख्याता भवति ॥ ४ ॥

Out of all these desires, one should, give priority to the desire for longevity. Why? Because, with the end of life there is end of everything. That can be achieved by observance of the rules meant for healthy persons and by non-negligence in the treatment of diseases if they occur. Both these have already been described and will be described further, in detail. Thus, following the prescribed course, one is able to preserve his life and can live long. Thus the first desire for longevity is explained. [ 4 ]

Desire for wealth

अथ द्वितीयां धनैषणामापद्येत, प्राणेभ्यो ह्यनन्तरं धनमेव पर्येष्टव्यं भवति; न ह्यतः पापात् पापीयोऽस्ति यदनुपकरणस्य दीर्घमायुः, तस्मादुपकरणानि पर्येष्टुं यतेत । तत्रोपकरणोपायाननुव्याख्यास्यामः; तद्यथा- कृषिपाशुपाल्यवाणिज्यराजोपसेवादीनि, यानि चान्यान्यपि सतामविगहिंतानि कर्माणि वृत्तिपुष्टिकराणि विद्यात्तान्यारभेत कर्तु; तथा कुर्वन् दीर्घजीवितं जीवत्यनवमतः पुरुषो भवति । इति द्वितीया धनैषणा व्याख्याता भवति ॥ ५ ॥

Thereafter comes the second desire for wealth. One must have a desire for wealth because there is nothing so miserable as a long life without wealth. So one must try to tap the various sources of wealth. The possible sources of wealth would be farming, cattle breeding, trade and commerce, government service, etc. One can adopt any other means of livelihood that is not despised by good men. Doing so one lives a long life, without suffering any loss of prestige. Thus the second basic desire for wealth is explained. [ 5 ]

Accumulation of wealth just for the sake of wealth is not desirable. The emphasis on wealth is as a means to provide maximum comforts to the life. A miserly attitude towards accumulation of wealth bereft of comforts in life cannot be said to be an ideal desire.

Desire for happiness in future life: Doubts regarding rebirth.

अथ तृतीयां परलोकैषणामापद्येत । संशयश्चात्र, कथं ? भविष्याम इतच्युता नवेतिः कुतः पुनः संशय इति, उच्यते– सन्ति होके प्रत्यक्षपराः परोक्षत्वात् पुन र्भवस्य नास्तिक्यमाश्रिताः सन्ति चागमप्रत्ययादेव पुनर्भवमिच्छन्तिः श्रुतिभेदाच्च ‘मातरं पितरं चैके मन्यन्ते जन्मकारणम् । स्वभावं परनिर्माणं यदृच्छां चापरे जनाः ॥ इति अतः संशयः– किं नु खल्वस्ति पुनर्भवो न वेति ॥ ६ ॥

Then comes the third desire to attain the happiness in future life. This desire is in fact shrouded with some doubts. There is doubt, whether one will have a life ( rebirth) at all after his death. But why to doubt? There are people who believe only in things which are perceptible and as such do not believe in rebirth because of its imperceptibility. On the other hand people believing in rebirth simply rely upon the evidence of scriptures. There are contradictory opnions also, ‘parents’, ‘nature’, ‘impersonal soul’ and ‘free will’ are considered as causes of birth by different schools. So the question remains whether there is rebirth after death. [6]

Desire to perform virtuous acts is related to the desire to attain happiness in the life after death. But does any life exist after death at all ? If we go by the method of direct perception, we cannot believe in any life after death as we do not have any direct perception of the life beyond death. There are, of course, people who relying solely opon scriptures believe in the theory of rebirth. But there are again others who do not believe in rebirth at all. If parents constitute the cause of life where is the occasion of having another birth after life? Then again, if nature, that is to say the combination of various material objects is taken as the cause of creation (as the various non-intoxicating materials combine together to effect intoxication in liquor) even then there is no question of any rebirth. Similarly, even if an all-pervading soul rather than the personal soul is taken as the cause of creation, still the question of the impersonal soul being born again after death does not arise. So is the case with the doctrine of creation through free will. If a free will is regarded as the cause of creation, the very law of causality falls to the ground. Even there, the question of the soul being born after death in accordance with the acts performed during the life time does not arise. Thus, before the basic desire to perform the virtuous act is explained, the question arises whether to accept the orthodox views favouring rebirth or the heterodox views denying the possibility of any rebirth.

Evidences against perception theory

तत्र बुद्धिमान्नास्तिक्यबुद्धिं जह्याद्विचिकित्सां च । कस्मात् ? प्रत्यक्षं ह्यल्पम; अनल्पमप्रत्यक्षमस्ति, यदागमानुमानयुक्तिभिरुपलभ्यते; यैरेव तावदिन्द्रियैः प्रत्यक्षमुपलभ्यते, तान्येव सन्ति चाप्रत्यक्षाणि ॥ ७ ॥

A wiseman should however give up the heterodox view and related doubts. Why? Because the scope of perception is limitted. Unlimitted is the scope of things known through the other sources of knowledge, viz., scriptural testimony, inference and reasoning. Even the sense faculties through which one can perceive objects are themselves not the objects of direct perception. [7]

सतां च रूपाणामतिसन्निकर्षाद तिविप्रकर्षादावरणात् करणदौर्बल्यान्मनोनवस्थानात् समानाभिहारादभिभवादतिसौक्ष्म्याच्च प्रत्यक्षानुपलब्धिः; तस्मादपरीक्षितमेतदुच्यते – प्रत्यक्षमेवास्ति, नान्यदस्तीति ॥ ८ ॥

Moreover, it is not correct to say that only things which can be directly perceived exist, and others do not. There are things, which though existent, cannot be directly perceived due to over proximity, over distance, obstruction, weakness of senses, diversion of mind, confusion with other similar objects, over shadowing and over minuteness. [8]

The non-perceptibility of an object does not necessarily prove its non-existence. There are objects, which though perceptible, are not actually perceived due to the existence of some other factors. The factors, as summed up above are over proximity, over distance, obstruction, weakness of senses, diversion of mind, confusion with other similar objects, over shadowing and over minuteness. For example, collyrium in the eyes is not perceptible due to its over proximity (with the eyes); a bird flying far away in the sky is not visible owing to over distance; a pitcher placed on the other side of the wall cannot be seen due to obstruction; a person with his eyes affected by jaundice cannot perceive whiteness of cloths, etc.; a person with his mind diverted towards the beautiful face of his beloved is not mindful of the words being uttered by another person closeby. A bel fruit (Aegle marmelos Corr.) thrown amongst a heap of bel fruits cannot be easily deciphered as a separate entity due to its confusion with other similar objects; shooting of meteors in the broad day light is not visible due to overshadowing by the rays of the sun; warms, lice, etc. are not visible due to their over minuteness, even if placed just at a distance of one or two yards.

Evidences against parent theory of birth

श्रुतयश्चैता न कारणं, युक्तिविरोधात् । आत्मा मातुः पितुर्वा यः सोऽपत्यं यदि संचरेत् । द्विविधं संचरेदात्मा सर्वो वाऽवयवेन वा ॥ ९ ॥ सर्वश्चेत् संचरेमातुः पितुर्वा मरणं भवेत् । निरन्तरं, नावयवः कश्चित्सूक्ष्मस्य चात्मनः ॥ १० ॥

Even the divergent views of scriptures cannot stand against the theory of transmigration as these are not based on proper reasoning. If the soul of mother and/ or father enters in her/his progeny, it may be whole or a part of it. If it is transferred wholly, then certainly, the father and/ or the mother should die instantaneously. On the other hand, transformation of the subtle self in part is not possible. [9-10]

If the parents alone were the cause of birth, this could happen only in two ways. The parents could transform themselves into the progeny either wholly or partly. Whole transformation is not at all possible in any way. If it were so, the parents would die instantaneously after the transformation. Part transformation is also not possible because unlike the gross elements such as the earth, etc. which are divisible in parts, an individual self as other subtle (suksma) elements like akasa, kala (time) manas (mind), buddhi ( intellect), etc. cannot be broken into parts; he/she is a whole entity in himself/herself. So it follows that, granting that the parents constitute the immediate cause of birth, there is some thing else coming from the world beyond which gives life to the progeny. That is what is known as Atman which lives even after death or before birth. Thus, the views of scriptures regarding the parents being the sole causative factors for progeny is not based on proper reasoning.

बुद्धिर्मनश्च निर्णीते यथैवात्मा तथैव ते ।

येषां चैषा मतिस्तेषां योनिर्नास्ति चतुर्विधा ॥ ११ ॥

On the same painciple neither the mind nor the intellect of parents can be regarded as the sole causative factor for progeny. If the theory regarding the individual selves or mind or intellect of parents being the sole causative factor of progeny is accepted, the fourfold classification of species (yonis) will not be possible [11]

What has been stated about the individual selves of parents in the preceding verse holds good about the mind and intellect as well. In other words, if mind or intellect of parents alone were to transform themselves into the progeny, this can also happen in two ways, viz. whole transformation or part transformation. If we accept whole transformation of the mind or intellect, this will amount to instantaneous loss of mind or intellect to the parents immediately after transformation. Being subtle (suksma) in nature, mind or intellect is incapable of transforming itself in parts.

In fact the theory regarding the parents being the sole causative factors of progeny has one great flaw in it. If this theory is accepted, it will not be possible to classify the species into four categories, viz., jarayuja ( mamalian), andaja (egg born), Samsvedaja ( sweat born) and udbhijja (those born by breaking open the earth) because the sweat born insects and animals like earth-warm born just by breaking open the earth do not require any parents for birth. If parents were the sole causative factors of life, such insects or animals would have to be regarded as lifeless.

Evidences against natural theory of birth

विद्यात् स्वाभाविकं षण्णां धातूनां यत् स्वलक्षणम् । संयोगे च वियोगे च तेषां कर्मैव कारणम् ॥ १२ ॥

The six dhatus, that is the five basic elements and Atman possess specific qualities. (Thus, the five elements are incapable of imbibing consciousness of their own even if combined together. Consciousness is the distinctive feature of Atman alone.) Their combination and separation are conditioned by the past action of Atman. [ 12 ]

As indicated in para six above, the naturalists are of the view that the five elements when combined automatically bring about consciousness. This view, however, is not acceptable. The qualities each of the five elements as well as Atman are specified, viz., hardness, etc. for Prithvi, liquidity, etc. for ap, heat, etc. for tejas, oblique movement, etc. for vayu non-interruption, etc. for akasa and consciousness, etc. for Atman. Thus it will be seen that none of the five elements can have consciousness without being joined with Atman. If consciousness cannot be brought about in a single element on its own, it can neither be brought about in the elements combined together because if combination could bring about conscious elements, then there will be many conscious elements in the body depending upon the different ages like childhood, etc. Thus, one would have to admit the existence of many cognigent individuals in a body which would render any cognigence impossible.

So, there is no way out but to accept consciousness in the five element as a direct result of their combination with Atman. But, even there, the combination of the five elements with the Atman at the time of conception and their separation at the time of death are conditioned only by the past action and nothing else. So it is the past action which is responsible for the combination or separation of the elements, with the Atman. This is possible only when the theory of transmigration is accepted.

Views regarding soul in the creation of universe

अनादेश्चेतनाधातोर्नेष्यते पर आत्मा स चेद्धेतुरिष्टोऽस्तु परनिर्मितिः । परनिर्मितिः ॥ १३ ॥

Atman, the sustainer of consciousness is without any beginning. So (being eternal) it cannot be created by anything else. If creation by something else refers to the creation of the body by the absolute Atman, this would be an acceptable 2005 view. [13]

The view regarding the creation by something else may be construed in two ways. Either the body devoid of Atman be created by something else or Atman itself be created by something else. The latter one is, however, not tenable because Atman being eternal in nature cannot be caused or created by anything else. If however, the body is meant to be caused or created by something else, this would be an acceptable theory because the body is created by the absolute Atman endowed with dharma and adharma (virtuous and sinful acts). This view does not go against the theory of transmigration.

Atman is of two types-absolute and empirical. If it is admitted that the body is created by the absolute Atman, it would be essential to accept the association of the absolute Atman with the empirical Atman to explain the consciousness in the body because consciousness cannot be brought about without the help of the empirical Atman which alone is the causative factor for consciousness. Thus, the body created without the empirical Atman would be just like a pitcher having no consciousness at all. It is not that the absolute Atman creates the empirical Atman.

Being eternal, the empirical Atman is not required to be caused by anything else. What the absolute Atman does is that it brings about consciousness in the body with the help of the empirical Atman which is eternal and which is connected with the previous life cycles. It is the past action of the empirical Atman which is responsible for divergences in creation like rich, poor, etc.

One might argue that when the empirical Atman himself is responsible for bringing about consciousness in the body and for divergences in creation depending on his past virtuous and sinful acts, where is the necessity of admitting another absolute Atman? Then there is no harm in accepting the absolute Atman also as the cause of creation, irrespective of the fact that the empirical Atman is also eternal and is connected with the previous life cycle and is endowed with the quality of performing virtuous or sinful acts which play a very important role in creating the world full of divergence.

Views against the theory of accidental creation of universe

न परीक्षा न परीक्ष्यं न कर्ता कारणं न च । न देवा नर्षयः सिद्धाः कर्म कर्मफलं न च ॥ १४ ॥ नास्तिकस्यास्ति नैवात्मा यहच्छोपछतात्मनः । पातकेभ्यः परं चैतत् पातकं नास्तिकग्रहः ॥ १५ ॥

Nihilism constitutes the worst of the sinful. For a nihilist, everything happens accidentally. So for him there is no existence of the soul and he does not believe in examination or in a thing to be examined; for him there is no efficient or material cause of a thing, and in his view there is no existence of gods, sages and siddhas (those who have attained perfection,) and there is nothing like action or the result thereof for him. [ 14-15] 141451

One who believes in nothing else but in the accidental creation cannot admit any source of knowledge. So what ever he speaks should not be acceptable to anybody because his statements will not be based on any reasoning. For him there is nothing to examine, because for everything required to be examined, the various sources of knowledge have got to be accepted. So when there is no examiner, how can anything be examined? Thus, a nihilist, by accepting the doctrine of accidence and rejecting all other views on creation, subjects himfelf to a very great sin. In fact, there is no sinner worse than a nihilist.

तस्मान्मतिं विमुच्यैतासमार्गप्रसृतां बुधः । सतां बुद्धिप्रदीपेन पश्येत्सर्व यथातथम् ।। १६ ।।

So a wise person should get rid of the despisable way of thinking of a nihilist and should see things properly with the lamp of wisdom offered by good men. [16]

The four means for getting correct knowledge: Pramanas

द्विविधमेव खलु सर्व सञ्चासञ्चः तस्य चतुर्विधा परीक्षा- आप्तोपदेशः, प्रत्यक्षम्, अनुमानं, युक्तिश्चेति ॥ १७ ॥

Everything can be divided into two categories true and untrue. These can be examined by taking recourse to one of the following four methods, viz. scriptural testimony (words of sages), perception (direct observation), inference and reasoning. [17]

Definition of Authority

आतास्तावत्रजस्तमोभ्यां येषां • आप्ताः शिष्टा विबुद्धास्ते तेषां वाक्यमसंशयम् । सत्यं वक्ष्यन्ति ते कस्मादसत्यं नीरजस्तमाः ॥ १९ ॥ निर्मुक्तास्तपोशानबलेन ये । त्रिकालममलं ज्ञानमव्याहतं सदा ॥ १८ ॥


Those enlightened and refined persons who are absolutely free from the predominance of rajas and tamas by virtue of the power of penance and knowledge and who are always in possession of an uninterrupted knowledge pertaining to past, present and future are known as authorities (aptas). They are also known as gentlemen (Sista) and enlightened persons. Their words are true beyond any doubt. How could such persons, relatively free from rajas (and tamas?) may tell a lie ? [ 18-19]

Elimination of defects arising from the predominance of rajas and tamas is known as Apati. Those in possession of apati are known as aptas. One who directs the whole world as to the performance of virtuous acts and abstinence from sinful ones is known as “sista”. One who has well-understood what is to be understood is known as “vibuddha.” Thus, apta, sista and vibudha-the three epithets imply the eminence of sages. The words of such eminent sages are always true beyond all doubts because how could such enlightened sages, absolutely free from the influence of rajas tell a lie ? (The fact that one is free from rajas is in itself a proof of the elimination of the defects arising out of tamas as well, because one who is free from rajas can never have tamas at all c.f. Vimana 6:9. Better reading of the fourth Pada in verse 19 is perhaps मसो मृषा’.

One tells a lie either because of the defective knowledge or even if sound knowledge is there, due to attachment or hatred. So none of these three factors, viz., defective knowledge, attachment and hatred is present in the one who is absolutely free from rajas and tamas and whose intelligence is spotless due to predominance of the qualities of sattva.

The above definition (of sages) is applicable only to such sages as have attained spiritual perfection just by nature, for example-Brahma. The respectability of such sages can of course be earned even by wordly persons provided they have attained perfect knowledge of the subjects concerned and are free from attachment or hatred pertaining to these subjects.

As scriptures represent the words of such enlightened sages, the words themselves are regarded as the source of knowledge. If the intellect rather than the words is accepted as the source of knowledge, then we might say that the very intellect, shaped in accordance with the instructions of these sages is the valid source of knowledge.

Definition of Perception or observation

आत्मेन्द्रियमनोर्थानां सन्निकर्षात् प्रवर्तते । व्यक्ता तदात्वे या बुद्धिः प्रत्यक्षं सा निरुच्यते ॥ २० ॥

A mental faculty instantaneously manifested (in a particular form) as a result of the proximity of the soul, sense faculties, mind and the objects is known as pratyaksa ( perception or direct observation). [20]

The following are the different types of proximity :

(a) Samyoga (conjuction)

(b) Samavaya ( Inseparable concomitance)

(c) Samyukta samavaya ( conjunct concomitance).

(d) Samyukta samaveta samavaya (conjuct-concomitant-inseparable concomitance).

(e) Samaveta samavaya (Concomitant inseparable concomitance). (f) Visesanavisesabhava ( noun-adjective combination).

Thus, instantaneous manifestation of mental faculty as a result of one of these proximities is pratyaksa (perception). If the manifestation is not instantaneous, the resultant mental faculty may not lead to perception because inference which arises out of the perception and memory in which the proximity of the soul, sense faculty, mind and objects is obtained by imagination ( inference) do not come under the category of perception.

The proximity of all the four, viz., Atman etc., is merely stated to explain all the causative factors of perception. The perception is in fact only a result of the proximity of the sense faculty and the objects. So the fourfold proximity is not to be included in the definition of perception that is why the feeling of happiness, etc. is also included in perception. Of course its proximity to Atman cannot be questioned. But proximity to Atman is in common with all kinds of confirmation. So this is not relevant to the definition of perception as such. That is to say, proximity to Atman does not constitute the distinctive feature of perception as a source of knowledge.

Even though the mental faculty in the present concept is the result of perception rather than perception itself, it is treated as pratyaksa or perception because of the availability of such a usage. As a matter of fact, the sense faculty, etc. which are responsible for shaping the mental faculty (in a particular way as a result of the four-fold proximity), are to be regarded as the sources of perception, i.e. pratyaksa.

Definition of Inference

प्रत्यक्षपूर्व त्रिविधं त्रिकालं चानुमीयते । वह्निर्निगूढो धूमेन मैथुनं गर्भदर्शनात् ॥ २१ ॥

एवं व्यवस्यन्त्यतीतं बीजात् फलमनागतम् । दृष्ट्वा वीजात् फलं जातमिहैव सदृशं बुधाः ॥ २२ ॥

Inference is preceded by perception. It is of three types. It is related to the present, past as well as the future. For example, fire is inferred from the smoke and sexual inter-course from pregnancy. These two belong to the inference of the present and the past respectively. Similarly one can infer the forthcoming fruition of a tree from the seed on the basis of the frequent observation about the production of fruits from seeds through direct perception. [ 21-22]

Inference is always preceded by perception. This is of three types, viz., (i) the inference of the cause from the effect, e.g. sexual intercourse from pregnancy; (ii) inference of the effect from the cause, e.g. production of the fruit from the seed together with its accessories; and (iii) inference in general, e.g. fire from the smoke.

This inference is not confined to the present only; it is related to past, present as well as the future. So the source of knowledge which helps in determining an imperceptible object on the basis of past observations about the invariable association of the two (viz., the thing inferred and the means by which it is inferred) is ‘Inference’.

As regards the inference of fruition of a tree from the seed, this inference may not always be valid inasmuch as the seed in itself may not bring about the desired effect. But this is also true that the seed when joined with other accessories like irrigation, etc. is bound to result in the fruition of the tree in due course.

Example of reasoning

जलकर्षण बीज संयोगात् सस्यसंभवः । युक्तिः षड़धातुसंयोगाद्गर्भाणां संभवस्तथा ॥ २३ ॥

मथ्यमन्थन ( क ) मन्थानसंयोगादग्निसंभवः युक्तियुक्ता चतुष्पादसंपद्व्याधिनिबर्हणी ॥ २४ ॥

Reasoning is the other source of knowledge. The following are its examples :-Growth of crops from the combination of irrigation, ploughed land, seed and seasons; formation of embryo from the combination of six dhatus ( five mahabhutas and Atman): Production of fire from the combination of the lower-fire-drill, uper-fire-drill and the act of drilling; cure of diseases by fourfold efficient therapeutic measures. [23-24]

Reasoning as a separate source of knowledge is uncommon in other scriptures. So examples are first being cited in order to acquaint the readers with its implications.

The sacrificial fire is produced out of the churning of the two sacred woods-one of which is placed below as a sucket and the other above like a cylinder. One of the examples of reasoning cited above refers to the production of fire from the churning of the two pieces of wood (aranis).

Definition of reasoning

बुद्धिः पश्यति या भावान् बहुकारणयोगजान् । युक्तिस्त्रिकाला सा ज्ञेया त्रिवर्गः साध्यते यया ॥ २५ ॥

The intellect which perceives things as outcomes of combination of multiple causative factors, valid for the past, present and future, is known as yukti ( reasoning). This helps in the fulfilment of the three objects of human life, i.e., virtue (dharma), wealth (artha) and desire ( kama ). [ 25 ]

The source of knowledge known as Yukti helps in determining an event or effect in relation to the various causative factors responsible therefor. It helps in formulating a rule to the effect that, give a group of causes, such and such effect or event is bound to occur. Strictly speaking yukti ( reasoning) is not regarded as a source of knowledge but being a valuable means to the source of knowledge and also because of its utilitarian value in the world, it has been treated as a source of knowledge in the present context,

(In the Vimana 4: 5, only three sources of knowledge i.e. perception, inference and scriptural testimony are mentioned. There is no mention of yukti ( reasoning) as a source of knowledge there. In the Rogabhisagjitiya chapter (Vimana 8: 83), four sources of knowledge including analogy are mentioned.

The scope of yukti is unlimited as it holds good for all time-past, present and future. That is to say the findings of yukti, i.e. reasoning about the causes and their outcomes are universal in nature. It is yukti which helps in the fulfilment of the three basic objects of human life. (The acceptance of yukti as separate source of knowledge is however very rare).

It has been suggested that yukti (reasoning) as a source of knowledge relates to the knowledge of the future production of crops as a result of the combination of several present factors like irrigation, ploughing, seeds and seasons. But the correlation of the future incident with the present factors is as good as inference. Moreover, knowledge of the future effect from out of the present causative factors cannot be had concurrently. Yukti or reasoning on the other hand relates to the universal causal relationship existing between the several causative factors and their effects not specifically related to the past, present or future.

Santaraksita, the author of TattvaSangraha has first of all advanced arguments in favour of accepting “reasoning” as a source of knowledge. “If something is bound to happen in the presence of a particular factor and does not happen in its absence, then this shows that the relationship exists between the two that is the cause and the effect. Being definitive in character, this sort of reasoning cannot be included under perception, nor can it be treated as an inference because there are no illustrations to cite. Even if there are, they are involved in endless regression. So Charaka has accepted Yukti as a separate source of knowledge. “But as a matter of fact this view does not find favour with Santaraksita himself. For establishing such causal relationship as referred to above nothing else except inference is required. That is to say, one can infer the causal relationship between the two objects from the occurrence of the one from the other and not otherwise. It is not correct to say that no apt illustrations are available. There is in fact no dearth of illustrations to establish that things regularly happening only after a given group of factors are to be treated as latters’ effects, e.g., pitchers as effects of the various factors like potter, etc., or sounds effects of the various factors including points of articulation like palate, etc. So the views of Santaraksita as elaborated by Kamalasila go against accepting “Yukti” as a separate source of knowledge.

एषा परीक्षा नास्त्यन्या यया सर्व परीक्ष्यते ।

परीक्ष्यं सदसच्चैवं तया चास्ति पुनर्भवः ॥ २६ ॥

This is how all things-existent or non-existent can be examined and not otherwise. Such an examination establishes the theory of rebirth. [26]

Scriptural testimony in favour of rebirth

तत्राप्तागमस्तावद्वेदः, यश्चान्योऽपि कश्चिद्वेदार्थादविपरीतः परीक्षकैः प्रणीतः शिष्टानुमतो लोकानुग्रहप्रवृत्तः शास्त्रवादः स चाऽऽप्तागमः; आप्तागमादुपलभ्यतेदानतपोयज्ञसत्याहिंसाब्रह्मचर्याण्यभ्युदयनिःश्रेयसकराणीति ॥ २७ ॥

Scripturalt estimony is based on the Vedas or other scriptural material in agreement with the Vedas which is enunciated by the experts, approved by gentlemen and initiated with a view to bringing about happiness to the mankind. The scriptural testimony, as a source of knowledge, is derived from the words of authorities. It has been stated that donation, penance, sacred rituals, truthfulness, non-violence and brahmacharya are supposed to provide heaven and to help in liberation. (This establishes the theory of continuation of soul after death and thus of rebirth ). [27]

In the above passage, scriptural testimony as a source of knowledge is being taken into account in order to establish the theory of rebirth. Scriptural testimony is primarily based on the Vedas inasmuch as they are above all doubts and suspicions. Secondarily, such scriptures as are quite in conformity with the Vedic prescriptions constitute scriptural testimony. These are Ayurveda (science of life ), Smrti and others. know from these scriptures that such sacred acts as donation, penance, performance of rituals, truthfulness, non-violence and brahmacharya bring about happiness in this world and world beyond as well as salvaWetion. Evidently, happiness in the world beyond and salvation refer to the relationship of the living soul with the things after death and this unquestionably establishes the theory of rebirth.

न चानतिवृत्त सत्त्वदोषाणामदोषैरनुपुनर्भवो धर्मद्वारेषूपदिश्यते ॥ २८ ॥

Ancient sages, devoid of all human weaknesses, have clearly stated in the religious scriptures that those who have not been able to conquer their mental defects (rajas and tamas) are not eligible for salvation. (This shows that such persons are liable to be reborn ). [ 28 ]

धर्मद्वारावहितैश्च व्यपगतभयरागद्वेषलोभमोहमानैर्ब्रह्मपरैरातैः कर्मविद्भिरनुबुद्धिःपूर्वैः पूर्वतरैर्महर्षिभिर्दिव्यचक्षुभिर्दृष्ट्वोपदिष्टः पुनर्भव इति व्यवस्येदेवम् ॥ २९ ॥

The theory of rebirth has been enunciated after careful observation by ancient sages endowed with divine faculty. These sages were devoted to the path of virtue; they were devoid of fear, attachment, hatred, greed, confusion and vanity; they were in tune with the Almighty; they were reliable par excellence and were conversant with the principles of ‘Karman’ or action; their mental and intellectual faculties were never tarnished. So one should not doubt this theory. [ 29 ]

Observations in favour of rebirth

प्रत्यक्षमपि चोपलभ्यते – माता- पित्रोर्विसदृशान्य पत्यानि, तुल्यसंभवानां वर्णस्वराकृतिसत्त्व बुद्धिभाग्य विशेषाः, प्रवरावरकुल तन्म, दास्यैश्वर्य, सुखासुखमायुः, आयुषो वैषम्यम् इह कृतस्यावातिः, अशिक्षितानां च रुदितस्तनपानहासत्रासादीनां प्रवृत्तिः, लक्षणोत्पत्तिः, कर्मसादृश्ये फलविशेषः, मेधा क्वचित् क्वचित् कर्मण्य मेधा, जातिस्मरणम् – इहागमन मितश्व्युतानामिति, समदर्शने प्रियाप्रियत्वम् ॥ ३०॥

Even the observation establishes the theory of rebirth. For example: birth of children dissimilar to their parents; parentage and other factors being the same, difference in complexion, voice, shape, mind, intellect and fate; birth in high and low family; slavery and sovereignty; happy and miserable life; difference in the span of life; enjoyment of results without the corresponding action in this life; manifestation of actions like crying, suckling breast, laughing fear, etc., even without training (found in new born) appearance of marks in the body indicating good or bad fortunes; action being the same, difference in its results, intuitive interest in certain types of work in some persons and not in others; preservation of memory in some persons of previous life; appearance of persons being the same, their amicability or otherwise. [ 30 ]

Even though direct perception as such does not prove the theory of rebirth, still it does provide enough material for inferring the existence of life before birth and beyond death. The following are some of the glaring examples:

The offspring should normally resemble their parents. But it is not always so. Some offsprings are ugly while others are charming. Similarly parentage and other factors being the same, some offsprings are of fair complexion, some are black, some endowed with sweet voice, some with the hoarse one; some are subjected to slavery while some others enjoy sovereign powers. Some are born in high family and some in low one. Similarly some lives are happy and some are unhappy. There is no uniformity even in the span of life. Even in the absence of corresponding actions, the results are enjoyed in this life. Where could the newly born baby learn the art of weeping, breast suckling, fear, laughing, etc. from? Still he weeps, suckles the breast of the mother, laughs and fears some thing. This shows the continuity of these instincts from his previous lives. Besides, every living being eventually develops certain bodily marks-auspicious or inauspicious. This is also not possible without the effect of actions performed in the previous life. Howsoever devoted and sincere a person might be towards his duties, he is not necessarily rewarded while others with no merits at all enjoy worldly rewards. Some persons have intuitive proficiency in certain arts like painting, archery, etc. while others do not have. Some persons clearly remember how they were reborn after their previous life. In some cases, it has also been seen that persons even after breathing their last, regain life; this is because the attendants of the God of death mistake the name of some one for that of somebody else and when immediately after death they realise the mistake, they return life to the person, mistaken. Persons having the same appearance are sometimes of amiable nature, sometimes otherwise.

Inferences in favour of rebirth

अत एवानुमीयते – यत् – स्वकृतमपरिहार्यमविनाशि पौर्वदेहिकं दैवसंज्ञक मानुबन्धिकं कर्म, तस्यैतत् फलम् इतश्चान्यद्भविष्यतीतिः फलाद्वीजमंनुमीयते, फलं च बीजात् ॥ ३१ ॥

Inference is applied as follows-the action performed in the previous life which is unavoidable, eternal and having continuity is known as fate. Its results are enjoyable in this life. Action performed in this life will bring about its results in its future life. The seed is from the fruit and the fruit from the seed. [31]

Reasoning in favour of rebirth

युक्तिश्चैषा – षड्धातुसमुदयाद्गर्भजन्म, कर्तृकरणसंयोगात् क्रियाः कृतस्य कर्मणः फलं नाकृतस्य, नाङ्कुरोत्पत्तिरवीजात्; कर्मसदृशं फलं, नान्यस्माद्वीजादन्यस्योत्पत्तिः इति युक्तिः ॥ ३२ ॥

Reasoning also supports this view. The embryo is formed out of the combination of the six dhatus. Actions are manifested by the combination of the agent (karty) and the instrument (karana); the results come out of the action performed. There can be no germination without a seed. The result is always corresponding to the action. A seed cannot bring out heterogenous products. This is reasoning. [32]

Reasoning also corroborates the theory of rebirth as follows: (i) The embryo is formed out of the combination of six dhatus. But how can the embryo gain consciousness without being related to the soul? The soul at the embryonic stage is nothing but the one continuing from his previous birth.

(ii) The action like the performance of sacrifice, etc., cannot be performed without the combination of an agent and an instrument. As regards instrument, we see it with naked eyes in the form of ghee, fire and other accessories of the sacrifice. But there must be an agent to use these instruments and that agent can be none else than the soul.

(iii) Unless something was done in the previous life, how could the results in the form of slavery and sovereignty could be enjoyed in this life? There can be no germination without the seed.

(iv) Results always correspond to action. Thus, results like offspring and wealth attained in this life can be explained only by taking recourse to corresponding virtuous acts performed in the previous life. For, there can be no germination of a heterogenous product like barley from the seed of rice.

Conclusion regarding the theory of rebirth

एवं प्रमाणैश्चतुर्भिरुपदिष्टे पुनर्भवे धर्मद्वारेष्ववधीयेत; तद्यथा- गुरुशुश्रूषाया मध्ययने व्रतचर्यायां दारक्रियायामपत्योत्पादने भृत्यभरणेऽतिथिपूजायां दानेऽनभिध्यायां तपस्यनसूयायां देहवाङ्यानसे कर्मण्यक्लिष्टे देहेन्द्रियमनोर्थबुद्ध्यात्मपरीक्षायां मनःसमाधाविति; यानि चान्यान्यव्येवंविधानि कर्माणि सतामविगर्हितानि स्वर्ग्याणि वृत्तिपुष्टिकराणि विद्यात्तान्यारभेत कर्तुः तथा कुर्वन्निह चैव यशो लभते प्रेत्य च स्वर्गम् । इति तृतीया परलोकैषणा व्याख्याता भवति ॥ ३३ ॥

So all the four means of knowledge establish the theory of rebirth. One should, therefore, have faith in religious scriptures; one should attend to the services of the teacher, studies, performance of religious acts, marriage, production of children, maintenance of servants, respect to guests, donations, abstinence from selfish motives, penance, avoidance of backbiting, good physical, verbal and mental acts, introspection with regard to body, sense faculties, mind objects ( of senses ), intellect and self, and meditation, and other similar acts recommended by virtuous persons which are conducive for doing good in the life, and after death are known as the accepted means of livelihood. A person, attending to these acts, earns fame in this world and attains heaven after death. Thus the third basic desire relating to the life beyond is explained. [ 33 ]

In the above passage, the virtuous acts leading to happiness in this life and life beyond are enumerated. One of such acts is the introspection regarding the body, sense faculty, mind, objects ( of senses ), intellect and self. This introspection helps in determining eternal nature of all except the soul and as such brings about the much needed spiritual sense of detachment from worldly enjoyments. It is only when the mind is detached from its objects it can concentrate itself on the soul. It is this detached concentration which is known as meditation.

अथ खलु त्रय उपस्तम्भाः, त्रिविधं बलं; त्रीण्यायतनानि, त्रयो रोगाः, त्रयो रोगमार्गाः, त्रिविधा भिषजः, त्रिविधमौषधमिति ॥ ३४ ॥

Seven Triads

There are three factors supporting life, three-fold-strength, three types of causes, three types of diseases, three systems for ( the manifestation of ) the disease, three types of physicians and three types of therapeutics. [ 34 ]

Three supports of life – Trayopastambha

त्रय उपस्तम्भा इति – आहारः; स्वप्नो, ब्रह्मचर्यमितिः एभिस्त्रिभिर्युक्तियुक्त रुपस्तब्धमुपस्तंम्भैः शरीरं वलवर्णोपचयोपचितमनुवर्तते यावदायुःसंस्कारात् संस्कार महितमनुपसेवमानस्य, य इहैवोपदेक्ष्यते ॥ ३५ ॥

The three supports of life are intake of food, sleep and observance of brahmacharya. Being supported by these three well regulated factors of life, the body is endowed with strength, complexion and growth, and continues uptill the full span of life, provided a person does not indulge in such regimen as are detrimental to health which will be described in this chapter itself (para-37). [ 35 ]

These supports are designated as upastambhas which literally mean sub-posts. A house is mainly supported by posts but there are certain sub-posts which add to the supporting strength of such posts. Similarly, body is mainly supported by the acts performed in the previous life which determine the present life span. But such acts are further supported by regimen like intake of food, sleep and brahmacharya. So they are known as upastambhas, i.e. secondary supports of life. Brahmacharya includes control of senses and spiritual bliss conducive to the knowledge of Brahman.

Intake of food, etc. prescribed here are those which are beneficial for health. So intake of germinated grains (which is not good for health) does not come under this category. That is why all the three supports are required to be well regulated. Even brahmacharya over done in the form of excessive control of the sense faculties without well regulated practice, may be harmful by way of causing mental disturbance.

The span of life is determined by the virtuous and sinful acts-performed in the previous life. The life, therefore, continues until such actions culminate in corresponding results. The three supports mentioned here help support the body until the results of such acts are exhausted. That is the full span of life. Apart from the three supports mentioned above, there are certain subsidiary supports like massage, etc. also.

Inspite of these supports one may die an immature death if he indulges in unwholesome regimen as enumerated hereafter. Three fold strength :

त्रिविधं चलमिति – सहसं, कालजं, युक्तिकृतं च । सहजं यच्छरीरसत्त्वयोः प्राकृतं, कालकृतमृतुविभागजं वयःकृतं च युक्तिकृतं पुनस्तद्यदाहारचेष्टायोगजम् ॥ ३६ ॥

Strength is three-fold, viz., constitutional, temporal and acquired. Constitutional strength is the one which exists in the mind and body from the very birth. Temporal is the one which is based on the division of seasons and the age of the person. The acquired strength is the one which is achieved by the combination of diet and other regimen. [36]

The constitutioned strength is present in every being from the very time of birth. This is because of the natural growth of the dhatus. Thus the natural strength does aot require any extraneous factor for its growth. As we know, there are some people who are by nature strong; some others are weak, it is genetically decided. Temporal strength is based on the division of seasons –c. f. Sutra 6: 8. The acquired strength is the one which is attained by the proper combination of the intake of wholesome food like ghee, meat, etc. and other regimen like proper rest, exercise, etc. and also the use of elixirs (rejuvenators).

Three aetiological factors and types of sensory stress

त्रोण्यायतनानीति- अर्थानां कर्मणः कालस्य चातियोगायोगमिथ्यायोगाः । तत्रातिप्रभावतां दृश्यानामतिमात्रं दर्शनमतियोगः, सर्वशोऽदर्शनमयोगः, अतिश्लिष्टातिविप्रकृष्टरौद्रभैरवाद्भुतद्विष्टवीभत्सनविकृतवित्रासनादिरूपदर्शनं मिथ्या योगः; तथाऽतिमात्रस्तनितपटहोत्क्रुष्टादीनां शब्दानामतिमात्रं श्रवणमतियोगः, सर्वशोऽश्रवणमयोगः, परुषेष्टविनाशोपघातप्रधर्षणभीषणादिशब्दश्रवणं मिथ्यायोगः; तथाऽतितीक्ष्णोग्राभिष्यन्दिनां गन्धानामतिमात्रं घ्राणमतियोगः, सर्वशोऽघ्राणमयोगः, पूतिद्विष्टामेध्यक्किन्नविषपवनकुणपगन्धादिघ्राणं मिथ्यायोगः, तथा रसानामत्यादानमतियोगः, सर्वसोऽनादानमयोगः, मिथ्यायोगो राशिवर्ज्येष्वाहारविधिविशेषायतनेषूपदेक्ष्यते; तथाऽतिशीतोष्णानां स्पृश्यानां स्नानाभ्यङ्गोत्सादनादीनां चात्युपसेवनमतियोगः, सर्वशोऽनुपसेवनमयोगः, स्नानादीनां शीतोष्णादीनां च स्पृश्यानामनानुपूर्व्यापसेवनं विषमस्थानाभिघाताशुचिभूतसंस्पर्शादयश्चेति मिथ्यायोगः ॥ ३७ ॥

These are the three types of causes (of diseases)-excessive utilisation, non-utilisation and wrong utilisation of objects (of senses ), acts and time. For example, excessive gazing at the highly illuminous substance would constitute excessive utilisation of the visual objects. Not looking at anything at all would amount to its non-utilisation. Similarly its wrong utilisation would be to see things too close or too far away or things that are awful or terrifying or are surprising, contemptuous, frightful, deformed and alarming.

Excessive utilisation of auditory objects would be to hear uproarious noise coming out of thunder and kettle drum, loud cries, etc.; its non-utilisation would be not to hear anything at all; hearing of harsh words, news about the death of friends, assaulting, insulting and terrifying sounds constitute the wrong utilisation.

Smell of exceedingly sharp, acute and intoxicating odours constitute an excessive utilisation of olfactory sense faculties, not to smell at all is its non-utilisation; its wrong utilisation is the smell of exceedingly putrid, unpleasant, dirty, putrified and cadaverous odour, and poisonous gas.

Similarly excessive intake of various substances having various tastes would amount to over utilisation of gustatory sense faculty; not to use it at all amounts to its non-utilisation. Factors which are to be described in the Charaka: Vimana 1 : 21 except rasi will constitute its wrong utilisation.

Excessive use of exceedingly cold and hot bath, massage and unction etc., amounts to over utilisation of the tactile sense faculty; not to use it at all is its non-utilisation; the use of bath, massage and unction and other hot and cold snbstances without observing the prescribed order, touch of uneven place, dirty objects, bacteria and injurious touch constitute its wrong utilisation. [ 37 ]

The three types of causes of diseases are the over utilisation, nonutilisation and wrong utilisation of the objects, activities (physical, oral and mental) and seasons (winter, summer and rainy seasons). Such causes are over utilisation, non-utilisation and wrong utilisation relating to visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile sensations. It is only exceedingly luminous objects which constitute such defects relating to the visual sensations. There will, therefore, be no over utilisation even if one gazes at a pitcher which does not have a dazzling effect.

The objects that terrify human beings and such other objects may not necessarily be the direct objects of visual sensation. They are shapes and sizes of different dimensions. Even such shapes and sizes, being associated with the direct objects of visual sensation do come under the purview of the visual sensation. This is so even with regard to gustatory and tactile sensations where many such factors are included as are not, strictly speaking, direct objects of their respective sense faculties. Sharp odour is the one that causes lacrimation in the eyes, e.g.

odour of krsna jiraka ( Carum carvi Linn.), etc., Acute odour causes vomiting, e.g. the odour of vacha (Acorus calamus Linn.).

The word ‘abhisyandi’, used in the text is interpreted as something which causes ‘staimitya’, e.g. mastu, sura and as ava. (The exact implications of these terms are not very clear, probably they refer to the staultifying effect of the odour of liquor, etc.).

Tastes are inclusive of the substances containing them. As regards wrong utilisation relating to gustatory sensation, there cannot be any such wrong utilisation, with regard to the quantity ( rasi). Quantity can either be more or less, but there can be no question of its wrong utilisationc. f. Vimuna 1:21. The wrong utilisation of gustatory sensation will be described in greater detail in the first chapter of Vimana section. Some of the examples are intake of masa ( Phaseolus radiatus Linn.), etc. which are inherently unwholesome; intake of roasted grain flour is unwholesome due to its unwholesome preparation and the intake of ghee and honey in equal quantity is unwholesome due to its combination.

Even the use of cold or hot massage in a lesser quantity is harmful, but if it is not used at all it is all the more harmful. Then again, there is a prescribed order for massage, bath and unction. One should not apply unction after taking bath. Similarly one should not enter into a pond containing cold water, while afflicted with heat.

Mode of operation of sensory stress

तत्रैकं स्पर्शनमिन्द्रियाणामिन्द्रियव्यापकं, चेतःसमवायि, स्पर्शनव्या तेव्र्व्याप कमपि च चेतः; तस्मात् सर्वेन्द्रियाणां व्यापकस्पर्शकृतो यो भावविशेषः, सोऽयमनुपशयात् पञ्चविधस्त्रिविधविकल्पो भवत्यसात्म्येन्द्रियार्थसंयोगः सात्म्यार्थो ह्युपशयार्थः ॥ ३८ ॥

It is per The sense of touch alone pervades all the senses. mentally associated with the mind. The mind again pervades the sense of touch. The latter, in its turn pervades all the senses. So the unfavourable reaction of all the senses caused by the all pervasive sense of touch is known as the unwholesome conjunction (sensory stress). The objects of sense faculties which are of five kinds are further sub-divided into three each (viz. non-utilisation, excessive utilisation and wrong utilisation). The favourable reaction of the senses on the other hand is regarded as the wholesome conjunction of the senses with their objects. [38]

Even though, there are five sense organs with the correspoding five objects of theirs, but as a matter of fact, there is only one sense faculty, viz. the tactile faculty which pervades all the sense organs: No sensation can occur without a sense of touch. The sense of touch is permanently. associated with the mind. So it is only when there is a tactual propriety, the mind allows the tactual sensation to occur. So the different sensations do not occur all the time. Moreover even the tactual sensation. is governed and pervaded by mind. So where there is the sense of touch, the mind is also active there. Thus the mind being engaged together with the sense of touch in directing themselves to one given object, there is no possibility of the occurrence of all the different sensations simultaneously.

So it is the tactile sensation which predominates all the sensations. Or we might say the tactile sensation is of five kinds, that is to say visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory and tactile. The reaction of all types of sense organs to the given objects might sometimes be favourable and sometimes unfavourable. When this rection is unfavourable, it is known as the unwholesome conjunction of sense organs with its object. This unwholesome conjunction may be in the form of non-utilisation, excessive utilisation and wrong utilisation of the objects of senses. Thus, the unwholesome conjunction of the senses with their objects is of fifteen types-c. f, Sarira 1 : 133,

Types of unwholesome action

कर्म वाङ्मनः शरीरप्रवृत्तिः । तत्र वाङ्मनःशरीरातिप्रवृत्तिरतियोगः; सर्वशोऽप्रवृत्तिरयोगः; वेगधारणोदीरणविषमस्खलनपतनाङ्गप्रणिधानाङ्ग प्रदूषणप्रहारमर्दनप्राणोपरोधसंक्लेशनादिः शारीरो मिथ्यायोगः, सूचकानृताकालकलहाप्रियावद्धानुपचारपरुषवचनादिर्वामिथ्यायोगः, भयशोकक्रोधलोभमोहमानैर्ष्यामिथ्यादर्शनादि•र्मानसो मिथ्यायोगः ।। ३९ ।।

Here, action means the vocal, mental and physical action. The over action of speech, mind and body constitutes their excessive utilisation, an all round inaction constitutes their nonutilisation. The examples of wrong utilisation of the body are suppression of natural urges, their artificial manifestation, unbalanced slipping, falling and posture; excessive itching, etc.; of the body, bodily assault, excessive massage, excessive holding of breath and exposing oneself to excessive torture. Examples of wrong utilisation with regard to speech are back-biting, lying, useless quarrels, unpleasant utterance, irrelevant unfavourable talks and harsh expressions. Those relating to mind are fear, anxiety, anger, greed, confusion, vanity, envy and misconceptions. [39]

संग्रहेण चातियोगायोगवर्ज कर्म वामनःशरीरजमहितमनुपदिष्टं यत्तच्च मिथ्यायोगं विद्यात् ॥ ४० ॥

In brief, any action relating to speech, mind and body which is not included either in the categories of excessive utilisation or non-utilisation, and which is harmful (for the health) in the present life and which is against the religious prescriptions comes under the category of wrong utilisation of speech, mind and body. [ 40 ]

The examples of wrong utilisation of speech, mind and body as cited in the preceding passage are not enough. So the general principles underlying the categorisation of such actions as wrong utilisation are now being explained. Apart from the non-utilisation and excessive utilisation of speech, mind and body, such of their actions which are not conducive to the maintenance of good health in this life nor even to happiness in the life beyond, are all to be treated as cases of wrong utilisation. This shows that sinful acts are also the causes of diseases. Such sinful acts are products of wrong utilisation of speech, mind and body and are in their turn causes of diseases. This is on the analogy of the attainment of heaven by performance of rituals like agnistoma through the intermediary products, i.e., the result of religious performance. The argument that sinful acts can be included under wrong utilisation of time has already been refuted in the first chapter of this sectionSutra 1:54.

इति त्रिविधविकल्पं त्रिविधमेव कर्म प्रज्ञापराध इति व्यवस्येत् ॥ ४१ ।।

So three-fold actions (i.e. relating to speech, mind and body) further divided into three categories (in the form of non-utilisation excessive utilisation and wrong utilisation) constitute intellectual blasphemy. [41]

Unhealthy season

शीतोष्णवर्षलक्षणाः पुनर्हेमन्तग्रीष्मवर्षाः संवत्सरः स कालः । तत्रातिमात्रस्वलक्षणः कालः कालातियोगः, हीनस्वलक्षणः ( कालः ) कालायोगः, यथास्वलक्षणविपरीतलक्षणस्तु ( कालः ) कालमिथ्यायोगः | कालः पुनः परिणाम उच्यते ॥ ४२ ॥

A year the unit of time which is further sub-divided into winter (hemanta), summer (grisma) and rains (varsa) by cold, heat and rainfall respectively. If a particular season manifests itself excessively, this should be regarded as excessive utilisation of time; if the season manifests itself in lesser measure, it would be its non-utilisation. If on the other hand, characteristrics of a season are contrary to the normal ones, this would be wrong utilisation (for example rainfall in winter, cold in the rainy season, etc.). The time is nothing but transformation. [42]

इत्यसात्म्येन्द्रियार्थसंयोगः, प्रज्ञापराधः, परिणामश्चेति त्रयस्त्रिविधविकल्पा हेतवो विकाराणां; समयोगयुक्तास्तु प्रकृतिहेतवो भवन्ति ॥ ४३ ॥

So the unwholesome conjunction of the sense organs their objects, intellectual blasphemy ( prajnaparadha) and transformation (parinama )-these are the threefold causes of diseases. Proper utilisation of the objects, action and time is beneficial to the maintenance of normal health. [ 43 ]

सर्वेषामेव भावानां भावाभावौ नान्तरेण योगायोगातियोगमिथ्यायोगान् समुपलभ्येते; यथास्वयुक्त्यपेक्षिणौ हि भावाभावौ ॥ ४४ ॥

Proper maintenance or otherwise of various items of creation depends on proper utilisation, non-utilisation, excessive utilisation and wrong utilisation of certain conditions because both proper maintenance as well as abnormalcy depend on the conjucntion (of wholesome or unwholesome nature ). [44]

In fact, the maintenance or otherwise of all the items of creation depends upon the utilisation, non-utilisation, excessive utilisation and wrong utilisation of certain condition. If such conditions are wellutilised, a thing is well maintained. If they are not utilised or utilised in excess or wrongly, a thing does not maintain its normal postion and is subjected to destruction. For example, a tree is well maintained if properly irrigated and if other productive measures are applied to it in due proportion. On the other hand, it is destroyed when it faces too much of irrigation or scorching heat of the sun or thunderstroke. So the proper utilisation or otherwise of certain conditions plays a very important role in the maintenance or destruction of the various items of creation. The same principle holds good with regard to the maintenance or otherwise of positive health.

A classification of diseases

त्रयो रोगा इति–निजागन्तुमानसाः । तत्र निजः शारीरदोषसमुत्थः, आगन्तु

र्भूतविषवाय्वग्निसंप्रहारादिसमुत्थः, मानसः पुनरिट्रस्य लाभालाभाच्चानिष्टस्योपजायते ॥ ४५ ॥

There are three types of diseases-endogenous, exogenous and psychic.

Endogenous diseases are caused by the morbid dosas of the body; exogenous by demoniac seizures, poisonous substance, wind, fire or trauma. Psychic ones by the association with the agreeable as well as disagreeable things. [45]

Sometimes, diseases are also caused by the aquisition of the agreeable, conditions, e.g., passionate hilarity. Mental agony is the result of the association with the disagreeable things and dissociation from the agreeable ones. Another reading of the passage is निष्टस्य…” According to this reading such mental diseases are inter alia ‘इष्टस्यालाभाल्लाभाच्चाcaused by the loss of the agreeable things..

Principles of treatment of Psychic diseases

तत्र बुद्धिमता मानसव्याधिपरीतेनापि सता बुद्ध्या हिताहितमवेक्ष्यावेक्ष्य धर्मार्थकामानामहितानामनुपसेवने हितानां चोपसेवने प्रयतितव्यं, न ह्यन्तरेण लोके त्रयमेतन्मानसं किंचिन्निष्पद्यते सुखं वा दुःखं वा; तस्मादेतच्चानुष्ठेयं-तद्विद्यानां चोपसेवने प्रयतितव्यम्, आत्मदेशकुलकालबलशक्तिशाने यथाबच्चेति ॥ ४६ ॥

So a wise person (even if) suffering from the mental diseases should very carefully consider again and again what is useful and what is harmful for health; he should strive for discarding the harmful or unwholesome regimens and adopt the wholesome ones in regard to virtue ( dharma ), wealth ( artha ) and desire (kama), for no happiness or unhappiness can occur in this world without these three elements. So one should try to serve persons well versed in the nature and cure of psychic diseases. One should also try to acquire knowledge of the self, the place, family, time, strength and the capacity. [ 46 ]

The knowledge of the self implies the knowledge as to “who I am” and “what is conducive to my health”. Similarly, the knowledge about the place implies the knowledge of the locality and the propriety of regimen prescribed in the local conditions. Similarily, the knowledge with regard to the family, strength and capacity will also have to be explained.

भवति चात्र

मानसं प्रति भैषज्यं त्रिवर्गस्यान्ववेक्षणम् । तद्विद्यसेवा विज्ञानमात्मादीनां च सर्वशः ॥ ४७ ॥

Thus it is said:

The following are be attended for the treatment of psychic diseases:

(i) to attend the course of conduct relating to virtue, wealth and desire;

(ii) to render service to the persons well versed in the nature and cure of psychic diseases;

(iii) to obtain all round knowledge about the self, etc. [47]

Three paths of diseases in body

त्रयो रोगमार्गा इति — शाखा, मर्मास्थिसन्धयः, कोष्टश्च । तत्र शाखा रक्तादयो धातवस्त्वक् च स बाह्यो रोगमार्गः; सर्माणि पुनर्वस्तिहृदयमूर्धादीनि, अस्थिसन्धयोऽस्थिसंयोगास्तत्रोपनिबद्धाश्च स्नायुकण्डराः, स मध्यमो रोगमार्गी, कोष्ठः पुनरुच्यते महास्रोतः शरीरमध्यं महानिम्नमामपक्काशयश्चेति पर्यायशब्दैस्तन्त्रे, स रोगमार्ग आभ्यन्तरः ॥ ४८ ॥

The three course of the disease are sakha (peripheral system), marmasthisandhi ( vital organs and joints of bones), and kostha (central system). The peripheral system includes tissue elements like blood, etc. and skin-this is the external path of the disease. The vital organs are basti (urinary bladder ), heart, head, etc. The joints of bones include bones joined together by ligaments, and tendons attached thereto-this is the middle path of the disease. Kostha ( central system) is known in the scriptures as mahasrotas (the great channel ), sarira-madhya (central portion of the body), mahanimna ( the deepest part of the body), Ama pakvasaya (stomach and intestines)-this is the internal path of the disease. [ 48 ]

The vital organs and the joints of bones constitute one signle path of the disease. The term sakha is used here by way of illustrating the nature of the tissue elements like blood, etc., which are more or less like the branch of a tree. The tvak (skin) includes rasa also which rests on it. The reason why rasa has not been separately stated under the category of sakha is that the rasa inside the heart does not form part of peripheral system; this is rather included in the kostha ( central system ). The same principle applies even to rakta. The rakta belonging to liver and spleen is intended to be included under the central system. As it has been explained in Susruta samhita (Chikitsa 2: 12-13), the term ‘kostha’ includes the stomach, intestine, bladder, liver, spleen, heart, caecum and lungs.

Various paths of diseases have been explained here in order to facilitate the knowledge about the curability or otherwise of the diseases. Paths of the disease determine this to some extent.

Examples of three types of diseases

तंत्र, गण्ड पिडकालज्यपचीच र्मकीलाधिमांसमपककुष्ठव्यङ्गादयो विकारा बहिर्मार्गजाश्च विसर्पश्वयथुगुल्माशति द्वध्यादयः शाखानुसारिणो भवन्ति रोगा; पक्षवधग्रहापतानकार्दितशोषराजयः मास्थिसन्धिशूलगुदभ्रंशादयः शिरोहद्वस्तिरोगादयश्च मध्यममार्गानुसारिणो भवन्ति रोगा; ज्वरातीसारच्छर्घलसकविसूचिकाकासश्वासहिक्कानाहोदरप्लीहादयोऽन्तर्मार्गजाश्च विसर्पश्वयथुगुल्माशविद्रध्यादयः कोष्ठानुसारिणो भवन्ति रोगाः ॥ ४९ ॥

Ailments like ganda (goiter), pidaka ( pimple), alaji (boil), apaci (scrofula), carmakila (wart), adhimamsa (granuloma), masaka (moles), kustha (obstinate skin diseases) including leprosy and vyanga ( freckles), and also the external variety of visarpa (skin diseases characterised by an acute spread ), svayathu (oedema), gulma (abdominal tumour), arsas (piles) and vidradhi (abscess) belong to the peripheral system; those occurring in the middle path way are paksavadha ( hemiplegia ), paksagraha (tonic convulsion), apatanaka ( clonic convulsion), ardita ( facial paralysis), sosa (consumption), rajayaksaman (tuberculosis), asthisandhisula (pain in the bone joints), gudabhramsa (prolapse rectum) and the diseases of the head, heart and bladder. Ailments like juvara (fever), atisara (diarrhoea), chardi ( vomiting), alasaka (intestinal torper), visucika (choleric diarrhoea), kasa (cough), svasa (dyspnoea ), hikka (hiccough), anaha ( constipation), udara (diseases of the abdomen), and pliha (splenic disorders) and the internal variety of visarpa (skin diseases characterised by an acute spread ), svayathu (oedema), gulma (abdominal tumour), arsas ( piles) and vidradhi (internal abscess) [ 49 ] belong to the central system.

The diseases like visarpa, svayathu, gulma, arsas and vidradhi occur both externally and internally. Those of the former category are included in the peripheral system and the latter under the central system. For example, piles of the external sphincter are included in the peripheral system but those in the internal sphincter in the central system. Thus, diseases like abdominal tumour and others are also of two types depending upon their occurernce either externally or internally.

Three types of Physicians

त्रिविधा भिषज इति – भिषक्छद्मचराः सन्ति सन्त्ये सिद्धसाधिताः । सन्ति वैद्यगुणैर्युक्तास्त्रिविधा भिषजो भुवि ॥ ५० ॥ वैद्यमाण्डौषधैः पुस्तैः पल्लवैरवलोकनैः । लभन्ते ये भिषक्शब्दमशास्ते प्रतिरूपकाः ॥ ५१ ।। श्रीयशोज्ञानसिद्धानां व्यपदेशादतद्विधाः | वैद्यशब्दं लभन्ते ये ज्ञेयास्ते सिद्धसाधिताः ।। ५२ ॥ प्रयोगज्ञानविज्ञानसिद्धिसिद्धाः सुखप्रदाः । जीविताभिसरास्ते स्युर्वेद्यत्वं तेष्ववस्थितम् ॥ ५३ ॥

There are three types of physicians, viz., pseudo physicians, feigned physicians and genuine physicians endowed with requisite qualities.

Those who come to be known as physicians simply by virtue of the exhibition of the physicians’ box containing certain drugs, medical books, by bluffing and posing ( as a physician ) belong to the first category. They are ignorant of the science of medicine. They are simply counterfeits.

Those who attribute their association to persons accomplished in wealth, fame and knowledge also come to be known as physicians, even though they are not so. Persons of this category are to be regarded as feigned physicians.

Those who are accomplished in the administration of therapies, insight and knowledge of therapeutics are endowed with infallible success and can bring out happiness to the patient are saviours of life. Such physicians come under the category of genuine physicians. [ 50-53 ]

Three types of managements

तत्र त्रिविधमौषधमिति – दैवव्यपाश्रयं, युक्तिव्यपाश्रयं सत्त्वावजयश्च । देवव्यपाश्रयं — मन्त्रौषधिमणिमङ्गलबल्युपहारहोमनियमप्रायश्चित्तोपवासस्वस्त्ययनप्रणिपातगमनादि, युक्तिव्यपाश्रयं–पुनराहारौषधद्रव्याणां योजना, सत्त्वावजयः — पुनरहितेभ्योऽर्थेभ्यो मनोनिग्रहः ॥ ५४ ॥

Therapies are of three kinds, viz., spiritual therapy, therapy based on reasoning (physical propriety) and psychic therapy. Spiritual therapies are incantation of mantras, talisman, wearing of gems, auspicious offerings, gifts, oblations, observance of scriptural rules, atonement, fasts, chanting of auspicious hymns, obeiscance to the gods, going on piligrimage, etc., administration of proper det and medicinal drugs comes under the second category. Withdrawal of mind from harmful objects constitutes psychic therapy. [54]

Spiritual therapies have empirical powers to eradicate diseases instantaneously. Such therapies are, as a matter of fact, related to the blessings and influence of the gods. All the items enumerated under the item spiritual therapy are effective in the eradication of diseases only due to the divine influence.

Three types of therapies

शरीरदोषप्रकोपे खलु शरीरमेवाश्रित्य प्रायशस्त्रिविधमौषधमिच्छन्तिअन्तः परिमार्जनं, बहिःपरिमार्जनं, शस्त्रप्रणिधानं चेति । तत्रान्तः परिमार्जनं यदन्तःशरीरमनुप्रविश्यौषधमाहारजातव्याधीन् प्रमार्ष्टि, यत्पुनर्वहिःस्पर्शमाश्रित्याभ्यङ्गस्वेदप्रदेहपरिषेकोन्मर्दनाद्यैरामयान् प्रमार्ष्टि तद्वहिःपरिमार्जनं, शस्त्रप्रणिधानं पुनश्छेदनभेद नव्यधनदारणलेखनोत्पाटन प्रच्छन सीवनैषणक्षारज लौ ६ सश्चेति ॥ ५५ ।।

In the event of the vitiation of bodily dosas, generally three types of therapies are required to be applied to the body, viz., internal-cleansing, external-cleansing and surgical therapy. Diseases caused by improper diet, etc. are eradicated by medicines meant for internal cleansing. The cleansing therapy which has its curative effect by external contact with the body such as massage, fomentation, unction, affusion and kneading is the external one.

Surgical therapy comprises excision, incision, puncturing, rupturing, scraping, uprooting, rubbing with a substance having rough surface, suturing, probing, application of alkalies and leeches. [55]

Even though the above mentioned three fold therapy is mostly applicable to the diseases of the body, they have their utility for the cure of mental diseases like insanity, epilepsy, etc. also. This three fold therapy apart from spiritual therapy, like chanting of auspicious hymns also help in the cure of the diseases of the body.

Importance of management of diseases

भवन्ति चात्र-

प्राज्ञो रोगे समुत्पन्ने कर्मणा लभते शर्म बाह्येनाभ्यन्तरेण वा । शस्त्रोपक्रमणेन वा ॥ ५६ ॥ बालस्तु खलु मोहाद्वा प्रमादाद्वा न बुध्यते । उत्पद्यमानं प्रथमं रोगं शत्रुमिवादः ॥ ५७ ॥ अणुर्हि प्रथमं भूत्वा रोगः पश्चाद्विवर्धते । स जातमूलो मुष्णाति बलमायुश्च दुर्मतेः ।। ५८ ।। न मूढो लभते संज्ञां तावद्यावन्न पीड्यते । पीडितस्तु मतिं पश्चात् कुरुते व्याधिनिग्रहे ।। ५९ ।। अथ पुत्रांश्च दारांच ज्ञातश्चाहृय भाषते । सर्वस्वेनापि मे कश्चिद्भिषगानीयतामिति ॥ ६० ॥ तथाविधं च कः शक्तो दुर्बलं व्याधिपीडित | कृशं क्षीणेन्द्रियं दीनं परित्रातुं गतायुषम् ।। ६६ ।। स त्रातारमनासाद्य बालस्त्यजति जीवितम् । गोधा लाङ्गूलबद्धेवाकृष्यमाणा बलीयसा ॥ ६२ ॥ तस्मात् प्रागेव रोगेभ्यो रोगेषु तरुणेषु वा । भेषजैः प्रतिकुर्वीत य इच्छेत् सुखमात्मनः ॥ ६३ ॥

Thus it is said :

In the event of a disease, a wise person regains his health by administering external and internal cleansing therapies and also by surgical therapy. However, as an incompetent king neglects his enemy, so also an ignorant person does not realise the need to take care of the disease in its primary stage due to his negligence. This disease, in its early stage appears to be insignificant, but it grows and grows thereafter and after gaining a strong hold ( in the body ) it takes away the strength and life of the fool. The fool is never conscious of any defect unless he is seriously afflicted thereby. After he is actually afflicted seriously, he applies his mind to the eradication of the disease. Then he calls his children, wives and kins and requests them to call in a physician and says, “I am prepared to pay him my entire earnings.” But then, who can save such a weak, emaciated, wretched and moribund person afflicted with diseases and with his sense organs giving way. Having failed to find a Saviour ( of his life ) the fool is deprived of his life ( inspite of his efforts to preserve it) like an inguana with her tail bound by a rope being dragged by a strong person. So a wise person, desirous of his own well-being, should take recourse to the appropriate therapies before the occurrence of the diseases or even while the diseases are in their primary stage of manifestation. [ 56-63]

तत्र श्लोकौ —

एषणाः समुपस्तम्भा बलं कारणमामयाः । तित्रैषणीये मार्गाश्च भिषजो भेषजानि च ॥ ६४ ॥ त्रित्वेनाष्टौ समुद्दिष्टाः कृष्णात्रेयेण धीमता । भावा, भावेष्वसत्तेन येषु सर्व प्रतिष्ठितम् ॥ ६५ ॥

To sum up

Basic desires, supporters, strength, causes ( of diseases ), diseases themselves, paths, physicians and therapies-all these eight factors-each classified into three groups have been described in this chapter by the sage Krsnatreya who is wise and free from worldly attachments. Everything ( virtue, wealth and desire ) is based on these eight factors. [ 64-65]

इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृते लोकस्थाने तित्रैषणीयो नामैकादशोऽध्यायः ॥ ११ ॥

Thus ends the eleventh chapter on “Three Basic Desires of Life” of the Sutra section of Agnivesa’s work as redacted by Charaka.


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