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Ashtanga samgrahaASCHYOTANA - ANJANA VIDHI ADHYAYA - Therapies for the eye - A.S.S...

ASCHYOTANA – ANJANA VIDHI ADHYAYA – Therapies for the eye – A.S.S – Chapter 32

We will now expound the chapter on the procedures of Aschyotana and Anjana (eye-drops and collyrium); thus said atreya and other great sages. (1)

अथात आश्च्योतनाञ्जविधिमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयाइयो महर्षयः ॥ १ ॥

Aschyotana – eye drops

आश्च्योतनं सर्वाक्षिरोगेष्वाद्य उपक्रमः | नानाद्रव्यकल्पनया च रागाश्रुघर्षरुग्दाहतोदभेदपाक शोफकण्डूघ्रम् । अव्यक्तेष्वेवंगुणमेव पक्ष्मपरिहारेणाक्षिकोशालेपनम् । तञ्च पुनर्बिडालकसं ज्ञम् ॥२॥

Aschyotana (eye-drops) – is the first (chief) method of treatment for all the diseases of the eyes. Consisting of different recipes of various drugs, it cures redness, too much of lacrimation, irritation, pain, burning sensation, pricking, and tearing pains, ulcerations, swelling and itching of the eyes.


Like-wise is the therapy of applying the paste of drugs on the lids avoiding the eyelashes, in conditions (such as redness etc.) which are not clearly manifest; this is known as Bidalaka. ( 2 )

Aschyotana vidhi – procedure

तयोरकालो रात्रिः । कालस्तु सर्वमहर्वेदनोत्पत्तिर्वा । निवातशरणशयनस्थस्य विशोध्यनेत्रम पाङ्गे भाजनं कृत्वा वामहस्तेनोन्मील्य दक्षिणहस्तेन शुक्त्यवसक्तया पिचुर्वर्त्या दशद्वादशाष्टौ वा बिन्दून् कनीनकदेशे व्यङ्गुलादवसेचयेत् । एवमस्य न बिन्दुपातेनाक्षिताडनाद्रागदयो जायन्ते । आश्च्योतितं च मृदुना चैलेन शोधयेत् । अन्येन चोष्णाम्बुप्लुतेन वातकफयोः स्वेदयेत् । आश्च्योतनं च तयोः कोष्णम् । सुशीतं पित्तरक्तविषेषु । तनुनात्यर्थं तीक्ष्णमुष्णं शीतं प्रभूतमूनमपरित्रावितं वा योजयेत् । अतितीक्ष्णमुष्णं वा दाहरागपाकदृष्टिदौर्बल्यानि करोति । अतिशीतं स्तम्भाश्रुघर्षनिस्तोदान् । अतिमात्रं कषायवर्त्मतासङ्कोचस्फुरणोन्मीलनप्र वातासहत्वघर्षान् । ऊनप्रमाणं न रोगशान्तिम् । अपरिस्स्रुतमश्रुघर्षवेदनाः ॥३॥

Nights are unsuitable for this therapy and the ideal time is the day or the time of onset of the troublesome symptoms. The patient should be made to lie on a cot in a room devoid of breeze, his eyes are cleaned keeping a vessel at the outer angle of the eye. The physician, should gently open the eyelids of the patient with the fingers of his left hand and instil ten, twelve and eight drops of the medicinal recipe, either with a spoon or squeezing it through a wad of cotton, a height of about two angulas (fingers breadth), over the inner angle of the eye. Care should be taken not to cause redness of the eye either by the drops falling or by the movement of the hands. The surrounding parts should be wiped with a piece of cloth soon after. In cases of increase of vata and kapha, the surrounding areas should be warmly fomented with cloth dipped in hot water; in cases of an increase of pitta and rakta and poisons, a cold pack should be applied.

The recipe should not be too strong in action, too hot, too cold; very large or very little in quantity and staying at one place without spreading all around; use of strong and very hot applications will cause redness, ulceration and weakness of vision; very cold recipe causes cessation of tears, friction and dull constant pain; large quantities will produce roughness of the lids, constriction, throbbing, lids being kept open always, inability to withstand the breeze and appearance of friction inside the lids; very little quantity will not cure the diseases; that which does not spread around will cause lacrimation, friction and pain.

नेत्रे च प्रणिहितमौषधं कोशसन्धिसिरा शृङ्गाटकघ्राणास्यस्त्रोतांसि गत्वोर्ध्वं प्रवृत्तमपवर्तयति दोषम् ॥४॥

The medicine that is put into the eyes spreads to the channels of the hairs, joints, veins, the vital spot srngataka (located underneath the brain), nose and mouth and brings down the doshas which have moved up. (4)

Anjana vidhi – procedure of collyrium therapy

यदा चाश्च्योतनेन पित्तश्लेष्मशोणितोत्थेषु नयनामयेषु संशोधनैर्विशुद्धस्य दूषिकाघनत्व – पैच्छिल्यकण्डूद्रेकश्वयथुम्लानतारागविच्छेदैः पक्वलिङ्गमुपलक्षितं भवति तदा नेत्रमात्राश्रये व्याधावञ्जनं प्रयोज्यम् । न दोषवेगोदये । न चानिर्हतदोषे । तत्र हि दोषोत्क्लेशेन रागादिवृद्धिः अक्षिपाकतिमिरोत्पत्तिश्च ॥ ५ ॥

In diseases of the eyes caused by increased pitta, kapha and rakta, when the accretions (dirt, waste material, or the doshas) become solidified, sliminess disappears, itching, angry appearance, swelling, lustre and red colour vanish and signs of mitigation of doshas appear by the effect of Aschyotana therapy, then only the application of anjana (collyrium) should be done for curing the diseases which involve only the eyes.

It should not be used when the doshas are in their increased state or when they have not been removed. Otherwise, there will be increase of redness and other symptoms, ulcerations and blindness by further increase of the doshas. (5)

Anjana prakara – kinds of collyrium therapy

तत्तु लेखनं रोपणं स्नेहनं प्रसादनमिति चतुर्विधं भवति । तत्राम्लादिभी रसैः पञ्चभिः शुक्लार्मादिषु लेखनम् ॥ ६॥

It (Anjana) is four kinds; Lekhana (scarifying), Ropana (healing), Snehana (lubricating) and Prasadana (purifying).

Lekhana (scarifying) is prepared with drugs having sour and other tastes (except sweet) and used in diseases of the sclera and in armas (pterygium). (6)

तिक्तकषायैः सस्नेहैरभिष्यन्देषु रोपणम् ॥७॥ सर्पादिवसादिभिर्वाततिमिरादिषु स्नेहनम् ॥८॥ स्वादुशीतैः सस्नेहैरभिष्यन्दान्ते सूर्योपरागाशनिविद्युत्सम्पातभूतांपिशाचात्यद्भुतदर्शनाद्युप हतायां दृष्टौ स्वस्थवृत्ते च प्रसादनम् ॥९॥

Ropana (healing) is from drugs having bitter (Tikta) and astringent (Kashaya) tastes, mixed with fatty substances and used in abhishyanda (conjunctivities).

Snehana (lubricating) is from the muscle fat of snakes and other animals and is useful in blindness caused by increased vata.

Prasadana (purificatory) is from drugs which are sweet in taste and cold in potency, added with fatty materials and used at the terminal stage of abhisyanda (conjunctivities), in those who have defects of vision caused by seeing rays of the sun, thunderbolts, lightning, (electricity), evil spirits like pisachas and horrifying scenes, and for healthy persons also. (9)

प्रसादन एव चूर्णस्तीक्ष्णाञ्जनाभिसन्तप्ते चक्षुषि प्रयुज्यमानः प्रत्यञ्जनसंज्ञां लभते । षड्विधं वा प्रतिरसभेदादञ्जनम् । द्विविधमेव वा तीक्ष्णं मृदु च ॥१०॥

This prasadana anjana used in the form of fine powder after the application of strong collyriums, derives the name Pratyanjana.

Anjana is of six kinds based on the six tastes of drugs; or it is only of two kinds, strong and mild. (10)

कल्पना तु त्रिविधा | पिण्डो रसक्रिया चूर्णश्च । यथापूर्वे ते बलिनस्तस्मात् प्रबलमध्याबलेष्वाम येषुक्रमात्तान् प्रयोजयेत् । तत्र पिण्डो हरेणुमात्रस्तीक्ष्णस्य । रसक्रिया विडङ्गमात्रा । तद्विगुणा मृदोः । चूर्णो द्विशलाक; । मृदोस्त्रिशलाकः ॥११॥

Its form, is of three types; pinda (paste, bolus, pill), Rasakriya (thick liquid) and churna (powder); each preceding one is stronger than the succeeding and so useful in diseases which are severe, moderate and mild respectively.

If the collyrium is in the form of a bolus and strong, the quantity to be applied to the eyes should be that of harenu (seed), if it is in the form of thick liquid, the dose should be that of vidanga, if it is mild in action the dose shall be double that; if it is in the form of powder, the quantity shall be two rods-full, and if it is mild in action it shall be three rods-full (11).

Anjana patra – Collyrium container

पात्रे तु कुर्यात् सावर्णे मधुरम् । राजतेऽम्लम् । मेषशृङ्गमये लवणम् । कांस्ये तिक्तम् । वैडूर्यमयेऽश्ममये वाकटुकम् । ताम्रमये आयसे वा कषायम् । नलप्लक्षपद्मस्फटिकशङ्खादन्यतमे शीतम् । एवमव्यापन्नगुणं भवति । वर्तिघर्षणार्था च शिलातिशुक्ष्णा निम्नमध्यानुद्गारिणी पञ्चाङ्गुलायता त्र्यङ्गुलविस्तीर्णा ॥१२॥

Collyrium/salve which is sweet should be preserved in recepticle (lockets, box with lid) made of gold, that which is sour in that of silver; which are salty in that of horns of the ram; bitter ones in that of bronze, pungent ones in that of vaidurya (beryl) or stone, astringent ones in that of copper or iron, that which is cold in potency in that prepared from reeds, leaves of plaksa, lotus, rock-crystal, conchshell or other similar materials. Preserved in these, the collyrium do not get spoiled.

Gharsanasla-rubbing stone :

The stone for rubbing the bolus or stick of the collyrium should be smooth, with a depression in the centre, which does not allow its spilling, five angulas (fingers breadth) long and three angulas wide. (12)

Anjanasalaka- collyrium rods :

शलाकाः पञ्च कनकरजतताम्रलाहोद्भवा अङ्गुली च । तत्राद्ये प्रसादनेऽञ्जने स्नेहने च । मध्यालेखने । अन्त्ये रोपणे । मृदुत्वादङ्गल्यत्र प्रधानतमा । अतः सरुजेऽक्षिण सैव प्रयोज्या | शेषा दशाङ्गुला राजमाषस्थूलाः सुश्रूक्ष्णास्तनुमध्या मुखयोर्मुकुलाकाराः कलायपरिमण्डलाश्च ॥१३॥

The rods (for application of collyrium) are of five kinds – those prepared from gold, silver, copper, and iron and the finger itself; of these the first two, are used for Prasadana and Snehana (kinds of collyrium), the middle one for Lekhana, the last two for Ropana. In view of its softness (tenderness), the finger itself is the best among all, so in conditions of presence of pain in the eyes, the hand alone should be used.

Those (rods) other than the hand should be ten angulas long and of the thickness of a rajamasa, very smooth, with thin body and having tips at both ends, resembling a bud, of the circumference of a round pea. ( 13 )

Anjana kala- time of collyrium

अथाञ्जनं नातिशीतोष्णाभ्रवातायां वेलायामुभयकालं च योज्यम् । तथा सततं नैव वा ॥१४॥

Application of collyrium, is made at a time when it is neither too cold nor too hot, when it is neither coludy nor breezy, at both times ( day and night), either continuously or not at all. (14)

सरुजे चाक्षिण प्राक् पश्चादितरस्मिन् । अन्यथाञ्जनोद्वेगसङ्कुचितेऽन्तः सम्यगौषधं नानुप्रविशेत् । तत्रैवमतिशीतादिषु च यथास्वं दोषोत्क्लेशाद्विकारपरिवृद्धिः ॥१५॥

In case of presence of pain (disease) in the eye, collyrium is to be applied to the painful eye (diseased eye) first and next to the other one, otherwise, the constriction of the eye caused by the strength of the collyrium does not allow the medicines to get deep into the painful eye (diseased eye). Likewise application of collyrium, during very cold and such other times will produce symptoms due to increase of the doshas. ( 15 )

Anjana Ayogya – persons ineligible for collyrium

न च योज्यं क्रुद्धभीतशङ्कितशोकितश्रान्ताशितमात्रविरिक्तधूममद्यपीतदत्तनस्यरात्रिजागरित वेगितरुदितपिपासित ज्वरितच्छर्दितार्ततान्तनेत्राभिहत शिरोरुजार्तशिरः स्नातानुदितादित्येषु । एष्वञ्जनादूष्मोर्ध्वगः संरम्भाश्रुवेदनाविलत्वोषारागदूषिकानिस्तोदकृछ्रोन्मीलनश्वयथुशु क्रतिमिरादीन् जनयेत् ॥१६॥

Collyrium should not be applied to persons who are in emotions like anger, fear, suspicion and grief, who are tired; who have taken food just then, who had purgations, inhaled smoke, taken alcoholic drinks, who have been given nasal therapies, who have kept awake at night, who are having the urges of the body, who are weeping, thirsty; who are having fever, vomiting, injuries inside the eyes, headache; who have taken bath over the head, and when the sun has not arisen. In such persons, the heat that has travelled up will get increased furthermore by the action of the collyrium and will produce tremors (convulsions), excessive lacrimation, pain, dirtiness of the eyes, burning sensation, redness, accumulation of exertions, constant pain, difficulty in opening the lids, swelling, corneal ulcer, blindness etc. (16)

Anjana Vidhi – Procedure of application

अथ समसुखोपविष्टस्योपविष्टो वामांगुष्ठेन वर्मोत्तरमुत्क्षिप्य कृष्णभागस्याधः कनीनकाद पाङ्गं यावदञ्जनं नयेदनल्पमप्रभूतमनतितीक्ष्णमनच्छमसान्द्रमकर्कशमद्रुतमविलम्बितमतिर्य ग्दृष्ट्यकम्पितमघट्टितमनाक्रान्तं च । चूर्णे तु गतागतं कुर्यात् । अन्यथा हि रागाश्रुशुक्राद्युत्पत्तिः । ततोऽञ्जनानुगमनायानुन्मीलयन् शनैश्शनैरन्तन्चक्षुः सञ्चारयेत् । एवमक्ष्यनु गच्छति । वर्त्मनी किञ्चिच्चालयेत् । न तु सहसोन्मेषणनिष्पीडनप्रक्षालनानि कुर्यात् । बाष्पोत्क्लिष्टदोषस्तम्भभयात् । अपि च ॥१७॥

The method of applying the collyrium shall be as follows:-

The patient should be made to sit comfortably. The physician sitting in front of him, should elevate the upper eye-lid of the patient with his left thumb, apply the collyrium to the interior of the lower lid, just below the cornea starting from the kaninaka (inner angle of the eye) slowly moving towards the apanga (outer angle). The collyrum should neither be too little or too large, not very strong, neither very thin nor very thick, neither very rough nor very smooth, applied neither very fast nor very slow, not sidewards, without shaking, hitting (rubbing) or covering the whole of the eye. If it is in the form of powder, it should be as though going in and coming out, otherwise, redness, lacrimation, white discoluration etc., will manifest; After the application of the collyrium, the patient should close his eyes and move the eyeball slowly to make uniform distribution. The eye lids are also to be moved slightly but sudden opening, rubbing or washing of the eyes should not be done because of the risk of obstruction of heat and increase of the doshas. ( 17 )

अपेतौषधसंरम्भं निर्वृतं नयनं यदा । व्याधिदोषर्तुयोग्याभिरद्भिः प्रक्षालयेत्तदा ॥ १८ ॥

सचैलेनाथ नयनं सव्याङ्गुष्ठेन दक्षिणम् । ऊर्ध्ववर्त्मनि संगृह्य शनैः शोध्यं समन्ततः ॥१९॥

दक्षिणाङ्गुष्ठकेनैवं शोध्यं सव्यं च लोचनम् । वर्त्मप्राप्ताञ्जनाद्दोषो रोगान् कुर्यादतोऽन्यथा ॥ २० ॥ Further;

After the eye gets relieved of the keen actions of the collyrium, it should be washed with water which is suitable to the disease, doshas, season etc; holding the upper lid with the thumb of the left hand, the eye is to be wiped with a soft cloth slowly and repeatedly; the collyrium sticking on the lid of the left eye should be wiped with the right thumb and on that of right eye by the left thumb of the physician, otherwise, it will give rise to many diseases. (18-20)

तीक्ष्णाञ्जनान्ते चैनं धूमं पाययेत् । यस्याञ्जिते कण्डूजाड्योपदेहाः स्युः । तस्य तीक्ष्णमञ्जनं धूमं वा पुनरवचारयेत् । एतदेव दुर्विरिक्ताक्षिलक्षणं साधनं च । अतिविरेकात् सन्तापनिस्तोद शूलस्तम्भघर्षा श्रुदारुणप्रतिबोधकषायवर्त्मताशिरोरुग्दृष्टिदौर्बल्यानि । तत्र शीतमाश्च्योतनं प्रत्यञ्जनं वा । सम्यग्विरेकाद्यथास्वमामयोपशमः । सुखोन्मीलननिमीलनवातातपसहत्वानि चेति । भवति चात्र ॥ २१ ॥


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