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Sushruta SamhitaAmanusa Pratisedha - Treatment of the disease brought on through super-human influences...

Amanusa Pratisedha – Treatment of the disease brought on through super-human influences – Sushrutasamhita Uttaratantra Chapter 60

षष्टितमोऽध्यायः अथातोऽमानुषोपसर्गप्रतिषेधमध्यायं यथोवाच भगवान्व्या ख्यास्यामः, धन्वन्तरिः ॥ १ ॥

Now we shall discourse on the chapter which deals with the symptoms and medical treatment of the disease brought on through super-human influences ( Amanusa-Pratisedha). 1

निशाचरेभ्यो रक्ष्यस्तु नित्यमेव क्षतातुरः । इति यत् प्रागभिहितं विस्तरस्तस्य वक्ष्यते ॥ २ ॥

गुह्यानागतविज्ञानमनवस्थाऽसहिष्णुता । क्रिया वाऽमानुषी यस्मिन् सग्रहः परिकीर्त्त्यते ॥ ३ ॥

Now we dilate upon the dictum which has been put forward in the first portion of the present work. Patient suffering from ulcers should always be protected from the evil influences cast by night-rangers (i.e. ghost, monsters, and malignant spirits, etc.). Whoever produces superhuman character in a man by making him exhibit uncommon fortitude and marked irrelevancy in his dealings, intolerance and the power to know the private and future events is called a Graha. 2-3

अशुचिं भिन्नमर्यादं क्षतं वा यदि वाऽक्षतम् । हिंस्युहिंसाविहारार्थं सत्कारार्थमथापि असंख्येया ग्रहगणा व्यज्यन्ते विविधाकारा वा ॥ ४ ॥ ये। ग्रहाधिपतयस्तु भिद्यन्ते ते तथाऽष्टधा ॥ ५ ॥

1. Amanusa—lit. non-manusa, ie other than human. It includes the deities, demons, ghosts, monsters and the manes and even the serpentdeities.

देवास्तथा शत्रुगणाश्च तेषां गन्धर्वयक्षाः पितरो भुजङ्गाः । रक्षांसि या चापि पिशाचजातिरेषोऽष्टको देवगणो ग्रहाख्यः ॥ ६ ॥

Causes of influence by a Graha-Innumerable are the Grahas and their tutelary divinities who roam about in the world in quest of offerings or out of their innate tendency for mischief and cruelty and choose their victims from among persons who are impure in body, mind and acts-be they ulcerated or otherwise. These Grahas though possessed of various shapes and figures are mainly classified under eight groups or families. The Devas (dcities) and their enemies (viz.the Asuras), Gandharvas, Yaksas, Pitrs ( manes), Bhujangas, (Serpentdieties), Raksasas (monsters) and Pisacas (filthy goblins) are the eight classes of Grahas. 4-6.

Indication of attack by Grahas

सन्तुष्टः शुचिरपि चेष्टगन्धमान्यो निस्तन्द्री ह्यवितथसंस्कृतप्रभाषी । तेजस्वी स्थिरनयनो वरप्रदाता ब्रह्मण्यो भवति नरः स देवजुष्टः ॥ ७ ॥ संस्वेदी द्विजगुरुदेवदोषवक्ता जिह्याक्षो विगतभयो विमार्गदृष्टिः । सन्तुष्टो भवति न चान्नपानजातैर्दुष्टात्मा भवति च देवशत्रुजुष्टः ॥ ८ ॥ हृष्टात्मा पुलिनवनान्तरोपसेवी स्वाचारः प्रियपरिगीतगन्धमाल्यः | नृत्यन् वै प्रहसति चारु चाल्पशब्दं गन्धर्वग्रहपरिपीडितो मनुष्यः ॥ ९ ॥ ताम्राक्षः प्रियतनुरक्तवस्त्रधारी गम्भीरो द्रुतम (ग) तिरल्पवाक् सहिष्णुः । तेजस्वी वदति च किं ददामि कस्मै यो यक्षग्रहपरिपीडितो मनुष्यः ॥ १० ॥

Indication of attack by Grahas – A person possessed by a Deva (divine) Graha is cleanly, contented, vigorous and with little sleep. he speaks in good and pure Sanskrt, betrays a strong and decided liking for flowers and perfumes, grants boons (in the fashion of a divine being) to all and is devoted to Brahmanas, and stares with a fixed gaze (in his eyes). A person labouring under the malignant influence of an Asura Graha (devil) perspires copiously, speaks ill of the gods, Brahmanas and preceptors, knits his brow with arched eyes, has no fear, does not become satisfied even with all kinds of food or drink and exhibits vicious propensities. A person under the influence of a Gandharva Graha moves about happily along lovely river-banks, or in lovely forest. Always cleanly in body and acts, he shows fondness for songs, flowers and sweet scents, laughs merrily and sings sweet songs and dances. Copper-coloured eyes, partiality for wearing thinred garments, vigour and fortitude, repeated offers for granting boons or gifts to persons, taciturnity, restiveness (D.R. — fastness in walking ) and gravity of the mind are the symptoms which are manifested in a person coming under the influence of a Yaksa Graha. 7-10.

प्रेतेभ्यो विसृजति संस्तरेषु पिण्डान् शान्तात्मा जलमपि चापसव्यवस्त्रः । मांसेप्सुस्तिलगुडपायसाभिकामस्तद्भुक्तो भवति पितृग्रहाभिभूतः ॥ ११ ॥ यो भूमौ प्रसरति सर्पवत् कदाचित् सृक्किण्यौ विलिखति जिह्वया तथैव । निद्रालुर्गुडमधुदुग्धपायसेप्सुर्विज्ञेयो भवति भुजङ्गमेन जुष्टः ॥ १२ ॥

A person similarly affected by a Pitr Graha becomes calm and quiet as well as reverent towards the manes. He offers oblations on Kusa-grass and libations of water for their satisfaction, with the upper garment worn in a fashion so as to fall under his right arm and exhibits a liking for cooked meat as well as sesamum, treacle and Payasa. A person struck by the malignant influence of a Bhujanga Graha, sometimes moves on his breast along the ground like a serpent, always licks the corners of his lips with the tip of his tongue, becomes drowsy (D. R. irritble) and shows a marked predilection for treacle, honey, milk and Payasa.11-12.

मांसासृग्विविधसुराविकारलिप्सुर्निर्लज्जो भृशमतिनिष्ठुरोऽतिशूरः । क्रोधालुर्विपुलबलो निशाविहारी शौचद्विड् भवति च रक्षसा गृहीतः ॥ १३ ॥ उद्धस्तः कृशपरुषश्चिरप्रलापी दुर्गन्धो भृशमशुचिस्तथातिलोलः । बह्वाशी विजनहिमाम्बुरात्रिसेवी व्याविनो भ्रमति रुदन् पिशाचजुष्टः ॥१४॥

A fondness for flesh, blood and various kinds of ardent spirit, blank shamelessness, extreme cruelty, courageousness, irritability, extraordinary strength, stirring out in the night and an entire disregard of cleanliness are the traits which mark a person attacked by a Raksasa Graha. Haughtiness, emaciation of the frame, roughness of behaviour, garrulousness, fetid smell from the body, extreme uncleanliness and restiveness, voracious eating, foundness for cold water and lonely places, stirring abroad in the night (D.R. fondness for walking about the out-skirts of forest) and roaming about weeping and engaged in vicious pursuits (D.R. anxious looks) are the features which show that a person has been possessed by a Pisaca Graha. 13-14.

स्थूलाक्षस्त्वरितगतिः स्वफेनलेही निद्रालुः पतति च कम्पते च योऽति । यश्चाद्रिद्विरदनगादिविच्युतः सन् संसृष्टो न भवति वाऽर्धकेन जुष्टः ॥ १५ ॥

Prognosis If a person possessed by a Graha, has swollen eyes, quick pace, foam at the mouth which he licks himself, drowsiness, staggering gait which sometimes compels him to fall down on the ground or if he is possessed by a Graha after his fall from a hill, an elephant, a tree or such other high place, or if he be old’, he should be regarded as incurable. 15.

Times of possession

देवग्रहाः पौर्णमास्यामसुराः सन्ध्ययोरपि । गन्धर्वाः प्रायशोऽष्टम्यां यक्षाश्च प्रतिपद्यथ ॥ १६ ॥ कृष्णक्षये च पितरः पञ्चम्यामपि चोरगाः । रक्षांसि निशि पैशाचाश्चतुर्दश्यां विशन्ति च ॥१७॥ दर्पणादीन् यथा छाया शीतोष्णं प्राणिनो यथा । स्वमणिं भास्करस्योत्रा यथा देहञ्च देहधृक् । विशन्ति च न दृश्यन्ते ग्रहास्तद्वच्छरीरिणम् ॥ १८ ॥

Times of possession – Deva Graha strike i.e. possess a man at full moon; Asura Graha at the meeting of day and night i.e. in the morning and evening twilights; Gandharva generally on the eighth and Yaksa on the first day of the fortnights. Pitr Graha possess a man on the new moon day; and Sarpa Graha (Serpentdevil) enters on the fifth day of the new or full moon. Raksasa Graha possess a man at night and Pisaca Graha on the fourteenth day of the fortnights. Graha imperceptibly enter the body of the patient in the same way as an image imperceptibly enters (the surface of) a mirror, as heat or cold penetrates into the body of an organic being and as the rays of the sun are collected in the crystal lens known as the Surya-kanta gem and as soul enters the body unseen.16-18.

तपांसि तीव्राणि तथैव दानं व्रतानि धर्मो नियमश्च सत्यम् । गुणास्तथाऽष्टावपि तेषु नित्या व्यस्ताः समस्ताश्च यथाप्रभावम् ॥ १९ ॥

1. In place of “वाऽर्धकेन जुष्ट: ” Madhava reads ‘त्रयोदशाब्दे’ i.e. (it is also incurable) when it has continued for thirteen years.

न ते मनुष्यैः सह संविशन्ति न वा मनुष्यान् क्वचिदाविशन्ति । ये त्वाविशन्तीति वदन्ति मोहात् ते भूतविद्याविषयादपोह्याः ॥ २० ॥ तेषां ग्रहाणां परिचारका ये कोटीसहस्त्रायुतपद्मसङ्ख्याः । असृग्वसामांसभुजः सुभीमा निशाविहाराश्च तमाविशन्ति ॥ २१ ॥

Austere penances and vows, self-control, truthfulness, charities and religious practices as well as the eight qualities¹ are either wholly or partially present in the Grahas according to the degree of their respective power. These spiritual bodies never come in contact with, nor do they themselves strike human beings. Those who hold contrary opinion, must be ignorant of the mysteries of demonology. It is the thousands and hundreds of thousands and hundreds of millions of the followers of the Grahas, who are fierce-looking and fond of flesh and blood, and who stir abroad in the night and possess the men on earth.19-21.

निशाचराणां तेषां हि ये देवगणमाश्रिताः । ते तु तत्सत्त्वसंसर्गाद् विज्ञेयास्तु तदञ्जनाः ॥ २२ ॥ देवग्रहा इति पुनः प्रोच्यन्ते शुचयश्च ये। देववच्च नमस्यन्ते प्रत्यर्थ्यन्ते च देववत् ॥ २३ ॥ स्वामिशीलक्रियाचाराः क्रम एष सुरादिषु । निरृतेर्या दुहितरस्तासां स प्रसवः स्मृतः । सत्यत्वादपवृत्तेषु वृत्तिस्तेषां गणैः कृता ॥ २४ ॥ हिंसाविहारा ये केचिद्देवभावमुपाश्रिताः । भूतानीति कृता संज्ञा तेषां संज्ञाप्रवक्तृभिः ॥ २५ ॥ ग्रहसंज्ञानि भूतानि यस्माद् वेत्त्यनया भिषक् । विद्यया भूतविद्यात्वमत एव निरुच्यते ॥ २६ ॥

Of these malignant spirits (Grahas) those who are associated with the gods should be regarded as of celestial essence in virtue of their partaking of a tinge of divine virtues. Those who are known as Deva Grahas and are cleanly should be worshipped and homaged and prayed like the other gods of our Pantheon. The Grahas should be credited with those powers, virtues and characteristics which are the attributes of their respective masters. They are the issues of Nairti’s daughters and their living has been fixed as such by the various Ganas (or groups of gods and deme-gods) as they are always adverse to truthfulness, i.e. the true performance of the dictates of the Sastra. Those that roam about in quest of evil and mischief in spite of the celestial nature of their own divine essence and temperament have been termed Bhutas (spirits). hence that branch of medical science which treats of the therapeutics of diseaeses which originate from the influences of Bhutas (or Grahas) is called the Bhuta – Vidya. 22-26.

1. The eight qualities referred to are – ( 1 ) Anima or the superhuman power of becoming as small as an atom at will. (2) Laghima— power of becoming excessively light at will. ( 3 ) Vyapti – expansiveness (4) Prakamya — irrisestible will (5) Mahima– power of increasing the size at will (6) ISitva – greatness. (7) Vasitva self-control and (8) Kamavasayita- suppression of passion.

General Religious Treatment

तेषां शान्त्यर्थमन्विच्छन् वैद्यस्तु सुसमाहितः ।

जपैः सनियमैर्होमैरारभेत चिकित्सितुम् ॥ २७ ॥ रक्तानि गन्धमाल्यानि बीजानि मधुसर्पिषी ।

भक्ष्याश्च सर्वे सर्वेषां सामान्यो विधिरुच्यते ॥ २८ ॥

General Religious Treatment — Japas (mental repetition of a Mantra sacred to any deity), Homas (offering of oblations to the gods) and other religious rites in accordance with the proper rules should be undertaken by a careful physician for their propitiation. Offerings of garlands of red flowers with red scents (such as red Sandal paste, Kumkuma, etc.), seeds (such as mustard, barley, etc.), honey, clarified butter and all sorts of victuals are the articles required generally for (porpitiation of) all classes (of Grahas). 27-28.

Specific Religious Treatment

वस्त्राणि गन्धमाल्यानि मांसानि रुधिराणि च । यानि येषां यथेष्टानि तानि तेभ्यः प्रदापयेत् ॥ २९ ॥ हिंसन्ति मनुजान् येषु प्रायशो दिवसेषु तु । दिनेषु तेषु देयानि तद्भूतविनिवृत्तये ॥ ३० ॥ देवग्रहे देवगृहे हुत्वाग्निं प्रापयेद् बलिम् | कुशस्वस्तिकपूपाज्य-च्छत्रपायससम्भृतम् असुराय यथाकालं विदध्याच्चत्वरादिषु | गन्धर्वस्य गवां मध्ये मद्यमांसाम्बुजाङ्गलम् ॥ ३२ ॥ ॥३१॥ हृद्ये वेश्मनि यक्षस्य कुल्माषासृकसुरादिभिः । अतिमुक्तककुन्दाब्जैः पुष्पैश्च वितरेद् बलिम् ॥ ३३॥ पितृग्रहायेष्टं कुशास्तरणभूषितम् । नद्यां तत्रैवोपहरेच्चापि नागाय विविधं बलिम् ॥ ३४ ॥ चतुष्पथे राक्षसस्य भीमेषु गहनेषु वा । शून्यागारे पिशाचस्य तीव्रं बलिमुपाहरेत् ॥ ३५ ॥

Specific Religious Treatment – Clothes, wine, blood, flesh or milk should be offered to them according to their respective likings¹. Offerings to the respective Grahas should be made on the day corresponding to that in which they generally strike their victims. Homas in the fire with the offerings of Kusa, Svastika, cakes ( pupa), clarified butter, umbrella and Payasa (porridge) should be made to the Deva (celestial) Grahas in divine temples. To the Asura Grahas the offering should the made in the yard (Catwara), etc. of a house at the proper time (viz. at evening); offerings to the Gandharva Grahas should be made with wine and the soup of Jangala animals in the midst of a gathering; while those to the Yaksa Grahas should be made inside a house with the cakes of boiled Masa pulse (Kulmasa), blood, wine, etc. The Pitr Grahas should be propitiated with the offerings made on Kusa grass together with Madhavi and Kunda flowers on the banks of a river; similarly various offerings should be made to Naga Graha, offerings to the Raksasas should be dedicated in dreadful lonely forests or at the crossing of two roads, while to the Pisacas cooked or uncooked flesh should be offered in a lonely chamber. 29-35.

पूर्वमाचरितैर्मन्त्रैर्भूतविद्यानिदर्शितैः न शक्या बलिभिर्जेतुं योगैस्तान् समुपाचरेत् ॥ ३६॥ अजर्क्षचर्मरोमाणि शल्यकोलूकयोस्तथा । हिङ्ग मूत्रञ्च बस्तस्य धूममस्य प्रयोजयेत् । एतेन शाम्यति क्षिप्रं बलवानपि यो ग्रहः ॥ ३७॥ गजाह्वपिप्पलीमूल-व्योषामलकसर्षपान् । गोधानकुलमार्जार ऋष्य ( क्ष)पित्तप्रपेषितान् ।

1. This is Sloka_corresponding to “cloth….likings” is only a variant according to Dalhana. He does not seem to read this Sloka.

Medical Treatment

नस्याभ्यञ्जनसेकेषु विदध्याद् योगतत्त्ववित् ॥ ३८ ॥

खराश्वाश्वतरोलूक-करभश्वशृगालजम्पु रीषं गृध्रकाकानां वराहस्य च पेषयेत् । ॥ ३९॥

बस्तमूत्रेण तत् सिद्धं तैलं स्यात् पूर्ववद्धितम्

Medical Treatment – In case the prevalent Mantras enjoined to be recited on such occasions (in works on Demonology) are found to be ineffective the following medical measures, should be employed. Skin and hairs of a goat, a bear, a Salyaka (porcupine), or of an owl pasted togother with Hingu and goat’s urine and made into incense sticks, should be burnt before the patient, who would be fumigated with the fumes emitted therefrom. The attack even of a violent Graha would readily yield to it. The drugs known as Gajapippali, Pippaliroots, Tri-katu, Amalaka and Sarsapa, duly soaked in the biles of a lizard, mungoose, cat and bear should be employed as unguents, snuffs and wash by an experienced physician. Dungs of an ass, horse, mule, owl, camel’, dog, jackal, vulture, crow and boar pasted together with the urine of a she-goat should be duly cooked with an adequate quantity of oil. The oil thus prepared would be beneficial if used (as snuff, etc.) manner. 36-39.

शिरीषबीजं लशुनं शुण्ठीं सिद्धार्थकं वचाम् । मञ्जिष्ठां रजनीं कृष्णां बस्तमूत्रेण पेषयेत् । वर्त्त्यश्छायाविशुष्कास्ताः सपित्ता नयनाञ्जनम् ॥ ४० ॥ नक्तमालफलं व्योषं मूलं श्योनाकबिल्वयोः । हरिद्रे च कृता वर्त्यः पूर्व्ववन्नयनाञ्जनम् ॥ ४१ ॥ सैन्धवं कटुकं हिङ्गु वयस्थाञ्च वचामपि । बस्तमूत्रेण तत् पिष्टं मत्स्यपित्तेन पूर्ववत् ॥ ४२ ये ये ग्रहा न सिध्यन्ति सर्वेषां नयनाञ्जनम् ।

Sirisa-seeds, Lasuna, Sunthi, Siddharthaka, Vaca, Manjistha, Rajani and Krsna should be pasted together with goat’s urine and dried in the shade. Vartis ( sticks) prepared with this should be applied with the bile (of a cow) along the eye-lids as an Anjana. Vartis prepared with Naktamala-fruit, Tri-katu, roots of Syonaka and of Bilva as well as the two kinds of Haridra should be used as an Anjana in a similar way. Saindhava, Katuka, Hingu, Vayastha (Guduci) and Vaca, pasted together with goat’s urine and with the bile of a fish, should be similarly used as an Anjana in cases of attacks by the Grahas which would not otherwise yield. 40-42.

1. The word in the text is ‘Karabha’ which many mean a camel or an elephant. Dalhana explicitly explains the word as a camel.

पुराणसर्पिर्लशुनं हिङ्ग सिद्धार्थको वचा | गोलोमी चाजलोमी च भूतकेशी जटा तथा ॥ ४३ ॥ कुक्कुटा सर्पगन्धा च तथा काणविकाणिके। वज्रप्रोक्ता वयःस्था च शृङ्गी मोहनवल्लिका ॥ ४४ ॥ अर्कमूलं त्रिकटुकं लता स्त्रोतोजमञ्जनम् । नैपाली हरितालञ्च रक्षोघ्ना ये च कीर्तिताः ॥ ४५ ॥ सिंहव्याघ्रर्क्षमार्जार-द्वीपिवाजिगवां तथा । श्वाविच्छल्लकगोधानामुष्ट्रस्य वित्वग्रोमवसामूत्र-रक्तपित्तनखादयः नकुलस्य च ॥ ४६॥ अस्मिन् वर्गे भिषक् कुर्यात् तैलानि च घृतानि च ॥ ४७ ॥ पानाभ्यञ्जननस्येषु तानि योज्यानि जानता। अवपीडेऽञ्जन चैव विदध्याद् गुटिकीकृतम् ॥ ४८ ॥ विदधीत परीषेके क्वथितं चूर्णितं तथा । उद्भूलने एष सर्वविकारांस्तु श्लक्ष्णपिष्टं प्रदेहे चावचारयेत् ॥ ४९ ॥ मानसानपराजितः । हन्यादल्पेन कालेन स्नेहादिरपि च क्रमः ॥ ५० ॥

Matured clarified butter, Lasuna, Hingu, Siddarthaka, Vaca, Golomi, Ajalomi, Bhutakesi (Jatamamsi), Jata ( Gandha-mansi), Kukkuti (a kind of bulb), Sarpagandha, Kana, ( Ksira-kakoli), Visanika (Madhurika), Rsya-prokta, Vayastha, Srngi, Mohana-Valli, (Vatapatrika) Arka-roots, Tri-katu, Lata (Priyangu), Anjana (Rasanjana), Srotonjana, Naipali, Haritala and other articles which have the efficacy of exercising evil spirits, as well as the dungs, hairs, skin, Vasa, urine, blood, bile, nails, etc. of lions, tigers, bears, cats, elephants, horses, cows, dogs, Salyakas, lizards, camels, mongooses, etc. should be used in the preparation of oil and clarified butter which should be used internally as well as in snuffing and as unguents. Pills made of the above drugs should be used in sprinkling (wash) and their powdered compound in dusting (the body of the patient). A paste prepared with the above drugs should be used as plasters. The due and proper application of the oil, Ghrita, etc. thus prepared would, in a very short time, surely cures all sorts of mental disorders. 45-50.

न चाचौक्षं प्रयुञ्जीत प्रयोगं देवताग्रहे । ऋते पिशाचादन्यत्र प्रतिकूलं न चाचरेत् । वैद्यातुरौ निहन्युस्ते ध्रुवं क्रुद्धा महौजसः ॥ ५१ ॥ हिताहितीये यच्चोक्तं नित्यमेव समाचरेत् । ततः प्राप्स्यति सिद्धिञ्च यशश्च विपुलं भिषक् ॥ ५२ ॥

Unholy and improper articles should not be employed in a case due to the influence of any Deva Graha (divine spirit). No hostile measures should be adopted in a case of possession by a Graha other than that due to the influence of a Pisaca Graha in as much as the mighty Grahas, if offended, might kill both the patient and the physician for the act. A physician, treating such a case with discretion according to the rules laid dawn in the chapter known as the Hitahita (Ch. XX, Sutra-Sthana) may acquire both fame and wealth. 51-52.

इति सुश्रुत संहितायामुत्तरतन्त्रे अमानुषोपसर्गप्रतिषेधव्याख्यानाम षष्टितमोऽध्यायः ॥६०॥

Thus ends the sistieth chapter of the Uttara-Tantra in the Susruta Samhita which deals with the symptoms and treatment of the disease brought on through super-human influences.


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