नमो ब्रह्मप्रजापत्यश्विबलभिद्धन्वन्तरिसुश्रुतप्रभृतिभ्यः ।
अथातो वेदोत्पत्तिं नामाध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । यथोवाच भगवान् धन्वन्तरिः सुश्रुताय ।। १ ।।
Well, we shall now describe the origin of the Science of Medicine, as disclosed by the holy Dhanvantari to his disciple Susruta. (Vedotpatti adhyaya). 1
अथ खलु भगवन्तममरवरमृषिगणपरिवृतमाश्रमस्थं काशिराजं दिवोदासं धन्वन्तरिमौपधेनववैतरणौरभ्रपौष्कलावतकरवीर्य्यगोपुररक्षितसुश्रुतप्रभृतय ऊचुः ।
भगवन् ! शारीरमानसागन्तुस्वाभाविकैर्व्याधिभिर्विविधवेदनाभिघातोपद्रुतान् सनाथानप्यनाथवद् विचेष्टमानान् विक्रोशतश्च मानवानभिसमीक्ष्य मनसि नः पीडा भवति । तेषां सुखैषिणां रोगोपशमार्थमात्मनः प्राणयात्रार्थञ्च प्रजाहितहेतोरायुर्व्वेदं श्रोतुमिच्छाम इहोपदिश्यमानम् ।
1. The present work which originally formed the subject of a discourse by the holy sage Dhanvantari to his disciple Susruta, has been compiled in its present form by the venerable Nagarjuna, and is accordingly designated as the Susruta Sanhita.
अत्रायत्तमैहिकमामुष्मिकञ्च श्रेयः; तद्भगवन्तमुपपन्नाः स्मः शिष्यत्वेनेति ।
तानुवाच भगवान्, स्वागतं वः, सर्व्व एवामीमांस्या अध्याप्याश्च भवन्तो वत्साः ॥ २ ॥
Once upon a time, when the holy Dhanvantari, the greatest of the mighty celestials, incarnated in the form of Divodasa, the king of Kasi, was blissfully seated, in his hermitage, surrounded by a concourse of holy Rsis; Aupadhenava, Vaitarana, Aurabhra, Pauskalavata, Karavirya, Gopura-raksita, Susruta and others addressed him as follows: – O Sire, it grieves us much to find men, though otherwise well befriended by their kin and relations, falling a prey to diseases, mental, physical, traumatic, or natural and piteously wailing in agony like utterly friendless creatures on earth; and we supplicate thee, O Lord, to illumine our minds with the truths of the Eternal Ayurveda (Medical Science) so that we may faithfully discharge the duties allotted to us in life, and alleviate the sufferings of humanity at large. Bliss in this life and hereafter, is in the gift of this eternal Ayurved, and for this, O Lord, we have made bold to approach thee as thy humble disciples. “To them, thus replied the holy Dhanvantari:- “Welcome to all of you to this blissful hermitage.” All of you are worthy of the honour of true pupilship or tutelage.”
इह खल्वायुर्व्वेदो नाम यदुपाङ्गमथर्व्ववेदस्यानुत्पाद्यैव प्रजाः श्लोकशतसहस्रमध्यायसहस्रञ्च कृतवान् स्वयम्भूः । ततोऽल्पायुष्ट्वमल्पमेधस्त्वञ्चावलोक्य नराणां भूयोऽष्टधा प्रणीतवान् । तद्यथा- शल्यं शालाक्यं कायचिकित्सा भूतविद्या कौमारभृत्यमगदतन्त्रं रसायनतन्त्रं वाजीकरणतन्त्रमिति ॥ ३ ॥
The Ayurveda (which forms the subject of our present discourse). originally formed one of the subsections of the Atharva Veda; and even before the creation of mankind, the self-begotten Brahma strung it together into a hundred thousand couplets (Slokas), divided into a thousand chapters. But then he thought of the small duration of human life on earth, and the failing character of human memory, and found it prudent to divide the whole of the Ayurveda into eight different branches such as, the Salya-Tantra, the Salakya-Tantra, the Kaya-Cikitsa, the Bhuta-Vidya, the Kaumara-Bhrtya, the Agada-Tantra, the RasayanaTantra and the Vajeekarana-Tantra. 3
तत्र शल्यं नाम विविधतृण-काष्ठ-पाषाणपांशुलोह-लोष्ट्रास्थिबालनखपूयास्रावान्तर्गर्भशल्योद्धरणार्थं यन्त्रशस्त्रक्षाराग्निप्रणिधानव्रणविनिश्चयार्थञ्च ॥ ४ ॥
Now about the characteristic features of each of these branches of the Science of the Ayurveda:
The Salya-Tantra’ The Scope of this branch of Medical Science is to remove (from an ulcer) any extraneous substance such as, fragments of hay, particles of stone, dust, iron or bone; splinters, nails, hair, clotted blood, or condensed pus (as the case may be, or to draw out a dead foetus of the uterus, or to bring about safe parturitions in cases of false presentation, and to deal with the principle and mode of using and handling surgical instruments in general, and with the application of fire (cautery) and alkaline (caustic) substances, together with the diagnosis and treatment of ulcers. 4 ●
शालाक्यं नाम ऊर्ध्वजत्रुगतानां रोगाणां श्रवण-नयन-वदन-घ्राणादिसंश्रितानां व्याधीनामुपशमनार्थम् ॥ ५ ॥
The Salakya-Tantra² – embraces as its object the treatment of those diseases which are restricted to the upward (lit :-region above the clavicles) fissures or cavities of the body, such as the ears, the eyes, the cavity of the mouth, the nostrils, etc. 5
कायचिकित्सा नाम सर्व्वाङ्गसंसूतानां व्याधीनां ज्वर (अतीसार) – रक्तपित्तशोषोन्मादापस्मारकुष्ठमेहादीनामुपशमनार्थम् ॥ ६ ॥
The Kaya-Cikitsa ( General diseases ) 3 – treats of diseases, which, instead of being simply restricted to any specific organ, or to any particular part of the body, affect the entire system, as- Fever,
1. Any foreign matter, lodged in a human organism and proving painful to it, is called a salya.
2. The name is derived from the Sanskrit term Salaka, a probe or a rod, the use and application of the instrument being primarily included within the scope of this branch of the Ayurveda.
3. The term Kaya literally signifies the vital heat or fire which runs through the entire system, and hence the Kaya-cikitsa deals with diseases which may gradually invade the root-principles of a living human organism.
Dysentery, Haemoptysis, Insanity, Hysteria, Leprosy, unnatural discharges from the urethra, etc. 6
भूतविद्या नाम देवासुर गन्धर्व्व- यक्ष-रक्षः – पितृ-पिशाच-नागग्रहाद्युपसृष्टचेतसां शान्तिकर्म्मबलिहरणादिग्रहोपशमनार्थम् ॥ ७ ॥
The Bhuta-Vidya (Demoniacal diseases) – lays down incantations and modes of exorcising evil spirits and making offerings to the gods, demons Gandharvas, Yaksas, Raksas, etc. for cures of diseases originating from their malignant influences. 7
कौमारभृत्यं नाम कुमारभरण-धात्रीक्षीरदोषसंशोधनार्थं दुष्टस्तन्यग्रहसमुत्थानाञ्च व्याधीनामुपशमनार्थम् ॥८॥
The Kaumara-Bhrtya (Management of children) – deals with the nursing and healthy bringing up of infants, with purification and bettering of mothers’ milk, found deficient in any of its characteristic traits, and also with cures for diseases peculiar to infant life and due to the use of vitiated mother’s milk or to the influences of malignant stars and spirits. 8
अगदतन्त्रं नाम सर्प-कीट लूता – वृश्चिक-मूषिकादिदष्टविषव्यञ्जनार्थं विविधविषसंयोगविषोपहतोपशमनार्थम् ॥९॥
The Agada-Tantra (Toxicology) : deals with bites from snakes, spiders and venomous worms, and their characteristic symptoms and antidotes. It has also for its object the elimination of poison whether animal, vegetable, or chemical ( resulting from incompatible combinations) from the system of a man, overwhelmed with its effects. 9
रसायनतन्त्रं नाम वयःस्थापनमायुर्मेधाबलकरं रोगापहरणसमर्थञ्च ॥१०॥
The Rasayana-Tantra (Science of Rejuvenation) : has for its specific object the prolongation of human life, and the invigoration of memory and the vital organs of man. It deals with recipes which enable a man to retain his manhood or youthful vigour up to a good old age, and which generally serve to make the human system invulnerable to disease and decay. 10
वाजीकरणतन्त्रं नाम अल्प-दुष्ट-विशुष्क क्षीणरेतसामाप्यायनप्रसादोपचयजनननिमित्तं प्रहर्षजननार्थञ्च ॥११॥ –
The Vajikarana-Tantra ( Science of Aphrodisiacs) treats of measures by which the semen of a man naturally scanty or deficient in quality becomes shorn of its defects; or is purified, if deranged by the vitiated humours of the body (such as wind, etc.; or is invigorated and increased in quantity (if pure and healthy); or acquires its healthy and normal consistence (if thinned and enfeebled by indiscretions of youth). (In short, it deals with things which increase the pleasures of youth and make a man doubly endearin to a woman). 11
एवमयमायुर्व्वेदोऽष्टाङ्ग उपदिश्यते । अत्र कस्मै किमुच्यतामिति ? त ऊचुः, अस्माकं सर्व्वेषामेव शल्यज्ञानमूलं कृत्वोपदिशतु भगवानिति । स उवाचैवमस्त्विति । ते ऊचुर्भूयोऽपि भगवन्तम् अस्माकमेकमतीनां मतमभिसमीक्ष्य सुश्रुतो भगवन्तं प्रक्ष्यति । अस्मै चोपदिश्यमानं वयमप्युपधारयिष्यामः । स होवाचैवमस्त्विति । वत्स सुश्रुत ! इह खल्वायुर्व्वेदप्रयोजनं – व्याध्युपसंसृष्टानां व्याधिपरिमोक्षः स्वस्थस्य रक्षणञ्च ॥१२॥
Thus the entire science of the Ayurveda is classified into the eight preceding branches. Now tell me, which of them is to be taught and to which of you? Said the disciples:- “Instruct us all, O Lord, in the science of surgery (Salya) and let that be the chief subject of our study.’’ To which replied the holy Dhanvantari :- “Be it so.” Then the diciples again said :- “We are all of one mind in the matter, O Lord, that Susruta shall be our spokesman and ask you questions conformably to the general trend of our purpose. All of us will attentively hear what you will be pleased to discourse to Susruta, (and that will save you the trouble of teaching us individually)”. To which replied the venerable sage-”Beitso: Now listen, Susruta, my dear child. The object or utility of the science which forms the subject of our present discussion, may be grouped under two distinct sub-heads such as (1) the cure of diseased persons, and (2) the preservation of health in those who are not afflicted with any sort of bodily distempers. 12
आयुरस्मिन् विद्यतेऽनेन वा आयुर्विन्दतीत्यायुर्व्वेदः ।।१३।।
The etymological meaning of the term “Ayurveda” may be interpreted to denote either a science in the knowledge of which life exists, or which helps a man to enjoy a longer duration of life. 13
तस्याङ्गवरमाद्यमागमप्रत्यक्षानुमानोपमानैरविशुद्धमुच्यमानमुपधारय एतद्ध्यङ्गं प्रथमं प्रागभिघातव्रणसंरोहाद् यज्ञशिरःसन्धानाच्च । श्रूयते हि यथा- रुद्रेण यज्ञस्य शिरश्छिन्नमिति । ततो देवा अश्विनावभिगम्योचुः । भगवन्तौ नः श्रेष्ठतमौ युवां भविष्यर्थः भवद्भयां यज्ञस्य शिरः सन्धातव्यम् । तावूचतुरेवमस्त्विति । अथ तयोरर्थे देवा इन्द्रं यज्ञभागेन प्रासादयन् । ताभ्यां यज्ञस्य शिरः संहितमिति ॥१४॥ “
The primary position of surgery (As regards time and importance among the other allied branches of the Science of Medicine). Hear me discourse on the Science of Surgery (Salya-Tantra) which is the oldest of all the other branches of the Science of Medicine (Ayurveda) and is further corroborated by the four classes of testimonies, viz., Perception, Inference, Analogy and Scriptural Truths (Agamas). The primary position of this branch of the Ayurveda, (as regards its time or origin), may be inferred from the fact that Surgery lends her aid materially towards the healing up of traumatic ulcers.’ The second reason for such an inference may be deduced from the replacement of the severed head of Yajna. It is told that the god Rudra, severed the head of the God of Sacrifice (Yajna). Whereupon the gods approached the celestial Asvins, and addressed them as follows:”You twins, O lords, who are to be the greatest of a all, connect the head of Yajna with his decapitated trunk.” To them, replied the divine Asvins :- “We shall do, O lords, as you command us to do.” Then the celestials propitiated the god Indra in order that a portion of the oblations offered in the course of a sacrifice, might be allotted to those heavenly twins. The Asvins reunited the severed head of Yajna to his body as prayed for. [Hence this branch of the Ayurveda (Salyanga) is the oldest of all its subdivisions]. 14
1. Ulcers incidental to blows and sword-cuts had to be dressed and attended to in the wars between the gods and the demons, long before the appearance of any physical or idiopathic maladies such as, fever, etc.; and Surgery contributed all that was demanded of her towards the healing up of those ulcers. Hence this branch of the Ayurveda is the oldest of all the allied branches of the healing art.
अष्टास्वपि चायुर्व्वेदतन्त्रेष्वेतदेवाधिकमभिमतमाशुक्रियाकरणाद् यन्त्रशस्त्रक्षाराग्निप्रणिधानात् सर्व्वतन्त्रसामान्याच्च । तदिदं शाश्वतं पुण्यं स्वर्ग्यं यशस्यमायुष्यं वृत्तिकरञ्चेति ॥१५॥
The primary importance of the Salya: All hold this Tantram to be the most important of all the other branches of the Ayurveda, inasmuch as instantaneous actions can be produced with the help of such appliances as, surgical operations, external applications of alkalis, cauterisation, etc., and secondly inasmuch as it contains all that can be found in the other branches of the science of medicine as well, with the superior advantage of producing instantaneous effects by means of surgical instruments and appliances. Hence it is the highest in value of all the medical Tantras. It is eternal and a source of infinite piety, imparts fame and opens the gates of Heaven to its votaries, prolongs the duration of human existence on earth, and helps men in successfully fulfilling their missions, and earning a decent competence, in life. 15
ब्रह्मा प्रोवाच ततः प्रजापतिरधिजगे, तस्मादश्विनावश्विभ्यामिन्द्र इन्द्रादहं मया त्विह प्रदेयमर्थिभ्यः प्रजाहितहेतोः ॥१६॥
Gradual extension of the Ayurvedic Knowledge : Bramha was the first to inculcate the principles of the holy Ayurveda. Prajapati learned the science from him. The Asvins learned it from Prajapati and imparted the knowledge to Indra, who has favoured me (Dhanvantari) with an entire knowledge thereof. I, for the good of mankind, am ready to impart it to those who seek it on earth. 16
भवति चात्र ।
अहं हि धन्वन्तरिरादिदेवो जरारुजामृत्युहरोऽमराणाम् । शल्याङ्गमङ्गैरपरैरुपेतं प्राप्तोऽस्मि गां भूय इहोपदेष्टुम् ।। १७ ।।
The King of Kasi gives a brief account of himself in verse : I am the supreme and original god manifest in the form of Dhanvantari. It is I who warded off death, disease and decay from the celestials. Formerly I was an inmate of the region of heaven, now I am incarnated on earth with the view to teach the Science of Surgery with all its allied branches of study to men. 17
अस्मिन् शास्त्रे पञ्चमहाभूतशरीरिसमवायः पुरुष इत्युच्यते । तस्मिन् क्रिया, सोऽधिष्ठानम् । कस्मात् ? लोकस्य द्वैविध्यात्। लोको हि द्विविधः स्थावरो जङ्गमश्च । द्विविधात्मक एवाग्नेयः सौम्यश्च तद्भूयस्त्वात्, पञ्चात्मको वा ॥१८॥
In the present science (Ayurveda), the Purusa (self-conscious organic individual) is described as the resultant of the combination of the soul and the five primary material principles. All medical acts such as, surgical operations, administration of medicinal remedies and applications of alkaline subtances, or cauterisation, etc.) are restricted to the Purusa alone.’
Why is to so ? The answer is, simply because the created world is composed of two distinct classes, such as the mobile and the immobile. These two classes, in their turn, are further sub-divided for the purposes of the science of medicine into the two orders, Agneya (hot) and Saumya (cold). Hence the world is composed of five material principles, though characterised by the twofold virtues. Agneya (hot) and Saumya (cold).
तत्र चतुर्व्विधो भूतग्रामः । संस्वेदजजरायुजाण्डजोद्भिज्जसंज्ञः । तत्र पुरुषः प्रधानम्, तस्योपकरणमन्यत् । तस्मात् पुरुषोऽधिष्ठानम् ॥१९॥
Further classification of the mobile and the immobile : The animated world may be divided into four subdivisions, such as the Svedaja (born of sweat or heat and moisture i.e. abiogenous, the
1. It may be questioned why they should be confined to the Purusa ? Such a query may be successfully met by the statement that the Purusa alone is the receptacle of health and disease in contradistinction to the Self or Ego.
2. The vegetable world belongs to the later category, while animals, possessed of locomotion, belong to the former.
3. It may be argued here, since everything in the universe is composed of the five fundamental material principles [of earth, water, fire (heat), air and sky (ether)]. it is not competent to assert that the universe is possessed of the twofold attributes, Agneya (hot or fiery) and Saumya (cold or watery), alone. But since fire (heat) or water (cold) predominates in all things in the universe in juxtaposition with the primary virtues of the other fundamental material principles, it is not improper to classify all under the head of hot or cold, a third factor being non-existent. Hence the world () is possessed of the two fold virtues, hot and cold.
Andaja (egg-born or oviparous), the Udbhijja (vegetable and the Jarayuja (placental or viviparous). The Purusa or the subjective personality (man) is the greatest of them all, because all other forms of life are made to minister to his wants on Earth. 19
तद्दुःखसंयोगा व्याधय उच्यन्ते । ते चतुर्व्विधा आगन्तवः शारीरा: मानसाः स्वाभाविकाश्चेति । तेषामागन्तवोऽभिघातनिमित्ता: । शारीरास्त्वन्नपानमूला वातपित्तकफशोणितसन्निपातवैषम्यनिमित्ताः । मानसास्तु क्रोधशोकभयहर्षविषादेर्ष्याभ्यसूयादैन्यमात्सर्य्यकामलोभइच्छाद्वेषभेदैर्भवन्ति । स्वाभाविकास्तु क्षुत्पिपासाजरामृत्यु- निद्राप्रकृतयः । त एते मनःशरीराधिष्ठानाः ॥२०॥ प्रभृतय
Diseas and its Definition: The Purusa (man) is the receptacle of any particular disease, and that which proves a source of torment or pain to him, is denominated as a disease. There are four different types of disease such as, Traumatic or of extraneous origin (Agantuka), Bodily (Sarira), Mental (Manasa) and Natural (Svabhavika) A disease due to an extraneous blow or hurt is called Agantuka. Diseases, due to irregularities in food or drink, or incidental to a deranged state of the blood, or of the bodily humours acting either singly or in concert are called Sarira. Excessive anger, grief, fear, joy, despondency, envy, misery, pride, greed, lust, desire, malice, etc. are included within the category of mental (Manasa) distempers; whereas hunger, thirst, decrepitude, imbecility, death, sleep, etc. are called the natural (Svabhavika) derangements of the body. The Mind and the Body are the seats of the abovesaid distempers according as they are restricted to either of them, or affect both of them in unison.² 20
तेषां संशोधनसंशमनाहाराचाराः सम्यक्प्रयुक्ता निग्रहहेतवः ॥२१॥
Samsodhana (Cleansing), and Samsamana (Pacification of the deranged or agitated bodily humours giving rise to the disease), and the regimen of diet and conduct are the four factors which should be
1. A disease may be defined as something which afflicts the Purusa (self-conscious personality) or those things or incidents which combine to afflict the Purusa are usually interpreted to connote that meaning.
2. The Self or the Jivatma of a person is above all human concerns and, as such, can never be affected by any disease. duly employed in order to successfully cope with a disease. 21
प्राणिनां पुनर्मूलमाहारो बलवर्णीजसाञ्च, स षट्सु रसेष्वायत्तः । रसा: पुनद्रव्याश्रयाः । द्रव्याणि पुनरोषधयस्तास्तु द्विविधाः, स्थावरा जङ्गमाश्च । तासां स्थावराश्चतुर्व्विधाः । वनस्पतयो वृक्षा वीरुध ओषधय इति। तास्वपुष्पाः फलवन्तो वनस्पतयः, पुष्पफलवन्तो वृक्षाः, प्रतानवत्यः स्तम्विन्यश्च वीरुधः, फलपाकनिष्ठा ओषधय इति ॥ २२ ॥
Food is the principal factor which materially contributes to the strength, complexion and vitality (Ojas) of animated beings. Food consists of six different tastes (Rasa) [which cannot exist independently of the substances] in which they are inherent. These substances which are called the Osadhis may be divided into two classes such as the mobile and the immobile. The immobile Osadhis in their turn admit of being grouped under four sub-heads such as, the Vanaspatis, the Vrksas, the Virudhas and the Osadhis proper.
Those trees which bear fruit without blossoming are called the Vanaspatis (such as, the Plaksa and the Audumbura). Those that bear both fruits and flowers are called the Viksas. Shrubs and creepers that trail on the ground are called Virudhas, whereas those plants which die with the ripening of their fruits, are called Osadhis proper (such as cereals). 22
जङ्गमाः खल्वपि चतुर्व्विधा जरायुजाण्डजस्वेदजोद्भिज्जाः । तत्र पशुमनुष्यव्यालादयो जरायुजा: । खगसर्पसरीसृपप्रभृतयोऽण्डजाः । क्रिमिकीटपिपीलिकाप्रभृतयः स्वेदजाः । इन्द्रगोपमण्डूकप्रभृतय उद्भिज्जाः ।
1. Cleansing (Samsodhana) is of two kinds, viz. External and Internal. External purification consists in employing such measures as surgical operations, cauterisation of the affected part or organ, external use of alkaline preparations and medicated plasters, the internal one including such measures as exhibition of purgatives and emetics, application of intestinal enemas (Asthapanam) and blood-letting. Diet comprises four different factors such as, food, drink, lambative. etc., which, for the purposes of the Ayurveda, are again grouped under three different heads, such as the pacifier of the deranged bodily humours (Dosaprasamana), therapeutical (Vyadhi-prasamana) and health-giving (SvasthaVitikara). Acara ( conduct) appertains to three different factors, such as the body the speech, and the mental acts. The abovesaid measures, duly employed, are potent enough to combat all sorts of bodily distempers, if the special exigencies of each case are carefully taken into consideration.
तत्र स्थावरेभ्यस्त्वपत्रपुष्पफलमूलकन्दनिर्य्यासस्वरसादयः प्रयोजनवन्तः, जङ्गमेभ्यश्चर्म्मनखरोमरुधिरादयः ॥२३॥
The mobile Osadhis or animals are divided into four classes such as the viviparous, the oviparous, the sweat-begotten, and those that are born of decomposed vegetable matter. Man and other mammals belong to the first group; birds, snakes, and reptiles belong to the second; ants, worms, etc. belong to the third; while frogs and Indragopas belong to the fourth. For medicinal purposes, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, roots, bulbs, the expressed juice, and milky or resinous secretions of plants, etc. ‘are obtained from the vegetable world. The skin, nails, wool, blood. flesh, fat, marrow, bones, are procured from the animal world. 23
पार्थिवाः सुवर्णरजतमणिमुक्तामनः शिलामृत्कपालादयः । कालकृतास्तु प्रवातनिवातातपच्छायाज्योत्स्नातमः शीतोष्णवर्षाहोरात्रपक्षमासवयनादयः कालविशेषाः । त एते स्वभावत एव दोषाणां सञ्चयप्रकोपप्रशमप्रतीकारहेतवः प्रयोजनवन्तश्च ॥२४॥
Metals and minerals such as gold, silver, gems and Manassila (Realgar), as well as pearls, clay and Kapalas (bones), etc. should be included in the list of the earthy substances.²
Gale, windfall, sunshine, shade, moonshine, darkness, heat, cold, rain, day, night, fortnight, month, seasons and solstices, etc. should be deemed as the works of eternal time, which, by virtue of their natural effects, contribute to the accumulation, augmentation, pacification or diminution of the deranged bodily humours (such as, wind etc). 24
भवन्ति चात्र श्लोकाःविकाराणामेष
प्रकोपे प्रशमे चैव हेतुरुक्तश्चिकित्सकैः ।। २५ ।।
1. The use of oil expressed out of drugs and seeds, as well as of their ashes or alkaline preparations are likewise indicated.
2. Oxide of Iron, sand, yellow sulphurate of arsenic (Orpiment), salt, Gairika (ferruginous earth), Rasanjana (antimony) should be regarded as appertaining to the class of earthy substances.
आगन्तवस्तु ये रोगास्ते द्विधा निपतन्ति हि । मनस्यन्ये शरीरेऽन्ये तेषान्तु द्विविधा क्रिया || शरीरपतितानान्तु शारीरवदुपक्रमः ।
मानसानान्तु शब्दादिरिष्टो वर्गः सुखावहः ।। २६ ।।
Authoritative verses on the subject: Physicians should look upon these four factors of food, conduct, earth and time, as the accumulators, aggravators and pacifiers of the deranged bodily humours and of the diseases resulting therefrom in man. Diseases due to causes which are extraneous to the body may affect the mind or the body. When it would affect the body in the shape of any traumatic disease (such as an inflammation due to a blow or a sword cut), it should be treated medicinally like the rest of the physical maladies, while the remedy should consist in the enjoyment of pleasurable sounds, touch, sights, taste or smell where the mind would be found to be the seat of the distemper. 25-26
एवमेतत् पुरुषो व्याधिरौषधं क्रियाकाल इति चतुष्टयं समासेन व्याख्यातम् । तत्र पुरुषग्रहणात् तत्सम्भवद्रव्यसमूहो भूतादिरुक्तस्तदङ्गप्रत्यङ्गविकल्पाश्चत्वङ्मांसशिरास्नायुप्रभृतयः । व्याधिग्रहणाद् वात-पित्तकफ-शोणित-सन्निपात-वैषम्यनिमित्ताः सर्व्व एव व्याधयो व्याख्याताः । औषधग्रहणाद् द्रव्यगुणरसवीर्य्यविपाकप्रभावाणामादेशः। क्रियाग्रहणाच्छेद्यादिनि स्नेहादीनि च कर्म्माणि व्याख्यातानि। कालग्रहणात् सर्व्वक्रियाकालानामदेशः ॥२७॥
Thus I have briefly dealt with the Purusa, Disease, Medicine, Appliances and the Specific Time. The term Purusa should be interpreted to include within its meaning the combination of its five material components, and all things resulting therefrom, such as the limbs and members of the body, as well as the skin, the flesh, the blood, the veins and the nerves, etc. The term Disease signifies all distempers incidental to the several or combined actions of the three deranged bodily humours and blood. The term Medicine signifies drugs and their virtues, tastes, potency, inherent efficacy (Prabhava) and reactionary properties (Vipaka). Appliances (kriya) denotes such process as, surgical operations, injections, emulsive measures, lubrications, etc. The term Time signifies all opportune moments for medical appliances. 27
भवति चात्र ।
बीजं चिकित्सितस्यैतत् समासेन प्रकीर्त्तितम् ।
व्याख्या भविष्यति ॥ २८ ॥
तच्च सविंशमध्यायशतं पञ्चसु स्थानेषु । तत्र सूत्रस्थान-निदानशारीर-चिकित्सित-कल्पेष्वर्थवशात् संविभज्योत्तरे तन्त्रे शेषानर्थान् व्याख्यास्यामः ॥२९॥
Authoritative verses on the subject: The Primary principle of the Science of medicine has thus been briefly stated and will be fully dealt with in the following one hundred and twenty chapters distributed among the five main sub-divisions or Sthanas of the present work. These hundred and twenty chapters will be found to be elaborately discussed according to the specific import or significance of their denominations under the sub-heads of Sutra-Sthana (Definitive Aphorisms or Fundamental principles), Nidana (Etiology), SariraSthana (Anatomy and Physiology), Cikitsa-Sthana (Therapeutics) and Kalpa-Sthana (Toxicology). Subjects other than the preceding ones will be discussed in the closing chapters of the book by way of an Appendix (Uttara-Tantra). 28-29
भवति चात्र ।
स्वयम्भुवा प्रोक्तमिदं सनातनं पठेद्धि यः काशिपतिप्रकाशितम् । स पुण्यकर्म्मा भुवि पूजितो नृपैरसुक्षये शक्रसलोकतां व्रजेत् ।। ३० ।।
Authoritative verse on the subject: The man who reads this Eternal Science of Medicine (Ayurveda-Sastra) discoursed by the self origined Brahma and propagated by the King of Kasi, becomes noted for his piety, is honoured by the kings on earth, and attains to the region of Indra (the lord of the celestials) after death. 28
इति सुश्रुत संहितायां सूत्रस्थाने वेदोत्पत्तिर्नाम प्रथमोऽध्यायः ॥१॥
Thus ends the first chapter of the Sutra-Sthana in the Susruta Samhita which deals with the origin of the Ayurveda.