प्रथमोऽध्यायः । अथातः सर्वभूतचिन्ताशारीरं व्याख्यास्यामः, यथोवाच भगवान् धन्वन्तरि: ।। १ ।।
Now we shall discourse on the Sharira which treats of the science of Being in general (Sarva-Bhuta Chinta Sharira).
सर्वभूतानां कारणमकारणं सत्त्वरजस्तमोलक्षणमष्टरूपमखिलस्य जगतः सम्भवहेतुरव्यक्तं नाम । तदेकं बहूनां क्षेत्रज्ञानामधिष्ठानं समुद्र इवौदकानां भावानाम् ।। २।।
The latent (lit : unmanifest ) supreme nature (Prakrti) is the progenitor of all created things. She is self begotten and connotes the three fundamental or primary virtues of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. She is imaged or embodied in the eightfold categories of Avyakta (unmanifest), Mahan (intellect ), Ahankara ( Supreme Ego ) and the five Tanmatras or element (protoper sensibles) and is the sole and primary factor in working out the evolution of the universe. The one absolute and original nature is the fundamental stone house of materials, out of which the bodies of all self-conscious (Karma-Purusa) working agents (agents who came into being through the dynamical energy of their acts of Karmas) have been evolved in the same manner as all water, whether confined in a tank or a reservoir, or coursing free through the channels of streams and of mighty rivers, have been welled up from the one and shoreless primioridal ocean. 2
तस्माद्व्यक्तान्महानुत्पद्यते तल्लिङ्ग एव । तल्लिङ्गाच्च महतस्तल्लक्षण एवाहङ्कार उत्पद्यते ।
स च त्रिविधः वैकारिकस्तैजसो भूतादिरिति ।। ३ ।।
Out of that latent unmanifest (Avyakata) or original nature (impregnated by the atoms or elemental units of consciousness or Purusas) Supreme Intellect or Mahan has been evolved. This Mahan or supreme intellect is of similar character as of unmanifest and associated with the three fundamental attributes (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas) of the latent (Avyakta) or original nature. / Ahankara or supreme ego in its turn may be grouped under three subheads as the Vaikarika,Taijasa (operative) or Rajasaika and Bhutadi (illusive or Tamasika). 3
तत्र वैकारिकादहङ्कारात् तैजससहायात् तल्लक्षणान्येवैकादशेन्द्रियाण्युत्पद्यन्ते। तद्यथा-श्रोत्रत्वक्चक्षुर्जिह्वाघ्राणवाग्घस्तोपस्थपायुपादमनांसीति । तत्र पूर्वाणिपञ्च बुद्धीन्द्रियाणि, इतराणि पञ्च कर्मेन्द्रियाणि, उभयात्मकं मनः ।। ४ ।।
The eleven organs of cognition, communication or sense perception have emanated from the aforesaid Vaikarika Ahamkara with the cooperation of Taijasa or Rajasa. They are the ears, skin, eyes, tongue, nose, speech, hands, genitals, anus, feet and the mind (Manah). Of these foregoing organs the first five are intellectual or sense organs ( Buddhi-Indriya), the other five are operative organs (Karmendriya); The mind (Manah) partakes of the character of both the intellectual and operative organs alike. 4
भूतादेरपि तैजससहायात् तल्लक्षणान्येव पञ्चतन्मात्राण्युत्पद्यन्ते । तद्यथा- शब्दतन्मात्रं, स्पर्शतन्मात्रं, रूपतन्मात्रं, रसतन्मात्रं, गन्धतन्मात्रमिति। तेषां विशेषाः शब्दस्पर्शरूपरसगन्धाः । तेभ्यो
1. Sattva, Rajas and Tarnas Adhesion, cohesion and disintegration in the Physical plane; affection, love and hate in the moral; emancipation, spiritual affinity and sin in the Psychic.
Simply phenomenal or the simple outcome of the phenomenal evolution without being by other specific attributes of matter and hence Sattvika or illuminating or quasi-spiritual.
भूतानि व्योमानिलानलजलोर्व्यः । एवमेषा तत्त्वचतुर्विंशतिर्व्याख्याता ।। ५।।
The five Tanmatras or Proto element (or the five proper sensibles of hearing, touch, sight, taste and smell) characterised by the Nescience, etc. have been evolved out of the Bhutadi etc. (or Tamasa Ahamkara) concerted with the Taijasa Ahamkara through the instrumentality of the Vaikarika. The gross or perceptible modifications of these five Tanmatras are sound, touch, taste, sight and smell. From the combination of the aforesaid five Tanmatras (Bhutadi) taken one at a time, have successively emanated the five gross matters of space such as ether, air, heat (fire), fluid (water), and earth (solid). These twenty four categories combinedly form what is technically known as the twenty four elements (Tattvas). Thus we have discoursed on the twenty four fundamental principles (Caturvimsatitattvam). 5
तत्र बुद्धीन्द्रियाणां शब्दादयो विषयाः; कर्मेन्द्रियाणां यथासङ्ख्यं वचनादानानन्दविसर्गविहरणानि । अव्यक्तं महानहङ्कारः पञ्चतन्मात्राणि चेत्यष्टौ प्रकृतयः; शेषाः षोडश विकाराः । स्वः स्वश्चैषां विषयोऽधिभूतम्; स्वयमध्यात्मं; अघिदैवतन्तु- अथ बुद्धेब्रह्मा, अहङ्कारस्येश्वरः, मनसश्चन्द्रमाः, दिशः श्रोत्रस्य, त्वचो वायुः, सूर्यश्चक्षुषः, रसनस्यापः, पृथिवी घ्राणस्य, वचसोऽग्निः, हस्तयोरिन्द्रः, पादयोर्विष्णुंः, पायोर्मित्र: प्रजापति – रुपस्थस्येति ।। ६ ।।
Hearing, touch, sight, taste and smell respectively form the subjects of the five intellects (Buddhi) organs of man, whereas the faculty of speech, handling, pleasure, ejections or evacutation. locomotion successively belong to the (remaining) five operative (Karma-Indriya) ones. The original natue (Avyakta). Mahan’ (supreme intellect), Supreme Ego (Ahankara ), the five sensibles (Tanmatras) or the five gross material principles in their nascent stage in evolution form what is included within the eight caterogires of Nature (Prakrti), the remaining sixteen categories being her modifications (Vikara). The objects of Supreme intellect (Mahan) and Supreme Ego (Ahankara)
1. Mahan, Anankara and the five Tanmatras are, though modifications of the original Nature in themselves, have been included within the category of Nature (Prakrti) in asmuch as they form the immediately prior or antecedent conditions of the evolution of the phenomenal universe. as well as of the sense organs of knowledge and actions are the material principles (Adthibhautika) though they are spiritual in themselves and in their nature.
The tutelary god of intellect (Buddhi) is Brahma. The god Isvara is the presiding deity of the sense of ego (Ahamkara); the moon god is that of the mind (Manah); the quarters of the heaven, is of the ears; the wind god is that of the skin; the sun is that of the eyes; the water is that of the taste; the earth is that of the smell, the fire is that of the speech; Indra is that of the hands; Visnu is that of the legs; Mitra is that of the anus and Prajapati is that of the organs of generations. 6
तत्र सर्व एवाचेतन एष वर्ग:; पुरुषः पञ्चविंशतितमः कार्यकारण-संयुक्तश्चेतयिता भवति । सत्यप्यचैतन्ये प्रधानस्य पुरुषकैवल्यार्थं प्रवृत्तिमुपदिशन्ति । क्षीरादींश्चात्र हेतूनुदाहरन्ति ।। ७।।
All the aforesaid (twenty-four) categories or elements (Caturvimsati-Tatvas) are devoid of consciousness. Similarly the modifications of the primal cause of Prakrti such as the Mahat etc. are all bereft of consciousness in as much as the cause itself, the Avyakta or the original nature is devoid of it. The Purusa or the self-conscious subjectivity, enters into the primal cause (Mula-Prakrti or original Nature) and its necessary effect (the evolved out phenomena) and makes them endued with his own essence or self-consciousness. The preceptors and holy sages explain the proposition by an analogy that as the milk in the breast of a mother, though unconscious in itself, originates and flows out for the growth and sustenance of her child; (as the semen in the organism of an adult male though devoid of consciousness, flows out during an act of sexual intercourse); so these twenty-four primary material principles (elements), though unconscious in themselves, tend to contribute towards the making of the selfconscious self or the universal individual (the aggregate of limited or conditional selves) for the purpose of working out his final liberation or emancipation i.e. attainment of the state of pure consciousness or perfect knowledge. 7
अत ऊर्ध्वं प्रकृतिपुरुषयोः साधर्म्यवैधम्ये व्याख्यास्यामः; तद्यथाउभावप्यनादी, उभावप्यनन्तौ उभावप्यलिङ्गौ, उभावपि नित्यौ, उभावप्यनपरौ, उभौ च सर्वगताविति । एका तु प्रकृतिरचेतना त्रिगुणा बीजधर्मिणी प्रसवधर्मिण्यमध्यस्थधर्मिणी चेति, बहवस्तु पुरुषाश्चेतनावन्तोऽगुणा अबीजधर्माणोऽप्रसवधर्माणो मध्यस्थधर्माणश्चेति ।। ८॥
Now we shall describe the tracts which the Purusa (subjective or self-conscious reality) and Prakrti or nature (passive non-conscious eternity) pass in common as well as those wherein they differ from each other.
Traits of commonalty : Both the Purusa and Prakrti are eternal realities, both of them are endless, disembodied, without a beginning or origin, eternal, without a second, all-pervading and omni-present.
Traits of diversity Of the Purusa and the Prakrti, only the latter is non-conscious and possesses the three fundamental qualities of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. Prakrti performs the function of the seed or in otherwords she lies inherent as the seed or the primary cause in the latter phenomenal evolution of the Mahat etc. and contributes the maternal element in the conception, development and birth of the primordial cosmic matter (phenomenal universe), fecundated by the Purusa (self-conscious subjectivity) in its different stages of evolution. These stages are called Mahat, Ahamkara etc; and Prakrti is no indiferent, as the Purusa is to the pleasures and misery of life. But the Purusa (units or atoms of consciousness), devoid of the threefold virtues of Sattva etc. are non-concerning hence non-producing and bereft of the seed-attributes of lying inherent in all as the primary cause of evolution. They are mere witnesses to the joys and miseries of life, and do not participate in their enjoyment though imprisoned in the human organism. 8
तत्र कारणानुरूपं कार्यमिति कृत्वा सर्व एवैते विशेषाः सत्त्वरजस्तमोमया भवन्ति, तदञ्जनत्वात् तन्मयत्वाच्च तद्गुणा एव पुरुषा भवन्तीत्येके भाषन्ते ।। ९ ।।
Since an effect is uniform in virtue to its producing cause, the evolutionised effects or products of the Prakrti such as the Mahat. Ahamkara etc. must need partake of the three fundamental qualities (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas) which are predicated of the Pakrti. In other word these Mahat, Ahamkara, etc. are but the modifications of the three fundamental qualities of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. Moreover, certain authorities hold that the Purusas are units of self-consciousness, possessed of the three aforesaid qualities owing to their antecedent conditions or causes (the gross material universe) being permeated with and characterised by them. 9
वैद्यके तु स्वभावमीश्वरं कालं यदृच्छां नियतिं तथा । परिणामञ्च मन्यन्ते प्रकृतिं पृथुदर्शिनः ।। १० ।।
तन्मयान्येव भूतानि तद्गुणान्येव चादिशेत् । तैश्च तल्लक्षणः कृत्स्नो भूतग्रामो व्यजन्यत ।। ११ ।।
तस्योपयोगोऽभिहितश्चिकित्सां प्रति सर्वदा । भूतेभ्यो हि परं यस्मान्नास्ति चिन्ता चिकित्सिते ।। १२ ।।
यतोऽभिहितं – “तत्सम्भवद्रव्यसमूहो भूतादिरुक्त:” (सू.अ.१भौतिकानि चेन्द्रियाण्यायुर्वेदे वर्ण्यन्ते, तथेन्द्रियार्थाः ।। १३ ।।
Metrical Text (Vaidyake): It is asserted in the Ayurveda that it is only the gross-sighted ones and men capable of observing only the superficial appearances, who confound eternal order or sequence of things and events as (svabhava), God (Isvara). Time ( Kala), sudden and unlooked for appearances of the phenomena (Yadrccha), Destiny (Niyati) and transformation (Parinama) with the original nature (Prakrti). The five different forms of matter ( such as Ether etc.) are nothing but the modifications or transformed states of the original nature and are characterised by the three universal qualities of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas and all created things, whether mobile or immobile, should be considered as alike exponent by the same. In the Science of medicine the cause of a disease in the one sole aim to be achieved by means of administering proper medicinal remedies (matter), and hence the properties of matter are the only fit subject to be dealt with in a book on pharmacy. And further, because the immediately prior cause of the human organism is a proper and congenial admixture of the sperm and ovum (matter), the sense organs are the resultants of phenomenal-evolution of matter, and the objects of sense perception
1. The second factor according to samkhya, in the order of cosmic evolution, which as the seed of the universe, was hid in the burning disc of the central, primordial Sun, out of which the different solar systems have come into being are equally material or phenomenal in their nature.
भवति चात्र इन्द्रियेणेन्द्रियार्थन्तु स्वं स्वं गृह्णाति मानवः । नियतं तुल्ययोनित्वान्नान्येनान्यमिति स्थितिः ।। १४ ।।
अंचल Memorable verse: A man by a particular organ of his body perceives the same matter which forms the proper object of that sense organ in as much as the perceiving sense organ and the perceived sensible are produced by the same material cause. The matter, which specifically forms the object of a particular sense organ, cannot be perceived by the other. We see a flower with the eyes and not with the nose. 14
न चायुर्वेदशास्त्रेषूपदिश्यन्ते सर्वगता: क्षेत्रज्ञा नित्याश्च । असर्वगतेषु च क्षेत्रज्ञेषु नित्यपुरुषख्यापकान् हेतूनुदाहरन्ति; आयुर्वेदशास्त्रेष्वसर्वगताः क्षेत्रज्ञा नित्याश्च, तिर्यग्योनिमानुषदेवेषु सञ्चरन्ति धर्माधर्मनिमित्तम् । त एतेऽनुमानग्राह्याः परमसूक्ष्माश्चेतनावन्तः शाश्वता लोहितरेतसोः सन्निपातेष्वभिव्यज्यन्ते, यतोऽभिहितं- “पञ्चमहाभूतशरीरिसमवायः पुरुषः” (सू.अ.१) इति । स एष कर्मपुरुषश्चिकित्-साधिकृतः ।। १५ ।। :
The Science of medicine does not lay down that the selfconscious Selves (Ksetrajna) are all pervading, but on the contrary it asserts that they are real and eternal and are born in the planes of divine, human or animal existence according to their good or evil deeds in previous life. The existence of these self-conscious entities can be ascertained duly by inference inasmuch as they are extremely subtle in their essence. The self-conscious self is possessed of infinite consciousness, is real and eternally subject to the process of being evolved out into a finite, organic individual through the dynamics of the combined sperm and ovum. The view is further corroborated by a dictum of the Sruti which holds that Purusa (individual) is nothing but a combination of a self-conscious self and the five kinds of matter (Mahabhutas) formed into an organic body. This Purusa or individual, which is called individual of action (Karma-Purusa ), falls within the scope of the science and art of medicine.¹
1. Here lies the difference between Sankhya and Ayurveda. While the former
तस्य सुखदुःखे इच्छाद्वेषौ प्रयत्नः प्राणापानावुन्मेषनिमेषौ बुद्धिर्मन: सङ्कल्पो विचारणा स्मृतिर्विज्ञानमध्यवसायो विषयोपलब्धिश्च गुणाः ।। १६ ।।
The attributes of an organic individual: Longing for pleasure, shunning of pain, enemity, energetic undertaking of work, respiration (Prana) emission of flatus (Apana), closing and opening of the eyelids, intellect ( Buddhi), mind (Manah), deliberation, discretion, memory, knowledge of art, perseverance, sensation and perception, are the attributes of an organic individual. 16
सात्त्विकास्तु – आनृशंस्यं संविभागरुचिता तितिक्षा सत्यं धर्म आस्तिक्यं ज्ञानं बुद्धिर्मेधा स्मृतिर्धृतिरनभिषड्गश्च । राजसास्तु दुः खबहुलताऽटनशीलता धृतिरहङ्कार आनृतिकत्वमकारुण्यं दम्भो मानो हर्षः कामः क्रोधश्च । तामसास्तु-विषादित्वं नास्तिक्यमधर्मशीलता बुद्धेर्निरोधोऽज्ञानं दुर्मेधस्त्वमकर्मशीलता निद्रालुत्वञ्चेति ।। १७ ।।
Distinctive features of the different classes of mental temperaments : An absence of all killing or hostile propensities, a judicious distribution of diet, forbearance, truthfulness, religious, a belief in God, spiritual knowledge, intellect, a good retentive memory. comprehension, and the doing of good deeds irrespective of consequences, are the qualities which grace the mind of a person of a
discourses on in material character of the soul, the latter commences to discuss on the questions how the material environment in which the soul is said to inhabit is evolved, and how the inclusion of the spiritual within the material organism is effected.
Hence Susruta’s Physiology, like that of Charaka, is in the strictest sense of the world molecular and his science of life is an attempt at explanation of consciousness from the materialistic standpoint, which agrees with the views of modern western science. Intellect according to Susruta is material and belongs to the same category which the Sankhya system of philosophy in its explanation of evolution enumerates originally as seven. The soul, according to Susruta, is an independent existence and is often associated with what is called life. Where there is life, there is a soul and it is not everywhere the same. The soul in Susruta is individual and takes cognisance of sorrow. disease and death by its union with the body (पञ्च महाभूत शरीरि समवायः पुरुष इत्युच्यते). Hence the living frame together with the soul that is said to inhabit it forms the subject-matter of Ayurvedic medical treatment.
Sattvika temperament. Feeling of much pain and misery, a roving spirit, non-comprehension, vanity, untruthfulness, nonclemency,pride, an over winning confidence in one’s own excellence, lust, anger and hilarity are the attributes which mark a mind of the Rajasika cast. Despondency, stupidity, disbelief in the existence of God, irreligious stupification and perversity of intellect, lethargy in action and sleepiness are the qualities whcih mark a mind of a Tamasika stamp. 17
आन्तरिक्षास्तु-शब्दः शब्देन्द्रियं सर्वच्छिद्रसमूहो विविक्तता च; वायव्यास्तु-स्पर्श: स्पर्शेन्द्रियं सर्वचेष्टासमूहः सर्वशरीरस्पन्दनं लघुता च; तैजसास्तु-रूपं रूपेन्द्रियं वर्णः सन्तापो भ्राजिष्णुता पक्तिरमर्षस्तैक्ष्ण्यं शौर्यञ्च; आप्यास्तु-रसो रसनेन्द्रियं सर्वद्रवसमूहोगुरुता शैत्यं स्नेहो रेतश्च; पार्थिवास्तु-गन्धों गन्धेन्द्रियं सर्वमूर्त्तसमूहो गुरुता चेति ।। १८ ।।
The distinctive traits of the five material of Elements of the world : The properties of akasa (ether) are sound, the sense of hearing, porosity and different evolution of the veins, ligaments etc. into their characterised species (Viviktata). The properties of Vayu (etherin) are touch, the skin, all functional activies of the organism, throbbing of the whole body (Spandana) and lightness. The properties of Teja (fire or heat) are form, the eyes, colours, heat, illumination, digestion, anger, generation of instantaneous energy and valour. The properties of Apa (water or liquid) are taste, the tongue, fluidity, heaviness, coldness, olioginousness and semen. The properties or modifications of Pythvi ( the earth matter or solid) are smell, the nose, embodiment and heaviness. 18
तत्र सत्त्वबहुलमाकाशम्, रजोबहुलो वायुः, सत्त्वरजोबहुलोऽग्निः, सत्त्वतमोबहुला आपः, तमोबहुला पृथिवीति । । १९ ।।
Of these the ether or Akasa abounds in attributes of the Sattvika stamp, the Vayu or etherin in Rajasika, the Teja in Sattvika and Rajasika, the water in Sattvika and Tamasika and the earth in Tamasa attributes. 19
श्लोकौ चात्र भवतः – अन्योऽन्यानुप्रविष्टानि सर्वाण्येतानि निर्दिशेत् । स्वे स्वे द्रव्ये तु सर्वेषां व्यक्तं लक्षणमिष्यते ।। २० ।।
अष्टौ प्रकृतयः प्रोक्ता विकाराः षोडशैव तु । क्षेत्रज्ञश्च समासेन स्वतन्त्रपरतन्त्रयोः ।। २१ ।।
There are Memorable verses : These qualities are found to characterise and enter the successive elements in the order of their enumeration. The specific attributes of these elements are manifested in the substances which are respectively originated from them. The term Prakrti or original nature connotes the eight categories (of Avyakta, Mahan, Ahamkara and the five Tanmatras) and the rest of the twenty four fundamental principles are its modifications. The Purusa forms the twentyfifth principle. These twentyfive fundamental principles of cosmogony have been dealt with in the present treatise (Salya-Tantra ) as well as in the other treatise (Salakya-Tantra and Samkhya Philosophy). 20-21
इति सुश्रुतसंहितायां शारीरस्थाने सर्वभूतचिन्ताशारीरं नाम प्रथमोऽध्यायः ।। १ ।।
Thus ends the first Chapter of the Sharira Sthana in the Susruta Samhita which deals with the science of Being in general.