विंशोऽध्यायः । अथातो हिताहितीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः, यथोवाच भगवान् धन्वन्तरिः ॥ १९॥
Now we shall discuss the Chapter Suitable and unsuitables for health , etc. (Hitahitiya-adhyaya). 1
and non-यद् वायोः पथ्यं तत् पित्तस्यापथ्यमित्यनेन हेतुना न किञ्चिद् द्रव्यमेकान्तेन हितमहितं वास्तीति केचिदाचार्य्या ब्रुवते । तत् तु न सम्यक् । इह खलु यस्माद् द्रव्याणि स्वभावतः संयोगतश्चैकान्तहितान्येकान्ताहितानि हिताहितानि च भवन्ति ॥ २ ॥
According to certain eminent medical authorities, an article or a substance which is beneficial in derangements of the bodily Vayu may prove positively injurious in a Pittaja affection; hence it is impossible to name an article or substance which is absolutely or universally wholesome (irrespective of the nature and type of a disease, and of the deranged bodily humours involved therein).
But we cannot subscribe to the foregoing hypothesis, since by nature of combination, things (substances) are, or become endued with properties, which prove absolutely beneficial or unconditionally harmful or exert a mixed virtue (both beneficial and injurious) according to the difference in the nature and type of the disease in which they are employed. 2
तत्रैकान्तहितानि जातिसात्म्यात् सलिलघृतदुग्धौदनप्रभृतीनि ।
एकान्ताहितानितु दहनपचनमारणादिषु प्रवृत्तान्यग्निक्षारविषादीनि । संयोगादपराणि विषतुल्यानि भवन्ति । हिताहितानि तु यद् वायोः पथ्यं तत् पित्तस्यापथ्यमिति ॥३॥
Things or articles such as, clarified-butter, water, milk and boiled-rice, etc. may be denominated as absolutely beneficial owing to their congeniality to, or natural suitableness to the human organism.
Similarly, substances such as fire, alkali and poison, may be designated as unconditionally harmful in virtue of their burning, suppurating (lit: boilling) and fatal effect upon the organic bodies in general. A substance, which is innocuous by nature, may prove equally injurious as any active poison through an injudicious or incompatible combination; whereas a subtance or an article, which proves beneficial in a derangement of the Vayu, may prove otherwise in a disorder of the Pittam. 3
अतः सर्वप्राणिनामयमाहारार्थ वर्ग उपदिश्यते । तद्यथा-रक्तशालिषष्टिककङ्गुकमुकुन्दक-पाण्डुकपीतक-प्रमोदक-कालकासनक-पुष्पककद्दमक-शकुनाहृत-सुगन्धककलमनीवारकोद्रवोद्दालकश्यामाकगोधूमवेणुयवप्रभृतयः, एणहरिणकुरङ्गमृगमातृकाश्वदंष्ट्रा- कराल-क्रकरकपोतलावतित्तिरिकपिञ्जलवर्त्तीरविर्त्तिकादीनां मांसानि, मुद्गवनमुद्गमकुष्ठकलायमसूरमङ्गल्यचणकहरेण्वाढकीसतीनाः, चिल्लीवास्तूकसुनिषण्णकजीवन्तीतण्डुलीयकमण्डूकपर्ण्यः, गव्यं घृतं सैन्धवं दाडिमामलकमित्येष वर्गः सर्वप्राणिनां सामान्यतः पथ्यतमः ॥४॥
Articles or substances which may be safely included within the food stuffs of all human beings are the members of the group (Varga) known as the red sali, the sastika, the Kanguka, the Mukundaka, the Panduka, the Pitaka, the Pramodaka, the Kalaka, the asanaka, the Puspaka, the Karddamaka, the Sakunahrta, the Sugandhaka, the Kalama, the Nivara, the Kodrava, the Uddalaka, the Syamaka, the Godhuma and the Venu, Yava etc, as well as the flesh of the Ena, the Harina (cooper coloured deer), the Kuranga, the Mrga, the Mrgamatrka, the Svadamstra, the Karala, the Krakara, the Kapota (pigeon), the Lava, the Tittiri, the Kapinjala, the Varttira, and the Varttika, and such like beasts and birds. The varieties of pulse which form the articles of human food are known as the Mudga, the Vana – Mudga, the Makustha, the Kalaya, the Masura, the Mangalya, the Canaka ( gram), the Harenu, the Adhaki and the Satina. Similarly, the different species of pot-herbs, which may be safely used by a man to give a greater relish to his food, are named as the Cilli, the Vastuka, the Sunisannaka the Jivanti, the Tanduliyaka, and the Mandukaparni, etc. Clarified butter, the salt known as the Saindhava, and the luscious juice of the polmegranate and the Amalakam, should be generally deemed the most wholesome articles of food. 4
तथा ब्रह्मचर्यनिवात-शयनोष्णोदक-निशास्वप्न- व्यायामाश्चैकान्ततः पथ्यतमाः ॥५॥
Similarly, the practise of self-control, residence in a room protected from the strong gusts of wind, sleeping only at night, tepid water, and moderate physical exercise should be regarded as absolutely conductive to a better preservation of health. 5
एकान्तहितान्येकान्ताहितानि च प्रागुपदिष्टानि । हिताहितानि तु यद् वायोः पथ्यं तत् पित्तस्यापथ्यमिति ॥६॥
संयोगतस्त्वपराणि विषतुल्यानि भवन्ति । तद्यथा-वल्लीफलकवककरीराम्लफललवणकुलत्थपिण्याकदधितैलविरोहिपिष्ट शुष्कशाकाजाविकमांसमद्यजाम्बवचिलिचिममत्स्यगोधावराहांश्च नैकध्यमश्नीयात् पयसां ॥७॥
We have already enumerated the names of substances which are absolutely beneficial or unconditionally injurious to human health. Things which are both wholesome and injurious are those, which, for example, may prove beneficial in a distemper of the bodily Vayu though otherwise in a Pittaja affection. The Valli fruit, the Karaka, the Karira, the Amla-phala, the salt, the Kulattha, the Pinyaka, curd, oil, Virohi, cakes, the dried pot-herbs, goat’s flesh, mutton, wine, the jamboline fruit, the Cilicima fish, the flesh of the Godha, and the Varaha (wild boar) being eaten simultaneously with milk, furnish an example of articles which may act as deadly poisons through incompatible combinations. 6-7
रोगं सात्म्यञ्च देशञ्च कालं देहञ्च बुद्धिमान् । अवेक्ष्याग्न्यादिकान् भावान् रोगवृत्तेः प्रयोजयेत् ।।८।।
अवस्थान्तरबाहुल्याद्रोगादीनां व्यवस्थितम् । द्रव्यं नेच्छन्ति भिषज इच्छन्ति स्वस्थरक्षणे ।। ९ ।।
Metrical Texts: An intelligent physician, considering the nature of the disease, the strength and temperament of the patient, and the state of his digestion as well as the seat of the affection, the physical features of the country and the then prevailing season of the year, should prescribe a diet which he thinks the most proper and suitable to the requirements of the case. Since the conditions infinitely vary in the different types of diseases and even the same conditions do not obtain in one and the same type, physicians generally prescribe a diet of their own selection, one determined with regard to its general effect on health, in preference to one that has been laid down in books of medicine. 8-9
द्वयोरन्यतरादाने वदन्ति विषदुग्धयोः । दुग्धस्यैकान्तहिततां विषमेकान्ततोऽहितम् ।।१०।।
एवं युक्तरसेष्वेषु द्रव्येषु सलिलादिषु । एकान्तहिततां विद्धि वत्स सुश्रुत नान्यथा । । ११ ।।
If asked to prescribe either milk or poison to a healthy person a physician would naturally prescribe the former, and thereby prove the absolute wholesomeness of milk and unconditional harmfulness of poison. Thus is verified, Susruta, the correctness of the dictum, that things such as water, etc., are absolutely and unconditionally wholesome or otherwise, by virtue of their respective natural properties. 10-11
अतोऽन्यान्यपि संयोगादहितानि वक्ष्यामः । न नवविरूढधान्यैर्वसामधुपयोगुडमाषैर्वा ग्राम्यानूपौदकपिशितादीन्यभ्यवहरेत् । न पयोमधुभ्यां रोहिणीशाकं जातुकशाकं वानीयात् । बलाकां वारुणीकुल्माषाभ्याम्, काकमार्ची पिप्पलीमरिचाभ्यां, नाडीभङ्गशाककुक्कुटदधीनि च नैकध्यम् । मधु चोष्णोदकानुपानं, पित्तेन च
1. The propriety and impropriety of a particular diet should be determined with a full regard to the antecedent and attending circumstances of a particular malady.
मांसानि, सुराकुशरापायसांश्च नैकध्यम्, सौवीरकेण सह तिलशष्कुलीम्, मत्स्यैः सहेक्षुविकारान्, गुड़ेन काकमाचीम्, गुड़ेन मधुना मूलकम्, वाराहं मधुना च सह विरुद्धम्, क्षीरेण मूलकमाम्रजाम्बवश्वाविच्छूकरगोधाश्च सर्वाश्च मत्स्यान् विशेषेण चिलिचिमं पयसा, कदलिफलं तालफलेन पयसा दघ्ना तक्रेण वा, लकुचफलं पयसा दघ्ना माषसूपेन वा मधुना घृतेन च, प्राक् पयसः पयसोऽन्ते वा ॥ १२ ॥
Things which are unwholesome through combination : Now I shall enumerate the names of substances which become positively unwholesome through incompatible combinations. The flesh of any domestic (Gramya) or aquatic (Anupa) beast or bird, as well as the flesh of those which live in marshy ground (Audaka), should not be eaten with boiled rice prepared from paddy which has commenced sprouting, or with lard, honey milk, treacle or Masa-pulse. The potherbs, known as the Rohini and the Jatu-saka, should not be partaken of in combination with milk and honey; nor the flesh of a heron, eaten simultaneously with Kulmasa and the spirituous liquor known as Varuni. Marica (black pepper) and Pippalis should not be eaten in combination with the pot-herbs known as the Kakamaci. The potherbs known as the Nadima and Siddhi should not be simultaneously eaten with curd, and the flesh of a cock. Honey should not be taken immediately after drinking warm water, nor meat and bile should be simultaneously eaten. Sura (wine), Krsara and Payasa should not be taken in combination. Similarly, Sauviraka and sesamum paste, fish and modifications of sugarcane juice, treacle and Kakamaci, honey and Mulaka, treacle and the flesh of a wild boar, or honey and boar’s flesh should not be taken in combination.
Similarly, milk and Mulaka, mango fruit and Jamboline fruit and the flesh of Godha, Porcupine and hog should nc: be eaten together. All fish, specially those of the Cilicimi species, should not be taken with milk, nor the fruit of a plantain tree should be simultaneously eaten with Tala fruit, milk or whey. The fruit known as Lakuca should not be taken with milk, curd or meat soup, nor with honey and clarified-butter, not immediately before or after the drinking of milk. 12
अतः कर्मविरुद्धान् वक्ष्यामः । कपोतान् सर्षपतैलभृष्टान् नाद्यात् ।
एरण्डतैलसिद्धा कपिञ्जलमयूरलावतित्तिरिगोधाश्चैरण्डदार्व्यग्निसिद्धा वा नाद्यात् । कांस्यभाजने दशरात्रपर्युषितं सर्पिः, मधु चोष्णैरुष्णे वा, मत्स्यपरिपचने श्रृङ्गवेरपरिपचने वा सिद्धां काकमाचीम्, तिलकल्कसिद्धमुपोदिकाशाकम्, नारिकेलेन वराहवसापरिभृष्टां बलाकाम्, भासमङ्गारशूल्यं नाश्नीयादिति ॥१३॥
Incompatible preparations of food: Now we shall enumerate the names of substances, which become unwholesome through incompatible preparations. Flesh of pigeon fried with mustard oil should not be eaten. The flesh of a Kapinjala, Mayura (peacock), Lava, Tittira, and Godha, boiled with castor oil and on a fire of the twigs of castor plants, should not be eaten. Clarified-butter, kept in a vessel of Indian bell metal for ten consecutive days, should be rejected as unwholesome. Honey should not be used in combination with an article or substance heated by fire, nor in the seasons of spring and autumn. The pot-herbs known as the Kakamaci boiled in a bowl in which fish or ginger had been previously boiled or prepared, should be rejected as positively injurious.
Similarly, the pot-herbs known as the Upodika should not be eaten by boiling them with the levigated paste of seasamum. The flesh of a heron prepared with hog’s lard should not be taken with the pulp of the cocoanut fruit. The flesh of a Bhasa bird, roasted on a spit over a charcoal fire, should not be eaten. 13
अतो मानविरुद्धान् वक्ष्यामः । मध्वम्बुनी मधुसर्पिषी मानतस्तुल्ये नाश्नीयात्, स्नेहौ मधुस्नेहौ जलस्नेहौ वा, विशेषादान्तरीक्षोदकानुपानौ ॥१४॥
Objectionable proportions: Now we shall enumerate the names of substances which become unwholesome by being mixed in objectionable proportions. Two only substances (such as oil and clarified-butter) or honey and any of the oily substances, mixed in equal proportions, should not be taken; nor should rain water be drunk immediately after having taken honey and clarified-butter. 14
अत ऊर्द्ध रसद्वन्द्वानि रसतो वीर्यतो विपाकतच विरुद्धानि वक्ष्यामः । तत्र मधुराम्लौ रसवीर्यविरुद्धौ मधुरलवणौ च, मधुरकटुकौ
च सर्वतः, मधुरतिक्तौ रसविपाकाभ्यां मधुरकषायौ च, अम्ललवणौ रसतः, अम्लकटुकौ रसविपाकाभ्याम्, अम्लतिक्तावम्लकषायौ च सर्वतः । लवणकटुकौ रसविपाकाभ्याम्, लवणतिक्तौ लवणकषायौ च सर्वतः, कटुतिक्तौ रसवीर्याभ्यां कटुकषायौ तिक्तकषायौ च रसतः ॥१५॥
Incompatible tastes, potencies and chemical actions : Now we shall describe the substances enumerated in couples, and possessed of different tastes, which prove incompatible to each other through their respective tastes, potencies and chemical actions (Vipaka). Sweet and acid tastes, or sweet and saline tastes should be deemed incompatible to each other in respect of their potencies and inherent properties. Sweet and acid tastes are incompatible to each other in all the above three respects.
Similarly, sweet and bitter, or sweet and astringent things should be deemed incompatible to each other in respect of their tastes, and chemical action. Acid and saline things are incompatible to each other as regards their flavours. Acid and acrid things are incompatible as regards flavour and chemical action. Acid and bitter, or acid and astringent things, are incompatible to each other, both as regards their respective flavours, potencies, and digestive or chemical transformations. Saline and pungent things are incompatible to each other as regards their respective flavour (Rasa) and digestive (chemical) transformation.
Similarly, saline and bitter things or saline and astringent things are incompatible to each other in respect of all the three abovesaid relations and categories. Pungent and bitter tastes are incompatible to each other in respect of flavour and digestive transformation, whereas substances of pungent and astringent or bitter and astringent tastes are incompatible to one another as regards their respective potencies, flavours and digestive (chemical) action or transformation. 15
तरतमयोगयुक्तांश्च भावानतिरुक्षानतिस्निग्धानत्युष्णानतिशीतानित्येवमादीन् विवर्जयेत् ॥१६॥
Degrees of incompatibility: Substances that are incompatible with, or antagonistic to, the system through a different of degree or intensity, as well as things which bring about an extreme dryness of the organism, or those which are extremely oily in their composition or are characterised by extreme cold or warmth, should be categorically rejected. 16
विरुद्धान्येवमादीनि वीर्यतो यानि कानिचित् । तान्येकान्ताहितान्येव शेषं विद्याद्धिताहितम् ।।१७।।
Authoritative verses on the subject: Things or substances which are incompatible to one another in their respective tastes. potencies and reactionary transformation should be denied as absolutely unwholesome, while the rest should be considered as possessed of mixed virtues (wholesome or injurious under certain circumstances) as described before. 17
व्याधिमिन्द्रियदौर्बल्यं मरणञ्चाधिगच्छति ।
विरुद्धरसवीर्याणि भुञ्जानोऽसात्म्यवान् नरः । । १८ ।।
By taking substances which are incompatible to one another as regards their tastes, potencies and digestive transformation, a greedy and intemperate person becomes afflicted with disease and weakness of the sense-organs, and ultimately meets with his doom. 18
यत् किञ्चिद्दोषमुत्क्लेश्य भुक्तं कायान्न निर्हरेत् । रसादिष्वयथार्थं वा तद् विकाराय कल्पते ।। १९ ।।
Anything, which being taken enrages or agitates the bodily humours without causing the assimilated food (effete matter) to be evacuated out of the bowels, or is possessed of a taste contrary to, or other than what is necessary for the purposes of vitalization, should be looked upon as the primary source of all bodily distempers. 19
विरुद्धाशनजान् रोगान् प्रतिहन्ति विरेचनम् ।
वमनं शमनं वाऽपि पूर्व वा हितसेवनम् ।। २० ।।
Diseases, brought about by a food or drink composed of incompatible substances, are amenable to the use of purgatives, emetics, or pacifying (corrective of the deranged humours) medicines; and such a diet, even when found unavoidable, should be preceded by the use of drugs or substances potent enough to neutralise its faneful
सात्म्यतोऽल्पतया वाऽपि दीप्ताग्नेस्तरुणस्य च । स्निग्धव्यायामबलिनां विरुद्धं वितथं भवेत् ॥ २१ ॥
A meat, in the composition of which substances of incompatible virtues and potencies largely enter, fails to develop any distressing or harmful symptoms in subjects who are habitually addicted to it, or who takes it in small quantities, as well as in persons of youthful vigor and strong appetite, or in those who have become invigorated by the use of oily and albuminous food and healthful physical exercise.² 21
अथ वातगुणान् वक्ष्यामः । पूर्व्वः समधुरः स्निग्धो लवणश्चैव मारुतः । गुरुर्विदाहजननो रक्तपित्ताभिवर्द्धनः ॥ २२ ॥
क्षतानां विषजुष्टानां व्रणिनः श्लेष्मलाश्च ये । तेषामेव विशेषेण सदा रोगविवर्द्धनः ॥ २३ ॥
वातलानां प्रशस्तश्च श्रान्तानां कफशोषिणाम् । तेषामेव विशेषेण व्रणक्लेदविवर्द्धनः ॥ २४ ॥
The effects of the winds: Now we shall describe the effects of the winds on the body, (as they blow from the different quarters of the heaven).
The East wind: The East wind, which is cool and sweet in its potency, is heavy and charged with salt; it aggravates blood and Pittam and gives rise to an acid digestive reaction. It specially aggravates the disease in a patient suffering from a wound or an ulcer, or from the effect of any poison, and affects persons of Slesmala temperament. It is highly efficacious to fatigued persons, as well as to those of a Vatala (nervous) temperament, or who are afflicated with any sort of Kaphaja disease; thought it increases the slimy secretion in their ulcers if there be any. 22-24
मधुरश्चाविदाही च कषायानुरसो लघुः ।। दक्षिणो मारुतः श्रेष्ठचक्षुष्यो बलवर्द्धनः । रक्तपित्तप्रशमनो न च वातप्रकोपणः ।। २५ ।।।
1. This couplet occurs also in the Caraka Samhita. 2. Different Reading- In a child or in a man of voracious appetite.
The South wind : The South wind is light, sweet (produces the same soothing effect on the organism like a thing of sweet taste) and is followed by an astringent after-taste (Anurasa) being antacid in its reaction. It is the best of winds, gives vigour to the eyes, increases the strength, and soothes the blood and the Pittam without aggravating the bodily Vayu. 25
विशदो रूक्षपरुषः खरः स्नेहबलापहः । पश्चिमो मारुतस्तीक्ष्णः कफमेदोविशोषणः ।
सद्यः प्राणक्षयकरः शोषणस्तु शरीरिणाम् ।। २६ ।।।
The West wind : The West wind is pure, non-slimy, dry, rough to the perception, and keen. It absorbs the albumen or oily principle of the body. It absorbs or dries up fat and Kapha, produces a parched condition in the body when exposed to it, and speedily diminishes the strength of a person. 26
उत्तरो मारुतः स्निग्धो मृदुर्मधुर एव च । कषायानुरसः शीतो दोषाणामप्रकोपणः ।। २७ ।।
तस्माच्च प्रकृतिस्थानां क्लेदनो बलवर्द्धनः । क्षीणक्षयविषार्त्तानां विशेषेण तु पूजितः ।।२८ ।।।
The North wind : The North wind is cold, crisp, mild, of a sweet taste terminating in an astringent one. It does not in any way enrage or agitate the deranged bodily humours. In healthy subjects it increases the strength and the running secretions from the different orfices of the body (such as the nostrils etc.) It proves extremely salutary to patients suffering from consumption, cachexia and the effects of poison. 27-28
इति सुश्रुतसंहितायां सूत्रस्थाने हिताहितीयो नाम विंशोऽध्यायः ॥२०॥
Thus ends the twentieth Chapter of the Sutrasthana in the Susruta samhita which treats of salutary and nonsalutary effects of the regimen.