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Sushruta SamhitaShrira SthanaGarbhavakranti Sharira - treats decent of embryo - Sushrutasamhita Sharirasthana Chapter 3

Garbhavakranti Sharira – treats decent of embryo – Sushrutasamhita Sharirasthana Chapter 3

तृतीयोऽध्यायः अथातो गर्भावक्रान्तिशारीरं व्याख्यास्यामः, यथोवाच भगवान् धन्वतरिः ॥ १ ॥

Now we shall discourse on the Sharira which treats of decent of embryo etc. (Garbhavakranti Sharira). 1

सौम्यं शुक्रमार्त्तवमाग्नेयमितरेषामप्यत्र भूतानां सान्निध्यमस्त्यणुना विशेषेण, परस्परोपकारात् (परस्परानुग्रहात्) परस्परानुप्रवेशाच्च ।। २ ।।

The male reproductive element (Sukra) is endowed with somaguna (i.e.. thermolytic properties), the female element (Artava ) presents the opposite property and is therefore of Agni-guna (i.e..thermogenetic properties). The principles of earth, water, fire, air and ether are also present in men in their subtle forms and contribute to the formation of the material parts by their molecular adjustment in the way of being useful to each other, obliging each other and in way of assciating to each other in formation of the body. 2

तत्र स्त्रीपुंसयोः संयोगे तेजः शरीराद् वायुरुदीरयति । ततस्तेजोनिलसन्निपाताच्छुक्रं च्युतं योनिमभिप्रतिपद्यते संसयत चार्तवेन । ततोऽग्नीषोमसंयोगात् संसृज्यमानो गर्भाशयमनुप्रतिपद्यते क्षेत्रज्ञो वेदयिता स्पष्टा घ्राता द्रष्टा श्रोता रसयिता पुरुषः स्रष्टा गन्ता साक्षी धाता वक्ता यः कोऽसावित्येवमादिभिः पर्यायवाचकैर्नामभिरभिधीयते दैवसंयोगादक्षयोऽव्ययोऽचिन्त्यो भूतात्मना सहान्वक्षं सत्त्वरजस्तमोभिर्देवासुरैरपरैश्च भावैर्वायुनाऽभिप्रेर्यमाणो गर्भाशयमनुप्रविश्यावतिष्ठते ।। ३ ।।

Combination of Self with the impregnated matter : The local Vayu (nerve-force) heightens or aggravates the heat generated by the friction of the sexual organs in an act of copulation. The Vayu and heat thus aggravated tend to dislodge the semen from its sac or receptacle in a man which enters the uterus of a woman through the vaginal canal and there it mixes with the ovum (Artava) dislodged and secreted by similar causes. The combined ovum and semen are subsequently confined in the uterus (Garbhasaya). After that, He who is known by the epithets of Self-conscious, impressioner (creator of sensations and perceptions), toucher, smeller, seer, hearer, taster, Self or Ego, creator, wanderer, witness, ordainer, speaker, though eternal, unmanifested and incomprehensible in his real nature, takes hold of the five subtle or essential material principles contributed by the united impregnating matter, assumes a subtle shape throughout, marked by the three fundamental qualities of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas and led away by the Vayu, lies confined in the uterus to be subsequently evolved out in the shape of a god, animal, or monster, as determined by his acts in the former existence. 3

तत्र शुक्रबाहुल्यात् पुमान्, आर्त्तवबाहुल्यात् स्त्री, साम्यादुभयोर्नपुंसकमिति ।

ऋतुस्तु द्वादशरात्रं भवति दृष्टार्त्तवः । अदृष्टार्त्तवाऽप्यस्तीत्येके भाषन्ते।। ४ ।।

Factors which determine sex: The birth of a male-child marks the preponderance of semen over the ovum (in its conception); the birth of a daughter shows the preponderance of the maternal element. A child of no-sex (hermaphrodite) is the product when ovum and sperm are equal (in their quality and quantity). The first twelve nights after the cessation of the flow should be deemed as the proper period for conception, as being the time during which the ova are secreted. Certain authorities hold that there are women who never menstruate to all appearances. 4

पीनप्रसन्नवदनां भवन्ति चात्र प्रक्लिन्नात्ममुखद्विजाम् । नरकामां प्रियकथां स्त्रस्तकुक्ष्यक्षिमूर्धजाम् ॥ ५ ॥

स्फुरद्भुजकुचश्रोणि-नाभ्यूरुजघनस्फिचाम् । हर्षौत्सुक्यपराञ्चापि विद्यादृतुमतीमिति ॥ ६ ॥

Memorable verses : The face of a woman (lit: a woman of undetected menstruation) becomes full and lively. A moist and clumsy deposit is found on the body, face, teeth and gums. She feels a desire for sexual intercourse and speaks sweet wongly /vibration words, Her eyes, hair and belly droop down. A sort of distinct throbbing is felt in her arms, thighs, mammae, umbilicus, perineum and buttocks. Her sexual desire grows ctrut cartR intense and prominent, and its gratification gives her utmost joy and pleasure. These symptoms will at once indicate that a woman has menstruated (internally). 5-6

नियतं दिवसेऽतीते सङ्कुचत्यम्बुजं यथा । ऋतौ व्यतीते नार्यास्तु योनिः संव्रियते तथा ।। ७ ।।

मासेनोपचितं काले धमनीभ्यां तदार्त्तवम् । ईषत्कृष्णं विगन्धञ्च वायुर्योनिमुखं नयेत् ।। ८ ।।

Just as the petals of a full blown lotus flower are gathered up during the night, so the uterus (Yoni) of a woman is folded up (i.e., os of the uterus is closed) after the lapse of the menstrual period (i.e. fifteen days from the date of the flow). The menstrual flow, accumulated in the course of a month, is led in time by the local Vayu through its specific duct (Dhamani) into the mouth of the uterus (Yoni) whence it flows out odourless and blackish. 7-8

तद् वर्षाद् द्वादशात् काले वर्त्तमानमसक पुनः । जरापक्वशरीराणां याति पञ्चाशतः क्षयम् ।। ९ ।।

Period of Menstruation : The process ( Menstruation ) commences at the twelfth year, flowing once in every month and continues till the fiftieth¹ year when it disappears with the sensible decay of the body. 9

युग्मेषु तु पुमान् प्रोक्तो दिवसेष्वन्यथाऽबला । पुष्पकाले शुचिस्तस्मादपत्यार्थी स्त्रियं व्रजेत् ।। १० ।।

A visit to one’s wife on even days during the catamenial period

1. Some are of opinion that the menstruation continues up to the sixtieth year. 2. According to Videha, menstrual secretion flows less on even days, hence a son is born if the sexual intercourse be made on those days; whereas menstrual secretion becomes more on odd days, so a daughter is born if the intercourse be made on odd days. (twelve days in all form the cessation of the flow) leads to the conception of a male child while an intercourse on odd days results in the birth of a daughter. Hence a man, seeking a male-issue, should approach his wife for the purpose in a clean body and with a quiet and calm spirit on an even date. 10

तत्र सद्योगृहीतगर्भाया लिङ्गानि – श्रम ग्लानि पिपासा सक्थिसदनं शुक्रशोणितयोरवबन्धः स्फुरणञ्च योनेः ।। ११ ।।

A sense of fatigue and physical langour, thirst. lassitude and weariness in the thighs, suppression of the flow of semen and menstrual secretion (Sukra and Sonita) out of the uterus (Yoni) and throbbing in the organ (after coition) are symptoms of a recent fecundation. 11

स्तनयोः कृष्णमुखता रोमराज्युद्गमस्तथा । अक्षिपक्ष्माणि चाप्यस्याः संमील्यन्ते विशेषतः || १२ ||

अकामतश्छर्द्दयति गन्धादुद्विजते शुभात् । प्रसेकः सदनञ्चापि गर्भिण्या लिङ्गमुच्यते ।। १३ ।।

Signs of Pregnancy : (M. T.) : A black rash (areola) around the nipples of the mammae, the rising appearance of a row of hair (as far as the umbilicus), contractions of the eye-wings, sudden vomitings, nausea which does not abate even on smelling perfumes, water brash and a sense of general lassitude are the indications of pregnancy. 13-14

तदा प्रभृत्येव व्यायामं व्यवायमतितर्पणमतिकर्षणं दिवास्वप्नं रात्रि जागरणं शोकं यानावरोहणं भयमुत्कुटुकासनञ्चैकान्ततः स्नेहादिक्रियां शोणितमोक्षणञ्चाकाले वेगविधारणञ्च न सेवेत् ।। १५ ।।

Prohibited conducts during gestation : Immediately on the ascertainment of her pregnancy, a woman should avoid all kinds of physical labour, sexual intercourse, over eating, fasting, causes of emaciation of the body, day-sleep, keeping of late hours, indulgence in grief, fright, journey by carriage or in any kind of conveyance,

According to Bhoja, a son is born from intercourse on even days and a daughter is born from that on odd days. The birth of a male issue is due to the preponderance of semen virile and that of a female sex is due to the preponderance of menstrual secretion. If both the secretions be equal (in quality and quantity) a hermaphrodite is born. sitting on her hunches, excessive application of Sneha-karmas etc., and venesection at an improper time (i.e., after the eighth month of gestation), and voluntary retention of any natural urging of the body. 15

दोषाभिघातैर्गर्भिण्या यो यो भागः प्रपीड्यते । स स भागः शिशोस्तस्य गर्भस्थस्य प्रपीडयते ।। १६ ।।

Metrical Text: The child in the womb feels pain in the same part of its body as the one in which its mother feels any; whether this (pain) may be from an injury or through the effect of any deranged morbific principle (Dosa) of her organism. 16

तत्र प्रथमे मासि कललं जायते; द्वितीये शीतोष्मानिलैरभिप्रपच्यमानानां महाभूतानां सङ्घातो घनः संजायते; यदि पिण्डः पुमान्, स्त्री चेत् पेशी, नपुंसकं चेदर्बुदमिति । तृतीये हस्तपादशिरसां पञ्च पिण्डका निर्वर्त्तन्तेऽङ्गप्रत्यङ्गविभागश्च सूक्ष्मो भवति । चतुर्थे सर्वा ङ्गप्रत्यङ्गविभागः प्रव्यक्तो भवति, गर्भहृदयप्रव्यक्तिभावाच्चेतनाधातुरभिव्यक्तो भवति; कस्मात् ? तत्स्थानत्वात्। तस्माद् गर्भश्चतुर्थे मास्यभिप्रायमिन्द्रियार्थेषु करोति । द्विहृदयाञ्च नारीं दौर्हदिनीमाचक्षते । दौर्हदविमाननात् कुब्जं कुणिं खञ्जं जडं वामनं विकृताक्षमनक्षं वा नारी सुतं जनयति । तस्मात् सा यद् यदिच्छेत् तत्तत् तस्यै दापयेत् । लब्धदौहदा हि वीर्यवन्तं चिरायुषञ्च पुत्रं जनयति ।। १७ ।।

Development of the Foetus: In the first month of gestation a gelatinous substance is only formed (in the womb); the molecules of the primary elements (Mahabhuta – air, fire, earth, water and ether) being acted upon by cold (Kapha), heat (Pitta) and air (Vayu or nerveforce) are condensed in the second month. A lump-like appearance (of that confused matter) indicates the male-sex (of the embryo). An elongated-like shape of the matter denotes that the foetus belongs to the opposite sex; whereas its tumour-like shape (like a Salmali-bud) predicts the absence of any sex (i.e. a hermaphrodite). In the third month, five lump-like protuberances appear at the places from where the five organs – namely the two hands, two legs and the head are to be developed and the minor limbs and organs of the body are to be formed in the shape of extremely small papillae. In the fourth month all the limbs and organs (of the body of the embryo) become more manifested and the foetus is endowed with consciousness owing to the formation of viscus of the heart. As heart is the seat of consciousness, so as the heart becomes manifested, it is endowed with consciousness and hence it expresses its desire for things of taste, smell etc. (through the longings of its mother). The enciente is called double-hearted (Dauhrda) at the time, whose wishes and desires-not being honoured and gratified-lead to the birth of a paralysed, hump-backed, crookedarmed, lame, dwarfed, defect-eyed, and a blind child. Hence the desires of the enciente should be gratified, which would ensure the birth of a strong, vigorous and longlived son. 17

भवन्ति चात्र

इन्द्रियार्थांस्तु यान् यान् सा भोक्तुमिच्छति गर्भिणी । गर्भाबाधभयात् तांस्तान् सा प्राप्तदौर्हदा पुत्रं जनयेत भिषंगाहृत्य दापयेत् ।। १८ ।।

गुणान्वितम् । अलब्धदौर्हदा गर्भे लभेतात्मनि वा येषु येष्विन्द्रियार्थेषु दौहृदे वै प्रजायेत भयम् ।। १९ । ।

विमानना । सुतस्यार्त्तिस्तस्मिंस्तस्मिंस्तथेन्द्रिये ।। २० ।।

Memorable Verses: A physician should care the longings of a pregnant woman (Dauhrda) to be gratifled in as much as such gratifications would alleviate the discomforts of gestation; her desires being fulfilled ensure the birth of a strong, long-lived, and virtuous son. A non-fulfilment of her desires during pregnncy, proves injurious both to her child and her ownself. A non-gratification of any sensual enjoyment by its mother (Dauhrda) during gestation tends to painfully affect the particular sense-organ of the child. 18-20

राजसन्दर्शने यस्या दौर्हृदं जायते स्त्रियाः । अर्थवन्तं महाभागं कुमारं सा दुकूलपट्टकौशेय- भूषणादिषु अलङ्कारैषिणं पुत्रं ललितं सा आश्रमे संयतात्मानं धर्मशीलं देवताप्रतिमायान्तु दर्शने व्यालजातीनां हिंसाशीलं प्रसूयते । प्रसूयते ।। २१ ।।

दौर्हदात् । प्रसूयते ॥ २२ ॥

प्रसूयते । प्रसूते पार्षदोपमम् ।। २३ ।।

गोधामांसाशने पुत्रं सुषुप्सुं धारणात्मकम् । गवां मांसे च बलिनं सर्वक्लेशसहं तथा ॥ २४ ॥

माहिषे दौर्हदाच्छूरं रक्ताक्षं लोमसंयुतम् । वराहमांसात् स्वप्नालुं शूरं सञ्जनयेत् सुतम् ।। २५ ।।

मार्गाद् विक्रान्तजङ्घालं सदा वनचरं सुतम् । समराद् विग्नमनसं नित्यभीतञ्च तैत्तिरात् ।। २६ ।।

अतोऽनुक्तेषु या नारी समभिध्याति दौर्हदम् । शरीराचारशीलैः सा समानं जनयिष्यति ॥ २७ ॥

कर्मणा चोदितं जन्तोर्भवितव्यं पुनर्भवेत् । यथा तथा दैवयोगाद् दौर्हदं जनयेद् द्धृदि । २८ ।

Longings and its effects during pregnancy: An enciente longing for a royal interview during her gestation (fourth month) gives birth of a child, who is sure to be rich and to hold a high position in life. Her longing for fine silks, clothes, ornaments etc. indicates the birth of a beautiful child of aesthetic taste. The birth of a pious and selfcontrolled child is indicated by its mother’s longing for a visit to a hermitage. The desire of a pregnant woman to see a divine image or an idol, predicts the birth of a child in her womb who would grace the council of an august assembly in life. Similarly, a desire to see a savage animal on the part of a pregnant woman signifies the presence of a child of savage and cruel temperament in her womb. A desire for the flesh of a Godha indicates the presence of a sleepy, drowsy person in her womb who would be tenaciously fond of good things in life. Similarly a longing for beef on the part of the mother (during gestation) indicates the birth of a strong and vigorous child capable of sustaining any amount of fatigue and physical pain. A longing for buffalo-meat of the mother indicates the birth of a hairy, valiant and red-eyed child (in her womb); a longing for boar-flesh indicates the birth of a drowsy child though valiant; a longing for venison indicates that of an energetic, determined and sylvan-habited child; a longing for Srmara-meat indicates that of a distracted person; a longing for the flesh of Tittira bird indicates that of a child of timid disposition; whereas a desire on the part of an enciente for the flesh of any particular animal indicates that the child in the womb would be of such stature and would develop such traits of character in life as are similar to that animal. The desires of a woman during her pregnancy are determined by ordained fate and effects of the acts of the child in its prior existence (that are to be happened during the present life). 21-28

पञ्चमे मनः प्रतिबुद्धतरं भवति । षष्ठे बुद्धिः । सप्तमे सर्वाङ्गप्रत्यङ्गविभागः प्रव्यक्ततरः । अष्टमेऽस्थिरीभवत्योजः, तत्र जातश्चेन्न जीवेन्निरोजस्त्वान्नैर्ऋतभागत्वाच्च, ततो बलिं मांसौदनमस्मै दापयेत् । नवमदशमैकादशद्वादशानामन्यतमस्मिन् जायते । अतोऽन्यथा विकारी भवति ।। २९ ।।

Development of the Foetus: In the fifth month the foetus is endowed with mind (Manah) and wakes up from the sleep of its subconscious existence. In the sixth month cognition ( Buddhi) comes in. In the seventh month all the limbs and members of its body are more markedly developed. The Ojo-dhatu ( in the heart of the foetus) does not remain stable in the eighth month¹. A child born at that time (eighth month) dies for want of Ojo-dhatu soon after its birth, a fact which may be equally ascribed to the agency of the malignant monsters. Hence (in the eighth month of gestation) offerings of meat should be made to the demons and monsters (for the safe continuance of the child). The parturition takes place either in the ninth, tenth, eleventh or twelfth month of conception, otherwise something wrong with the foetus should be apprehended. 29

मातुस्तु खलु रसवहायां नाड्यां गर्भनाभिनाडी प्रतिबद्धा, साऽस्य मातुराहाररसवीर्यमभिवहति । तेनोपस्नेहेनास्याभिवृद्धिर्भवति । असञ्जाताङ्गप्रत्यङ्गप्रविभागमानिषेकात् प्रभृति सर्वशरीरावयवानुसारिणीनां रसवहानां तिर्यग्गतानां धमनीनामुपस्नेहो जीवयति ॥ ३० ॥

The umbilical chord (Nadi) of the foetus is found to be attached to the cavity of the vein or artery of its maternal part through which the essence of lymph-chyle (Rasa) produced from the assimilated food of the mother, enters its organism and fastens its growth and development (a fact which may be understood from the analogy of percolation or tansudation of blood). Immediately after the completion of the process of fecundation, the vessels (Dhamani) of its maternal body which

1. Sometimes it passes from the body of the child to that of the mother and vice versa. carry the lymph-chyle (Rasa) as run laterally and longitudinally in all directions through it, tend to foster the foetus with their own transudation all through its continuance in the womb. 30

गर्भस्य हि सम्भवतः पूर्वं शिरः सम्भवतीत्याह शौनकः, शिरोमूलत्वाद् देहेन्द्रियाणाम् । हृदयमिति कृतवीर्यो, बुद्धेर्मनसश्च स्थानत्वात् ; नाभिरिति पाराशर्यस्ततो हि वर्द्धते देहो देहिनः । पाणिपादमिति मार्कण्डेयस्तन्मूलत्वात् चेष्टाया गर्भस्य। मध्यशरीरमिति सुभूतिर्गौतमस्तन्निबद्धत्वात् सर्वगात्रसम्भवस्य । तत् तु न सम्यक् । सर्वाण्यङ्गप्रत्यङ्गानि युगपत् सम्भवन्तीत्याह धन्वन्तरिर्गर्भस्य सूक्ष्मत्वान्नोपलभ्यन्ते वंशाङ्करवत् चूतफलवच्च। तद्यथा-चूतफले परिपक्वे केशरमांसास्थिमज्जानः पृथक् पृथग् दृश्यन्ते कालप्रकर्षात् तान्येव तरुणे नोपलभ्यन्ते सूक्ष्मत्वात् तेषां सूक्ष्माणां केशरादीनां कालः प्रव्यक्ततां करोति; एतेनैव वंशाङ्कुरोऽपि व्याख्यातः । एवं गर्भस्य तारुण्ये सर्वेष्वङ्गप्रत्यङ्गेषु सत्स्वपि सौक्ष्म्यादनुपलब्धिः; तान्येव कालप्रकर्षात् प्रव्यक्तानि भवन्ति ।। ३१।।

Different opinions on the formation of the foetal body: Saunaka says that probably the head of the foetus is first developed since head is the only organ that makes the functions of all other organs possible. Krtavirya says, it is the heart that is first developed since heart is the seat of Manah and Buddhi (mind and intellect). The son of Parasara says that the development of the umbilical region of foetus must necessarily precede (than that of any other part of its body) in as much as it is through umbilical chord that an embryo draws its substance from mother’s body. Markandeya says that the hands and feet of a foetus are first to be developed since they are the only means of movements in the womb. Subhuti Gautama says that the development of the trunk is the earliest in point of time since all other limbs and organs lie and have their origin linked with that part of the body. But all these are not really the fact. Dhanvantari holds that the development of all the parts of the body of an embryo goes on simultaneously; and they can not be perceived or detected in their earlier stages of development in the womb owing to their extremely attenuated size like a mango fruit or sprouts of bamboo. As the stone, marrow, pith etc. of a ripe and matured mango-fruit or the sprouts of bamboo, cannot be separately perceived in the earlier stage of their growth but are quite distinguishable in the course of their development, likewise in the early stage of pregnancy the limbs and organs of the body (foetus) are not perceptible of their extremely attenuated stage but become potent (and therefore they are distinctly perceived) in the course of time for their development. 31

तत्र गर्भस्य पितृजमातृजरसजात्मजसत्त्वजसात्म्यजानि शरीरलक्षणानि व्याख्यास्यामः । गर्भस्य केशश्मश्रुलोमास्थिनखदन्तसिरास्नायुधमनीरेतः प्रभृतीनि स्थिराणि पितृजानि । मांसशोणितमेदोमज्जहृन्नाभियकृत् प्लीहान्त्रगुदप्रभृतीनि मृदूनि मातृजानि । शरीरोपचयो बलं वर्णः स्थितिर्हानिश्च रसजानि । इन्द्रियाणि ज्ञानं विज्ञानमायुः सुखदुःखादिकञ्चात्मजानि । सत्त्वजान्युत्तरत्र वक्ष्यामः । वीर्यमारोग्यं बलवर्णी मेधा च सात्म्यजानि || ३२||

Factors respectively supplied by the paternal and maternal elements : Now we shall describe the parts and principles of the body of a foetus which are respectively contributed by the paternal element. maternal factor, the serum ( Rasaja ), the soul (atmaja), the mental ( Sattvaja) and the advantageous physiological conditions (Satmyaja). The hairs of the head and body, beard and moustaches, bones, nails, teeth, veins (sira), nerves, arteries (Dhamani), semen and all the steady and hard substances (in the organism of the child) are contributed by the paternal element in the conception Pitraja; whereas flesh, blood, fat, marrow, heart, umbilicus, liver, spleen, intestines, anus (Guda) and all other soft matters in the body owe their origin to the maternal element (Matrja); strength, complexion, growth, rotundity and decay of the body are due to the serum (Rasaja ). The sensual organs, conciousness, knowledge, wisdom, duration of life (longivity), pleasure and pain etc. are the outcome of the spiritual element in man (Atmaja). We shall describe the Sattvaja features of the body in the next chapter. Valour, healthfulness, strength, glow and memory are the products of a child naturally born with advantageous physiological conditions of the parents (Satmyaja). 32

तत्र यस्या दक्षिणे स्तने प्राक् पयोदर्शनं भवति, दक्षिणकुक्षिमहत्त्वञ्च, पूर्वञ्च दक्षिणं सक्थ्युत्कर्षति, बाहुल्याच्च पुन्नामधेयेषु द्रव्येषु दौर्हदमभिध्यायति, स्वप्नेषु चोपलभते पद्मोत्पलकुमुदाम्रातकादीनि पुन्नामान्येव, प्रसन्नमुखवर्णा च भवति, तां ब्रूयात् पुत्रमियं जनयिष्यतीति; तद्विपर्यये कन्याम्। यस्याः पार्श्वद्वयमुन्नतं पुरस्तान्निर्गतमुदरं प्रागभिहितलक्षणञ्च तस्या नपुंसकमिति विद्यात् । यस्या मध्ये निम्नं द्रोणीभूतमुदरं सा युग्मं प्रसूयत इति ।। ३३ ।।

Signs of male and female conception : An enciente, in whose right mammae the milk is first detected, who first lifts up her right leg at the time of locomotion, whose right flank becomes larger, or who evinces a longing largely for things of masculine names, dreams of having received lotus flowers (red and white), Utpal, Kumud, Amratak or flowers of such masculine denomination in her sleep, or the glow of whose face-becomes brighter during pregnancy, may be expected to give birth to a male child; whereas the birth of a daughter or a female child should be pre-assumed from the contrary of the foregoing indications. An enciente whose sides become raised and the forepart of whose abdomen is found to bulge out will give birth to a sex-less (hermaphrodite) child. An enciente, the middle part of whose abdomen becomes sunk or divided in the middle like a leather-bag, will give birth to a twin. 33

भवन्ति चात्र देवताब्राह्मणपरा: शौचाचारहिते रताः । महागुणान् प्रसूयन्ते विपरीतास्तु निर्गुणान् ॥ ३४ ॥

अङ्गप्रत्यङ्गनिर्वृत्तिः स्वभावादेव जायते । अङ्गप्रत्यङ्गनिर्वृत्तौ ये भवन्ति गुणागुणाः । ते ते गर्भस्य विज्ञेया धर्माधर्मनिमित्तजाः ।। ३५ ।।

Memorable verses: Those women who are devout in their worship of the gods and the Brahmins and cherish a clean soul in a clean body during pregnancy are sure to be blessed with good, virtuous and generous children; whereas a contrary conduct during the period is sure to be attended with contrary fruits. The development of the limbs and the members etc. of a foetus in the womb is natural and spontaneous, and the qualities and conditions which mark these organs are determined by the acts of the child which are anterior to its genesis and were done in its prior existence. 34-35

इति सुश्रुतसंहिताया शारीरस्थाने गर्भावक्रान्तिशारीरं नाम तृतीयोऽध्यायः ।। ३ ।।

Thus ends the third Chapter of the Sharira Sthana in the Susruta Samhita which treats of the generation and pregnancy.


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