अथातो दृष्टिरोगविज्ञानीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः । इति स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः । ह
We shall now expound the chapter-Drishtiroga vijnaniya – knowledge of the diseases of vision; thus said Atreya and other great sages.
Timiraसिरानुसारिणि मले प्रथमं पटलं श्रिते । अव्यक्तमीक्षते रूपं व्यक्तमप्यनिमित्ततः ॥ १ ॥
प्राप्ते द्वितीयं पटलमभूतमपि पश्यति । भूतं तु यत्नादासन्नं दूरे सूक्ष्मं च नेक्षते ॥ २ ॥
दूरान्तिकस्थं रूपं च विपर्यासेन मन्यते । दोषे मण्डलसंस्थाने मण्डलानीव पश्यति ॥ ३ ॥
द्विधैकं दृष्टिमध्यस्थे बहुधा बहुधास्थिते । दृष्टेरभ्यन्तरगते ह्रस्ववृद्धविपर्ययम् ॥४॥
नान्तिकस्थमधः संस्थे दूरगं नोपरि स्थिते । पार्श्वे पश्येन्नपार्श्वस्थे तिमिराख्योऽयमामयः ॥ ५ ॥
When the malas ( dosas) moving in the siras (veins) get localised in the first patala (layer) the person sees the objects hazy, though it is clearly visible, with no other obvious reason.
When they (dosas) spread to the second patala (layer), the person sees objects which are not present, sees near objects with great effort and the distant objects which are small are not seen at all; understands distant objects as present near by and vice versa.
When the dosas are lacalised in the form of a circle, the patient sees circular shapes in all things; when localised in the centre of the drishti (area of vision) he sees one object as two when they are localised at many places, he sees one object as many; when the dosa gets into the ( area of ) vision, small objects are seen big and vice versa; when localised below, he does not see near by objects; when localised above, distant objects are not seen; when localised at the sides, objects present in the sides are not seen. All these are known as the disease-Timira. 1-5.
प्राप्नोति काचतां दोषे तृतीयपटलाश्रिते । तेनोर्ध्वमीक्षते नाधस्तनुचैलावृतोपमम् ॥ ६ ॥ यथा वर्णं च रज्येत दृष्टिर्होयेत च क्रमात् ।
When the dosas get localised in the third patala (layer), the person gets the disease called Kaca, in which he sees objects present above but not those present below, objects are seen as covered by thin cloth, the area of vision, assumes the colour related to the dosa, and gradually the vision diminishes. 6-7a.
तथाऽप्युपेक्षमाणस्य चतुर्थं पटलं गतः॥७॥ लिङ्गनाशं मलः कुर्वन् छादयेदृष्टिमण्डलम् ।
Even then, when the disease is neglected, the dosas getting localised in the fourth patala (layer) produce the disease Linganasa, by covering the whole area vision. 7b-8a.
Notes : Timira, kaca and linganasa, are the three successive stages of opacity of the lens, giving rise to transient, partial and total blindness respectively.
तत्र वातेन तिमिरे व्याविद्धमिव पश्यति ॥ ८ ॥
चलाविलारुणाभासं प्रसन्नं चेक्षते मुहुः । जालानि केशान् मशकान् रश्मींश्चोपेक्षितेऽत्र च ॥ ९ ॥
काचीभूते दूगरुणा पश्यत्यास्यमनासिकम् । चन्द्रदीपाद्यनेकत्वं वक्रमृज्वपि मन्यते ॥ १० ॥
वृद्धः काचो दृशं कुर्याद्रजोधूमावृतामिव । स्पष्टारुणाभां बिस्तीर्णां सूक्ष्मां वा हतदर्शनाम् ॥ ११ ॥ स लिङ्गनाशो
In timira caused by vata, the person sees the objects as though covered ( with thin cloth), unsteady, dirty, slightly red, sometimes and some other times as clear and clean; sees webs, hairs, masquitoes and rays of light in front of his eyes.
When kaca has developed, the area of vision is slightly red, the person sees the face (of others) as noseless, sees the moon, lamp etc. as many ( even though one ), understands curved things as straight; kaca when grows older, makes the sight of objects as though covered with dust and smoke, of well defined red colour, wide spread (expanded) or small in size and loss of vision. This stage is Linganasa. वाते तु सङ्कोचयति दृक्सिराः । 8b-11.
दुग्मण्डलं विशत्यन्तर्गम्भीरा दृगसौ स्मृता ॥ १२ ॥
(Increased) vata causes constriction of the siras ( veins) of the drishti (organ of vision), in drawing of the drishti mandala (organ of vision), the condition is called as Gambhira drishti.
Pittaja timira etc.
पित्तजे तिमिरे विद्युत्खद्योतद्योतदीपितम् । शिखितित्तिरिपत्राभं प्रायो नीलं च पश्यति ॥ १३ ॥
काचे दृक काचनीलाभा तादृगेव च पश्यति । अर्कन्दुपरिवेषाग्निमरीचीन्द्रधनूंषि च ॥ १४ ॥
भृङ्गनीला निरालोका दृक् स्निग्धा लिङ्गनाशतः। दृष्टिः पित्तेन ह्रस्वाख्या सा ह्रस्वा ह्रस्वदर्शिनी ॥ १५ ॥
भवेत्पित्तविदग्धाख्या पीता पीताभदर्शना ।
In timira, born from pitta, the person sees lightening (flashes) of light), glow worm and burning lamp etc. (before his eyes), objects appear as deep blue in colour like the feather of the peacock and tittiri ( partridge). In kaca, the organ of vision appears as kacanila (light blue) so the person sees objects in the same colour; the sun, moon, fire, mirage and rainbow as surrounded by haloes (coloured rings).
In linganasa (of pitta origin) the drishti (organ of vision ) is blue like that of a bee, incapable of seeing and is unctuous. It is known as Hysva drishti and the person sees only very little. When the organ of vision becomes yellow and the person sees the objects as yellow coloured, then the condition is called as pittavidagdha drishti.
कफेन तिमिरे प्रायः स्निग्धं श्वेतं च पश्यति ॥ १६ ॥
कुमुदैरिव शङ्खदुकुन्दकुसुमैः चाचितम् । काचे तु निष्प्रभेन्द्रर्कप्रदीपाद्यैरिवाचितम् ॥ १७ ॥
सिताभा सा च दृष्टिः स्याल्लिङ्गनाशे तु लक्ष्यते । मूर्तः कफो दृष्टिगतः स्निग्धो दर्शननाशनः ॥ १८ ॥
बिन्दुर्जलस्येव चलः पद्मिनीपुटसंस्थितः । उष्णे सङ्कोचमायाति छायायां परिसर्पति ॥ १९ ॥
Generally in timira, born from kapha, the person sees the objects as unctuous (greasy), white, as that of a conch shell, moon, flowers of kunda and as though covered with kumuda (petals of lilly). In kaca, the moon, the sun, the flame etc. appear lustreless without their shining) and as though covered (with cloth). In linganasa, the organ of vision is white in colour so also the objects seen, solid kapha which is unctuous getting localised in the organ of vision causes loss of vision, like a drop of water standing on a lotus leaf, it (vision) is unsteady, shrinks (becomes reduced) when there is heat (during day) and expands when there is shade (during night) the objects are seen white like the conch, kunda and the moon, lily and rock crystal. 16b-20a.
Raktaja timira etc
रक्तेन तिमिरे रक्तं तमोभूतं च पश्यति ॥ २० ॥ कृष्णा दृष्टिस्तादृक् च पश्यति ।
काचेन रक्ता वा लिङ्गनाशेऽपि तादृग् दृङ् निष्प्रभा हतदर्शना ॥ २१ ॥ In timira caused by blood, the organ of vision is red and the person sees objects as though in darkness. In kaca the organ of vision is either red or black and the objects are seen similarly. In linganasa also the organ and the objects seen are similar (in colour), lustreless and there is loss of vision also. 20b-21.
संसर्गसन्निपातेषु विह्यात्सङ्कीर्णलक्षणान् । तिमिरादीनकस्माच्च तैः स्याद्व्यक्ताकुलेक्षणः ॥ २२ ॥
तिमिरे, शेषयोर्दृष्टौ चित्रो रागः प्रजायते ।
In those timira etc. caused by combination of two and three dosas, the symptoms of the dosas involved are present; in timira the objects are seen sometimes clear and sometimes as covered; and in the remaining (kaca and linganasa) objects are seen as having either many colours or red.
द्योत्यते नकुलस्येव यस्य दृङ् निचिता मलैः ॥ २३ ॥ नकुलान्धः स तत्राह्नि चित्रं पश्यति नो निशि
By the aggravation of all the mala (dosas), the organ of vision of the person appears as that of a mungoose. He is Known as Nakulandha-sees objects in different colours during day but not at night. 23b-24a.
अर्केऽस्तमस्तकन्यस्तगभस्तौ स्तम्भमागताः ॥ २४ ॥
स्थगयन्ति दृशं दोषा दोषान्धः स गदोऽपरः । दिवाकरकरस्पृष्टा भ्रष्टा दृष्टिपथान्मलाः ॥ २५॥
विलीनलीना यच्छन्ति व्यक्तमत्राह्नि दर्शनम् ।
Just as the rays of the sun present at the peak of the mountain of the setting sun are found disappearing, similarly the dosas bring about the loss of the vision. This is another disease known as Dosandha. In this the person sees things when the dosas get dissolved and move out of the path of vision touched by (by the effect of) the suns rays. Hence the person sees only during day. 24b-26a.
उष्णतप्तस्य सहसा शीतवारिनिमज्जनात् ॥ २६ ॥ त्रिदोषरक्तसंपुक्तो यात्यूष्मोर्ध्वं ततोऽक्षिणि ।
दाहोषे मलिनं शुक्लमहन्याविलदर्शनम् ॥ २७ ॥ रात्रावान्ध्यं च जायेत विदग्धोष्णेन सा स्मृता ।
By plunging into cold water immediately after long exposure to heat (or the sun, fire etc.) all the three dosas associated with rakta (blood) make the heat move upward to the eyes. By that, there is burning sensation, feeling of heat, dirtiness of the sclera; objects seen appear as though dirty during day and there is blindness at night, due to excess of heat. This is known as Usnavidagdha drishti. 26b-28a.
Amla vidagdha drishti
भृशमम्लाशनाद्दोषैः सास्त्रैर्या दृष्टिराचिता ॥ २८ ॥ सक्लेदकण्डूकलुषा विदग्धाऽम्लेन सा स्मृता ।
By over-indulgence in foods which are sour, the dosas associated with blood get increased and accumulate in the eyes, producing increase of moistness, itching and dirtiness. This disease is known as Amlavidagdha drishti. 28b-29a.
शोकज्वरशिरोरोगसन्तप्तस्यानिलादयः ॥ २९ ॥ धूमाविलां धूमदृशं दृशं कुर्युःस धूमरः ।
In persons, suffering from grief, fever, and headache, the anila (vata) etc. (dosas) make the eye as though covered with smoke, and also the objects seen. This disease is Dhumara. 29b-30a.
सहसैवाल्पसत्त्वस्य पश्यतो रूपमद्भुतम् ॥ ३० ॥
भास्वरं भास्करादिं वा वाताद्या नयनाश्रिताः । कुर्वन्ति तेज: संशोष्य दृष्टिं मुषितदर्शनाम् ॥ ३१ ॥
वैडूर्यवर्णां स्तिमितां प्रकृतिस्थामिवाव्यथाम् । औपसर्गिक इत्येष लिङ्गनाशो
The person of weak mind, suddenly seeing sights which are grotesque; very bright objects such as the sun etc; vata and other (dosas) residing in the eye ( getting aggravated) cause drying (of the moistness of the eye) and make the eye very bright (abnormal brightness) having the colour of vaidurya gem (cat’s eye), steady and appearing as though normal without any pain ( or other troubles ). This is known as Aupasargika linganasa. 30b-32.
उत्र वर्जयेत् ॥ ३२ ॥
विना कफाल्लिङ्गनाशान् गम्भीरां ह्रस्वजामपि । षट् काचा नकुलान्धश्च याप्याः, शेषांस्तु साधयेत् ॥ ३३ ॥
द्वादशेति गदा दृष्टौ निर्दिष्टाः सप्तविंशतिः ॥ ३३ ॥
Out of these (above disease) all the linganasa except the one born from kapha, gambhira drishti and hrsva drishti, the six kaca and nakulandha are yapya (controllable and persisting long); the remaining twelve diseases (are curable and ) should be treated.
Thus were described the twenty seven diseases of drishti (organ of vision). 33-33½.
इति श्रीवैद्यपतिसिंहगुप्तसूनुश्रीमद्वाग्भटविरचितायामष्टाङ्गहृदयसंहितायां षष्ठे उत्तरस्थाने दृष्टिरोगविज्ञानीयो नाम द्वादशोऽध्यायः ॥ १२ ॥
Thus ends the chapter-drishti roga vijnaniya-the twelvth in of Astangahrdaha samhita composed by Srimad Vagbhata, son of Sri Vaidyapati Simhagupta.