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Sushruta SamhitaDravaDravya-Vidhi-adhyaya - Sushrutasamhita Sutrasthana Chapter 45

DravaDravya-Vidhi-adhyaya – Sushrutasamhita Sutrasthana Chapter 45

पञ्चचत्वारिंशोऽध्यायः अथातो द्रवद्रव्यविधिमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः, यथोवाच भगवान् धन्वन्तरि ॥१॥ .

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter, which deals with the rules to be observed in respect of liquid substances in general (DravaDravya-Vidhi-adhyaya). 1

पानीयमान्तरीक्षमनिर्देश्यरसममृतं जीवनं तर्पणं धारणमाश्वासजननं

श्रमक्लमपिपासामदमूर्च्छातन्द्रानिद्रादाहप्रशमनमेकान्ततः पथ्यतमञ्च॥ २ ॥

Water Group : Atmospheric, or rain water is possessed of a non-potent taste. It is ambrosial in its nature, pleasant and beneficial to life. It is enlivening,’ invigorating to strength-giving. refrigerent, frigorific, anti-hypnotic, and conquers thirst intoxication, drowsiness and fits of fainting. It is most wholesome to the human body. 2

तदेवावनीपतितमन्यतमं रसमुपलभते स्थानविशेषान्नदीनदसरस्तडागवापीकूपचुण्टीप्रस्रवणोद्भिदविकिरकेदारपल्वलादिषु स्थानेष्ववस्थितमिति । तत्र लोहितकपिलपाण्डुनीलपीतशुक्लेष्ववनिप्रदेशेषु मधुराम्ललवणकटुतिक्तकषायाणि यथासङ्ख्यमुदकानि सम्भवन्तीत्येके भाषन्ते, तत् तु न सम्यक् । तत्र पृथिव्यादीनामन्योऽन्यानुप्रवेशकृतः सलिलरसो भवर्युत्कर्षापकर्येण । तत्र स्वलक्षणभूयिष्ठायां भूमावम्लं

1. Enlivens the body during fits of fainting and such like cases. 2. Imparts strength to the exhausted or emaciated frames.

लवणञ्च । अम्बुगुणभूयिष्ठायां मधुरम् । तेजोगुणभूयिष्ठायां कटुकं तिक्तञ्च । वायुगुणभूयिष्ठायां कषायम् । आकाशगुणभूयिष्ठायाम् अव्यक्तरसम्, अव्यक्तं ह्याकाशमित्यतस्तत्प्रधानमव्यक्तरसत्वात्; तत् पेयमान्तरीक्षालाभे॥३॥

After having fallen upon the surface of the earth it acquires one of the six different tastes according to the nature of its receptacle such as a river, or a Nada (a river with a masculine name), a pond, a tank (Vapi)’, a Kupa±, a Cunti, a fountain, an Artesian spring a Vikira’, fallow land (Kedar), or a pond covered over with a growth of aquatic plants (Palvala). Certain authorities maintain that heavenly or atmospheric water having fallen on a red, brown, grey, yellow, blue or white coloured soil, respectively assumes a sweet, acid, saline, pungent bitter or an astringent taste. But the theory is not a sound one in as much as the comparative predominance of the attributes of the five material principles in a particular soil determines the taste of the water contained therein. Water, contained or collected in a soil marked by a predominance of the attributes of earth-principle, acquires an acid and saline taste. Water contained in a soil marked by predominance of water acquires sweet, taste. Water, contained in a soil marked by a predominance of the attributes of fire, acquires a bitter and pungent taste. Water, contained in a soil marked by a predominance of the attributes of air, acquires an astringent taste. The sky is devoid of all tastes, and hence, the water contained in a soil, which is largely possessed of the specific attributes of that element, is characterised by the absence of any taste whatever. Only the last named kind should be used for drinking purposes where atmospheric water would not be available. 3

तत्रान्तरीक्षं चतुर्विधम् । तद्यथा- धारं कारं तौषरं हैममिति । तेषां धारं प्रधानं लघुत्वात् । तत् पुनर्द्विविधं गाङ्गं सामुद्रञ्चेति । तत्र गाङ्गमाश्वयुजे मासि प्रायशो वर्षति । तयोर्द्वयोरपि परीक्षणं कुर्वीत | शाल्योदनपिण्डमकुथितमविदग्धं रजतभाजनोपहितं वर्षति देवे

1. A tank or a large well with its sides protected by buctresses of masonry work. 2. A well with flights of masonry steps descending to its bottom.

3. An ordinary well unprotected by buttresses and unprovided with steps.

4. A flow of subterranean water dug out of a bed of sand.

बहिष्कुर्वीत, स यदि मूहूर्त्तं स्थितस्तादृश एव भवति तदा गाङ्गं पततीत्यवगन्तव्यम्; वर्णान्यत्वे सिक्थक्लेदे च सामुद्रमिति विद्यात्, तन्नोपादेयम् । सामुद्रमप्याश्वयुजे मासि गृहीतं गाङ्गवद् भवति। गाङ्गं पुनः प्रधानं, तदुपाददीताश्वयुजे मासि, शुचिशुक्लविततपटैकदेशच्युतमथवा हर्म्यतलपरिभ्रष्टमन्यैर्वा शुचिभिर्भाजनैगृहीतं सौवर्णे राजते मृन्मये वा पात्रे निदध्यात्, तत् सर्वकालमुपयुञ्जीत। तस्यालाभे भौमम् । तच्चाकाशगुणबहुलम् । तत् पुनः सप्तविधम् । तद्यथाकौपं नादेयं सारसं ताडागं प्रास्रवणमौद्धिदं चौण्टचमिति ।।४।।

Atmospheric water (antariksa Jala), in its turn, may be divided into four classes such as rain water, hail water, frost water or dew, and snow-water, of which the first is the best for its lightness. Rain water may be divided into two classes such as the Ganga and the Samudra. As the rain-cloud is charged with vapours evaporated from the bosom of the Ganges or the sea. Gangetic rain generally descends in the month of Asvina, but both kinds should be subjected to a test. The test in the case of Gangam rain water consists in exposing to it, for a Muhurta (forty-eight minutes ), a quantity of undiscoloured Sali rice in a silver bowl which is not extremely softened by boiling. To ascertain whether it is Gangetic rain water or not, Gangetic rain water should be ascertained from the fact of the aforesaid Sali rice not being in any way affected in its colour; where as a change in its colour under exposure, as well as the fact of its being formed into shreddy or seedy balls mixed with slimy secretions, would indicate that the rain water had been formed of the vapours of the sea (Samudra), and should be regarded as extremely unwholesome. Rain water from a cloud entirely formed of sea-vapours and collected in the month of Asvina, is as wholesome as what is technically known as Gangetic rain water, but the latter is the best of the several kinds of atmospheric water.

The means of collecting atmospheric (rain) water is as follows : A broad piece of clean and white linen should be hung out in the open air, (with a stone placed across the middle to dip its centre of gravity). The rain water thus collected should be kept in a vessel. As an alternative, rain water flowing from the waterspouts of a house should be collected in a clean receptacle, and subsequently poured into a golden, silver or an earthen vessel. The water thus collected can be taken at all times, and may be substituted by any other terrestrial water in the event of its not being available at the time. Terrestrial water is generally marked by a predominance of the specific properties of the sky, and admits of being grouped under seven sub-heads such as, wellwater, river-water, lake-water, tank-water, fountain water, spring (Artesian) water, and Cunti (well unprovided with masonry steps) water. 4

तत्र वर्षास्वान्तरिक्षमौद्भिदं वा सेवेत महागुणत्वात्, शरदि सर्वं प्रसन्नत्वात्, हेमन्ते सारसं ताडागं वा, वसन्ते कौपं प्रास्रवणं वा, ग्रीष्मेऽप्येवं, प्रावृषि चौण्टयमनभिवृष्टं सर्वञ्चेति ॥५॥

Atmospheric or spring water should be used for their high efficacy during the rains Varsa. All kinds of water may be used in Sarat on account of their clearness. Lake or tank water should be used in Hemanta; well and fountain water in spring 1 (Vasanta) and summer; and Cunti water, as well as all water not of recent origin, nor due to an excessive down-pour or inundation, should be used during Pravrt. 5

कीटमूत्रपुरीषाण्ड-शवकोथप्रदूषितम् कलुषं कलुषं । तृणपर्णोत्करयुतं विषसंयुतम् ॥६॥

योऽवगाहेत वर्षासु पिबेद् वापि नवं जलम् । स बाह्याभ्यन्तरान् रोगान् प्राप्नुयात् क्षिप्रमेव तु ॥ ७ ॥

Metrical Text: He falls an easy victim to internal and external diseases (cutaneous affections), etc., who drinks of or bathes in a pool of water, which is full of poisonous worms, or is saturated with urine or fecal matter, or is defiled with germs of vermin or decomposed animal organisms, or is covered over with the growths of aquatic plants, or is strewn over with withered and decomposed leaves, or which in any way is rendered poisonous and contaminated, as well as he, who drinks and bathes in the freshly collected water of a pool or a reservoir during the rains. 6-7

तत्र यत् पङ्कशैवालहटतृणपद्मपत्रप्रभृतिभिरवच्छन्नं शशिसूर्य

1. The “rains” in the present passage should be interpreted to mean the end of the rainy season or the month of Asvina and not the month of Bhadra, as its use is specially forbidden in that month.

किरणानिलैर्नाभिजुष्टं गन्धवर्णरसोपसृष्टञ्च तद् व्यापन्नमिति विद्यात् । तस्य स्पर्शरूपरसगन्धवीर्यविपाकदोषाः षट् सम्भवन्ति । तत्र खरता पैच्छिल्यमौष्ण्यं दन्तग्राहिता च स्पर्शदोषः । पङ्कसिकताशैवालबहुवर्णता रूपदोषः । व्यक्तरसता रसदोषः । अनिष्टगन्धता गन्धदोषः । यदुपयुक्तं तृष्णागौरवशूलकफप्रसेकानापादयति स वीर्यदोषः । यदुपयुक्तं चिराद् विपच्यते । विष्टभ्नाति वा स विपाकदोष इति । त एते आन्तरिक्षे न सन्ति ॥८॥

A sheet of water, which is entirely covered over with the growths of aquatic plants such as, moss, zoophytes, water weeds, lotus leaves, etc., or which looks turbid owing to oozy mire, or is not exposed to the currents of fresh air, nor illumined by the sun or the moon, and is possessed of a definite smell, colour, and taste, should be regarded as contaminated or defiled (Vyapanna). Water may be affected with regard to the six categories of touch, sight, taste, smell, potency, and chemical transformation or re-action (lit digestion). Roughness, sliminess, warmth, and the production of a shivering sensation to lit : tooth-edge are the tactual defects (Sparsa-Dosa) of defiled water, whereas a varied colour, and the presence of mire, sand, and shreds of moss are the defects, which mark its look or appearance (RupaDosa). A distinct taste marks the water, which is affected as regards its taste (Rasa-Dosa), while an unpleasant smell is the characteristic of the water, which is affected as regards its smell (Gandha-Dosa). The water, which being taken gives rise to thirst and to a sense of heaviness of the limbs, colic, and fluent coryza, is said to be affected or vitiated in its potency (Virya-Dosa), whereas that which takes a long time to be digested, or is retained in the stomach for an inordinate length of time, is said to be affected as regards digestion or chemical transformation (Vipaka-Dosa). Atmospheric water is free from the abovesaid defects. 8

व्यापन्नानामग्निक्वथनं सूर्यातपप्रतापनं तप्ताय : पिण्डसिकतालोष्ट्राणां वा निर्वापणं प्रसादनञ्च कर्त्तव्यं, नागचम्पकोत्पलपाटलापुष्पप्रभृतिभिश्चाधिवासनमिति ॥९॥

The defiled or contaminated water should be purified by boiling it, or by heating it in the sun, or by immersing a red-hot iron, or hot sands or stones in the same, and its smell should be removed by perfuming it with the Naga, Campaka, Utpala, or Patala flowers, etc. 9

सौवर्णे राजते ताम्रे कांस्ये मणिमयेऽपि वा। पुष्पावतंसं भौमे वा सुगन्धि सलिलं पिबेत् ।। १० ।।

व्यापन्नं वर्जयेन्नित्यं तोयं यद् वाप्यनार्त्तवम् । दोषसञ्जननं ह्येतन्नाददीताहितन्तु तत् ।। ११ ।।

व्यापन्नं सलिलं यस्तु पिबतीहाप्रसाधितम् । श्वयथुं पाण्डुरोगञ्च श्वासकासप्रतिश्याय-शूलगुल्मोदराणि च।

अन्यान् वा विषमान् रोगान् प्राप्नुयात् क्षिप्रमेव च ।।१३।। त्वग्दोषमविपाकताम् ।। १२ ।।

Metrical Texts: Water should be drunk perfumed in a golden, silver, copper or an earthen goblet, or in a bowl made of bell metal or of precious stones. Contaminated water, as well as rain water accumulated in an improper season, should never be used for drinking purposes, inasmuch as it tends to derange the fundamental humours of the body, and is positively injurious to the human system. The man, who drinks, or bathes in, any contaminated water without previously purifying it as before directed, incurs the risk of being speedily affected with oedema, jaundice, cutaneous affections, indigestion, dyspnoea, cough, catarrh, colic pains, abdominal glands, ascites or any other dreadful disease. 10-13

तत्र सप्त कलुषस्य प्रसादनानि भवन्ति, तद्यथा- कतकगोमेदकविसग्रन्थिशैवालमूलवस्त्राणि मुक्ता मणिश्चेति । पञ्च निक्षेपणानि भवन्ति; तद्यथा-फलकं त्र्यष्टकं मुञ्जवलयं उदकमञ्चिका शिक्यञ्चेति । सप्त शीतिकरणानि भवन्ति – प्रवातस्थापनमुदकप्रक्षेपणं यष्टिकाभ्रामणं व्यजनं वस्त्रोद्धरणं बालुकाप्रक्षेपणं शिक्यावलम्बनञ्चेति ।।१४।।

There are seven modes of purifying water such as, by immersing the Kataka fruits, the gems known as the Gomedaka, the roots of lotus plants, or of aquatic mosses, a piece of linen, or a pearl, or a crystal in a pitcher or vessel containing it. The bottoms of a water pitcher are made of five different shapes such as, the Phalaka (rectangular wooden stool), the Tryastaka (octagonal wooden tripod), the Munja Valaya (ring made of the blades of Munja grass), the Udaka-Mancika (wooden scaffold for a pitcher) and the Sikya (pendent bracket). There are seven ways of cooling water, such as by exposing a water pitcher to currents of air, immersing a water pitcher (tied round with a piece of wet cloth) neck-deep in a vessel full of water, churning it with a stick, by fanning, or siphoning it by means of a piece of linen, or by burying a water pitcher underneath a bed of sand, or by keeping it suspended in a pendent bracket. 14

निर्गन्धमव्यक्तरसं तृष्णाघ्नं शुचि शीतलम् । अच्छं लघु च हृद्यञ्च तोयं गुणवदुच्यते ।। १५ ।।

Metrical Texts: The water, which is devoid of all smell or taste, and is pure, cool, limpid, transparent, refrigerent and pleasant, should be regarded as possessed of all the commendable traits. 15

तत्र नद्यः पश्चिमाभिमुखाः पथ्या लघूदकत्वात् । पूर्वाभिमुखास्तु न प्रशस्यन्ते गुरूदकत्वात् । दक्षिणाभिमुखा नातिदोषला: साधारणत्वात् । तत्र सह्यप्रभवाः कुष्ठं जनयन्ति, विन्ध्यप्रभवाः कुष्ठं पाण्डुरोगञ्च, मलयप्रभवाः क्रिमीन्, महेन्द्रप्रभवाः श्लीपदोदराणि, हिमवत्प्रभवा हृद्रोगश्वयथुशिरोरोगश्लीपदगलगण्डान्। प्राच्यावन्त्या अपरावन्त्याश्चाशस्युपजनयन्ति, पारियात्रप्रभवाः पथ्या बलारोग्यकर्य इति ।। १६ ।।

The water of rivers, (which drain the Jangla countries) and flow into the western sea, is light, and therefore wholesome. The water of rivers, which traverse the marshy (Anupa) countries and empty themselves into the eastern sea, is heavy and therefore not commended to be used. The water of rivers, which run into the southern sea, is neither too heavy nor too light owing to the fact of its traversing countries which have a Sadharana character. The water of rivers, which have their sources in the Sahya mountains, begets cutaneous affections; while the water of those, which rise from the Vindhya mountains, produces Kustha and Jaundice. The water of rivers, which rise on the mount Malaya, begets worms and intestinal parasites, while the water of those, that have their sources in the Mahendra mountain, begets elephantisis and abdominal dropsy. The water of rivers, which rise on the Himalaya, produces angina pectoris, Hrdroga, anasarca, diseases of the head, elephantisis, or goitre in persons using it for the purposes of life. Similarly, the water of rivers, which drain the eastern portion of the country of Avanti (region), or flow through its western part, begets piles; while the water of those, which rise on the mount of Pariyatra (region ) is wholesome, strength-giving, and conductive to health. 16

नद्यः शीघ्रवहा लव्यः प्रोक्ता याश्चामलोदकाः । गुर्व्यः शैवालसञ्छन्नाः कलुषा मन्दगाश्च याः।।१७।।

प्रायेण नद्यो मरुषु सतिक्ता लवणान्विताः । ईषत्कषाया मधुरा लघुपाका बले हिताः ।।१८ ।।

Metrical Texts : The water of clear and swift-running rivers is light, while the water of those, which are sluggish in their course and are covered with mosses and other aquatic plants, is heavy. The water of rivers, which run through Marudesa (Modern Marwar) is possessed of a bitter saline taste, or is endued with a sweet taste blended with a shade of the astringent, and is easily digestible and strength-giving in its properties. 17-18

तत्र सर्वेषामेव भौमानां ग्रहणं प्रत्यूषसि, तत्र ह्यमलत्वं शैत्यञ्चाधिकं भवति, स एव चापां परो गुण इति ।।१९ । ।

Every kind of terrestrial water should be collected early in the morning, since it is obtained the clearest and coolest at that part of the day; and since these two attributes by far form the most commendable traits in water. 19

दिवार्ककिरणैर्जुष्टं निशायामिन्दुरश्मिभिः | अरुक्षमनभिष्यन्दि तत् तुल्यं गगनाम्बुना ।। २० ।।

गगनाम्बु त्रिदोषघ्नं गृहीतं यत् सुभाजने । बल्यं रसायनं मेध्यं पात्रापेक्षि ततः परम् ॥ ॥ २१ ॥

रक्षोघ्नं शीतलं ह्लादि ज्वरदाहविषापहम् । चन्द्रकान्तोद्भवं वारि पित्तघ्नं विमलं स्मृतम् ||२२||

Metrical Texts : The water, which gets the light of the sun in the day and reflects the moon in the night, and which, moreover, neither produces Kapha nor a parched condition in the body, should be regarded as one in virtue with the atmospheric water. Atmospheric water, collected in a good and proper receptacle, has the virtue of subduing the three deranged humours of the body, and acts as a pure tonic and elixir, its virtue varying with the excellence of the vessel in which it is contained. The cool and limpid washings of the gem known as the Candrakanta Mani (the moon-stone) should be regarded as possessed of the mystic virtue of warding off the attacks of monsters and demons, and of subduing the deranged Pitta. They are beneficial in fever and in cases of poisoning marked by a burning sensation of the body, etc. 20-22

मूर्च्छापित्तोष्णदाहेषु विषे रक्ते मदात्यये । भ्रमक्लमपरीतेषु तमके वमथौ तथा । ऊर्ध्वगे रक्तपित्ते च शीतमम्भः प्रशस्यते ।। २३ ।।

पार्श्वशूले प्रतिश्याये वातरोगे आध्माते (ने) स्तिमिते कोष्ठे सद्यः शुद्धे नवज्वरे। हिक्कायां स्नेहपीते च शीताम्बु परिवर्जयेत् ॥ २४ ॥ गलग्रहे ।

Cold water usually proves beneficial in epileptic fits, in hot seasons, and a burning sensation of the body due to the deranged action of the Pitta, in blood-poisoning, haemoptysis, abuse of wine (Madatya), loss of consciousness, fatigue or exhaustion, vertigo, Tamaka and vomiting. The use of cold water should be avoided in pain at the sides (pleurodynia), in catarrh, in rheumatism, in diseases of the larynx, in distention of the stomach by gas or air, in cases of undigested faeces, in the acute stage of fever, and just afte the exhibition of any emetic or purgative remedy, in hic-cough, and immediately following upon an oily or fatty drink (Snehapana). 23-24

नादेयं वातलं रुक्षं दीपनं लघु लेखनम् । तदभिष्यन्दि मधुरं सान्द्रं गुरु कफावहम् ।। २५ ।।

तृष्णाघ्नं सारसं बल्यं कषायं मधुरं लघु । ताडागं वातलं स्वादु कषायं कटुपाकि च ॥ २६ ॥

वातश्लेष्महरं वाप्यं सक्षारं कटु पित्तलम् । सक्षारं पित्तलं कौपं श्लेष्मघ्नं दीपनं लघु || २७ ।।

चौण्टयमग्निकरं रुक्षं मधुरं कफकुन्न च कफघ्नं दीपनं हृद्यं लघु प्रस्रवणोद्भवम् । ॥ २८ ॥

स्मृतम् । मधुरं पित्तशमनमविदाह्यौद्धिदं वैकिरं कटु सक्षारं श्लेष्मघ्नं लघु दीपनम् ॥ २९ ॥

कैदारं मधुरं प्रोक्तं विपाके गुरु दोषलम् । तद्वत् पाल्वलमुद्दिष्टं विशेषाद्दोषलन्तु तत् ॥ ३० ॥

सामुद्रमुदकं विसं लवणं सर्वदोषकृत् । अनेकदोषमानूपं वार्यभिष्यन्दि गर्हितम् ।। ३१ ।।

एभिर्दोषैरसंयुक्तं निरवद्यन्तु जाङ्गलम् । पाकेऽविदाहि तृष्णाघ्नं प्रशस्तं प्रीतिवर्द्धनम् ।।३२।।

दीपनं स्वादु शीतञ्च तोयं साधारणं लघु । कफमेदोऽनिलामघ्नं दीपनं बस्तिशोधनम् ।। ३३ ।।

श्वासकासञ्वरहरं पथ्यमुष्णोदकं सदा । यत् क्वाथ्यमानं निर्वेगं निष्फेनं निर्मलं लघु | ॥ ३४ ॥

चतुर्भागावशेषन्तु तत् तोयं गुणवत् स्मृतम् । न च पर्युषितं देयं कदाचिद् वारि जानता । ।३५ ।।

अम्लीभूतं कफोत्क्लेदि न हितं तत् पिपासवे । मद्यपानात् समुद्भूते रोगे पित्तोत्थिते तथा ।।३६ ।।

सन्निपातसमुत्थे च शृतशीतं प्रशस्यते । दाहातीसारपित्तासृङ्मूर्च्छामद्यविषार्त्तिषु श्रुतशीतं जलं शस्तं तृष्णाच्छर्द्दि भ्रमेषु च।

स्निग्धं स्वादु हिमं हृद्यं दीपनं बस्तिशोधनम् ।।३८ ।।

वृष्यं पित्तपिपासाघ्नं नारिकेलोदकं गुरु | अरोचके प्रतिश्याये प्रसेके श्वयथौ क्षये ॥ ३९ ।।

मन्देऽग्नावुदरे कुष्ठे ज्वरे नेत्रामये तथा । व्रणे च मधुमेहे च पानीयं मन्दमाचरेत् ।। ४० ।। इति जलवर्गः ।। ।।३७।।

River water produces Vayu and a parched condition in the body, and is light, stomachic and (Lekhana) liquefacient. On the contrary, that which is heavy, comparatively denser in its consistency, sweet, and cooling, brings on catarrh. The water of a lake (Sarasa) quenches thirst and is strength-giving, light, sweet and astringent. The water of a pond or a tank (Tadaga) produces Vayu, and is sweet, astringent, and pungent in digestion. The water from a Vapi (a large tank) subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapha, and generates Pitta, and is pungent in taste and is found to be charged with a solution of alkali. The water from a Cunti is a good digestant, sweet, and parchifying, though it does not give rise to Kapha in the system. The water from a well (Kupa) generates Pitta and is appetising. It subdues the deranged Kapha and is light and alkaline. The water of a fountain is light, appetising, and pleasant, and destroys Kapha. The water of an Artesian spring is sweet, and subdues Pitta. It is antacid in its digestive reaction. The water from a Vikira is light, appetising, pungent, and is charged with potash (Khara). The water accumulated in an open field, or in fallow land, is heavy to digest and tends to augment the deranged humours of the body. The water of a Palvala is possessed of the same virtue as the preceding one, with the exception that it greatly aggravates the deranged humours of the body. Sea-water has a fishy smell, and a saline taste; it aggravates all the three deranged humours of the body. The water of an Anupa (marshy) country is the source of many evils. It is extremely condemnable, as it increases the slimy secretions of all the bodily organs, etc. The water of Jangala country is free from the preceding baneful traits. It is faultless, acid in its digestive reaction (Vidahi), is possessed of all commendable traits, and is pleasing and refrigerant. The water accumulated in a Sadharana country is light, cool, pleasant and appetising (Dipana).

Cold water is anti acid in its digestoe reaction, it subdues the thirst, best to increase the pleasure, digestoe stimulant, tasteful and light. Warm water subdues the de ranged Vayu and Kapha. It is antifat, appetising, diuretic, (Basti-Sodhak) and febrifuge. It proves beneficial in cases of cough and dyspnoea, and is wholesome at all times. Water boiled down to a quarter part of its original quantity and then cooled down with all its froth and ebullitions removed, is light and limpid, and may be safely commended to the use of all. Water, boiled overnight, should not be knowingly given to a thirsty person as such it has acquired an acid taste and will augment the internal Kapha of the body, and becomes positively injurious. Water boiled and subsequently cooled down should be given to a person suffering from any of the diseases due to an abuse of wine or to Pitta, or from a complaint brought about through the concerted action of the three deranged humours. The water boiled and subsequently cooled down is efficacious in the condition of parching, diarrohea, in derangement of pitta blood, in syncope intoxication, poisoning, thirst, vomiting and giddiness. The water found inside the shell of a cocoanut is heavy,’ demulcent, cool, pleasant and appetising etc. It is diuretic, (Basti-Sodhak) spermatopoietic and subdues Pitta and thirst. Water should be taken as little as possible by a person suffering from any of the following diseases viz., loss of relish for food, catarrh, water-brash, oedema, any of the wasting diseases, impaired digestion, abdominal dropsy, cutaneous affection, fever, diseases affecting the eyes, ulcer and diabetes (Madhumeha, etc.). 25-40

अथ क्षीरवर्ग:

गव्यमाजं तथा चौष्ट्रमाविकं माहिषञ्च यत् । अश्वायाश्चैव नार्याश्च करेणूनाञ्च यत् पयः ।।४१ ।।

तत् त्वनेकौषधिरसप्रसादं प्राणदं मधुरं पिच्छिलं शीतं स्निग्धं श्लक्ष्णं सरं मृदु । सर्वप्राणभृतां तस्मात् सात्म्यं क्षीरमिहोच्यते ।।४२ ।। गुरु

The Milk Group: The milk of a cow, she-goat, she-camel, she sheep, she-buffalo, mare, she-elephant, or of a woman, is what generally comes to the use of man.²

The milk is the white fluid essence of drugs and cereals, which enter into the food of the aforesaid milk-giving animals, and is therefore the best of all nutritive substances (literally life-giving). It is heavy,sweet, slimy, cold, glossy, emollient, laxative and mild. 41-42

तत्र सर्वमेव क्षीरं प्राणिनामप्रतिषिद्धं जातिसात्म्यात् । वातपित्तशोणितमानसेषु विकारेष्वविरुद्धम् । जीर्णज्वरकासश्वासशोषक्षयगुल्मोन्मादोदर मूर्च्छा भ्रम-मददाह-पिपासा-हद्धस्तिदोष पाण्डुरोग-ग्रहणी- प्रदोषार्श:- शूलोदावर्त्तातिसारप्रवाहिकायोनिरोगगर्भास्रावरक्तपित्तश्र

1. Light according to Jejjada.

2. From the construction of the present sentence in the original texts, we are warranted to include the milk of a doe, or of a she-mule, or of a cow-rhinoceros in the list, as they sometimes prove beneficial for external applications.

मक्लमहरं बल्यं वृष्यं वाजीकरणं रसायनं मेध्यं पाप्मापहं सन्धानं वयःस्थापनमायुष्यं जीवनं बृंहणं वमनविरेचनास्थापनं तुल्यगुणत्वाच्चौजसो वर्द्धनमिति बालवृद्धक्षतक्षीणानां क्षुव्यवायव्यायामकशितानाञ्च पथ्यतमम् ।।४३ ।।

Hence it proves congenial to all sentient animals. And since milk is kindred in its nature to the essential principles of life and so very congenial to the panzoism of all created animals, its use may be unreservedly recommended to all, and is not forbidden in diseases due to the deranged action of (Vayu) or Pitta, or in ailments affecting the mind (Manasa), or the vascular system of man. Its beneficial and curative efficacy may be witnessed in cases of chronic fever, in cough, dyspnoea, phthisis and other wasting diseases, in Gulma (abdominal glands), insanity, ascites, epileptic fits, in vertigo, in delirium, in burning sensation of the body, in thirst, in diseases affecting the heart and the bladder, in chlorosis and dysentery, in piles, colic pain and obstinate constipation, in Grahani, Pravahika, miscarriage and other diseases peculiar to the female reproductive organs, and in haemoptysis. It is a refrigerant and acts as a bracing beverage after physical exercise. It is a sacred, constructive, tonic, spermatopoietic, rejuvenating and aphrodisiac. It expands the intellectual capacities of a man, brings about the adhesion of broken or fractured bones (Sandhana) rejuvenates used and exhausted frames, forms an excellent enemata, increases the duration of life, and acts as a vitaliser. It is an emetic and a purgative remedy, and imparts a healthy rotundity to the frame, and which through its kindred or similar properties augments the quality of bodily albumen (Ojah) and is the most complete and wholesome diet for infants, old men and persons suffering from cachexia witnessed in cases of ulcers in the chest, as well as for persons debilitated from insufficient food, sexual excesses or excessive, physical labour. 43

गोक्षीरमनभिष्यन्दि स्निग्धं गुरु रसायनम् ।

रक्तपित्तहरं शीतं मधुरं रसपाकयोः । जीवनीयं तथा वातपित्तघ्नं परमं स्मृतम् ॥ ४४ ।।

Metrical Texts: Cow-Milk is demulcent, and does not set up or increase the normal quantity of slimy secretions in the internal channels of the body. It is heavy and is a good elixir, and proves curative in haemoptysis. It is cold, and sweet both in taste and chemical reaction. It subdues both Vayu and Pitta and is accordingly one of the most efficient of vitalising agents. 44

गव्यतुल्यगुणन्त्वाजं विशेषाच्छोषिणे हितम् । दीपनं लघु संग्राहि श्वासकासाम्रपित्तनुत् ॥ अजानामल्पकायत्वात् कटुतिक्तनिषेवणात् । नात्यम्बुपानाद् व्यायामात् सर्वव्याधिहरं पयः ।। रूक्षोष्णं लवणं किञ्चिदौष्ट्रं स्वादुरसं लघु । शोफगुल्मोदरार्शोघ्नं क्रिमिकुष्ठविषापहम् ।। आविकं मधुरं स्निग्धं गुरु पित्तकफावहम् । पथ्यं केवलवातेषु कासे चानिलसम्भवे ॥ ४५ ॥

The milk of a she-goat is possessed of properties similar to those of a cow, and is specially beneficial to person suffering from phthisis. It is light, astringent, appetising (Dipana), and is efficacious in dyspnoea, cough and haemoptysis (Amlapitta – A.T.). The milk of a she-goat proves curative in all diseases owing to the smallness of her limbs and her agile habits, as well as for the fact of her drinking comparatively a less quantity of water and living upon bitter and pungent herbs. The milk of a she-camel is parchifying, heating, light, palatable and possessed of a little saline taste. It proves curative in oedema, abdominal glands, ascites, piles, intestinal worms and Kustha, and is a good antitoxic agent. The milk of a ewe is sweet, demulcent, heavy and proves aggravating in disorders of Pitta and Kapha. It forms a good diet in Kevalavata (Vatika) and in cough due to the deranged condition of the bodily Vayu. 45

महाभिष्यन्दि मधुरं माहिषं वह्निनाशनम् ।

निद्राकरं शीतकरं गव्यात् स्निग्धतरं गुरु ॥ ४६ ।।

The milk of a she-buffalo is sweet in taste, tends to impair digestion and increases the slimy secretion of the organs. It is heavy,

1. It has been recently discovered by a Gennan physician that tuberculosis bacilli do not thrive in goat’s-blood–Translator.

soporific, cooling, and contains more fatty matter than cow’s milk. 46

उष्णञ्चैकशफं बल्यं शाखावातहरं पयः । मधुराम्लरसं रुक्षं लवणानुरसं लघु ॥४७॥

The milk of a she-animal with unbifurcated hoofs (Ekasapha), such as, the mare, etc., is tonic, light, parchifying, sweet and acid in taste, leaving a saline after-taste, and proving curative in cases of rheumatism restricted to the extremities. 47

नार्यास्तु मधुरं स्तन्यं कषायानुरसं हिमम् । नस्याश्च्योतनयोः पथ्यं जीवनं लघु दीपनम् ।। ४८ ।।

हस्तिन्या मधुरं वृष्यं कषायानुरसं गुरु । स्निग्धं स्थैर्यकरं शीतं चक्षुष्यं बलवर्द्धनम् ।। ४९ ।।

The milk of a woman is cold and sweet, leaving an astringent after-taste. It proves beneficial as an errhine and acts as a good wash in eye diseases. It is wholesome, vitalising, light and appetising. The milk of a she-elephant is sweet though it leaves and astringent aftertaste. It is spermatopoietic, heavy, demulcent, cooling and tonic. It invigorates the eyesight. 48-49

प्रायः प्राभातिकं क्षीरं गुरु विष्टम्भि शीतलम् । राज्या: सोमगुणत्वाच्च व्यायामाभावतस्तथा ॥ दिवाकराभितप्तानां व्यायामानिलसेवनात् । वातानुलोमि श्रान्तिघ्नं चक्षुष्यञ्चापराह्निकम् ॥५०॥ पयोऽभिष्यन्दि गुर्वामं प्रायशः परिकीर्त्तितम् । तदेवोक्तं लघुतरमनभिष्यन्दि वै श्रुतम् । वर्जयित्वा स्त्रियाः स्तन्यमाममेव हि तद्धितम् ।।५१ ।। धारोष्णं गुणवत् क्षीरं विपरीतमतोऽन्यथा । तदेवाश्रुितं सर्वं गुरु बृंहणमुच्यते ।। अनिष्टगन्धमम्लञ्च विवर्णं विरसञ्च यत् । वर्ज्य सलवणं क्षीरं यच्चविग्रथितं भवेत् ॥५२॥

इति क्षीरवर्गः ।।

The milk of a she-animal, milked in the morning, is heavy, cold and takes a long time to be digested owing to her entire repose (literally want of physical exercise or locomotion) during the night, when cooling attributes preponderate. Similarly, the milk milked in the evening is found to be possessed of refrigerant and eye-invigorating properties. Moreover, it restores the bodily Vayu to its normal condition owing to the physical labour undergone by the animal in the day time, exposed to the rays of the sun and the currents of free air. Cold or unboiled milk is extremely heavy, and serves to increase the slimy secretions of the organs, whereas by boiling it is freed from those injurious traits. But this rule does not hold good in the case of woman’s milk, which is wholesome in its natural or unboiled state. Freshly milked warm milk should be regarded as extremely wholesome, which, being cooled down, loses its efficacious virtues and becomes unwholesome. On the contrary, over-cooked milk is heavy and fatmaking (lit: imparting stoutness to one’s body). The milk, which emits a fetid smell, or has become discoloured and insipid, or has acquired an acid taste and looks shreddy and curdled, or tastes saline, should be regarded as unwholesome and injurious. 50-52

दधि तु मधुरमम्लमत्यम्लञ्चेति । तत् कषायानुरसं स्निग्धमुष्णं पीनसविषमज्वरातिसारारोचकमूत्रकृच्छ्रकार्यापहं वृष्यं प्राणकरं मङ्गल्यञ्च।।५३।।

The Curd-group: There are three kinds of curd such as, the sweet, the acid, and the extremely acid curd. Milk curd generally leaves an astringent after-taste. It is demulcent and heat-making in its potency, as well as spermatopoietic, vitalising and auspicious. It proves curative in Pinasa (nasal catarrh), intermittent fever (Visama Jvara), dysentery, non-relish for food, difficult urination, and general cachexia. 53

महाभिष्यन्दि मधुरं कफमेदोविवर्द्धनम् । कफपित्तकृदम्लं स्यादत्यम्लं रक्तदूषणम् ।। विदाहि सृष्टविण्मूत्रं मन्दजातं त्रिदोषकृत् ॥ ॥५४ ॥

Metrical Text: Sweet curd greatly increases the slimy secretions of the organs and the quantity of fat and Kapha in the body. Acid curd deranges the Pitta and the Kapha, while the extremely acid curd vitiates the blood. Curd, which has been not perfectly curdled (Mandajata) is acid in its ( digestive) chemical reaction, acts as an inordinately strong purgative and diuretic agent, and deranges the three fundamental humours of the body. 54

स्निग्धं विपाके मधुरं दीपनं बलवर्द्धनम् । वातापहं पवित्रञ्च दधि गव्यं रुचिप्रदम् ॥ ५५ ॥ ॥

दध्याजं कफपित्तघ्नं लघु वातक्षयापहम् । दुर्नामश्वासकासेषु हितमग्नेश्च दीपनम् ।।५६ ।।

विपाके मधुरं वृष्यं वातपित्तप्रसादनम् । बलासवर्द्धनं स्निग्धं विशेषाद् दधि माहिषम् ॥५७ ॥

विपाके कटु सक्षारं गुरु भेद्यौष्ट्रिकं दधि | वातमशसि कुष्ठानि क्रिमीन् हन्त्युदराणि च ॥५८ ।।

कोपनं कफवातानां दुर्नाम्नाञ्चाविकं दधि | रसे पाके च मधुरमत्यभिष्यन्दि दोषलम् ॥५९ ॥

दीपनीयमचक्षुष्यं वाडवं दधि वातलम् । रुक्षमुष्णं कषायञ्च कफमूत्रापहञ्च कफमूत्रापहञ्च तत् ।। ६० ।।

स्निग्धं विपाके मधुरं बल्यं सन्तर्पणं गुरु । चक्षुष्यमग्र्यं दोषघ्नं दधि नार्या गुणोत्तरम् ।।६१ ।।

लघु पाके बलासघ्नं वीर्योष्णं पक्तिनाशनम् । कषायानुरसं नाग्या दधि वर्चाविवर्द्धनम् ॥६२ ।।

Curdled cow’s milk is demulcent, sweet in digestion, appetising, strength-increasing and acrid. It subdues the bodily Vayu and imparts a relish to one’s food. Curd prepared with the milk of a she-goat is light, and subdues the deranged Pitta and Kapha. It proves curative in Vata and wasting diseases, and is a good appetiser. Its beneficial effect is witnessed in cases of piles, dyspnoea and cough. Curd, prepared with the milk of a she-buffalo, is sweet in digestion, and spermtopoietic. It pacifies the deranged Vayu and Pitta, and serves to augment the normal quantity of bodily Kapha. It is specifically a demulcent substance. Curd prepared with the milk of a she-camel is pungent in digestion. It is found to be charged with alkali, and is heavy and a purgative. A continued use of curdled camel’s milk proves curative in Vata, piles, cutaneous affections ( Kustha), worms in the intestines, and abdominal dropsy. Curd prepared with the milk of a ewe proves aggravating in derangements of the Vayu and Kapha as well as in cases of piles. It is sweet in taste and its chemical reaction increases the slimy secretions of the organs, and tends to derange the bodily humours. Curd, prepared with the milk of a mare, is appetising. It proves injurious to the eyes, and tends to augment the bodily Vayu. It is parchifying and hot in its potency, and is astringent in taste. It diminishes the secretions of kapha and urine. Curd prepared with the milk of a woman is demulcent, sweet in digestion, tonic, pleasant, heavy, and specially beneficial to the eyes. It subdues the deranged humours and is specially efficacious in its virtues, and is the best of all kinds of curd, and of all emollient remedies (Santarpana) Curd prepared with the milk of a she-elephant, is light in digestion, subdues Kapha, and is heat-making in its potency. It impairs digestion, leaves as astringent after-taste and increases the quantity of fecal matter. 55-62

दधीन्युक्तानि यानीह गव्यादीनि पृथक्-पृथक् विज्ञेयमेवं सर्वेषु गव्यमेव गुणोत्तरम्।।६३ ।।

वातघ्नं कफकृत् स्निग्धं बृंहणं न च पित्तकृत् । कुर्याद्भक्ताभिलाषञ्च दधि यत् सुपरिस्रुतम् ॥ ६४ ।।

शृतात् क्षीरात् तु यज्जातं गुणवद् दधि तत् स्मृतम् । वातपित्तहरं रुच्यं दध्नः सरो

गुरुर्वृष्यो वह्नेर्विधमनश्चापि दधि त्वसारं रुक्षञ्च ग्राहि दीपनीयं लघुतरं सकषायं धात्वग्निबलवर्द्धनम् ॥ ६५ ।।

विज्ञेयोऽनिलनाशनः । कफशुक्रविवर्द्धनः ।। ६६ ।। विष्टम्भि वातलम् । रुचिप्रदम् ।। ६७ ।।

Of all the preceding kinds of curd, the one prepared with cow’s milk should be regarded as the best in virtue and quality. This curd well filtered through a piece of clean linen, imparts a relish to the food, whereas the curd, which had been prepared with boiled milk, should be deemed the most efficacious. The cloth-filtered curd subdues the deranged Vayu. It is demulcent and restorative, though it tends to increase the Kapha without bringing about a similar augmentation of the Pitta. The curd prepared with boiled milk subdues the deranged Vayu and Pitta, imparts a relish to the food, and acts as a good stomachic remedy. It increases the strength and the root principle of life. The cream of curd is heavy and spermatopoietic. It subdues the deranged Vayu, impairs digestion and is phlegmgogue and aphrodisiac. Curd made without cream is parchifying, astringent and arrests stool and urine (Bistambhi), it increases the bodily Vayu it is appetising and is comparatively lighter, a little astringent in taste, and imparts a relish to food. 63-67

शरद्ग्रीष्मवसन्तेषु प्रायशो दधि हेमन्ते शिशिरे चैव वर्षासु दधि तृष्णाक्लमहरं मस्तु लघु स्रोतोविशोधनम् । अम्लं कषायं मधुरमवृष्यं भिनत्त्याशु मलञ्च तत् । प्रह्लादनं प्रीणनञ्च बलमावहते चापि भक्तच्छन्दं करोति स्वाद्वम्लमत्यम्लकमन्दजातं तथा श्रुतक्षीरभवं सरक्ष। असारमेवं दधि सप्तधाऽस्मिन् वर्गे स्मृता मस्तुगुणास्तथैव ।। ७१ ।। इति दधिवर्गः । गर्हितम् । शस्यते ।।६८ ॥ कफवातनुत् ।।६९।। च।।७० ।।

The use of curd is generally prohibited in (Vasanta) spring, (Grisma) summer, and (Sarat) autumn, whereas it is recommended during the rains (Varsa) and in the forepart of winter (Hemanta), and in the cold season proper (Sisira). The residuary sediment of curd (Mastu) is frigorific and refrigerant, light and purifying to the internal channels of the body. It has a sweet, acid and astringent taste and is anti-aphrodisiac. It destroys the deranged Vayu and Kapha, and is pleasant and palatable. It acts as a speedy purgative, and imparts strength to the system and relish to the food. In this group have been described the virtues of the seven kinds of curd such as the sweet, the acid, the extremely acid, the curd of incomplete curdling, the curd of boiled milk, curd cream, and the creamless curd, as well as the residuary sediment (Mastu). 68-71

– अथ तक्रवर्ग:

तक्रं तु मधुरमम्लं कषायानुरसमुष्णवीर्यं लघु रुक्षमग्निदीपनं गरशोफ़ातिसारग्रहणीपाण्डुरोगार्श: प्लीहगुल्मारोचकविषमज्वर

तृष्णाच्छर्द्दिप्रसेकशूलमेदःश्लेष्मानिलहरं मधुरविपाकं हृद्यं मूत्रकृच्छ्रस्नेहव्यापत्प्रशमनमवृष्यञ्च ।।७२ ।।

The Takra Group: The takra (whey) is sweet and acid in taste, and leaves an astringent after-taste. It is light, appetising and heatmaking in its potency, and has a parchifying effect upon the organism. Its curative efficacy is witnessed in cases of chemical or combinative poisoning, oedema, dysentery, diarrhoea, jaundice, piles, enlarged spleen, abdominal glands, non-relish for food, intermittent fever, thirst, vomiting, water brash, colic and obesity. Itsubdues the deranged Vayu and Kapha, and is non-aphrodisiac. It is sweet in its digestive reaction and pleasant to the system. It proves curative in difficult urination, and in diseases due to the abuse of emollient medicinal remedies and applications. 72

मन्थनादिपृथग्भूत-स्नेहमर्द्धादकन्तु यत् । नातिसान्द्रद्रवं तक्रं स्वाद्वम्लं तुवरं रसे ।। यत् तु सस्नेहमजलं मथितं घोलमुच्यते ।।७३ ।।

तक्रं नैव क्षते दद्यान्नोष्णकाले न दुर्बले । न मूर्च्छाभ्रमदाहेषु न रोगे रक्तपैत्तिके ।।७४ ।।

शीतकालेऽग्निमान्द्ये च कफोत्थेष्वामयेषु च । मार्गावरोधे दुष्टे च वायौ तक्रं प्रशस्यते ।।७५ ।।

Metrical Texts: A compound made of equal parts of curd and water and subsequently churned so as to have the contained cream or butter completely skimmed off, and which is neither too thick nor too thin, is called Takra. it possesses a taste blended of the sweet, acid and astringent. Waterless curd, churned with the entire butter or creamy substance inherent in it, is called Ghola (a kind of whey). The use of Takra is prohibited in the hot season, nor should it be given to a weak person, nor to one suffering from an ulcer, or laid up with an attack of haemoptysis, or to one suffering from epileptic fits, vertigo (Bhrama), or from a burning sensation in the body. The use of Takra is recommended during the cold months of the year, to the person having weak digestive power as well as to persons suffering from diseases due to the action of the deranged Kapha, or due to occlusion of channels from suppression of stool or urine, etc., or from the effects of the deranged Vayu. 73-75

तत् पुनर्मधुरं श्लेष्मप्रकोपणं पित्तप्रशमनञ्च, अम्लं वातघ्नं पित्तकरञ्च ।।७६।।

Again sweetened Takra soothes the deranged Pitta and aggravates the Kapha. Acid Takra subdues the Vayu and produces Pitta. 76

वातेऽम्लं सैन्धवोपेतं स्वादु पित्ते सशर्करम् । पिबेत् तक्रं कफे चापि व्योषक्षारसमायुतम् ।।७७ ।।

ग्राहिणी वातला रुक्षा दुर्जरा तक्रकूर्चिका। तक्राल्लघुतरो मण्डः कूर्चिकादधितक्रजः।।७८।।

गुरुः किलाटोऽनिलहृत् पुंस्त्वनिद्राप्रदः स्मृतः । मधुरौ बृंहणौ वृष्यौ तद्वत् पीयूषमोरटौ |॥ ७९।।

Metrical Texts: In a case of deranged or disordered Vayu, acid Takra should be drunk mixed with rock-salt, and sweet takra with sugar in disorders of the Pitta, while in a case of deranged Kapha it should be mixed with Yavaksara and the powders of the drugs known as Vyosa. Takrakurcika (Inspissated milk ) is astringent (Grahi), parchifying and hard to digest. It produces Vayu. The Manda or the residuary sediment of a compound made of the aforesaid Kurcika and Dadhi Takra (curd-whey ) is lighter than whey Kilata’ is heavy, hypnotic, sprematopoietic and subdues Vayu Similarly, Morata and Piyusa³ are sweet to the taste and restorative and aphrodisiac in their properties. 77-79

नवनीतं पुनः सद्यस्कं लघु सुकुमारं मधुरं कषायमीषदम्लं शीतलं मेध्यं दीपनं हृद्यं संग्राहि पित्तानिलहरं वृष्यमविदाहि क्षयकासश्वासव्रणार्शोऽर्द्दितापहम्, चिरोत्थितं गुरु कफमेदोविवर्द्धनं बलकरं बृंहणं शोषघ्नं विशेषतो बालानां प्रशस्यते । क्षीरोत्थं पुनर्नवनीतमुत्कृष्टस्नेहमाधुर्यमतिशीतं सौकुमार्यकरं चक्षुष्यं संग्राहि रक्तपित्तनेत्ररोगहरं प्रसादनञ्च ।।८०।।

1. Boiled milk curdled and subse ugently heated and made into a paste is called Kilata.

2-3. The milk of a cow recently delivered of a calf is called Piyusa till the seventh day after its birth, while, it is subsequently called Morata till it is perfectly purified and becomes fit for the use of man. Fresh butter (Navanita) is an albuminous substance, and is light, sweet, cooling, demulcent, pleasant, appetising, slightly acid and astringent. It subdues the deranged Vayuand Pitta. It is spermatopoietic, antacid in its reaction, and conducive to the improvement of one’s memory and intellectual capacities. It proves beneficial in cases of consumption, cough, dyspnoea, ulcer, piles and facial paralysis.

Butter (of a few days standing ) is heavy. It increases the quantity of fat and Kapha, and imparts strength and rotundity to the body, and proves especially wholesome to children. Butter made of thickened milk is the best of all oily Ksira substances. It is sweet, cooling and astringent; and imparts softness to the body, improves the eye-sight, and proves curative in haemoptysis and eye-diseases. 80

सन्तानिका पुनर्वातघ्नी तर्पणी बल्या वृष्या स्निग्धा रुच्या मधुरा मधुरविपाका रक्तपित्तप्रसादनी गुर्वी चेति ।। ८१ ।।

Santanika (upper solid fied portion of milk) subdues the deranged Vayu. It is a pleasing (Tarpani) tonic, is spermatopoietic, demulcent, palatable, heavy and sweet in taste and digestion, and proves remedial to haemoptysis. 81

विकल्प एष दध्यादिः श्रेष्ठो गव्योऽभिवर्णितः । विकल्पानवशिष्टांस्तु क्षीरवीर्यात् समादिशेत् | ॥८२ ॥ इति तक्रवर्गः ।

Metrical Texts: The virtues and properties of these modifications of curdled cow-milk have been described in detail since it is the best of all kinds of milk described before. The virtues and properties of similar preparations made from the milk of other animals should be regarded as identical with those of the milk of the animal out of which they have been prepared. 82


घृतन्तु सौम्यं मृदु शीतवीर्यं मधुरमल्याभिष्यन्दि स्नेहनमुदावर्त्तोन्मादापस्मारशूलज्वरानाहवातपित्तप्रशमनमग्निदीपनं स्मृतिमतिमेधाकान्तिस्वरलावण्य सौकुमार्याजस्तेजोबलकरमायुष्यं वृष्यं मेध्यं वयःस्थापनं गुरु चक्षुष्यं श्लेष्माभिवर्द्धनं पाप्मालक्ष्मीप्रशमनं विषहरं रक्षोघ्नञ्च ।।८३ ।।

Clarified Butter (Ghrta): Ghrta or clarified butter is Saumya or cooling in its essence and potency, and is mild and sweet. It slightly increases the slimy secretions of the organs, and acts as a lubricating moistener, proving efficacious in Udavarta, insanity, epilepsy, colic, fever (chronic) and distension of the abdomen from the suppression of stool and urine (Anaha). It is appetising and subdues the Vayu and the Pitta. It improves memory, intelligence, complexion, voice, personal beauty, amiability of features and the principle of strength (albumen, Ojas) in the body. It is vitalising, rejuvenating, spermatopoietic and heavy. It improves the eyesight, increases the quantity of bodily Kapha and the duration of life. It is sacred and is regarded as an appeaser of adverse fate. It eliminates poison from the body and wards off the invasions of monsters and demons. 83

विपाके मधुरं शीतं वातपित्तविषापहम् । चक्षुष्यमग्र्यं बल्यञ्च गव्यं सर्पिर्गुणोत्तरम् ।।८४॥

आजं घृतं दीपनीयं चक्षुष्यं बलवर्द्धनम् । कासे श्वासे क्षये चापि पथ्यं पाके च तल्लघु |॥८५ ॥

मधुरं रक्तपित्तघ्नं गुरु पाके कफावहम् । वातपित्तप्रशमनं सुशीतं माहिषं घृतम् ।।८६ ।।

औष्ट्रं कटु घृतं पाके शोफक्रिमिविषापहम् । दीपनं कफवातघ्नं कुष्ठगुल्मोदरापहम् ॥८७ ॥

पाके लघ्वाविकं सर्पिर्न च पित्तप्रकोपणम् । कफेऽनिले योनिदोषे शोषे कम्पे च तद्धितम् ।।८८ ।।

पाके लघूष्णवीर्यञ्च कषायं कफनाशनम् । दीपनं बद्धमूत्रञ्च विद्यादैकशफं घृतम् ।।८९ ।।

Metrical Texts: Clarified butter made of cow milk is sweet in digestion, and cool in its potency. It subdues the deranged Vayu and Pitta. and serves to eliminate poison from the system. It improves the eyesight and possesses excellent tonic and invigorating properties. Cow-butter, in its clarified state, is the best of all kinds of butter. Clarified butter made of the milk of a she-goat is appetising (Dipana), improves eye-sight invigorating and strength-increasing. It proves a wholesome diet in cases of cough, dyspnoea and consumption (any wasting disease), and is light in digestion. Clarified butter prepared with the milk of a she-buffalo is sweet, heavy in digestion, and proves remedial in haemoptysis. It is cooling and increases the quantity of bodily Kapha, and subdues the deranged Vayu and Pitta. Clarified butter made with the milk of a she-camel is anti-toxic, appetising and pungent in digestion. It subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapha, and proves curative in oedema, worms in the intestines, cutaneous affections, abdominal glands, and ascites. Clarified butter made with the milk of a ewe is light in digestion. It does not enrage Pitta, and proves beneficial in cases of phthisis (Sosa) Vaginal disorders and in diseases due to the action of the deranged Vayu and Kapha. Clarified butter made with the milk of a mare (lit: any female mammal with unbrifurcated hoops) is light in digestion, heatmaking in its potency, and astringent in taste. It is appetising, anuretic, and subdues the action of the deranged Kapha. 84-89

चक्षुष्यमग्र्यं स्त्रीणान्तु सर्पिः स्यादमृतोपमम् । वृद्धिं करोति देहाग्न्योर्लघुपाकं विषापहम् ।। ९ ।।

कषायं बद्धविण्मूत्रं तिक्तमग्निकरं लघु । हन्ति कारेणवं सर्पिः कफकुष्ठविषक्रिमीन् ।।९१ ।।

Clarified butter made with the milk of a woman is possessed of eye-invigorating virtues, and should be regarded as the prototype of diving ambrosia on earth. It is light (in digestion), anti-toxic, stomachic, and constructive. Clarified butter prepared with the milk of a she-elephant is astringent in taste, and brings about a suppression of stool and urine. It is bitter, light, and stomachic (Agnikara), and proves curative in cutaneous affections Kustha, poisoning, worms in the intestines, and derangements of the Kapha. 90-91

क्षीरघृतं पुनः संग्राहि रक्तपित्तभ्रममूर्च्छाप्रशमनं नेत्ररोगहितञ्च ।।९२ ।।

Butter churned out of thickened milk and clarified (Ksira Ghrta) is astringent, and proves beneficial in eye-diseases, haemoptysis, epileptic fits, and vertigo. 92

The condensed upper stratum of clarified butter (Ghrta-manda) acts as a laxative, cures aching pain in the vagina, ears, or in the head, and is recommended to be used as an errhine, as enema or as eyedrops. 93

सर्पिः पुराणं सरं कटुविपाकं त्रिदोषापहं मूर्च्छामदोन्मादोदरज्वरगरशोषापस्मारयोनिश्रोत्राक्षिशिरःशूलघ्नं दीपनं बस्तिनस्याक्षिपूरणेषूपदिश्यते ।।९४ ।।

Old clarified butter is laxative and pungent in digestion. It subdues the three deranged bodily humours, and proves curative in syncope, intoxication, insanity, abdominal dropsy, fever, chemical poisoning, consumptive condition, hysteria, and in aching pain in the vagina, ears, eyes or head. It is appetising and is recommended to be used as eye-drops and enema. 94

पुराणं भवन्ति चात्रतिमिरश्वास-पीनसज्वरकासनुत् । मूर्च्छाकुष्ठविषोन्माद-ग्रहापस्मारनाशनम् एकादशशतञ्चैव वत्सरानुषितं घृतम् । रक्षोघ्नं कुम्भसर्पि: स्यात् परतस्तु महाघृतम् ।। ९६ ।। पेयं महाघृतं भूतैः कफघ्नं पवनाधिकैः बल्यं पवित्रं मेध्यञ्च विशेषात् सर्वभूतहरञ्चैव घृतमेतत् इति घृतवर्गः । ।।९५ ।। तिमिरापहम् ।।९७ ।। प्रशस्यते ।।९८ ।।

Authoritative verses on the subject: Old butter proves curative in Timira (Gutta Serena ), dyspnoea, sinousitis, fever, cough, epileptic fits, and Kustha, in cases of poisoning, mental aberration, and hysteria ascribed to the influence of malignant planets. Clarified butter matured from eleven to a hundred years is called the Kumbha Ghrta (Pitcher clarified butter), while that, which is older than the one of the preceding kind, is called the Maha Ghrta (the great clarified butter). Kumbha Ghrta is said to be possessed of the mystic potency of warding off the invasions of monsters, while the Maha Ghrta is highly efficacious, sacred, and specifically curative in the disease known as Timira. It acts as a prophylactic against the malignant influences of all evil spirits and baneful planets, and should be taken by men in whom Vayu predominates. It subdues the deranged Kapha, and improves the strength and intellect. 95-98

अथ तैलवर्ग:

तैलन्त्वाग्नेयमुष्णं तीक्ष्णं मधुरं मधुरविपाकं बृंहणं प्रीणनं व्यवायि सूक्ष्मं विशदं गुरु सरं विकासि वृष्यं त्वक्प्रसादनं मेधामार्द्दवमांसस्थैर्यवर्णबलकरं चक्षुष्यं बद्धमूत्रं लेखनं तिक्तकषायानुरसं पाचनमनिलबलासक्षयकरं क्रिमिघ्नमशितपित्तजननं योनिशिरः कर्णशूलप्रशमनं गर्भाशयशोधनञ्च । तथा छिन्नभिन्नविद्धोत्पष्टच्युतमथितक्षतपिच्चितभग्नस्फुटितक्षाराग्निदग्धविश्लिष्टदारिताभिहतदुर्भग्नमृगव्यालविदष्टप्रभृतिषु च परिषेकाभ्यङ्गावगाहादिषु तिलतैलं प्रशस्यते । ॥ ९९ ।।

The Oil Group: Oils, which belong to the category of fiery (Agneya) substances, are hot or heat-making in their potencies, irritating, and sweet in taste and digestion, and are constructive Brihana, and pleasant. They expand through the entire system immediately after being drunk or rubbed (Vyavayi), and are subtle, clear, heavy, and laxative (Sara). They tend to expand the bone-joints and contribute to their free and easy movements (Vikasi). They act as spermatopoietics (Vrsya), and purify the skin, improve the memory, and impart softness to the skin and complexion. They are fleshmaking and strength-imparting, and increase the firmness of the body. They are possessed of eye-invigorating virtues, and are anuretic, liquefacient (Lekhana), bitter and stomachic (Pacana). They cure Vayu and Kapha. They are vermifuge and produce a slight Pitta, leaving an astringent after-taste. They relieve aching pain in the head, ears, and the female organs of generation (Yoni), act as purifying agents in respect of the uterus, and prove curative in urticaria.

The use of oil is recommended in cases of cut, cleft, punctured, severed, lacerated, blistered, thrashed or contused wounds and ulcers, and in burns and scalds whether due to the application of heat or any vesicant alkaline solution, as well as in bites of wild beasts and birds, etc., and act beneficially in baths, unguents and lubrications. 99

तद् बस्तिषु च पाने च नस्ये कर्णाक्षिपूरणे । अन्नपानविधौ चापि प्रयोज्यं वातशान्तये ।।१०० ।।

Metrical Texts: Oil should be used in snuffing, and as enemas (Basti), eye-drops, ear-drops, as well as in seasoning soups, curries and cordials, etc. It pacifies the bodily Vayu. 100

एरण्डतैलं मधुरमुष्णं तीक्ष्णं दीपनं कटुकषायानुरसं सूक्ष्मं स्रोतोविशोधनं त्वच्यं वृष्यं मधुरविपाकं वयःस्थापनं योनिदोषशुक्रविशोधनमारोग्यमेधाकान्तिस्मृतिबलकरं वातकफहरमधोभागदोषहरञ्च ।।१०१ ।।

Castor Oil is sweet, hot (in its potency), irritating and appetising. It leaves a pungent astringent after-taste, and is subtle. It acts as a cleansing agent in respect of the internal channels of the body, and is wholesome to the skin. It is spermatopoietic, sweet in digestion (Vipaka), and rejuvenating. It purifies the semen, vagina, and removes vaginal and uterine disorders, and contributes to the preservation of sound health. It improves the memory, complexion and intellect (of its user), subdues the bodily Vayu and Kapha, and cleanses the system from all injurious principles by inducing purging. 101

निम्बातसीकुसुम्भमूलकजीमूतकवृक्षककृतवेधनार्ककम्पिल्लकहस्तिकर्णपृथ्वीकापीलुकरञ्जेङ्गुदीशिग्रुसर्षपसुवर्चलाविडङ्गज्योतिष्मतीफलतैलानि तीक्ष्णानि लघून्युष्णवीर्याणि कटूनि कटुविपाकानि सराण्यनिलकफकुमिकुष्ठप्रमेहशिरोरोगहराणि चेति । । १०२ ।।

Oils obtained from the seeds of Nimba, Atasi, Kusumbha Mulaka, Jimutaka, Vrksaka, Krtavedhana, Arka, Kampillaka, Hastikarna, Prthvika, Pilu, Karanja, Ingudi, Sigru, Sarsapa, Suvarcala, Vidanga and Jyotismati, seeds, are irritating, light, heat-making in their potency, and pungent in taste and digestion. They act as a good laxative, and prove curative in diseases due to the deranged Vayu, or Kapha, as well as in cases of Kustha, Prameha, head disease, and intestinal parasites. 102

वातघ्नं मधुरं तेषु क्षौमं तैलं बलावहम् । कटुपाकमचक्षुष्यं स्निग्धोष्णं गुरु पित्तलम् ।।१०३ ।।

क्रिमिघ्नं सार्षपं तैलं कण्डूकुष्ठापहं लघु । कफमेदोऽनिलहरं लेखनं कटु दीपनम् ।। १०४ ।।

क्रिमिघ्नमिङ्गुदीतैलमीषत्तिक्तं तथा लघु । कुष्ठामयक्रिमिहरं दृष्टिशुक्रबलापहम् ।। १०५ ।।

विपाके कटुकं तैलं कौसुम्भं सर्वदोषकृत् । रक्तपित्तकरं तीक्ष्णमचक्षुष्यं विदाहि च । । १०६ ।।

Metrical Texts : Ksauma ( Linseed) oil is sweet. It subdues the bodily Vayu and is strength-giving, and pungent in digestion. Devoid of any eye-invigorating properties, it is hot though demulcent, and heavy. It increases the Pitta:

Mustard oil is light, and acts as a vermifuge. It proves curative in itch and cutaneous affections, reduces Vayu, Kapha and fat, and is pungent, appetising and Lekhana (liquefacient) Oil obtained from the seeds of Ingudi is a vermifuge, and is light, and slightly bitter in taste. It proves curative in Kustha and parasitic disorders, and affects the strength, semen and the eyesight of its user. The oil obtained from Kusumbha flowers in pungent in digestion and leads to the derangement of all the bodily humours. It is irritating, and acid in its reaction (Vidahi). It is devoid of any eye-cleansing property and brings on haemoptysis. 103-106

किराततिक्तकाऽतिमुक्तक- बिभीतक – नालिकेर-कोलाक्षोडजीवन्तीप्रियाल- कर्बुदार- सूर्यवल्ली- त्रपुसैर्वारुक-कर्कारु कुष्माण्ड-प्रभृतीनां तैलानि मधुराणि मधुरविपाकानि वातपित्तप्रशमनानि शीतवीर्याण्यभिष्यन्दीनि सृष्टविण्मूत्राण्यग्निसादनानि चेति ।। १०७ ।। –

The Oils obtained from the Kirata-tiktaka, Atimuktaka, Bibhitaka, Nalikera, Kola, Aksoda, Jivanti, Priyala, Karbudara, Suryavalli, Trapusa, Ervaruka Karkaru and Kusmanda seeds, etc. are sweet in taste. potency and digestion, and tend to pacify the deranged Vayu and Pitta. Cooling in their potency, they increase the slimy secretions of the organs, impair digestion, and help the copious evacuation of stool and urine. 107

मधुककाश्मर्यपलाशतैलानि मधुरकषायाणि कफपित्तप्रशमनानि । तुवरकभल्लातकतैले उष्णे मधुरकषाये तिक्तानुरसे वातकफकुष्ठमेदोमेहक्रिमिप्रशमने उभयतोभागदोषहरे च । सरलदेवदारु-गण्डीरशिंशपागुरुसारस्नेहास्तिक्त कटु-कषाया दुष्टव्रणशोधनाः क्रिमिकफकुष्ठानिलहराश्च । तुम्बीकोशाम्रदन्तीद्रवन्तीश्यामासप्तलानीलिकाकम्पिल्लकशङ्खिनीस्नेहास्तिक्तकटुकषाया अधोभागदोषहराः क्रिमिकफकुष्ठा निलहरा दुष्टव्रणविशोधनाश्च । यवतिक्तातैलं सर्वदोषप्रशमनमीषतिक्तमग्निदीपनं लेखनं मेध्यं पथ्यं रसायनञ्च । एकैषिकातैलं मधुरमतिशीतं पित्तहरमनिलप्रकोपणं श्लेष्माभिवर्द्धनञ्च । सहकारतैलमीषत्तिक्तमतिसुगन्धि वातकफहरं रुक्षं मधुरकषायं रसवन्नातिपित्तकरञ्च ।।१०८-११४ ।।

The Oils the Madhuka (Maula), Kasmarya and Palasa seeds are sweet and astringent. They pacify the deranged Kapha and Pitta. The oils of the Tuvaraka and Bhallataka are heat-making, sweet and astringent, and leave a bitter after-taste. They prove curative in diseases due to the action of deranged Vayu and Kapha, as well as in obesity, Meha, cutaneous affections, and intestinal worms, and cleanse the system both by their emetic and purgative actions. The Oils obtained from the piths (Sara) of such trees as, Sarala, Devadaru, Gandira, Simsapa and Aguru, are bitter pungent and astringent in their tastes, and act as purifying agents in respect of bad ulcers. They prove curative in skin diseases and destroy the deranged Vayu, Kapha, and intestinal worms. The Oils obtained from the seeds of Tumbi, Kosamra, Danti, Dravanti, Syama, Saptala, Nilika, Kampillaka, and Sankhini, are demulcent bitter, pungent and astringent in their tastes. They serve to cleanse the system from all impurities and baneful principles through their purgative properties. They act as purifying agents in respect of malignant ulcers, and prove curative in diseases due to the deranged Vayu and Kapha, as well as in skindiseases Kustha and parasitic complaints. Yavatikta-oil tends to subdue all the deranged humours, is slightly bitter, and acts as a good elixir. It is appetising, acid, and liquefacient. It is holy and wholesome (Pathya), and serves to improve the memory of its user. The Oil from Ekaisika seeds is sweet, and extremely cooling. It subdues the Pitta, increases the Kapha and aggravates the Vayu. The Oil of the seeds of mango stones is slightly bitter in taste, and extremely aromatic. It subdues the Vayu and Kapha. It is parchifying, sweet and astringent, palatable, and not highly Pitta-making. 108-114

फलोद्भवानि तैलानि यान्युक्तानीह कानिचित् । गुणान् कर्म च विज्ञाय फलानीव विनिर्द्दिशेत् ।। ११५ ।।

यावन्तः स्थावराः स्नेहा: समासात् परिकीर्त्तिताः । सर्वे तैलगुणा ज्ञेयाः सर्वे चानिलनाशनाः ।। ११६ ।।

सर्वेभ्यस्त्विह तैलेभ्यस्तिलतैलं प्रशस्यते । निष्पत्तेस्तद्गुणत्वाच्च तैलत्वमितरेष्वपि । । ११७ ।।

Metrical Texts: The therapeutic properties of the oils from the seeds of fruits, which have been specifically described in the present chapter, should be considered as identical with those of the fruits or seeds of which they have been so pressed out. All the vegetable oils (Sneha) described above should be regarded as possessed of the virtue of subduing the bodily Vayu, and they possess some of the properties, which specifically belong to sesamum oil. Sesamum oil is the most commendable of all oils inasmuch as the very word, which signifies oil (Taila), is etymologically derived from Tila (sesamum). 115-117

ग्राम्यानूपौदकानाञ्च वसामेदोमज्जानो गुरूष्णमधुरा वातघ्नाः, जाङ्गलैकशफक्रव्यादादीनां लघुशीतकषाया रक्तपित्तघ्नाः, प्रतुदविष्किराणां श्लेष्मघ्नाः । तत्र घृततैलवसामेदोमज्जानो यथोत्तरं गुरुविपाका वातहराश्च ।।११८ ।। इति तैलवर्गः ।

The oil, myosin (Vasa), fat, marrow, and Ghrta obtained from animals, which live in villages (Gramya), or frequent the marshy swamps (anupa), or are aquatic (Audaka) in their habits, are heavy, heat-making in their potency, and sweet in taste. They subdue the bodily Vayu, while those obtained from Jangala (such as deer, etc.) or carnivorous animals, or from those possessed of unbifurcated hoofs, are light, cool in their potency, astringent in taste, and prove curative in cases of haemoptysis. The fat, marrow, etc. of animals of the Pratuda and Viskira species (doves, pigeons, etc.) reduce the bodily Kapha. Of clarified butter, oil, myosin ( Vasa), fat and marrow of animals each is heavier in digestion, and possesses a greater power of subduing the bodily Vayu than the one immediately preceding it in the order of enumeration. 118

अथ मधुवर्ग:

मधु तु मधुरं कषायानुरसं रुक्षं शीतमग्निदीपनं वर्ण्य बल्यं लघु सुकुमारं लेखनं हृद्यं वाजीकरणं सन्धानं शोधनं रोपणं संग्राहि चक्षुष्यं प्रसादनं सूक्ष्ममार्गानुसारि पित्तश्लेष्ममेदोमेहहिक्काश्वासकासातिसारच्छर्द्दितृष्णाक्रिमिविषप्रशमनं ह्लादि त्रिदोषप्रशमनञ्च । तत् तु लघुत्वात् कफघ्नं, पैच्छिल्यान्माधुर्यात् कषायभावाच्च वातपित्तघ्नम् ||११९ ।।

The Honey Group: Honey is sweet, and leaves an astringent after-taste. It is parchifying, cold, stomachic, cosmetic, tonic, light, softening, palatable, liquefacient (Lekhana), and fermenting (Sandhana). It acts as a purifying and healing agent in respect of ulcers and eyes, is aphrodisiac, astringent, and tends to permeate all the minutest channels and capillaries of the organism. It is antifat and pacifies the deranged Pitta and Kapha and proves curative in hiccough, Meha, dyspnoea, cough, dysentery, vomiting and thirst. It is a vermifuge, antitoxic and demulcent, and influences the subduing of the three deranged humours. Owing to its lightness it subdues the deranged Kapha, and proves a good antidote to the deranged Vayu and Pitta owing to its sliminess, sweetness and astringent taste. 119

पौत्तिकं भ्रामरं क्षौद्रं माक्षिकं छात्रमेव च । आर्घ्यमौद्दालकं दालमित्यष्टौ मधुजातयः ।। १२० ।।

विशेषात् पौत्तिकं तेषु रुक्षोष्णं सविषान्वयात् । वातासृपित्तकृच्छेदि विदाहि मदकृन्मधु ॥ १२१ ।।

पैच्छिल्यात् स्वादुभूयस्त्वाद्भ्रामरं गुरुसंज्ञितम् । क्षौद्रं विशेषतो ज्ञेयं शीतलं लघु लेखनम् ।। १२२ ।

तस्माल्लघुतरं रुक्षं माक्षिकं प्रवरं स्मृतम् । श्वासादिषु च रोगेषु प्रशस्तं तद् विशेषतः ।।१२३ ।

स्वादुपाकं गुरु हिमं पिच्छिलं रक्तपित्तजित् । श्वित्रमेहक्रिमिघ्नञ्च विद्याच्छात्रं गुणोत्तरम् ।।१२४ ।।

आर्घ्यं मध्वतिचक्षुष्यं कफपित्तहरं परम् । कषायं कटु पाके च बल्यं तिक्तमवातकृत् ।।१२५ ।।

औद्दालकं रुचिकरं स्वर्यं कुष्ठविषापहम् । कषायमुष्णमम्लञ्च पित्तकृत कटुपाकि च छर्द्विमेहप्रशमनं मधु रुक्षं दलोद्भवम् ।। १२६ ।।

बृंहणीयं मधु नवं नातिश्लेष्महरं सरम् ।। १२७ ।।

मेदःस्थौल्यापहं ग्राहि पुराणमतिलेखनम् । दोषत्रयहरं पक्वमाममम्लं त्रिदोषकृत् । । १२८ ।।

तद्युक्तं विविधैर्योगैर्निहन्यादामयान् बहून् । नानाद्रव्यात्मकत्वाच्च योगवाहि परं मधु । । १२९ ।।

Metrical Texts: Eight different kinds of honey are commonly used such as, the Pauttika, Bhramara, Ksaudra, Maksika, Chatra, Arghya, Auddalaka and Dala¹. Of these the honey obtained from the hives of bees, known as the Pauttika, is hot and parchifying owing to their habit of sucking the juice or sap of flowers and plants without eliminating there from other foreign or poisonous matter, that might have become naturally or accidentally mixed with it. This kind of honey is intoxicating and acid in its re-action, and tends to aggravate the Vayu, blood and Pitta. It acts as a liquefacient or discutient agent. Honey, known as the Bhramara, is extremely heavy owing to its extremely sweet taste and slimy character, while the one known as the Ksaudra is extremely cool, light and liquefacient. Honey known as the Maksika is lighter, dryer and more efficacious than the honey of the preceding class Ksaudra, and proves specially beneficial in cases of dyspnoea, etc. Honey, known as the Chatra, is sweet in digestion, heavy, cooling and slimy. It acts as a vermifuge, proves curative in haemoptysis, psoriasis and Meha, and is possessed of a high efficacy. Honey known as the Arghya is possessed of properties highly beneficial to the eye. It is a greater subduer of Pitta and Kapha than any other kind of honey, is astringent in taste, and pungent in digestion. It is a bitter tonic and does not generate Vayu in the system. Honey known as the Auddalaka improves the voice and relish for food. It is antitoxic, and proves curative in cutaneous affections. It is heat

(i) The kind of honey obtained from hives of large, yellow bees, is called the Pauttika.

(ii) The kind of honey obtained from hives of bees of the Bhramara species is called Bhramara.

(iii) The kind of honey obtained from hives of small, tawny brown bees is called the Ksaudram.

(iv) The kind of honey obtained from the hives of large, brown bees of Maksika, species is called Maksikam.

(v) The kind of honey obtained from the umbrella shaped hives of bees of the Chhatra species is called Chatram.

(vi) The honey obtained from the hives of thin-mouthed bees of the Argha species often found in ant-hills is called Arghyam.

(vii) The kind of honey obtained from the hives of small brown bees of the Uddalaka species is called Auddalakam.

(viii) The kind of honey found accumulated in leaves of honey-bearing plants is called Dalam.

making in its potency, and acid and astringent in taste. It generates Pitta, and is pungent in digestion. Honey, known as the Dala, is parchifying and proves beneficial in cases of vomiting and Meha. Fresh honey is constructive and aphrodisiac, acts as a mild laxative, and to a small extent subdues the deranged Kapha. Old honey is astringent and liquefacient, and reduces fat and obesity. Honey, that has attained a thickened or condensed state in course of time (Pakka Madhu), tends to subdue the three deranged humours, while thin and immatured honey (Ama Madhu) is possessed of contrary properties, and tends to agitate the three fundamental humours of the body. In conjunction with many other drugs and medicinal remedies, honey proves curative in various diseases, and partakes of the virtues of the drugs or substances with which it is so used (Yoga-Vahika). 120-129

तत् तु नानाद्रव्यरसगुणवीर्यविपाकविरुद्धानां पुष्परसानां सविषमक्षिकासम्भवत्वाच्चानुष्णोपचारम् ।।१३० ।।

Honey is not collected from the flowers of any particular species. On the other hand, the honey-making bees cull it from the sap and juice of flowers and plants, which are incompatible with one another in respect of their nature, taste, virtue, potency and re-actionary (chemical) effect. For these reasons, and further from the fact of it being prepared by poisonous bees, honey becomes positively injurious after contact with heat or fire, and accordingly the use of hot or boiled honey is forbidden. 130

उष्णैर्विरुध्यते सर्वं विषान्वयतया मधु । उष्णार्त्तमुष्णैरुष्णे वा तन्निहन्ति यथा विषम् ।। १३१ ।।

तत् सौकुमार्याच्च तथैव शैत्यान्नानौषधीनां रससम्भवाच्च । उष्णैर्विरुध्येत् विशेषतच तथाऽन्तरीक्षेण जलेन चापि || १३२ ||

Metrical Texts: On account of its poisonous contact in its origin honey exerts a similar injurious virtue. Used in a boiling or heated state, or in a hot country, or during the hot season of the year, or in a heated state of the body, honey is sure to prove fatal like poison. Honey is specially made injurious by hot contact owing to its placidity and coolness, and further for the reason of its being collected from the sap of a variety of flowers and plants. Atmospheric water (rain-water), like heat, serves to impart an injurious character to all kinds of honey (except the one known as the Arghya Madhu) 131-132

उष्णेन मधु संयुक्तं वमनेष्ववचारितम् । अपाकादनवस्थानान्न विरुध्येत् पूर्ववत् ।।१३३ ।।

Metrical Texts: For emetic purposes honey may be administered with any other hot substance, inasmuch as it is intended in such a case that the imbided honey, instead of being retained or digested in the stomach, should be ejected immediately after its use.¹ 133

मध्वामात् परतस्त्वन्यदामं कष्टं न विद्यते । विरुद्धोपक्रमत्वात् तत् सर्वं हन्ति यथा विषम् ।। १३४ ।। इति मधुवर्गः ।

Undigested honey is more painful, or gives rise to a greater discomfort than all other undigested substances in the stomach, more so because internal fermentation and use of hot water, which are usually resorted to in a case of deranged digestion, can not be used in a case of undigested honey retained in the stomach, owing to the poisonous nature of the chemical change (Vipaka) it undergoes therein in contact with hot substances in general. Hence, undigested honey is as fatal as any poison. 134


इक्षवो मधुरा मधुरविपाका गुरवः शीताः स्निग्धा बल्या वृष्या मूत्रला रक्तपित्तप्रशमना: क्रिमिकफकराश्चेति ।। १३५ ।।

The Sugar-cane group : Sugar-cane is sweet in taste and digestion, heavy, cool, demulcent, strength-giving, spermatopoietic, and diuretic. It produces Kapha in the body, and proves remedial in haemoptysis, andhelps the germination of worms in the intestines. 135

ते चानेकविधाः, तद्यथापौण्ड्रको भीरुकश्चैव वंशक: कान्तारस्तापसेक्षुश्च काष्ठेक्षुः श्वेतपोरकः । सूचिपत्रकः ।। १३६ ।।

1. Though the use of honey with hot substances is not forbidden in such cases, still many an experienced physician of the Ayurvedic school thinks it safe to refrain from its use, lest it might be retained in the stomach for a considerable time, or find out a downward outlet and pass off with the stool.

नैपालो दीर्घपत्रश्च नीलपोरोऽथ कोशकृत् । इत्येता जातयः स्थौल्याद, गुणान् वक्ष्याम्यतः परम् ।।१३७।।

सुशीतो मधुरः स्निग्धो बृंहणः श्लेष्मलः सरः । अविदाही गुरुर्वृष्यः पौण्ड्रको भीरुकस्तथा ।।१३८ ।।

आभ्यां तुल्यगुणः किञ्चित् सक्षारो वंशको मतः ।

वंशवच्छ्वेतपोरस्तु किञ्चिदुष्णः कान्तारतापसाविक्षू एवंगुणस्तु काष्ठेक्षुः स किञ्चिदुष्णः स वातहा ।। १३९ ।।

वंशकानुगुणौ मतौ। स स तु वातप्रकोपणः ।।१४० ।।

नैपालो दीर्घपत्रकः । सूचीपत्रो नीलपोरो वातलाः कफपित्तघ्नाः सकषाया

कोशकारो गुरुः शीतो अतीव मधुरो मूले मध्ये विदाहिनः ।।१४१ ।।

रक्तपित्तक्षयापहः ।।१४२ ।। मधुर एव तु ।। अग्रेष्वक्षिषु विज्ञेय इक्षणां लवणो रसः ।।१४३ ।।

Metrical text: There are many species of sugar-cane such as, the Paundraka, Bhiruka, Vamsaka, Swetaporaka, Kantara, Tapaseksu, Kastheksu, Suci-patraka Naipala, Dirghapatraka, Nilapora and Kosakrta. Now we shall deal with the specific virtues of each of them. 136-137

The Sugar-cane of the Paundraka and Bhiruka types is cooling, sweet, demulcent and constructive. It produces Kapha and is laxative without giving rise to imperfect gastric digestion. It is heavy and spermatopoietic. The Sugar-cane of the Vamsaka species is possessed of similar properties as the two foregoing ones, though a little alkaline in its constitution, while that of the Swetapora species is a little more heat-making than that of the preceding class, and is found to subdue the deranged Vayu. The Sugar-cane of the Kantara and Tapasa species is possessed of the same virtues as that of the Vamsaka class. The Sugar-cane of the Kastheksu, species is identical in its properties with that of the aforesaid Vamsaka class, though it tends to agitate the bodily Vayu. The Sugar-cane of the Sucipatra Nilapora, Naipala and Dirghapatra species produces Vayu in the system, and subdues the Kapha and Pitta. It is slightly astringent in taste and indigestible (gives rise to acidity after digestion). The Sugar-cane of the Kosakara species is heavy (in digestion), cooling and proves curative in cases of haemoptysis and wasting diseases in general. Sugar-cane is extremely sweet about the roots, sweet at the middle, and saline at the tops and joints. 138-143

अविदाही कफकरो वातपित्तनिवारणः । वक्तूप्रह्लादनो वृष्यो दन्तनिष्पीडितो रसः । ॥ १४४ ॥

गुरुर्विदाही विष्टम्भी यान्त्रिकस्तु प्रकीर्त्तितः । पक्वो गुरुः सरः स्निग्धः सतीक्ष्णः कफवातनुत् ।।१४५ ।।

फाणितं गुरु मधुरमभिष्यन्दि बृंहणमवृष्यं त्रिदोषकृच्च ।। १४६ ।।

The juice of a sugar-cane when eaten raw is not marked by any acid reaction after digestion. It is spermatopoietic, increases kapha and subdues the Vayu and the pitta, and is pleasant to the taste. The juice of sugar-cane otherwise pressed out is heavy in digestion, is long retained in the stomach, and is followed by reactionary acidity, and arrests the evacuation of stool and urine. the juice of ripe sugar-cane is heavy in digestion, possessed of laxative properties, keen, and demulcent. It subdues the Vayu and Kapha. The inspissated or half boiled juice of sugar-cane Phanita is sweet in taste and heavy. It increases the slimy secretions of the organs, acts as a flesh-builder, and is devoid of all spermatopoietic properties. It brings about a simultaneous derangement of the three bodily humours. 144-146

गुडः सक्षारमधुरो नातिशीतः स्निग्धो मूत्ररक्तशोधनो नातिपित्तजिद् वातघ्नो मेदः क्रिमिकफकरो बल्यो वृष्यश्च ।।१४७ ।।

पितघ्नो मधुरः शुद्धो वातघ्नोऽसक्प्रसादनः । स पुराणोऽधिकगुणो गुडः पथ्यतमः स्मृतः।।१४८।।

Common treacle is found to be charged with a little alkali. It is sweet in taste and not too cooling. It acts as a demulcent and purifier of the blood, and urine. It subdues the deranged Vayu and, to a slight extent, deranges the Pitta as well. it increases fat, Kapha, and corpulency, and is possessed of tonic and spermatopoietic properties. White and purified (Suddha) treacle is sweet in taste, and purifies the blood. It subdues the deranged Vayu and pitta, and is one of the most wholesome diets for man. Its efficacy increases with its years. 147-148

मत्स्यण्डिकाखण्डशर्करा विमलजाता उत्तरोत्तरं शीताः स्निग्धा गुरुतरा मधुरतरा वृष्या रक्तपित्तप्रशमनास्तृष्णाप्रशमनाश्च ।।१४९ ।।

The different modification of treacle such as the Matsyandika, Khanda and Sarkara (sugar) which are progressivly more refined, should be deemed as gaining more in their cooling, demulcent and aphrodisiac properties, and getting heavier in digestion in each of the successive stages of refinement. They are successively more frigorific, and beneficial in cases of haemoptysis. 149

यथा यथैषां वैमल्यं मधुरत्वं तथा तथा । स्नेहगौरवशैत्यानि सरत्वञ्च तथा तथा ।।१५०।॥

यो यो मत्स्यण्डिकाखण्डशर्कराणां स्वको गुणः । तेन तेनैव निर्देश्यस्तेषां विस्रावणो गुणः ।।१५१।।

सारस्थिता सुविमला निःक्षारा च यथा यथा । तथा तथा गुणवती विज्ञेया शर्करा बुधैः ||१५२ ।।

Metrical Texts: To the properties considered as specially belonging to each of these modifications of treacle should be attributed its power of producing its own refinement and efficacy. The virtues of sugar suchas, sweetness, demulcent quality, coolness andlaxativeness, etc., should be regarded as proportional to its refinement. Whatever qualities possessed by Matsyandika khanda and Sarkara the same qualities are indicated in the drinks liquors of above mentioned substances. As the sarkara becomes more and more clean together with successive devoidness from alkaline saturation and increasing in its essence the qualities of sarkara increases more and more and this fact should be know by wise persons. 150-152

मधुशर्करा पुनश्छर्द्यतीसारहरी रुक्षा छेदनी प्रह्लादनी कषायमधुरा मधुरविपाका च ।

यवासशर्करा मधुरकषाया तिक्तानुरसा श्लेष्महरी सरा चेति ।।१५३।।

Sugar prepared from concentrated honey (Madhu Sarkara) is parchifying and liquefacient. It proves beneficial in cases of vomiting and dysentery, is pleasant, has a sweet and astringent taste, and is sweet in digestion. Sugar prepared from a decoction of Yavasa Sarkara (Duralabha) has a sweet and astringent taste, leaves a bitter -taste, and is possessed of laxative properties, and subdues deranged Kapha. 153

यावत्यः शर्कराः प्रोक्ताः सर्वा दाहप्रणाशनाः। रक्तपित्तप्रशमनाश्छर्द्दिमूर्च्छातृषापहाः ।। १५४।।

रुक्षं मधूकपुष्पोत्थं फाणितं वातपित्तकृत् । कफघ्नं मधुरं पाके कषायं इतीक्षुवर्गः । बस्तिदूषणम् ।।१५५ ।।

All kinds of sugar tend to assuage burning sensations in the body, and prove curative in hoemoptysis, vomiting, epileptic fits, and thirst. The sweet and concentrated extract (Phanita) of Madhuka flowers should be regarded as parchifying. it produces Vayu and Pitta, and subdues Kapha. It is sweet, astringent in its digestive transformation, and deranges the functions of urinery bladder. 154-155

अथ मद्यवर्ग:

सर्वं पित्तकरं मद्यमम्लं दीपनरोचनम् । भेदनं कफवातघ्नं हृद्यं बस्तिविशोधनम् ।।१५६ ।।

पाके लघु विदाधुष्णं तीक्ष्णमिन्द्रियबोधनम् । विकासि सृष्टविण्मूत्रं शृणु तस्य विशेषणम् ।।१५।७।।

Madya Varga (Wines and spirits): All species of wine are acid in taste, and appetising. They generate Pitta, and impart a greater relish to one’s food. They act as mild purgatives, subdue the deranged Vayu and Kapha, and are pleasing, exhilarating and diuretic.

They are light in digestion and give rise to a kind of re-actionary acidity. They are keen and heat-making, stimulate the sense organs, expand the joints and increase the discharge of urine and stool. Now hear me specifically described properties of each kind of wine. 156-157

। प्रतिषिध्यते ।।१५८ ।। कषायानुरसं लघु । शोषविषमज्वरनाशनम् ।। १५९ ।।

मार्द्वीकमविदाहित्वान्मधुरान्वयतस्तथा रक्तपित्तेऽपि सततं बुधैर्न मधुरं तद्धि रुक्षञ्च लघुपाकि सरं

Metrical Texts : The wine known as the Mardvika and prepared

from the juice of such fruits as grapes and raisins, does not give rise to any sort of reactionary acidity after its use, and accordingly is not forbidden by learned physicians even in cases of haemoptysis. It has a sweet taste, and leaves an astringent after-taste. It is parchifying, light and easy of digestion, acts as an aperient, and proves curative in chronic fevers, phthisis and other wasting dieseases. 158-159

मार्द्वीकाल्पान्तरं किञ्चित् खार्जूरं वातकोपनम् । तदेव विशदं रुच्यं कफघ्नं कर्शनं लघु। सुगन्धीन्द्रियबोधनम्।।१६० ।। कषायमधुरं हृद्यं

The wine prepared from the juice of the date palm (Kharjura) possesses properties, which are slightly different from those of the preceding kind. It tends to enrage the bodily Vayu, is clear, and imparts a relish to one’s food, and reduces fat and Kapha. It is light has a sweet and astringent taste, is pleasing and aromatic and increases the agility of the limbs and organs. 160

कासार्शोग्रहणीदोषमूत्राघातानिलापहा सुरा कासार्शोग्रहणीश्वासप्रतिश्यायविनाशनी मूत्रकफस्तन्यरक्तमांसकरी छर्घरोचकहृत्कुक्षितोदशूलप्रमर्द्दनी स्तन्यरक्तक्षयहिता श्वेता बृंहणदीपनी ।।१६१ ।। सुरा ।। १६२।।

कफवातार्शोविबन्धानाहनाशनी ।। १६३ ।। यवैर्वातप्रकोपणी ।।१६४ ।।

प्रसन्ना पित्तलाऽल्पकफा रुक्षा विष्टम्भिनी सुरा गुर्वी श्लेष्मला तु मधूलिका । रुक्षा नातिकफा वृष्या पाचनी चाक्षिकी स्मृता ।। १६५ ।।

त्रिदोषो भेद्यवृष्यश्च कोहलो वदनप्रियः । ग्राह्युष्णो जगलः पक्ता रुक्षस्तकफशोफहृत् ।। १६६ ।।

प्रवाहिकाटोप-दुर्नामानिलशोषहृत् । हृद्य: बक्कसो हृतसारत्वाद् विष्टम्भी वातकोपनः ।

दीपन: सृष्टविण्मूत्रो विशदोऽल्पमदो गुरुः ।।१६७ ।।

The wine known as the Sura (made of rice-paste and other fermenting drugs) proves curative in cough, piles, chronic indigestion and diarrhoea, and retention of urine. It subdues the deranged Vayu and is tonic and appetising. It purifies the breast milk of a woman and proves beneficial in all types of diseases of the blood, as well as in wasting diseases. White Sura is used with benefit in all cases of cough, piles, diarrhoea, dyspnoea and catarrh. it builds up new flesh and tissues, and increases the quantity of blood. It is galactagoguic in its effect, and increases the quantity of Kapha in the body. The wine known as the Prasanna (the cream or the limpid surface of Sura) may be taken with advantage in vomiting, non-relish for food, aching or colic pain at the sides or about the cardiac region, constipation, suppression of stool and urine or flatus, as well as in all cases of obstinate constiption and derangement of the bodily Vayu. The wine prepared from barley (Yava sura) generates Pitta and tends to enrage the bodily Vayu. It is dry and slightly generates Kapha. The wine prepared from Madhulika (a kind of small barley) is heavy and generates Kapha in the body. It is long retained in the stomach, and arrests the evacuation of stool and urine. The Aksiki (wine prepared from the bark of Bibhitaka trees etc.) is parchifying, digestant, and slightly produces Kapha. It is possessed of aphrodisiac properties. The wine known as the Kohala brings on the simultaneous derangement of the three fundamental bodily humours, is pleasant to the taste, acts as a purgative (Bhedya) and is possessed of aphrodisiac properties. The wine known as the Jagala (the underlying drugs or residue of wine) is astringent and heat-making in its potency, and acts as a digestant. It is parchifying, and proves beneficial in cough, thirst and Oedema. It is pleasant to the taste, cures diarrhoea, distension of the stomach, piles and phthisis. It forms and subdues the deranged Vayu as well. The wine known as the Bakkasa continues long undigested in the stomach owing to the fact of it being pithless. It is a good appetiser and tends to enrage the deranged Vayu, and acts as a purgative and diuretic tonic. (A.T.) It is heavy and slightly intoxicating. 161-167

कषायो मधुरः सीधुर्गोड: पाचनदीपनः । शार्करो मधुरो रुच्यो दीपनो बस्तिशोधनः ।। १६८ ।।

वातघ्नो मधुरः पाके हृद्य इन्द्रियबोधनः । तद्वत् पक्वरसः सीधुर्बलवर्णकरः सरः ।। १६९ ।।

शोफघ्नो दीपनो हृद्यो रुच्यः श्लेष्मार्शसां हितः । कर्शन: शीतरसिकः श्वयथूदरनाशनः ।।१७० ।।

वर्णकृज्जरणः स्वर्यो विबन्धघ्नोऽर्शसां हितः । आक्षिकः पाण्डुरोगघ्नो व्रण्यः संग्राहको लघुः ।।१७१ ।।

कषायमधुरः सीधुः पित्तघ्नोऽसृक्प्रसादनः । जाम्बवो बद्धनिष्यन्दस्तुवरो वातकोपनः ।। १७२ ।।

The wine known as the Guda Sidhu (prepared with the boiled juice of sugar-cane and Dhataki flowers, etc.) has a sweet and astringent taste, and acts as an appetiser and digestant. Sugar wine (Sarkara Sidhu) is sweet in its taste, increases one’s relish for food, is appetising and diuretic. It subdues the deranged Vayu and is exhilarating, sweet in digestion, and increases the action (lit: rouses up) of the sense organs. The wine known as the Pakva Rasa Sidhu is possessed of properties similar to the preceding kinds (Sarkara Sidhu). It improves the complexion and imparts strength to the system and relish to one’s food. It is pleasant, laxative, appetising and proves beneficial in cases of Kapha and piles and reduces swellings. The wine known as the Sita Rasika Sidhu (prepared from the unboiled juice of Sugar-cane in contradistinction with the preceding kinds prepared from the boiled juice of sugar-cane), acts as an anti-epispastic, and a digestant and vocal tonic, proves curative in oedema and abdominal dropsy, improves the complexion, removes the suppression of flatus, urine and stool (Vibandha), and proves beneficial in cases of piles. The wine known as the Aksika Sidhu (prepared from a decoction of Bibhitaka with treacle etc. and improved with the flowers of Dhataki) proves beneficial in cases of ulcer and jaundice. It is light and astringent, and has a sweet and astringent taste. It subdues the deranged Pitta and purifies the blood. The wine known as the Jambava Sidhu (wine prepared from the expressed juice of the Jambalin fruit, a decoction of coriander seeds, treacle and Dhataki flowers, etc.) is anuretic, reduces the quantity of urine, has an astringent taste, and tends to enrage the bodily Vayu. 168-172

तीक्ष्णः सुरासवो हृद्यो मूत्रल: कफवातनुत् ।। १७३ ।।

मुखप्रियः स्थिरमदो विज्ञेयोऽनिलनाशनः । लघुर्मध्वासवश्छेदी मेहकुष्ठविषापहः ।।१७४।।

तिक्तः कषायः शोफघ्नस्तीक्ष्णः स्वादुरवातकृत् । तीक्ष्णः कषायो मदकुद्दुर्नामकफगुल्महृत् ।।१७५ ।।

क्रिमिमेदोऽनिलहरो मैरेयो मधुरो गुरुः । बल्यः पित्तहरो वर्ण्यो मृद्वीकेक्षुरसासवः ।।१७६ ।।

शीधुर्मधूकपुष्पोत्थो विदाह्यग्निबलप्रदः । रुक्षः कषायः कफहद् वातपित्तप्रकोपणः ।

निर्द्दिशेद्रसतश्चान्यान् कन्दमूलफलासवात् ।।१७७ ।।

नवं मद्यमभिष्यन्दि गुरु वातादिकोपनम् । विदाहि क्रिमिनाशनम् ।

अनिष्टगन्धि विरसमहद्यञ्च सुगन्धि दीपनं हृद्यं रोचिष्णु च ।।१७८ ।

स्फुटस्रोतस्करं जीर्णं लघु वातकफापहम् ।।१७९ ।।

The wine known as the Surasava (Asava distilled with wine instead of with water) is keen, pleasant, and diuretic. It subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapha, or the deranged Vayu alone, and is palatable, and possessed of a more durable intoxicating power. The wine known as the Madhvasava wine (Honey asava ) is light, tends to disintegrate the knotty accumulations or collections of phlegm (Chhedi), and proves curative in Meha (unhealthy discharges from the urethra), cutaneous affections, and poisoning (antitoxic). It has a taste blended of the sweet and the astringent, is keen and anti-epispastic, and does not generate an abnnormal quantity of Vayu in the system. The wine known as the Maireya (prepared from the Paistisura, treacle-made spirit and honey) is keen, and has a sweet and astringent taste. It is intoxicating, and proves curative in piles, Kapha and Gulma (abdominal glands). It is antifat and a vermifuge, and is heavy in digestion, and subdues the deranged Vayu. Wines prepared from the juice of grapes or sugar-cane (Iksu or Draksasava) are tonic and choleric. They subdue the deranged Pitta and serve to improve the complexion. Sidhu (wine) prepared from the Madhuka flowers is parchifying, takes a long time to be digested, and is followed by an acid reaction. It improves the strength and digestive capacity, and has an astringent taste. It subdues the deranged Kapha, and serves to aggravate the Vayu and Pitta. Wines prepared from the distilled juice of bulbs or roots should be deemed as possessed of properties pertaining to them individually according to their taste (Rasa). New wine is heavy, bad smelling, insipid, unpleasant, unpalatable, and tends to increase the slimy secretions of the organs. It enrages the deranged humours of the body, takes a long time to be digested, and is followed by an acid re-action. Old Wine is sweet-smelling, acts as an appetiser, and brings on a relish for food. It is pleasant and a vermifuge, and cleanses the internal channels of the organism. It is subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapha. 173-179

अरिष्टो द्रव्यसंयोग- संस्कारादधिको गुणैः । बहुदोषहरश्चैव दोषाणां शमनच सः ।। १८० ।।

दीपनः कफवातघ्नः सरः पित्ताविरोधनः । शूलाध्मानोदरप्लीह-ज्वराजीर्णार्शसां पिप्पल्यादिकृतो गुल्म-कफरोगहरः स्मृतः । हितः ।। १८१ ।।

चिकित्सितेषु वक्ष्यन्तेऽरिष्टा रोगहराः पृथक् ।। १८२ ॥

अरिष्टासवसीधूनां गुणान् कर्माणि चादिशेत् । बुद्धया यथास्वं संस्कारमवेक्ष्य कुशलो भिषक् ।। १८३ ।।

The species of wine known as the Arista (fermented liquor) is highly efficacious owing to the concerted action of a variety of drugs entering into its composition. It proves curative in a large number of diseases, tends to subdue the deranged humours of the body, and is a good appetiser. It subdues the Vayu and Kapha and is laxative and not hostile to the Pitta. It proves beneficial in colicpain, distension of the stomach, abdominal dropsy, fever, enlarged spleen, indigestion and piles. Asava wine prepared from the drugs known as the Pippali, etc. (Pippalyadi asava) proves curative in Gulma (abdominal glands) and diseases due to the deranged Kapha. The Aristas of other therapeutic virtues will be specially described later on in chapters on Therapeutics (Cikitsita). An experienced physician should prescribe the different species of wine such as, the Arista, asava, Sidhu, etc, in different diseases in consideration of the therapeutic properties of drugs, which enter into their composition, or with which they have been purified, and according as each of them would be indicated in practice. 180-183

सान्द्रं विदाहि दुर्गन्धं विरसं क्रिमिलं गुरु । अहृद्यं तरुणं तीक्ष्णमुष्णं दुर्भाजनस्थितम् ।।१८४ ।।

अल्पौषधं पर्युषितमत्यच्छं पिच्छिलञ्च यत् । तद्वर्ज्यं सर्वदा मद्यं किञ्चिच्छेषन्तु यद् भवेत् ।।१८५ ।।

The following kinds of wine should always be rejected viz. such as are thick, bad smelling, or insipid or full of worms, or heavy and acid in digestion, un-pleasant, new, strong and heat-making in their potency, or which have been preserved in an improper vessel, or which have been prepared with a comparatively lesser number of ingredients or have been decanted over-night, or are extremely slimy or transparent, as well as the drugs of all kinds of wine. 184-185

तत्र यत् स्तोकसम्भारं तरुणं पिच्छिलं गुरु । कफप्रकोपि तन्मद्यं दुर्जरञ्च विशेषतः ।। १८६ ।।

पित्तप्रकोपि बहलं तीक्ष्णमुष्णं विदाहि च । अहृद्यं फेनिलं पूति क्रिमिलं विरसं गुरु | ॥१८७ ।।

पर्युषितञ्चापि विद्यादनिलकोपनम् । सर्वदोषप्रकोपनम् ।।१८८ ।।

तथा सर्वदोषैरुपेतन्तु चिरस्थितं जातरसं दीपनं कफवातजित् । रुच्यं प्रसन्नं सुरभि मद्यं सेव्यं मदावहम् ।।१८९ ।।

The wine prepared from a comparatively lesser number of ingredients, new or that which is slimy, heavy and takes a long time to be digested, should be deemed as an agitator of the bodily Kapha. The wine which is profusely watery is strong and hot, is only imperfectly digested and followed by a kind of acid re-action. It tends to aggravate the Pitta. The wine, which is frothy or putrified, heavy or insipid or is marked by the germination of worms in its body, or is decanted over-night, tends to enrage or agitate the bodily Vayu. The wine which is associated with all dosas cause provocation of all bodily dosas. The wine which is well-matured, and possessed of its characteristic taste, and the virtue of improving the appetite and bringing on a relish for food, and which subdues the Vayu and Kapha, and is mild, good, aromatic and exhilarating, should be regarded as the only wine fit for use. 186-189

तस्यानेकप्रकारस्य रसवीर्यतः । सौक्ष्म्यादौष्ण्याच्च तैक्ष्ण्याच्च विकासित्वाच्च वहिना ।।

मद्यस्य समेत्य हृदयं विक्षोभ्येन्द्रियचेतांसि प्राप्य धमनीरूर्ध्वमागतम्। वीर्यं मदयतेऽचिरात् । । १९० ।।

चिरेण श्लैष्मिके पुंसि पानतो जायते मदः । अचिराद् वातिके दृष्ट: पैत्तिके शीघ्रमेव तु ||१९१ ||

सात्त्विके शौचदाक्षिण्य – हर्षमण्डनलालसः । गीताध्ययनसौभाग्य -सुरतोत्साहकृन्मदः ।।१९२।।

राजसे दुःखशीलत्वमात्मत्यागं ससाहसम् । कलहं सानुबन्धन्तु करोति पुरुषे मदः ।।१९३ ।।

अशौचनिद्रामात्सर्यागम्यागमनलोलताः कुर्याद्धि कुर्याद्धि असत्यभाषणञ्चापि तामसे मदः ।।१९४।।

Wines may be divided into a variety of species according to their different tastes and strength. The potency of a wine promoted by the bodily heat of a man courses upward through the arteries, and ultimately reaches the heart; and thence, through its own subtility and expansiveness, permeates the entire organism and gradually attacks and overwhelms the organs of sense perception, dethrones the mind from her throne of reason, usurps the permanent seat of intellect, and thus brings on intoxication. A man of phlegmatic temperament (Kapha-Prakrti) can carry his wine well, and symptoms of intoxication usually appear later in him. A man of bilious temparament (PittaPrakrti), under such circumstances, gets easily intoxicated, while the man whose temperament is marked by a predominance of Vayu is often found to be tipsy after his first cup. A man of a Sattvika frame of mind exhibits under the influence of wine, a decided predilection for fine dress, jollity, and acts of purity and compassion. He sings, or reads, or evinces a strong desire for female company. A man of a Rajasika frame of mind becomes extremely melancholy or pugnacious in his cups, indulges in despondent reveries, and evinces suicidal tendencies; while wine in a subject of a Tamasika cast of mind exhibits the latent and innate vileness of his soul. Such a person generally sleeps when intoxicated, falsely boasts of his own excellence, and evinces a desire for women with whom connection is forbidden by both social and canonical laws and speaks a lie. 190-194

1. These couplets emphatically prove that the framers of ancient Ayurveda were fully conversant with the circulation of the blood.

रक्तपित्तकरं शुक्तं छेदि भुक्तविपाचनम् । वैस्वर्यं जरणं श्लेष्म पाण्डुक्रिमिहरं लघु । । १९५ ।।

तीक्ष्णोष्णं मूत्रलं हृद्यं कफघ्नं कटुपाकि च। तद्वत् तदासुतं सर्वं रोचनञ्च विशेषतः । । १९६ ।।

गौडानि रसशुक्तानि मधुशुक्तानि यानि च। यथापूर्वं गुरुतराण्यभिष्यन्दकराणि च।।१९७।।

Fermented liquors known as the Sukta (treacle, honey, fermented rice gruel, and curd cream kept in a new and clean vessel underneath a bushel of paddy for three consecutive days) bring on an attack of haemoptysis. They disintegrate the lumps or knots of accumulated Kapha, are digestant and prove curative in jaundice and diseases due to the derangement of Kapha. They are light and vermifugenous, and strong and heat making in their potency. They act as diuretic, are pleasant, and pungent in digestion. Bulbs and roots pickled in Sukta acquire the properties of the latter. Of the Suktas prepared with treacle, juice of sugar-cane, or honey, each preceding one should be deemed heavier and as giving rise to greater secretions of internal organs than the one immediately following it in the order of enumeration. 195-197

तुषाम्बु दीपनं हृद्यं हृत्पाण्डुक्रिमिरोगनुत् । ग्रहण्यर्शोविकारघ्नं भेदि सौवीरकं तथा ।।१९८ ।।

The different kinds of fermented rice gruel known as the Tusambu and Sauvira are pleasant and appetising beverages. They prove efficacious in cases of jaundice, worms in the intestines, dysentery, piles and in diseases affecting the heart. They are possessd of purgative (Bhedi ) properties. 198

धान्याम्लं धान्ययोनित्वाज्जीवनं दाहनाशनम् । ।।२००।।

स्पर्शात् पानात् तु पवन-कफतृष्णाहरं लघु ।। १९९ ।।

तैक्ष्ण्याच्च निर्हरेदाशु कफं गण्डूषधारणात् ।

मुखवैरस्यदौर्गन्ध्य-मलशोषक्लमापहम् दीपनं जरणं भेदि हितमास्थापनेषु च । समुद्रमाश्रितानाञ्च जनानां सात्म्यमुच्यते । । २०१ ।। इति मद्यवर्गः ।

The fermented gruel known as the Dhanyamla is a good appetiser (tonic-D.R) owing to the fact of its being a preparation of paddy. As a plaster, it alleviates the burning sensation of the skin, and as a potion it subdues the Vayu and Kapha, and allays thirst. Used as a gargle it forms one of the best remedies for reducing Kapha owing to its keenness. It is light of digestion, acts as a deodorant, removes the sense of exhaustion and bad taste from the mouth, allays thirst, acts as a good appetiser and dissolvent, is possessed of purgative virtues, and is advantageously used as an enemata (Asthapana). It is very wholesome to seafaring men. 199-200

अथ मूत्राणि:

मूत्राणि गोमहिषाजाविगजहयखरोष्ट्राणां तीक्ष्णानि कटून्युष्णानि तिक्तानि लवणानुरसानि लघूनि शोधनानि कफवातक्रिमिमेदोविषगुल्मार्शउदरकुष्ठशोफारोचकपाण्डुरोगहराणि हृद्यानि दीपनानि च सामान्यतः ।। २०२ ।।

The Urine Group: The urine of cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, mules, horses, and camels’ are commonly hot and bitter, and leave a saline after-taste. They are light and are used as purifying agents, and will prove curative in diseases due to the derangement of the Vayu and Kapha, as well as in worms in the intestines, obesity, poisoning, abdominal glands, piles, ascites, cutaneous affections, oedema, nonrelish for food, and jaundice. In general they act as cardiac stimulants Hrdya and appetisers. 202

भवन्ति चात्रतत सर्वं कटु तीक्ष्णोष्णं लवणानुरसं लघु । शोधनं कफवातघ्नं क्रिमिमेदोविषापहम् ।।२०३ ।।

अर्शोजठरगुल्मघ्नं शोफारोचकनाशनम् । पाण्डुरोगहरं भेदि हृद्यं दीपनपाचनम् ।। २०४ ।।

Authoritative verses on the Subject: They are all pungent, strong, hot, light and have a saline after-taste. They act as blood

1. The urine of a cow, she-buffalo, ewe and she-goat should be taken and used, while similar secretions of the male should be taken where man, camel and elephant should be indicated.

purifiers or disinfecting agents, reduce corpulency, act as vermi-fuges and are anti-toxic. They subdue the deranged Vayu and Kapha. They prove beneficial in cases of piles, ascites, abdominal tumours, oedema and non-relish for food. They prove beneficial in jaundice, and act as cardiac stimulants, and are possessed of appetising, purgative and stomachic virtues. 203-204

गोमूत्रं कटु तीक्ष्णोष्णं सक्षारत्वान्न वातलम् । लघ्वग्निदीपनं मेध्यं पित्तलं कफवातजित् ।। २०५ ।।

शूलगुल्मोदरानाह-विरेकास्थापनादिषु मूत्रप्रयोगसाध्येषु गव्यं मूत्रं प्रयोजयेत् ॥ २०६ ।। । ●

The urine of cow is pungent, strong and hot, and does not generate Vayu on account of its being saturated with alkali. It is light, stomachic, slightly generates the Pitta, and subdues the Vayu and Kapha. It proves beneficial in cases of colic, abdominal glands, ascites and distension of the abdomen, and is used for the purposes of purging and enematas (Asthapana). In cases, which prove amenable to the use of urine, the urine of a cow should be used to the exclusion of that of any other animal, even to that of an ox. 205-206

दुर्नामोदरशूलेषु कुष्ठमेहाविशुद्धिषु । आनाहशोफगुल्मेषु पाण्डुरोगे च माहिषम् ॥ २०७ ।।

The urine of a (she) buffalo proves beneficial in piles, abdominal dropsy, colic cutaneous affections, Meha, imperfect action of emetics of purgatives, constipation, oedema, abdominal glands, and jaundice. 207

कासश्वासापहं शोष-कामलापाण्डुरोगनुत् । कटुतिक्तान्वितं छागमीषन्मारुतकोपनम् ।। २०८ ।।

हितम् । कासप्लीहोदरश्वास-शोषवर्चोग्रहे सक्षारं तिक्तकटुकमुष्णं वातघ्नमाविकम् ।। २०९ ।।

दीपनं कटुतीक्ष्णोष्णं वातचेतोविकारनुत् । आश्वं कफहरं मूत्रं क्रिमिदद्रुषु शस्यते ।। २१० ।।

सतिक्तं लवणं भेदि वातघ्नं पित्तकोपनम् । तीक्ष्णं क्षारे किलासे च नागं मूत्रं प्रयोजयेत् ।। २११ ।।

The urine of a (she) goat has a pungent, bitter taste. It slightly agitates the bodily Vayu and proves curative in cases of cough, dyspnoea, consumption, jaundice and chlorosis. The urine of a ewe contains alkali, and has a bitter pungent taste. It subdues the deranged Vayu, and is heat-making in its potency. It proves beneficial in cough, enlarged spleen, abdominal dropsy, dyspnoea, consumption and in obstinate constipation of the bowels. The urine of a horse is appetising and pungent in taste, strong and heat-making in its potency. It subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapha, and cures mental aberrations. It is usually recommended in cases of ringworm and worms in the intestines. The urine of an elephant has a bitter and saline taste. It is keen and purgative, and subdues the Vayu and enrages the Pitta. It is commonly used in the treatment of (Kilasa) leucoderma and in the preparation of alkalies. 208-211

गरचेतोविकारघ्नं तीक्ष्णं ग्रहणीरोगनुत् । दीपनं गार्द्दभं मूत्रं क्रिमिवातकफापहम् ।।२१२ ।।

शोफकुष्ठोदरोन्माद-मारुतक्रिमिनाशनम् अर्शोघ्नं कारभं मूत्रं मानुषन्तु विषापहम् ।।२१३ ।।

The urine of an ass tends to neutralise the effects of poison generated through the chemical action of two different substances in the organism and subdues the ill effect of mental aberration. It is strong and proves curative in cases of chronic dysentery. It is a vermifuge and subdues the Vayu and Kapha, and is appetising. The urine of a camel proves beneficial in cases of oedema, leprosy, abdominal dropsy, insanity, worms in the intestines, piles and in diseases due to the action of the deranged Vayu. Human urine is strong anti-toxic. 212-213

द्रवद्रव्याणि सर्वाणि समासात् कीर्त्तितानि तु । कालदेशविभागज्ञो नृपतेर्दातुमर्हति ।। २१४ ।।

I have now briefly described the properties of all kinds of liquid food or drink. An experienced physician should prescribe them for the use of his kind according to the nature of season and the country in which they are to be applied. 214

इति सुश्रुतसंहितायां सूत्रस्थाने द्रवद्रव्यविधिर्नाम पञ्चचत्वारिंशोऽध्यायः ॥45॥

Thus ends the forty-fifth Chapter of the Sutrasthana in the Susruta Samhita which treats of liquids.


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