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Charaka SamhitaDirdhajivitiyam Adhyaya - Charakasamhita Sutrasthana Chapter 1 - QUEST FOR LONGEVITY

Dirdhajivitiyam Adhyaya – Charakasamhita Sutrasthana Chapter 1 – QUEST FOR LONGEVITY

अथातो दीर्घजीवितीयमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः ॥ १ ॥

We shall now expound the Chapter on “The Quest for Longevity.” [1]

Salutation to the Lord of the three worlds, with three eyes, revealed through the three Vedas-the Lord who has attained three forms according to the variation of the three qualities (sattva, rajas and tamas).

Salutation to the Goddess of learning through whose grace, the Universe reflected in the mirror of intellect is realised by persons with virtuous acts. Salutation to Brahma, Daksha, the Asvins, Indra, Bharadvaja, Punaher(s) (pro rvasu, Agnivesa, Charaka and other (s) (propounders of Ayurveda). Salutation to the Lord of Serpents (i. e. Patanjali ) who dispelled the defects pertaining to mind, speech and body by means of his exposi tions, in Yogasutra, Mahabhasya and Charaka respectively.

I am quite unable to satisfy you (with my meagre speech), O, learned ones! as your ears have been filled on all sides with overflowed nectar of speeches by enlightened teachers. The Ocean is not satiated by STERE 2011 02 drops of water from a cloud. My attempt merely appears to be a commencont/ If any little valuabletary-far from being a Commentary in the real sense. qualities are found in it, here and there, pleasc pick them up and keep them into your ears for a while.

The works on Ayurveda (Science of life) as brought forth by Brahma and earlier propounders with a view to eradicating diseases which are stumbling blocks in the attainment of dharma¹, artha², kuma³, and moksa, are so vast that it is not possible for people of present age with short span of life and low intelligence to properly comprehend their implications. The ignorance of such implications results in the omission of the required prescriptions and there comes the onslaught of diseases. Having this in mind, sage Agnivesa, in a fit of immense compassion started writing a treatise on Ayurveda-neither too condensed nor too elaborate with special emphasis on KayaChikitsa in order that even people of short span of life and low intelligence could understand it easily. The treatise is to be brought forth through the sections on Sloka², Nidana³, Vimuna¹, Sarira, Indriya, Cikitsu, Kalpas and Siddhi. In view of its value as an exposition of all the main principles of this treatise, he considered the section on Sloka fit to be placed first. As he will himself say “Slokasthana represents an auspicious beginning of this treatise-cf. Sutra 30:45. The valuable catuskas 10 are included in this section.” Even in , the catuska dealing with the medicaments for the cure of manifested diseases is to be given priority. As such he started expounding the Chapter on the “Quest for Longevity” because it deals with the principles relating to hetu (etiology), linga (symptomatology.), ausadha (medicaments), etc.-the essence of the whole treatise. It also deals with the transmission, etc., of Ayurveda (from Brahma downwards) which indicates the usefulness of the science that serves as a stimulus for its study. In order that the science may be of easy access to readers, he brought forth his first aphorism containing a promise for the exposition and indicating the subject, the object and their relationship as stimuli for readers. Eight being the auspicious number, this aphorism consists of JOR 201 eight words— “अथ, अतः, दीर्घ, जीवितीयं, अध्यायं, वि, आ, ख्यास्यामः”-meaning”We shall now expound the Chapter on the quest for longevity.” Intelligent people are not motivated towards (the study of) something indistinct like ‘ka’, ‘ca’, ‘ta’ ta’, ‘pa’, etc. nor even towards something distinct but useless like examination of the teeth of a crow.

1. internal medicine; 2. known as Surasthana..

This section deals inter alia, with fundamental principles governing the Science of life-both for the maintenance of health, and prevention and cure of diseases.

3. dealing with the etiology , pathogenesis 4. dealing with the principles underlying

and diagnosis of diseases. the bodily diseases. as well as those present in drugs and medicaments with curative values dealing with the factors that caus.

5. principles governing the birth and death of living beings,

6. dealing with the prognostic signs and symptoms.

7. dealing with the treatment of diseases.

8. dealing with the formulae for administering emesis, purgation, enemata and inhalation, andeste How to dealing with the principles governing the administration of elimination therapies is divided into 30 Chapters-the first 28 Chapters being further classified into seven catuskas i.e., a grouping of four chapters. each having a common topic for discussion.

fore, necessary to specify the subject and object of the science in the very beginning. As it has been said, “people, whose efforts are slackened due to the ignorance of the subject and the object of the exposition, do not care to study even a small treatise.”

In order that the subject of the treatise are fully explained, it is necessary to determine the relationship existing between the treatise on the one hand and the subject and the object on the other. These relationships could be those of the subject and the exposition as also of the end and the means thereof respectively.

The topic under discussion is ‘life’ with happiness and otherwise. As he will say, “That Science is designated as Ayurveda where advantageous and disadvantageous as well as happy and unhappy states of life alongwith what is good and bad for life, its measurement and the life itself are described-vide Sutra 1:41. The scope of the subject is to be expounded in respective places.

The object is the maintenance of the equipoise of dhatus or constituent tissue elements of the body. As it has been said, “The object of this science is the maintenance of the equipoise of dhatus-vide Sutra 1:53. The relationship between the life and the science is that of the subject and the exposition, and the relationship between the maintenance of equipoise of dhatus and the science is that of the object and the means to achieve it including the knowledge of prohibitions and prescriptions as its subsidiary aspects. All this is implied by the words “af” (quest for longevity) which is corroborated by subsequent exposition of this word as the maintenance of the equipoise of dhatus being the object of this science.

It might be argued that it is not a fact that the exposition of the object works as the stimulus for the study of the science. A mere enumeration of the object does not necessarily depict the usefulness of its subject. There are several scriptures which claim to have liberation from the bondage of the world’ as their object, but in actual practice, they hardly serve the purpose. It may be said that the same has emanated ame has from such enlightened and responsible persons (saints ) whose authenticity cannot be questioned and, therefore, the science is to be regarded as a realistic one. This is also not correct. How can we consider an enumerator of these objects as an enlightened and responsible person (saint) ? If it is said, “He should be treated as an enlightened and responsible person, by virtue of his realistic expositon”, then the question arises: unless the usefulness of the science is determined, people will not be attracted towards it; unless people are attracted towards this science, its usefulness cannot be determined and authenticity of the author cannot be ascertained.

Without ascertaining the authenticity of the author how boastings about the usefulness of the work can be relied upon ? Here can his comes a vicious circle. If it is said, “Let there be no clarification regarding the utility of the science; a mere doubt regarding its utility might serve as a stimulus for the reader as it happens in cases of farmers; they are not assured well in advance of the results of their efforts; in spite of the possibilities of famines and other unfavourable conditions (they go ahead with their various agricultural activities). Then it might be said, “Even if there is no statement regarding its utility, the science itself is enough to create doubt regarding its utility; then why should there be any mention of the object of the science at all”? But a mere generalized doubt regarding the utility does not so stimulate the reader as the one (doubt) relating to the specified object of the study and this type of doubt cannot be aroused without recollecting the specific subject of study. Thus, for those who have not realised the authenticity of Agnivesa, it is necessary to make a statement regarding the specific object of the science in order that it may raise a specific doubt as to whether this science really deals with the maintenance of equilibrium of dhatus or not? Those who have, from the very beginning, full faith on the authenticity of Agnivesa, are attracted towards the study of this science only because of the statement regarding its usefulness. So it is necessary to mention the object of the science. The statement suggesting the utility of the Science is easy enough to comprehend even with a little effort; here the incentive is created just by the generalized doubt pertaining to its utilitarian aspect. But this does not hold good in relation to the science as a whole which requires years of hard struggle to understand. Thus, the argument that the object underlying the statement suggesting the utility of the science is also required to be stated and this amounts to endless regression stands automatically refuted.

The word ‘atha’ meaning after’ in the aphorism denotes that the stage for this exposition has followed (i) the non-acquaintance of the people of short span of life and low intelligence, with the works brought forth by Brahma and other earlier propounders of the science as well as (ii) salutation to the favourite God and also (iii) permission of the preceptor to expound the science. As the sight of a pitcher full of drinking water is auspicious for travellers, likewise, this word used in the beginning also serves the purpose of auspiciousness. It is necessary to use an auspicious word in the beginning so that the authors and readers, with their obstacles removed by virtue of the auspicious nature of the words can achieve their objective without any difficulty. The auspiciousness of the word ‘atha’ has been indicated in the scriptures as follows; “Both these words ‘om’ and ‘atha’ did come out from the throat of Brahma in times of yore and so they are auspicious.” Even in some other works, the word ‘atha’ is found to have been used in the beginning in its auspicious sense, for example, “a “Here starts the exposition of word” and 2″:”-“We shall now expound the sacred duties.”.

The fact that sage Agnivesa has not propitiated his favourite so many words in the beginning of his work should not be taken as a mark of his silence regarding his duties towards God. In fact, being a staunch follower of traditions, he has definitely done so by implications (by force of the meaning of the word ‘atha’ ). How else would he be regarded as a follower of traditions and how could his exposition be accomplished without any obstacle? Salutation to God, even if it is not included in the text (i. e. offered even by implication) goes a long way towards the removal of obstacles; so it was not necessary to include this in the text. 251 30 ) etc.

It is clear from passages like “r” (Sutra 1 : that the author has begun this work after obtaining permission of his preceptor. Obtaining permission from the preceptor for attempting an exposition is in fact indicative of the utility of exposition. According to some commentators, the word ‘atha’ implies that the exposition starts after the query of the disciples. But this explanation does not appear to be correct. It is not that an author starts his work after keeping his disciples in front of him. He does it simply by keeping readers in his mind. Readers kept in mind cannot be treated as interrogators.

The word ‘atah’ is indicative of the stage before the exposition begins -that is to say, the topic to be explained hereafter would be the one on the ‘quest for longevity’. This word might as well denote the factor leading to this exposition. In other words, it might as well denote that because it is not possible for people possessing short span of life and low intelligence to grasp the ideas contained in the works of earlier expounders like Brahma, it is necessary to expound the chapter on ‘quest for longevity.” The word ‘faat is formed by affixing the suffix ‘cha’s to the stem ” meaning thereby the Chapter in which there exists the word (longevity). Or the etymology of the word may be explained slightly in a different way; that is to say ‘af’ is the Chapter or at is to say the work itself which deals with atafa or longevity.

1. Vyakarana Mahabhasya, Adhyaya 1: Pada 1: Ahnika 1

2. Vaisesika, I. 1. 1

3. “अध्यायानुवाकयोर्लुक्”, Panini, V. 2. Co

4. “”, Panini, IV. 87 and “”, Panini, IV. 3. 88

Other words of this nature occurring in this work are also to be explained on these lines. This sense of longevity could have been conveyed even by other synonyms. But in view of the fact that only the word ‘afaa’ is conventionally used in the beginning of an exposition and it is the word par excellence for connoting the meaning (of longevity), the Chapter has been named after this word. Thus, the word ‘afaa’ is applicable to the work as a whole or to this Chapter.

The word tafaa’ has got a double meaning. This is achieved by repeating the word. Firstly, taken independent of ‘a’ (the Chapter), it is indicative of the promise regarding the exposition of the work as a whole and secondly being related to (the Chapter), it is indicative of the exposition of the Chapter itself. Duplication of the meaning by repeating words is also seen elsewhere; for example in the passages like “ta faza: ta” (Sutra 2: 6) the word ‘sirasah’ is repeated in relation to the two immediate constituents ‘gaurave’ and’ sule’. Thus the allegation that the promise regarding the Chapter without any promise regarding the exposition of the work as a whole lessens the importance of the promise is not correct. Or, let there be a promise relating only to the Chapter. The promise relating to the work is also implied therein. For, there cannot be a Chapter without the work (and the vice versa). The exposition of the work (body) is certainly implied by the exposition of the Chapter (limbs). Even if we catch the finger of Deva Datta, the latter is automatically caught. Verily, the promise regarding the exposition of other Chapters is not accomplished here. This will be done specifically in the respective Chapters The word ‘adhyaya’ is formed by affixing ‘a’ to ” preceded by the preposition af meaning the one which is to be studied. It cannot be said that this derivation of the word ‘adhyaya’ extends its scope to include the meaning of ‘topic’, ‘catuskas’ ‘section’ etc. Because this word is a proper noun, and by convention, it denotes only a specified portion of the work, its etymological meaning cannot be applied arbitrarily. For example, the ward pankaja’ has got an etymological meaning-the one which has come out of mud; but this denotes only a lotus and not anything and everything which has come out of mud.

As the author will himself say, “The word ‘adhyaya’ is used in the sense of a proper noun denoting the specified portion of the work-vide Sutra 30:70. Or the wo Or the word ‘adhyaya’ might be taken as an irregular formation in the instrumental and/or locative sense.¹ That is to say: the portion in which or by means of which specific topic is studied is ‘adhyaya’. It has already been explained how the etymological meaning cannot be arbitrarily applied to this word.

1. अध्यायन्यायोद्यावसंहारावायाश्च Panini, III. 3. 122

The word ‘vyakhyasyamah’ is formed in future tense from the ‘ preceded by the prepositions ‘f’ and ‘e. But this cannot be formed from Jaf. If it were so, in spite of the unwillingness of the expounder, his association with the fruit of the action would be unavoidable and as such the formation would be in the middle voice. Preposition ‘fa’ denotes something specific such as exposition, condensation etc.; is to be construed in relation to the root. It is not understood why some preferred to take it in the sense of limit or totality. In the sense of limit or totality, is to be construed in relation to a nominal stem; e. g. “gai”-of lords of the world extended upto the Ocean, “आपाटलीपुत्रादृदृष्टो देवः” — the cloud extended from Pataliputra onwards has showered. So it would be like that here as well (which is not desirable). Moreover, if this is not construed in relation to the root, it will not be grammatically correct to treat it as a preposition 2 and so being interrupbe used. ted by a non-prepositional word, the preposition cannot A preposition can be used with a root only when it is uninterrupted or if interrupted at all, it is interrupted by another preposition. If it is said that both ‘fa’ and ‘n’ can be treated as non-prepositional words then oth fat and are one will have to think of many nominal stems to which both could be grammatically related. It is therefore proper to treat both of s अथ, अतः, दीर्घ, जीवितीयं, them as prepositional words related to the root. अध्यायं, वि, आ, ख्यास्यामः— These are the eight vocables included in this aphorism. (As explained supra, this is done to accomplish the auspicious effect as number eight is in itself auspicious).

ह स्माह भगवानात्रयः ॥ २ ॥

Thus said the Lord Atreya. [2]

How could it be possibe for Agnivesa to expound the Science of Life’? The Science of Life’ could be fully explained only when one possesses the knowledge of all the specific qualities of all the medicines etc. But can one have direct perception of all the specific qualities of all the categories of the universe ? One cannot. Such qualities are beyond the scope of perception. Nor one can ascertain the nature of everything by permutation and combination, e. g. honey by itself is tonic but if heated and if mixed with ghee of equal quantity, it causes death; it is beneficial to people of kapha constitution and harmful to those of vata constitution; not so agreeable to natural constitution of marshy place and not so to that of deserts; it is prescribed for the winter and prohibited for summer, it is beneficial to children young people but harmful to the old; if taken in small quantity it has good effects but it is harmful if taken excessively; digested in the stomach and intestine, it leads to harmful consequences as it goes against the line of treatment; if taken with kakamaci (Salanum indicum Linn.) and ripe fruit of nikuca (Artocar pus lakoocha Roxb.) it causes death or affects the strength, complexion, energy and lustre; thus its effects are numerous according to its various combinations. So, when one cannot ascertain the nature of one single item like honey, then how can one determine all the specific qualities of all the categories and how can the exposition by the one who is himself ignorant (of all these specific qualities of all the categories) be dependable? Taking this into consideration and also with a view to removing suspicions from the minds of readers, the author has made it clear that he is going to expound the science as obtained from his preceptor. He says so in the aphorism

” इति ह स्माह भगवानात्रेयः”

if not properly Here the word ‘iti’ anticipates the topic to be expounded. The word ‘ha conveys the emphatic sense, e. g. in the passage “T प्रियाप्रिययोरपहतिरस्ति” ( the existence of the favourable and the unfavourable in relation to all creatures can never be avoided) the word ‘ha’ coupled with ‘na’ emphatically denies the avoidance of the favourable and the unfavourable in relation to all creatures.

Owing to the existence of ‘sma’ used in the past tense, the word ‘aha’ is used here in ‘lat’ (present tense) for having the value of perfect tense.¹ This form does not have the value of the historical past because the exposition transmitted by Atreya was directly recorded by Agnivesa. It will be shown as to how ‘lit’ can be to past tense in general. ‘Bhaga’ means knowledge honoured; thus, Bhagavan is the one possessing that knowledge. As it has been said, “one who knows the creation, destruction, birth and death of all creatures and who knows what is knowledge and what is ignorance is to be designated as Bhagavan. ‘Bhaga’ also stands for omnipotence, magnanimity etc., as it has been said, “Entire omnipotence, energy, fame, wealth, knowledge and renunciationall these six are denoted by “bhaga.”

Being genealogically related to Atri, the expounder has been named as Atreya. The use of this word is intended to convey the association of the expounder with a sacred family.

Some comentators have remarked, “These aphorisms are of four types-aphorism of the preceptor, aphorism of the disciple, aphorism of the redactor and aphorism of other sages. ing Atreya’s instruction² For example, the aphorism containAgnivesa belongs to the first category preparacategory; aphorism containing Agnivesa’s query regarding 500 medicinal ¹ tions belong to the second category; the one in which a statement is made regarding the exposition of Atreya to Agnivesa belongs to the third 2 the aphorism containing statement of Kumarasiras Bharadvaja regarding the priority of the development of the head of the embryo is of the last 3 category. Therefore, the first aphorism containing the promise regarding the exposition is of the preceptor, specially because Agnivesa, the disciple has no authority to expound the science; the second aphorism is of the redactor. The first aphorism is also taken into account in relation to this aphorism by force of ‘iti’ and so the clause ‘aha sma’ ( he said) is used in the historical past sense because the exposition of Atreya was not directly received by the redactor. Similarly the use of ‘lit’ in the sense of historical past is justified in the passages like ‘तमुवाच भगवानात्रेयः’ – so said the sage Atreya to him. In the Susruta also, the use of ‘lit’ in the aphorism “aut aft:” meaning as said sage Dhanvantari, is explained by commentators on similar lines.

But really speaking, it is not correct to say that the first one is the aphorism of the preceptor simply because Agnivesa, the disciple, has not! got the authority to expound the science. One cannot be a preceptor by birth; the same person may be a preceptor or a disciple in relation to his disciple and preceptor respectively. Thus, the same Atreya is a disciple in relation to his preceptor but he himself is a preceptor in relation to Agnivesa, etc. Similarly, Atreya, also can be treated as a preceptor in relation to the disciples brought to his mind (even if not physically present before him). Thus, no fallacy is involved here. Nor can this aphorism be related to the redactor. The meaning of this aphorism can be obtained either in relation to the previous aphorism or quite in isolation. If it is construed along with the previous aphorism, its counterpart in the Susruta “यथोवाच धन्वन्तरिः” meaning as said Dhanvantari will have to be construed alongwith “a” so we shall expound-and thus the verbal form ‘a’ cannot have a different nominative. And so the use of lit form (which necessitates the occurance of an act not directly seen by the one describing it) would not have been justified. If this aphorism on the other hand is not to be construed with the previous one then an elephant etc., 39 will be just a sequence of unrelated words like cow, horse, man, ords like cow, having no connected meaning at all. Moreover, there are no redactors on the works of Jatukarna, etc. Thus, if this principle is applicable, the use of ‘lit’ form would not be justified in the sentences like “argaqfiquis:

11. “नैतानि भगवन् पञ्चकषायः शतानि पूर्यन्ते” Sutra 4: 21

2. “तमुवाच भगवानात्रेयः”

3. ” कुमारस्य शिरः पूर्वममिनिर्वर्तत इति कुमारशिरा भरद्वाजः” Stra 6: 21

As in the Jatukarna, the disciple, having fully obtained the various types, of knowledge, with his hands folded said so. Accordingly, even in Charaka the use of ‘lit will not be justified if the aphorisms are taken in relation to redactors. Thus, Agnivesa himself is the author of these aphorisms in Charakasamhita as Susruta himself is the author of all the aphorisms of Susrutasamhita. With a view to praising or repudiating some objects, sometimes he associates himself with the past in the form of a dialogue and writes some aphorisms as if they follow the tenets of his preceptor. On the other hand, he writes some other aphorisms which are indicative of individual views. The redactor just completes the work as planned originally by the author.

Vedic language, so in spoken language also, the use of lit should be extended to the past tense in general. If it is not done, the use of the said will not be justified in relation to Jatukarna etc. So also in Harivansa-Dhaumya episode-gara and will not be grammatically correct. It is also not correct to say that by force of ‘lit’ the aphorism should be construed with the previous one. If the first aphorism is taken as the direct legacy from the preceptor and the subsequent ones are only the secondary versions, the readers will not be attracted towards the study of the science. The word ‘iti’ just indicates that the subsequent aphorisms of the book will deal with the science as they are propounded by the sages of the ancient past.i The use of plural for Agnivesa is quite in conformity with the general usage as in a f-where plural number is used in the sense of singular number. The singular number is used in relation to the word Atreya’ because the epithet Bhagavan’ i. e. the honourable

‘Lord’ itself is indicative of position he holds.

दीर्घं जीवितमन्विच्छन्भरद्वाज उपागमत् । इन्द्रमुग्रतपा बुद्ध्वा शरण्यममरेश्वरम् ॥ ३ ॥

Bharadvaja, the ascetic of eminence, desirous of long life, having known (about Indra) approached Indra-the lord of immortals and protector of the True! being inaccessible, the science of life was not known to Agnivesa either directly or by the process of logical connections and disconnections. But then how could the knowledge of science be ascribed to Atreya himself on the basis of whose initiation, the validity of Agnivesa’s knowledge is to be determined. Having this problem in mind, the author. shows here an uninterrupted continuity of the tradition of the scienc Life means the combination of life. of body, sense organs, mind and soul. The term ‘a’ stands for continuity for a long time. That is to say the term is to be taken here in relation to the temporal sense which is understood. One of the stylistic features of the author is that very often certain ideas though not expounded in so many words are understood by implication. For example in the aphorism (extract of the flesh of domestic, marshy and aquatic animals) the word ‘ai’ (flesh) is understood although not said. Similarly in ‘arafaa’ i.e. burnt and pierced (with poison-mounted arrows) the word fa-poison-is understood.

Bharadvaja is the name of the kin. The epithet ‘a’-of eminence, is meaningful in as much as it shows that even though Bharadvaja was a human being, he got the powers of approaching Indra, the lord of the gods by virtue of his penance. It also indicates his ability to comprehend Indra’s protective faculty. It is not possible to enumerate the power of penance. It was such power which enabled Agastya to drink the whole ocean at a draught. It might be argued when Bharadvaja had such immense powers arising out of his penance, how could he not automatically know the science of life as well? But this argument does not hold good in as much as even the powers arising out of penance are confined to certain specified objects and as such they cannot be extended to each and every field. Even such powers are readily realised by action only. Thus the object of knowing the science of life cannot be achieved, cannot help. without approaching a preceptor; the penance alone Moreover, it is only by the process of learning from the preceptor that the knowledge of the science of life is fruitful. So Bharadvaja approached Indra.

Again the question arises as to why he approached Indra, neglecting It would have been much more the latter’s predecessors like Brahma. appropriate to learn a science from the original preceptor rather than the succeeding disciples, Because in the process of transmission, there is a possibility of the science being mutilated for lack of proper understanding or due to certain inherent defects on the part of succeeding disciples; this can rather be likened to honey being transferred from one vessel tc another (losing its quantity at every step). The last pada of the verse provides an answer to this question. Indra possesses a short span of life. He, unlike Brahma etc., who are immortal par excellence can be a better protector of those afraid of untimely death? So Bharadvaja approached only Indra. The epithet amaresvara-lord of gods-is also meaningful because it signifies the protective faculties of Indra inasmuch as he is a king who makes excellent attempts to protect his subjects. to which the The term ‘a’-longevity, does not define the period for continuity of life is longed for. Although not defined here, it has to be taken in terms of a century corresponding to the present Kali age. As the author will say, “In this kali age a century is the standard span of life” vide Surira 6: 29. The span of life goes on decreasing corresponding to the decrease of ages (viz: from Satya, Treta, Dvapara-to Kali ). As he will say, “On completion of 100 years, the standard span of life decreases by one year”-vide Vimana 3:26. Thus the span of life is to be determined according to the corresponding decrease of age (that is to say if in the beginning of kali age the standard span of life is hundred years, after crossing hundred years of the kali age the standard span of life would be 99 years. That is why the span of life was much longer in the previous ages. So says Lord Vyasa, “Human beings having disciplined life, were enjoying a span of life of 400 years in satya age; in the subsequent ages the standard span of life went on decreasing by a quarter” (i. e. in Treta age it was 300 years, in Dvapara it was 200 years and in Kali it is 100 years).

The span of life is defined or undefined as it is determined by a stronger or a weaker action;.e. g. in the beginning of kali age, normally everybody is supposed to die at the age of one hundred; conversely even a a person of good physique dies if deadly poison is administered to his body. If poison is not administered, he will die on attainment of the standard age his has been weakened by the influence author has rightly shown, “A cart with normal qualities and carriage comes to the stage of destruction, only after the expiry of a specified period; that very cart, if overloaded, is broken even befor the expiry of the specified period. So the life of a person with undefined span of life is destroyed even before the attainment of the normal span of life due to his own faults (i. e. for lack of proper correlation of the previous and the present action) -vide Vimana 3:38. When those with undefined espan of life take an elixir, they can even cross the normal span of life due to the tonic effect of elixir. As it has been stated, “If one takes fruits of amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), observing certain formalities, he, with his youth revived, will live for thousands of years corresponding to the number of fruits he has taken”-cf. Chikitsa 1:3:9-14. One cannot, however, cross the span of life defined by stronger action. As it has been stated, “A certain type of action is well defined in relation to its consequences; the other type is undefined in terms of time; the distinction between them is to be ascertained from results-“-vide Vimana 3:35.

If the action alone determines the life or death, the disease or its remedy, then of what use is this Ayurveda which would then simply follow the consequences of the actions of the previous and the present lives? If the action is defined then there is no need of this Ayurveda. Because even the consequences of the actions of the present life are foiled on account of the action of the previous life. Judged from this angle even the so called undefined span of life consequencial to the weaker action of the previous life is to be treated as a result of invisible past action. Even there the result of the action of the present life is dragged as it were by the invisible action of the past life.

But then it is not correct to say that the invisible alone determines the visible consequences. it were so, the entire action of human life would come to a standstill. In fact, the operation of the invisible is not possible if only the action of the previous life is given predominant position and that of the present life is completely ignored. The consequence of the invisible action of the previous life was the product of Agnistoma (a vedic ritual) etc. of that life. Thus, admittedly, the visible action itself is the origin of the invisible action. If the invisible action is taken as the origin of the visible action, that will mean that the te heating and burning qualities of fire will also have to be per force related to some such invisible action of the previous life-which is not desirable. As a matter of fact, it would be diffioult to infer the casuality of the invisible action for want of suitable premises. So the conclusion is that the consequences of the action of the previous as well as present lives determine the nature of life.

Sometimes the invisible is superceded by the visible and vice versa. if the invisible action determining the death of an individual at a fixed time is strong enough, Ayurveda will certainly be of no avail in so far as the life and death of the individual are concerned. But even there, prior to the scheduled time of death, yurveda can be successfully utilised for alleviating the diseases, if the latter is not determined by the invisible action of the previous life. The prescriptions of Ayurveda will be verily effective on (persons having) such of the invisible actions of the previous HIDE YOU STEDST Poisas life whose consequences on the present life is not defined. As regards the span of life determined in accordance with the birth in one of the four ages, that cannot be treated as caused by a stronger invisible action of the previous life. The standard span of life, according to the ages, as it has been observed, can even be increased by the proper administration of elixirs, although this cannot be achieved by simple application of the normal methods of prevention and cure of diseases. This concept is, in fact, to be expanded by the author himself. Therefore, it is not necessary to dwell on it at length here.

ब्रह्मणा हि यथाप्रोक्तमायुर्वेदं प्रजापतिः । जग्राह निखिलेनादावश्विनौ तु पुनस्ततः ॥ ४ ॥

अश्विभ्यां भगवाञ्छकः प्रतिपदे ह केवलम् । ऋषिप्रोक्तो भरद्व। जस्तस्माच्छकमुपागमत् ॥ ५ ॥

Daksha got the Ayurveda as propounded by Brahma; from the former, the Asvins got it in its entirety and Indra got the whole of it from the Asvins; so as directed by sages, Bharadvaja approached Indra. [4-5 ]

From the preceding verse, it transpires that Indra alone was found to be competent to help solve the curiousity of a devotee like Bharadvaja. This verse explains as to how it could be so. As it has been stated above, Brahma, the creator of the universe was himself the original propounder of this science and from him Daksha got it exactly in the same form as it was propounded by the former. preover he got it in its entirety (and not piece-meal). Then from Daksha the Asvins got it. Similarly from the Asvins, it was transmitted to Indra. The process of transmission right from Brahma upto Indra was so thorough that the whole science was mastered by all the three disciples in succession in its entirety, and not even a single point was lost sight of. Thus, Indra got the whole of Ayurvedaneither more nor less-and as such he was as proficient in Ayurveda as Brahma himself. Thus, it did not make any difference whether it was propounded by Brahma or Indra. Rather Indra’s deservedness as a teacher far excelled that of his predecessors in the sense that his predecessors had already transmitted the science to their disciples in succession, while Indra was still in search for a competent disciple to whom he could impart the store of knowledge transmitted to him in succession. As it has been said, “One who after having obtained knowledge from his preceptors does not impart it to his disciples is a debtor to his preceptors and is a great sinner.” In the succession from Brahma to Indra there might be some doubts as to who was the preceptor of Brahma. But, as Brahma is already proficient in all the four Vedas, his proficiency in all the sciences was automatic and uninterrupted and as such his knowledge did not require any initiation hornb for aren from a preceptor.

This verse also serves another purpose. By describing the process of transmission from Brahma through Daksha and the Asvins to Indra, it indicates that the science represents an uninterrupted transmission of the knowledge of Ayurveda. It also indicates that great men like Brahma etc., are associated with this science and as such this should inspire confidence in the minds of disciples. As the author will say; “One should ence in study that scripture with which eminent persons of great fame and patience are associated.”-vide Vimana 8:3. To sum up-because Indra was the best competent preceptor of Ayurveda, Bharadvaja approached him, as directed by the sages (cf. Sutra 1:19)

विघ्नभूता यदा रोगाः प्रादुर्भूताः शरीरिणाम् । तपोपवासाध्ययनब्रह्मचर्यव्रतायुषाम् ॥ ७ ॥ महर्षयः । तदा भूतेष्वनुक्रोशं पुरस्कृत्य समेताः पुण्यकर्माणः पार्श्वे हिमवतः शुभे ॥ ७ ॥ अङ्गिरा जमदग्निश्च वसिष्ठः कश्यपो भृगुः । आत्रेयो गौतमः साङ्ख्यः पुलस्त्यो नारदोऽसितः ॥ ८ ॥ अगस्त्यो वामदेवश्च मार्कण्डेयाश्वलायनौ । भरद्वाजः कपिञ्ज (ष्ट)लः ॥ ९ ॥ ॥ ११ ॥ पारिक्षिर्भिक्षुरात्रेयो विश्वामित्राश्मरथ्यौ च भार्गवश्च्यवनोऽभिजित् । गार्ग्यः शाण्डिल्यकौण्डिल्यौ (न्यौ) वार्क्षिर्देवलगालवौ ॥ १० ॥ साङ्कृत्यो बैवापिच कुशिको बादरायणः । बर्डिशः शरलोमा च काव्यकात्यायनावुभौ काङ्कायनः कैकशेयो धौम्यो मारीचकाश्यपौ । शर्कराक्षो हिरण्याक्षो लोकाक्षः पैङ्गिरेव च ।। १२ ।। शौनकः शाकुनेयश्च मैत्रेयो मैमतायनिः । वैखानसा बालखिल्यास्तथा चान्ये महर्षयः ॥ १३ ॥ ‘ब्रह्मज्ञानस्य निधयो द (य) मस्य नियमस्य च । तपसस्तेजसा दीप्ता हूयमाना इवाग्नयः ॥ १४ ॥ सुखोपविष्टास्ते तत्र पुण्यां चक्रुः कथामिमाम् ।

At the advent of the diseases which were impediments to long life, religious vows, brahmacarya, sacred studies and upavasa ( vide commentary ) relating to human beings ( lit. creatures ), the sages, the followers of yamal and niyama, illuminated with the brilliance of penance, fires with offerings of ghee as it were, all with virtuous acts sitting together comfortably on the auspicious valley of the Himalayas, full of compassion for all creatures, discussed this sacred topic. These sages among others were Aigiras, Jamadagni, Vasistha, Kasyapa, Bhrgu, Atreya, Gautama, Sankhya, Pulastya, Narada, Asita, Agastya, Vamadeva, Markandeya, Asvalayana, Pariksi, Bhiksu Atreya, Bharadvaja, Kapinjala, Visvamitra, ASmarathya, Bhargava, Cyavana, Abhijit, Gargya, Sandilya, Kaundilya, Varksi, Devala, Galava, Sankrtya, Baijavapi, Kusika, Badarayana, Badisa, Saraloman, Kapya, Katyayana,

1. The first constituent of the eight yogic practices. This consists of non-violence, truthfulness, abstinence from stealing, brahmacarya and abstinence from possessing wealth, etc. -vide Yogasutra 2:29.

2. The second constituent of Yogic practices. This includes purity, contentment, austerity, study and devotion to God. vide Yogasutra 2:32.

Kankayana, Kaikaseya, Dhaumya, Marica, Kasyapa, Sarkaraksa, Hiranyaksa, Lokaksa, Paingi, Saunaka Sakuneya, Maitreya, Maimatayani, Vaikhanasas and Valakhilyas. [ 6-14 ]

In the preceding verse it has been stated, “As advised by sages, Bharadvaja approached Indra.” The question involved here is as to how Ayurveda which had confined itself to the heaven here-to-fore (from Brahma upto Indra in succession ), was brought down to this earth. These verses offer an explanation to that. It was towards the close of the first age (satya age) that the diseases manifested themselves. That is to say, even though the diseases had been there, they did not manifest themselves until the close of the first age (satya age). The author will himself explain it-vide Vimana 3:24. This shows that diseases are permanent entities which will be explained by the author later-vide Sutra 30:27.

Gradual decay is, in fact, the very nature of the body which is indicated by the use of the word ‘sarira’ (taga). The process of decay is intensified by the unslaught of diseases. Human beings, when affected by diseases, are not able to perform sacred duties like candrayana, etc. properly. Moreover, the span of life diminishes owing to diseases. Thus diseases are impediments to sacred duties, upavasa, sacred studies of the Vedas, brahmacarya,2 sacred vows3 and span of life.

The sages were inspired to discuss this topic only with a view to eradicating the diseases of all creatures. The attainment of long life for themselves could not be their aim because their long life was already assured. Their compassion was for creatures in general rather than for human beings alone. This shows the sense of equanimity they possessed. They were great sages indeed. In fact, the sages of all the four types viz. rsika, rsiputra, devar si and maharsi were represented there. They were all of virtuous acts. They selected the Himalayas as the venue of the discussion because the success of a discussion depends upon the selection of an auspicious venue.

The names of several sages have been enumerated in the beginning with a view to warding off the evils and also to indicate the utility of this work due to its association with such great men. Among these sages, some were yayavaras-having no fixed or permanent abode-some salinas-having

1. Upavasa means abstinence from anger and observance of truthful acts, etc., it also means the quality of a human being devoid of all sinful acts which prompts him to good virtuous acts-Upavasa does not mean emaciation of the body by fasting, etc.

2. abstinence from sexual enjoyments-conducive to liberation.

3. vows taken in relation to some desired noble objects.

were ayonijas-not born a fixed or permanent abode, and some from the womb. The word ‘bhiksu’ is an epithet of Atreya-cf. Sutra 25:24. Vaikhanasa is the term used to denote a particular type of sage who belongs to the third stage (Vanaprasthasrama) of human life. A class of short statured sages are designated as valakhilyas.

मूलमुत्तमम् ॥ १५ ॥ च । धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाणामारोग्यं रोगास्तस्यापहर्तारः श्रेयसो जीवितस्य मनुष्याणामन्तरायो प्रादुभूतो महानयम् ॥ १६ ॥ कः स्यात्तेषां शमोपाय इत्युक्त्वा ध्यानमास्थिताः । अथ ते शरणं शक्रं ददृशुर्ध्यानचक्षुषा ॥ १७ ॥ afa शमोपायं यथावदमरप्रभुः ।

Good health stands at the very root of virtuous acts, acquirement of wealth, gratification of desire and final emancipation. Diseases are destroyers of health, well being and life. This has manifested itself as a great obstacle in the way of human life. What could be its remedy ?-With this end in view, they entered into meditation. Then, in their vision they found a saviour in Indra; (and got an assurance to the effect that) he-the lord of the gods would explain the proper way to counteracting the diseases. [15-17]

Dharma is associated with the soul itself which is to be inferred from its results. Artha is the attainment of wealth like gold, etc. Kama is the fulfilment of desire like embracing women. Moksa is liberation from the world. Arogya i. e. health represents the equilibrium of dhatus in the absence of diseases. Thus, health is the root cause par excellence of the attainment of all these four objects of human life inasmuch as one suffering from a disease is absolutely incapable of performing any act conducive to the attainment of any of these four objects. As a matter of fact, the manifestation of diseases is synchronous with the impediments to the objects of human life. It is not correct to say that a disease is caused first and then it spoils health. The combination of a positive and a negative object would rather lead to a negative rather than a positive result. An impediment to the objects of human life on the other hand is to be treated as something positive rather than negative.

Life without happiness is not worth living. Conversely life with happiness alone is worth living. This sense is to be obtained by implication from this verse. As regards the destruction of the life as a means to happiness-this need not be separately stated because this purpose is already served by the statement regarding the impediment to the fourfold objects of human life. Thus, in fine, sreyas is to be taken to mean well being in general, inclusive of virtuous acts, etc., while jivita denotes the life in general. The desire to live long is innate in human beings, as in all creatures in general. This is irrespective of the external conditions like happiness or otherwise. As it has been stated, “This life came out of Brahman and desired, ‘May I live long.” Even the attempts to commit suicide on the part of some human beings in distress, on an ultimate analysis, amounts to getting rid of the unfavourable conditions of life rather than of the life itself.

कः सहस्राक्षभवनं गच्छेत् प्रष्टुं शचीपतिम् ।। १८ ।। अहमर्थे नियुज्येयमत्रेति भरद्वाजोऽब्रवीत्तस्मादृषिभिः प्रथमं वचः । नियोजितः ।। १९ ।। स शक्रभवनं गत्वा सुरर्षिगणमध्यगम् । ददर्श बलहन्तारं दीप्यमानमिवानलम् ॥ २० ॥ स ** सोऽभिगम्य जयाशीर्भिरभिनन्द्य सुरेश्वरम् । प्रोवाच विनयाद्धीमानृषीणां व्याधयो हि समुत्पन्नाः सर्वप्राणिभयङ्कराः । तह मे तस्मै शमोपायं भगवानायुर्वेदं पदैररूपैर्मति बुद्ध्वा विपुलां

Who should go to the abode of Indra to ask the latter about this ? «I may be deputed for this work, so said Bharadvaja first. Accordingly, as deputed by the sages, he went to Indra’s abode and saw Indra, the destroyer of Bala sitting in the midst of the gods and sages and glittering like fire. After having gone there, he, the wise one, paid his compliments to the lord of the gods with the blessings conducive to his victory and humbly conveyed the sacred massage from the sages. “The diseases terrifying to all creatures have manifested themselves, advise me as to their proper remedial measures, O lord of the gods.” Then lord Indra, considering the latter’s depth of wisdom expounded the science of life to the sage ( Bharadvaja ) in brief.

प्रोवाच वाक्यमुत्तमम् ।। २१ ।। यथावदमरप्रभो ॥ २२ ॥ शतक्रतुः । परमर्षये ॥ २३ ॥

The problem was as to who amongst the sages would be able to propitiate Indra who was passionately attached to his wife-Saci. It was in this context that Bharadvaja offered his services. His offer was voluntary, without any persuation. It took no time for Indra to appreciate.

Bharadvaja’s depth of wisdom and so the former expounded the science of life to the latter very briefly. That is to say, Bharadvaja was considered to be too intelligent to require an elaborate description of the various aspects of science. Indra got insight into Bharadvaja’s deservedness as disciple by means of his divine intuitive power. Perhaps that is why no mention has been made here regarding Indra’s question, etc. to Bharadvaja.

हेतुलिङ्गोषज्ञानं स्वस्थातुरपरायणम् । त्रिसूत्रं शाश्वतं पुण्यं बुबुधे यं पितामहः ॥ २४ ॥

(Indra expounded) the immortal and sacred (science of life) consisting of three principles viz., etiology, symptomatology and the knowledge of therapeutics as a means to well-being par excellence to healthy and diseased which had earlier been understood by Brahma. [24]

This verse presents in a nutshell the scope of the Science of life. The Science consists of three principles viz., etiology, symptomatology and therapeutics. Etiology here includes the immediate and distant causes of diseases. Similarly the symptomatology includes the entire signs and symptoms of diseases and health. In fact, diseases and health are also regarded as symptoms, inasmuch as they also represent the symptoms of certain diseases. As he will say, “Jvara (fever) is the one symptom of the condition having irregular attacks; on the other hand, conditions having irregular attacks are also known as Jvara (fever). Similarly the therapeutics include wholesome diet also. Description of body is included here under etiology and symptomatology. of Lest people should have a confusion as to whether the Science life imparted by Indra was identical or nonidentical with the one originally propounded by Brahma, it has been clearly stated that this was the science which had earlier been understood by Brahma himself. Indra was not the author of the Science-he rather transmitted to Bharadvaja, the Science, the knowledge of which was obtained by him without any interruption from Brahma in succession. That is why the Science here is immortal.

सोऽनन्तपारं त्रिस्कन्धमायुर्वेदं महामतिः । यथावदचिरात् सर्व बुबुधे तन्मना मुनिः ॥ २५ ॥

तेनायुरमितं लेभे भरद्वाजः सुखान्वितम् । ऋषिभ्योऽनधिकं तच्च शशंसानवशेषयन् ॥ २६ ॥

He-the sage of great wisdom and devotion, duly grasped in no time, the whole science of life consisting of three branches, (but) of immeasurable extent; thereby, Bharadvaja enjoyed an infinitely long and happy life, and conveyed all this to the sages. [25-26]

How did Bharadvaja learnt the Science of Life ? Because, Bharadvaja was a sage of great wisdom and devotion, he took no time to grasp this science of life consisting of three branches viz., etiology, symptomatology and knowledge of therapeutics in its entirety. The science of life has in fact neither a beginning nor an end. This has salvation as its main object (of Sarira 1:94-95).

Bharadvaja got the whole science along with its three branches exactly as it had earlier been understood by Brahma and as it was propounded by Indra. It is not that Bharadvaja first utilised the knowledge gained from Indra, towards his own longevity and then reported the whole science to the sages. The verse has rather to be construed in a way so that it may mean, “Bharadvaja obtained the infinite and soothing knowledge about the elixirs (by the administration of which he got a long life ) rather than the long life itself. Or as Bharadvaja has studied the science of life with a view to helping all creatures and had thereby performed a great virtuous act, he got infinitely long life.”

ऋषयश्च दीर्घमायुश्चिकीर्षन्तो महर्षयस्ते भरद्वाजाज्जगृहुस्तं प्रजाहितम् । वेदं वर्धनमायुषः ॥ २७ ॥ ददृशुर्यथावज्ज्ञानचक्षुषा । सामान्यं च विशेषं च गुणान् द्रव्याणि कर्म च ॥ २८ ॥ समवायं च तज्ज्ञात्वा तन्त्रोक्तं विधिमास्थिताः । मिरे परमं शर्म जीवितं चाप्यनित्वरम् ।। २९ ।।

The sages, desirous of long life, got from Bharadvaja this science as a means to well-being of creatures and raising the span of life. These sages duly visualised by force of their intuitive powers samanya, visesa, guna, dravya, karman and samavaya. (These are the various categories as enumerated in the Nyaya system of philosophy and these terms will be explained by the author later in this chapter. After having known all this, the sages acted on the prescriptions as available in the science and attended the highest well-being and an inexhaustibly long life. [27-29]

Has The sages were anxious about the longevity of all creatures as well as that of their own. So they were inspired to pursue the knowledge of the science. As a first step towards its knowledge they were acquainted by force of their intuition with the six categories which form the substratum of the Science. They found in this science various prescriptions dealing with the avoidance of the unwholesome habits and acceptance of wholesome ones and thereby attained inexhaustibly long life and well being devoid of all miseries.

अथ ‘मैत्रीपरः पुण्यमायुर्वेदं पुनर्वसुः । शिष्येभ्यो ‘दत्तवान् षड्भ्यः सर्वभूतानुकम्पया ॥ ३० ॥ अग्निवेशश्च भेल ( ड ) श्च जतूकर्णः पराशरः । जगृहुस्तन्मुनेर्वचः ॥ ३१ ॥ हारीतः क्षारपाणिश्च to all and having compassion for

Then Punarvasu, ‘friendly all creatures expounded the sacred science of life to his six disciples. And these disciples viz. Agnivesa, Bhela, Jatukarna, Parahis instructions. [ 30-31]

Sara, Harita and Ksarapani followed As it appears from these verses, Punarvasu alias Atreya who was one of the direct disciples of Bharadvaja is the preceptor of Agnivesa. Some treat Atreya and Bharadvaja as one and the same person. But this is not correct. Nowhere in the works on ayurveda, Atreya has been identified as Bharadvaja. Rather in the Harita, Bharadvaja has been described as the first preceptor of Atreya. The order of transmission of this Science as indicated there is Indra, Bharadvaja, Atreya, Harita. The statement of Vagbhata about Atreya being a disciple of Indra (cf. – Astanga Hrdaya : Sutra 1:3) should not be taken to denote the identity of Atreya with Bharadvaja. That statement merely shows that Atraya also was one of the disciples of Indra. This has been discussed in Ayurveda samutthaniya rasayanapada—cf. Chikitsa 1:4:3. That is to say, it was not Bharadvaja alone who got this science from Indra; on the other hand several sages received instructions from Indra.

मुनेः १ बुद्धेर्विशेषस्तत्रासीनोपदेशान्तरं यतोऽभवत् ।। ३२ ।। तन्त्रस्य कर्ता प्रथममग्निवेशो स अथ भेलादयश्चक्रुः स्वं स्वं तन्त्रं कृतानि च । श्रावयामासुरात्रेयं श्रुत्वां सूत्रणमर्थानामृषयः यथावत्सूत्रितमिति सर्व पवास्तुवंस्तांश्च साधु भूतेष्वनुक्रोश इत्युच्चैरब्रुवन् तं पुण्यं शुश्रुवुः शब्दं दिवि देवर्षयः सामराः परमर्षीणां श्रुत्वा मुमुदिरे परम् ॥ ३६॥ अहो साध्विति निर्घोषो लोकां स्त्री नन्ववा (ना) दयत् । नभसि स्निग्धगम्भीरो हर्षाद्भूतैरुदीरितः ॥ ३७ ॥ शिवो वायुर्ववौ सर्वा भाभिरुन्मीलिता दिशः । निपेतुः सजलाश्चैव दिव्याः कुसुमवृष्टयः ॥ ३८ ॥ सुमेधसः ॥ ३३ ॥ पुण्यकर्मणाम् । प्रहृष्टास्तेऽनुमेनिरे ॥ ३४ ॥ सर्वभूतहितैषिणः ।। समम् ॥ ३५ ॥ स्थिताः । अथाग्निवेशप्रमुखान् विविशुर्ज्ञानदेवताः । बुद्धिः सिद्धिः स्मृतिर्मेधा धृतिः कीर्तिः क्षमा दया ॥ ३९ ॥ तानि चानुमतान्येषां तन्त्राणि परमर्षिभिः । भ (भा) वाय भृतसङ्घानां प्रतिष्ठां भुवि लेभिरे ॥ ४० ॥

It was simply the speciality of intellect and not any other instruction of the sage Punarvasu) which led, first Agnivesa (of all the other disciples) to expoun this work. Then the wise ones like Bhela and others expounded their respective works and presented them to Atreya accompanied by a group of sages. Having heard the exposition of the science by the holy ones (disciples of Atreya ), the sages were extremely delighted to find that the exposition was well done and they welcomed it. All of them admired these (disciples of Punarvasu) who were desirous of doing good to all creatures and they all at a time exclaimed loudly, “Splendid is this sympathy for creatures”. The divine sages accompanied by the gods residing in the heaven heard this sacred word of great sages and were extremely delighted to hear this.”Oh! Excellent,” this deep and melodeous sound produced in the heaven by the delighted gods resounded the three worlds.37

The auspicious wind blew and all the directions were illuminated by lights Divine showers of flowers and water dropped down and then the gods of wisdom viz. Intellect, Accomplishment, Memory, Understanding, Patience, Fame, Forbearance, and Pity entered Agnivesa and other disciples and these works, accepted by the great sages were established on this earth for the good of all creatures. [ 32-40 ]

As pointed out in the preceding verse, Punarvasu imparted instructions in Ayurveda to his six disciples. Out of these disciples, the first one to write a work on Ayurveda was Agnivesa. This was not because Punarvasu had asked him to do so but because he was blessed with a special aptitude for this purpose. That is to say, Agnivesa was the best talented of all the disciples. So it is only after Agnivesa has completed his work, Bhela and other remaining disciples of Punarvasu wrote their respective works. After having submitted their respective works all the discipl approached the great sages for approval of their respective expositions. The sages were delighted to see such illuminating expositions and bestowed their blessings on all of them. Even the divine sages alongwith gods were delighted to hear the news about such expositions; this had its effect on natural phenomena as well-the auspicious winds blew and the entire atmosphere was illuminated with divine lights and there were visible showers of flowers and rains and then the gods of wisdom, etc. entered all the disciples. Although these disciples were already bestowed with the various enlightening aspects of the knowledge even before attempting to write their respective works on Ayurveda, still these gods of wisdom, etc. entered these disciples in honour of the completion of the exposition. Among these gods, ‘Siddhi’ represents the knowledge of the object and its means; Kirti represents knowledge about exposition itself and not name and fame which are associated with ignorance. All these expositions approved by the sages were established on this earth for effecting good health, free from diseases amongst all creatures.

हिताहितं सुखं दुःखमायुस्तस्य हिताहितम् । मानं च तच्च यत्रोक्तमायुर्वेदः स उच्यते ॥ ४१ ॥

That (science) is designated as Ayurveda where advantageous (and disadvantageous as well as happy and unhappy states of kunalife alongwith what is good and bad for life, its measurement and life itself are described. [41] maks Life is of four types viz., hita (useful or advantageous), ahita (harmful or disadvantageous), sukha (happy) and duhkha (unhappy or miserable). All these will be subsequently explained in the Arthedasamahamuliya chapter-cf. Sutra 30:23-25. Thus, Ayurveda is a science which deals with all these four types of life, its wholesome and unwholesome habits and its span short and long and the description of life itself. The various points relating to the span of life will be explained later (cf. Sutra 30:25).

Thus, broadly speaking, Ayurveda stands for knowledge of life (Veda from Vid-to know). Another meaning of the term Veda may be attainment, etc., (Veda from Vid-to attain) but this is not intended here because attainment, etc. of life is not a direct object of Ayurveda-its direct object being just the knowledge of life.

शरीरेन्द्रियसत्त्वात्मसंयोगो नित्यगश्चानुबन्धश्च धारि जीवितम् । पर्यायैरायुरुच्यते ॥ ४२ ॥ mina)

The term ‘ayus’ stands for the combination of the body, sense organs, mind and soul, and and its synonyms are dhari (the one that prevents the body from decay), jwita (which keeps alive ), nityaga (which serves as a permanent substratum of this body) and anub andha (which transmigrates from one body to another). [42] ( sarura, Indriya Sativa )

Ayus, the life represents a combination of the body, the sense organs, the mind and the soul. The body made of the five mahabhutas (basic) elements) serves as an abode of the enjoyments and sufferings of the soul. The sense organs are the eyes, etc.; the sattva is the mind and the soul is the bearer of knowledge. All these combined with the virtue of the invisible. past actions are designated as life. Although this combination is momentary because of the body itself being momentary still being fixed by some process of continuity, this is taken as one single continum Of the various synonyms of life enumerated, nityaga and anubandha appear to be unusual in the sense that nowhere else these terms are found to designate life. These synonyms have been shown here with a view to explaining the two important aspects of life viz., its permanency in spite of the body being momentary and its transmigratory faculty. The term ‘dhari’ will be explained latter on.

Another definition of ayus has been shown in the 30th Chapter of  (Sutra 22) according to which the life stands for the continuity of consciousness. But in fact, the ayus is nothing except the combinations of the body, the sense organs, the mind and the soul. The continuity of consciousness follows this combination. As soon as this combination is lost, the ayus-life ceases to exist and so the dead body being devoid of the mind is devoid of the combination in the form of life as well.

तस्यायुषः पुण्यतमो वेदो वेदविदां मतः । वक्ष्यते यन्मनुष्याणां लोकयोरुभयोर्हितम् ।। ४३ ॥

As it is beneficial to mankind in respect of both the worlds (i. e. this life and the life beyond), Ayurveda, the most sacred and honoured by those proficient in the Vedas will now be expounded. [ 43 ]

Why this Ayurveda is regarded as the most sacred science and why is it honoured by those proficient in the Vedas? The other Vedas do good only to the life beyond and so are regarded as sacred but the Ayurveda is the most sacred of all because it does good to mankind in respect of their present life as well as the life beyond. Thus, being an indispensable guide for health and virtuous acts, this Ayurveda is sacred par excellence and is honoured by those proficient in the Vedas. Moreover, being the life-giver, the Ayurveda is the most sacred. Unless there is life, the four objects of human life cannot be accomplished. As it is said, “No gift can surpass the gift of life”-Chikitsa 1:4:61. So the Ayurveda is sacred par excellence.

सर्वदा सर्वभावानां हास हेतुर्विशेषश्च, सामान्यं वृद्धिकारणम् । प्रवृत्ति रुभयस्य तु ॥ ४४ ॥

Generic concomitance is always the couse of the augmentation of all the beings (whereas) the varient factor, of (their) diminution (provided ) both are applied. [44]

As shown in verse 28, samanya (generic concomitance) occupies the first place in the list of items indicating the scope of Ayurveda; hence it is necessary to describe its correct implication. Samanya is, in fact, that generic concomitance or a state of generality or similarity which is always responsible for augmentation of all the three categories viz., matter, quality and action. Samanya is not only related to the things already created or duced but to all the beings belonging to the three categories mentioned above, whether in the manifested or unmanifested form and so the generic concomitance of the permanent entities like the atoms of earth etc., leads to the augmentation of the earth in the form of grosser molecules (dvyanuka, etc.).

It is not that the generic concomitance is in itself an augmenting factor. The generic concomitance is an augmenting factor only when it is related to the two objects having common characteristics. If the generic If the concomitance alone were an augmenting factor, the quality of flesh being already present in the muscular tissue elements of the body would in itself cause augmentation in the flesh of the body even of the vegetarians. The quality of edible flesh as present outside the body is almost identical with the one present in the muscular tissues of the body. Even then, the edible flesh does not cause the augmentation in the muscular tissue elements of the boby unless the former is taken in. Thus the generic concomitance or identical property alone is not responsible for augmentation. It is so only when it is taken in.

That is why the Vaisesika system says that the generic concomitance (samanya), the varient factor (visesa) and inseparable concomitance (samavaya) are neither effects nor causes of anything. The term samanya in this verse means generic concomitance rather than similitude. similitude is taken as the connotation of this term and thereby matter, etc., are taken into account; the inclusion of samanya in the scope of Ayurveda as in the verse 28 will have nothing to do with this and as such this will go out of context.

The fact that generic concomitance is an augmenting factor should not be taken to mean that augmentation is included in the very definition of generic concomitance. Augmentation on the other hand is the effect of generic concomitance taken with special reference to Ayurveda.

Though quoted by Cakrapani, this reference is not available in the extant editions of the Vaisesika darsana is not that generic concomitance will always cause augmentation; it will do so only in the absence of inhibiting factors. Therefore, in view of this inhibiting factor in the form of the influence of the cooling property present in it, sourness, etc. of amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) does not cause augmentation of the sourness, etc. of pitta. So also the properties of other drugs alleviating all the three dosas can be explained.

When we say that the generic concomitance has got the potentiality for causing augmentation, we do not mean that this alone would cause augmentation. That is to say the generic concomitance is one of the augmenting factors. Thus, sometimes, even the influence of altogether dissimilar objects causes augmentation. For example, even though the ghee is altogether dissimilar to intellect and digestive enzymes, it causes augmentation in both of them due to its specific action. So also vata is augmented by mental strain. Similarly empirical augmentation of semen is caused even by passion and external application of aphrodisiac drugs on both legs.

The generic concomitance implies similitude as well. So the quality of flesh does not possess generic concomitance with blood, rather it is a varient factor because of dissimilitude to the latter. The term visesa is not to be taken in the context of the basic varient factors as enumerated in the Vaisesika system. The concept of Vaisesika system would rather not be of any use in the Ayurveda. Visesa here only implies a varient factor relating to the qualities of objects. So the varient factors in general cause diminution of all beings. For example, gavedhuka (Triticum aestivum Linn.) possesses variance in general in relation to flesh, etc., it is similar to the other forms of the same variety but it is in variance with flesh. Similarly, the quality of flesh being identical with that of others possesses generic concomitance with them but this again is at variance with blood, etc. As stated in connection with samanya, the visesa as well causes diminution only in the absence of an inhibiting factor. Therefore, even though in contradistinction with vata, the unctuousness of mandaka ( curd not fully fermented) and nikuca (Artocarpus lakoocha Roxb.) does not alleviate it (vata), because there is an empirical element of unwholesomeness in it. Visesa here means inhibiting varient factor. This implication is to be kept in view wherever this term is used subsequently.

Even though non-inhibiting varient factor does not directly cause augmentation or diminution, still its indirect effect on diminution cannot be questioned. For example, the tactile quality of prthvi which is neither hot nor cold does not augment nor lessen the cooling property of vata; still it can be indirectly taken to be an inhibiting factor because of the absence in it of the productivity of the tissue elements that are being normally consumed by enzymes (in the process of metabolism). It is rather an established fact that the application of a dissimilar object (not necessarily a varient factor) does cause diminution in all the transient elements, because of the absence of any other factor to compensate the natural loss. For example, if a dam is constructed on a river, the water in the down stream will get naturally lessened. In view of the fact that diminution is effected even when an uninhibiting varient factor in general is present, Agnivesa has made a general statement to the effect that the varient factor is the cause of diminution of all beings.

Now the question arises as to whether the generic concomitance or varient factor would cause augmentation or diminution, as the case may be, even without having any relation with anything. In fact, neither of them can be effective without having relationship with the body. That is to say the generic concomitance and the varient factor when related to the body cause augmentation and diminution respectively in the generic concomitance and varient factor of tissue elements.

The fourth quarter of the verse is interpretted slightly in a different manner as well: The maintenance of the equilibrium of tissue elements is the effect of the generic concomitance and varient factor, both. Generic concomitance will cause augmentation while the varient factor would cause diminution. Thus taken separately, either of them will not be able to maintain the equilibrium. It is only when they simultaneously have their effects in the form of augmentation and diminution that the equilibrium of tissue elements is properly maintained.

सामान्यमेकत्वकरं, विशेषस्तु पृथक्त्वकृत् । तुल्यार्थता हि सामान्यं, विशेषस्तु विपर्ययः ॥ ४५ ॥ 12

Generic concomitance brings about the sense of) oneness while the varient factor about (the sense of ) separation. Again, the generic concomitance carries a sense of similitude while the varient factor, of dissimilitude defined in The generic concomitance and varient factor are present verse. The generic concomitance in fact consists of two factors viz. the sense of oneness and similituce while the varient factor a sense of separation and dissimilitude. Thus even though the time and space differ, This shows the semantic aspect of the word “Cow” remains the same. that there is something which does not change despite other exterior changes. This is what we mean when we say that samanya or generic This sense of oneness is concomitance brings about the sense of oneness. not only applicable to material objects. This is directly or indirectly related to action and quality. One who cooks may not always be the same person but he is designated as a cook. So also, whiteness relating to a flower is not exactly the same as the one relating to a cloth. But by virtue of the qualitative generic concomitance, both are regarded as one and the same.

The varient factor brings about the relative sense of separation. So, even though the quality of a cow possesses generic concomitance with all the other cows, still it brings about the sense of separation in relation to the class of horses and as such it is the varient factor in relation to the horses. It is according to this principle that the quality of flesh outside the body when taken in, augments flesh in the body. But the same quality of flesh being a varient factor in relation to vata, alleviates the vata in the body. Again being a non-inhibiting varient factor this does not cause diminution in blood. Rather owing to the qualitative generic concomitance, this augments blood.

Now the problem arises as to how the sense of oneness amongst different individuals is brought about. The sense of oneness, it has been shown, is brought about by dint of similitude covering the entire class consisting of similar individuals. Dissimilitude on the other hand brings about distinction or separateness. Thus a cow and an elephant having dissimilar connotation bring about a sense of separateness.

Different commentators of Charaka have explained the previous and the present verse in different ways. Some hold the view that generic concomitance and varient factor are of three types according as they are related to (i) matter, (ii) q quality and ( ii) action. As such according to them, the previous verse relates to matter, the first line of the present verse to quality and its last line to action. This view has been repudiated by Bhattara Haricandra himself on the ground that all the three types of generic concomitance are already included in the previous verse. But then it might be argued, if samanya in its entirety is included in the previous verse, then the present verse becomes altogether irrelevant. To remove this anomaly, some other commentators have brought forward another set of clarification. According to them, the three types of generic concomitance are (i) radical, (it) medical and (iii) partial. previous verse, the first portion of the present verse and its last line relate to the radical, medical and partial generic concomitance respectively. But this theory is also not tenable as this type of classification does not serve any useful purpose. Some others hold the view that generic concomitance is of two types viz. (i) the one that is related to the subject and object both (ubhayavrtti); e. g. meat and bodily flesh and (ii) the one that is related to The one of them (anubhayavrtti); e. g. ghee. Physical exercise and leisurely living augment digestion, vata and kapha respectively. Here the qualities of subjects are not similar to those of the objects. Still they bring about augmentation in the objects empirically. The empirical augmenting factors in these subjects are verily the quality of ghee, physical exercise, etc., which though absent from the objects are present in the subjects. So, here also, according to these commentators the generic concomitance is the augmenting factor. But then, as shown above, the moment a given quality is found absent from the subject or the object it loses its value as a generic concomitance; it is rather to be treated as a variant factor. If both the similar as well as dissimilar qualities are treated as augmenting factors, the generic concomitance as such would lose its ground as an augmenting factor because the augmentation based on generic concomitance implies the sense of similarity both in the subject and the object. But realy speaking, generic concomitance is just one of the augmenting factors; it is not that this is the only augmenting factor, even though, if not inhibited otherwise it always causes augmentation.

It has been pointed out by some commentators that the generic concomitance as an augmenting factor relates only to matter and quality and not to action. They illustrate this fact by citing the augmenting effect of physical exercise on vata. Here there is no similitude in so far as the functions of physical exercise and vata are concerned, still the former augments the latter. According to their interpretation, even Charaka, while he acknowledges concomitance relating to matter and quality, 2 is silent about the generic concomitance relating to action. He rather makes statement about action simply as an action without any reference to generic concomitance with regard thereto. But this is not an acceptable proposition. It is true that augmentations effected by action are generally empirical but that does not mean that actions are devoid of any generic concomitance as such. The illustration cited by these commentators does in itself prove that actions do possess generic concomitance. A body, actively engaged in physical exercise, causes augmentation in the active vata (Thus action causes augmentation in another action) and conversely the same body devoid of action in the form of physical exercise causes diminution in the vata that is active, ( thus the varient factor-inaction or restlessens the action i. e. active vata). Again by implication, the sleep as well comes under the category of action and this is regarded as an augmenting factor for kapha inasmuch as it inhibits the movements of the tody which could have otherwise lessened kapha. Thus, even though the

1. मांसमाप्यायते मांसेन… Sarira 6:10

2. तत्र समान गुणभूविष्टानामन्यप्रकृतीनामप्याहारविकाराणामुपयोगः | Sarara 6:11

does not directly bring about augmentation in kapha, yet, by inhibiting bodily movements it accelerates the growth of kapha. On similar lines the effect of drug, sleep, etc. can also be explained. Of course, where the cause and the effect based on some generic concomitance cannot be explained, this may be explained on empirical principle. stated to be an augmenting factor of the bodily flesh and a diminishing factor for vata. Now the question arises as to how one and the same substance-‘meat’-can simultaneously give rise to two different factors. In actual life an individual-e.g. Devadatta-does not manufacture two different objects, say a pitcher and a bow at a time. But then this simile of sentient beings does not hold good so far as insentient objects are concerned. By nature sentient beings are not capable of doing two different things at a time. insentient objects; e. g. one sound gives rise to many other sounds at a But this is not so with regard to time; fire produces light and heat both at a time. That is why Charaka has also said that a medicine duly taken in, simultaneously reconciles deficient and excessive tissue elements of the body-it reduces the excessive ones and makes up the deficient ones.-vide Sarira 6:6.

it that even a wholesome diet does not help in augmenting the tissue elements of an old man whose tissue elements are dwindling or the one suffering from vitiated dosas? Similarly, how is it that in the summer, diets having sweet taste ( which are normally augmenting factors for kapha) do not augment kapha ? This, in fact, is not a problem. As explained above, an augmenting factor will have its effect only when it is not inhibited otherwise. In all these examples the force of the augmenting factors is inhibited by such elements as the over weakening effects of old age or suffering from vitiated dosas or heating properties of It is only the generic concomitance relating to matter that can augment the tissue elements but not the qualitative generic concomitance, because the qualities cannot produce matter. generic concomitance helps in inferring the matter possessing the quality Of course, the qualitative concerned. But the matter and not the quality is an augmenting factor matter of the tissue elements. For example, from the roughness of citraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.), it can be inferred that it has got generic concomitance conducive to augmentation in vata. Thus, the qualities do help in sustaining the augmenting factors of a given matter. matter that causes augmentation and not the quality. The qualities rather But then it is the produce and augment qualities only.

सवमात्मा शरीरं च त्रयमेतन्त्रिदण्डवत् । लोकस्तिष्ठति संयोगात्तत्र सर्व प्रतिष्ठितम् ॥ ४६ ॥

स पुमांश्चेतनं तच्च वेदस्यास्य, तदर्थ हि तच्चाधिकरणं स्मृतम् । वेदोऽयं संप्रकाशितः ॥ ४७ ॥

Mind, soul and body-these three are like a tripoid; the world is sustained by their combination; they constitute the substratum for every thing. This (combination of the above three) is Purusa; this is sentient and this is the subject matter of this Veda (Ayurveda); it is for this that this Veda (Ayurveda) is brought to light. [ 46-47 ]

The scope of Ayurveda, as shown in verse 28 includes gunas as well, and ombination of mind, soul and body occupies a prominent position amongst the gunas; so these verses represent an explaination of this combination. Or alternatively, the entire science of Ayurveda concerns itself along with the items possessing generic concomitance and varient factor; for causes and symptoms of diseases as well as their treatment are shown here only in terms of generic concomitance and varient factor. But then the subject matter for this science remains to be explained. This is being explained in these verses.

The entire worldly life depends on the combination of mind, soul and body. This combination is likened to a tripoid. The simile is particularly significant. A tripoid can sustain itself so long as none of its three. constituents is disturbed. The tripoid in the present context constitutes the entire sentient beings.

The trio includes the sense organs alongwith their objects, buddhi and ahamkara-the latter two are included under ‘soul’ while the former one under body. The mind occupies a very important place in this trio inasmuch as the entire activities relating to the body are controlled by it. That is why it comes first in the list of constituents of the trio.

In verse 42, it has been shown that the span of life is nothing but a combination of the body, the sense organs, the mind and the soul. The emphasis there is on the span of life. In the present context, however, the emphasis is on Purusa i. e. the sentient being who is made of the combination of mind, soul and body and who is in fact the subject matter of Ayurveda.

खादीन्यात्मा मनः कालो दिशश्च द्रव्यसंग्रहः ।

सेन्द्रियं चेतनं द्रव्यं, निरिन्द्रियमचेतनम् ॥ ४८ ॥ Akasa etc., (prthvi, ap, tejas, vayu and akasa ), soul, mind, time and space constitute matter. Matter having sense organs is sentient while the one devoid of them is insentient. [ 48 ]

In the scope of Ayurveda as mentioned in verse 28, matter (dravya ) follows qualities (gunas). The order has now been changed inasmuch as the present verse deals with matter (dravya) and as such precedes the description of qualities as in the subsequent verse. But this is not a problem. The qualities do not have any status independent of the matter and as such being the substratum of all the qualities, matter is certainly more important than qualities. Moreover, the most significant quality in the context of Ayurveda is the combination (of mind, soul and body ) which has already been explained in the previous verse. The present verse attempts an introduction to the distinctive qualities (visesa guna) which are found in various constituents of matter. The reason why quality precedes matter in the order of the various items included in the scope of Ayurveda in verse 28 is that it is the qualities and not matter that counts most in the various discussions of Ayurveda.

Why do Akasa etc., precede the soul here? It is true, the soul is the most important constituent of the trio mentioned in the preceding verse but then it is the body and not the soul which suffers from diseases and which needs therapies advocated in “Ayurveda. So the five elements that constitute the body have been enumerated first.

Matter here is to be taken in its subtle form as distinct from the gross ones like hands, feet, haritaki (Terminalia chebula Linn.) etc., and other gross forms thereof. Matter is of two kinds-sentient and insentient. The sentient matter is the one in possession of the sense organs and so the insentient one is devoid of them. In the definition, it would have been enough if it were just said that the matter in possession of the sense organs is sentient. This ONTS WIATOD! would have by implication indicated that matter without the sense organs is insentient. But in order that there may not be any confusion about the definition of the sentient and insentient matter, both have been defined in clear terms. Moreover, it is not always that a positive statement gives rise to the corresponding negative meaning by implication. For example, when it is said that day sleep is prohibited for those suffering from new fever, this does by no means imply that day sleep is allowed for those suffering from chronic fever. So it was necessary to define both the sentient and insentient aspects of the matter.

Although it is the soul, and not the mind or body with is sentient, still the sentient aspect of the soul manifests itself only when it is combined with mind and the body. This is like the heat attributed to water in combination with the fire. So the soul in combination with the mind and body is sentient.

This definition applies also to the vegetable kingdom; that is to say the vegetable kingdom is also sentient. Many examples can be cited to prove this. The Suryabhakta (Helianthus annus Linn.) moves according to the movement of the Sun. The lavali ( Gicea acida Merrill) gets fruits just on hearing the sound of the thunder. The bijapuraka (Citrus medica Linn.) tree produces fruits only by the smell of the fat of jackals etc., similarly amra (Mangifera indica Linn.) trees when irrigated with the fat of fish, produces fruits in plenty. Asoka tree (Saraca indica Linn.) hit with the sole of the feet of a lady begets flowers. The above example clearly indicates the presence of the various sense organs in the vegetable kindom as well. This is also attested from scriptures. “If a brahmin does not give blessings in response to salutations, he is born in a cemetery as a tree surrounded by vultures and kankas.” “Trees, shrubs and other varieties of grass are covered with darkness arising out of their sinful acts but they all have consciousness full of happiness and miseries.. extent of creation beginning with Brahma is up to vegetable kingdom.” Thus, the members of the vegetable kingdom have got life as well as consciousness. So they belong to the category of sentient matter.

साथ गुर्वादयो बुद्धिः प्रयत्नान्ताः परादयः ।

गुणाः प्रोक्ताः,

The Objects of sense organs (sabda, sparsa, rupa, rasa, gandha), conditions like heaviness, etc. ( guru, laghu, sita; usna, snigdha, ruksa, manda, tiksna, sthira, sara, mrdu, kathina, visada, picchila, slaksna, khara, sthula, suksma, sandra, drava ), knowledge (which includes smrti, cetana, dhrti, ahamkara ), condition ending with prayatna (iccha, dvesa, sukha, duhkha prayatna) and those beginning with para ( para, apara, yukti, samkhya, samyoga, vibhaga, prthaktva, parimana, samskara, abhyasa ) are gunas. (For a correct apprisal of the term guna vide verse 51.) [49]

In the present verse, gunas have been enumerated. The gunas are of three types (i) those constituting the distinctive features of the five elements, (ii) those common to five elements and (iii) those relating to the soul. seresver of The gunas of the first category are sound (sabda), touch (sparsa), vision (rupa), taste (rasa) and smell (gandha ) constituting the distinctive features of akasa. vayu, agni, ap, and prthvi respectively.

Those of the second category are heaviness ( guru), lightness (laghu), coldness (sita ), heat ( usna ), unctuousness ( snigdha ), roughness ( ruksa ), dullness ( manda), sharpness ( tiksna), immobility (sthira ), mobility (sara), softness (mrdu), hardness (kathina), non-sliminess (visada), sliminess (picchila), smoothness (slaksna ), coarseness (khara), grossness (sthula), subtilty (suksma ), density ( sundra) and liquidity (drava).

The gunas of the third category are intellect (budhi) including memory (smrti), consciousness (cetanu), patience (dhrti) and ego ( ahamkara ) etc., desire (iccha), hatred ( dvesa ), happiness (sukha), misery (duhkha), efforts (prayatna), predominance (para), subordination (apara ), propriety (yukti ), number ( samkhya), combination (samyoga), division (vibhaga), separation (prthaktva), measurement (parimana), transformation (samskara) and repetition ( abhyasa).

प्रयत्नादि कर्म चेष्टितमुच्यते ॥४९॥

Action in the form of curative effort is known as karman. [49]

Karman here denotes the various types of action including efforts. This also includes the entire activity relating to the transformation of qualities and heaviness etc., it includes all kinds of action-even actions. that are subtle enough in their latent stages. Even the action of efforts are included in the definition of karman vide Vimana 8:77.

समवायोऽपृथग्भावो भूम्यादीनां गुणैर्मतः।

स नित्यो यत्र हि द्रव्यं न तत्रानियतो गुणः ॥ ५० ॥

Samavaya is the inseparable concomitance of prthvi their qualities. This is eternal because where there is matter, its distinctive quality is always there. [50] There exists a special relationship between the whole’ (avayavi). and its parts’ (avayavas), matter (gunin) and its qualities’ (gunas), action’ (karman) and the one having action’ (karmavat), ‘generic concomitance (samanya) and the one having generic concomitance’ (samanyavat). This relationship is inseparable in character. For example, a whole’ cannot exist without its ‘parts’, so inseparable concomitance or the relationship which can never be absent from the items related to each hich can neve other is known as samavaya. It is this relationship which exists between prthvi and its quality like smell etc. Qualities are of course placed in a subordinate position. That is to say matter being the substratum of qualities is predominent. So the relationship existing between prthvi and nt. So tint smell may be said to be the one between the substratum (adhara) and its contents (adheya) vide Padartha dharma Sangraha-Dravyapadarthanirupana chapter.

Because the meterial object like akasa is eternal, so its quality, i. e. sabda or sound is also eternal. Therefore, the relationship between an eternal material object and its eternal quality should also be necessarily eternal. On the same analogy, the Inseparable Concomitance existing between the whole’ and its ‘parts’ etc. should be eternal everywhere. Even if the material object is ephemeral, the inseparable concomitance existing between such an object and its qualities etc. is always eternal. For example, the Cow as an individual entity may die but the generic concomitance existing between the individual cow and its class cannot die. Thus, the samavaya is always eternal.

Some commentators have differentiated between an eternal and an ephemeral samavaya. But this differentiation does not lead anywhere in the present context nor does it represent an universally acknowledged classification.

यत्राश्रिताः कर्मगुणाः कारणं समवायि यत् । तद्रव्यं,

The one which is a substratum of the qualities and actions and which is a concomitant cause is the matter. [51]

By definition, matter happens to be the substratum of qualities and actions and it is also the concomitant cause of another matter and qualities as well as action. The capacity to produce something out of its own rests only in the matter. Neither the qualities nor action can produce something out of their own. So the matter and not the qualities or action can constitute concomitant cause. This definition of matter differentiates the latter from the other five categories, viz. quality (guna), action (karman), generic concomitance (samanya), varient factor (visesa) and inseparable concomitance (samavaya).

This does not include the absence of the qualities, etc. pertaining to the other material object. For example, there does not exist any insedoes not parable concomitance between akasa and karman. It is, therefore, advisable to have another definition of matter: The one that is possessed of qualities and which is capable of being a concomitant cause is a matter.

It might be argued that in the first moment matter is produced without any qualities. So if the above definition is accepted, the matter in the first moment of its production will not be matter at all. But, as a the very sec matter of fact, matter does have the qualities in second moment, i.e. before it can be perceived as matter. So even if it is devoid of qualities in the first moment it does possess the capability of being possessed of qualities in the very second moment. So there is no discrepancy in the definition offered above-vide Vaisesika darsana 1:15.

समवायी तु निश्चेष्टः कारणं गुणः ।। ५१ ।।

Guna possesses inseparable concomitance; it is the cause devoid of efforts. [51]

Unlike karman, guna is devoid of any (curative) efforts. Besides, guna has also inseparable concomitance as distinct from akasa, etc. which though devoid of efforts do not have inseparable concomitance as their substrata. Similarly, karman is quite distinct from gross matter which forms the substratum for action.

Unlike generic concomitance (samanya), variant factor (visesa), and inseparable concomitance (samavaya), which do not constitute causes, guna represents a causative factor as well. However, to say that the guna is the cause is only partially correct. There are gunas like the measurement of infinite matter and form of variant factor (visesa) in which case guna cannot be said to be a cause of anything. But then the causality in this context implies the generic concomitance existing in the concept of a given class. Alternatively we can as well say that as all other gunas constitute causes, so the gunas like the measurement of infinite matter as well as vision, etc. do also have capacity to be the causes. In any case, being the causes of knowledge leading to perception for the yogins, even the measurement of the infinite matter, etc. does constitute the cause.

This sort of causality exists in generic concomitance (samanya), etc. as well. Still guna is quite distinct from them. Because this is simultaneously a substratum as well as content of the inseparable concomitance (samavaya). So unlike an infinite matter which is only a substratum of the inseparable concomitance and unlike generic concomitance (samanya), etc. which are only the contents, the guna is both the substratum and content of the inseparable concomitance.

संयोगे च विभागे च कारणं द्रव्यमाश्रितम् । कर्तव्यस्य क्रिया कर्म कर्म नान्यदपेक्षते ॥ ५२ ।।

Karman (action) present in the matter is the cause of combination and separation. Karman is the action relating to something to be achieved. It does not require any other factor for its action. [52]

Action is simultaneously the cause of combination and separation. While combination does not cause separation and vice versa, action precause sent in the matter causes both combination as well as separation.

Karman does not require any other subsequent help in the process of causing separation from the previous position as well as combination with the subsequent position. Although matter is simultaneously a factor for causing combination and separation, still it is so only when it possesses Karman, on the other hand, does cause combination and separation as soon as it is produced without requiring any other subsequent help except the proximity to the substratum of the combination and separation. By definition, karman here implies only the action relating to something to be achieved (like the action of drugs, etc.) and not something like vamanakarma (emetic therapy) or adrstakarma (invisible past ‘action).

इत्युक्तं करणं,

This is (all) about the cause ( means). [53]

So matter (dravya ), quality ( guna), action (karman), generic concomitance (samanya), variant factor (visesa) and inseparable concomitance (samavaya) constitute the means (for achieving good health). There does not exist any other means.

कार्य धातुसाम्य मिहोच्यते ।

धातुसाम्यक्रिया चोक्ता तन्त्रस्यास्य प्रयोजनम् ॥ ५३ ।।

In the present context, the effect is the equilibrium of tissue elements. The very object of this science is the maintenance of the equilibrium of tissue elements. [53]

The cause (karana) and the effect (karya) in the present context are to be treated slightly in a different way as distinct from the use of these terms in philosophical texts. These terms are taken to mean the factors leading to and maintenance of equipoise of tissue elements respectively. In fact, the very object of the science is the maintenance of the equipoise of the tissue elements. As the author will himself say, the disturbance of the equilibrium of tissue elements is the disease while the maintenance of equilibrium is health. cf. Sutra 9:4.

कालबुद्धीन्द्रियार्थानां योगो मिथ्या न चाति च । द्वयाश्रयाणां व्याधीनां त्रिविधो हेतुसंग्रहः ।। ५४ ॥

The causes of the diseases relating to both ( mind and body ) are three-fold-wrong utilisation, non-utilisation and excessive utilisation of time, mental faculties and objects of sense organs.[54]

The present verse represents an exposition as to the causes of diseases relating both to mind and body. The threefold causes are wrong utilisation, non-utilisation and excessive utilisation of time, mental faculties and objects of sense organs.

Time here is taken to mean seasons including winter, summer and rainy season. The objects of sense organs are sound, touch, vision, taste and smell as well as their accessories like matter (dravya ), quality (guna) and action (karman) which are utilised through the sense organs. Diseases are of three categories viz., mainly psychological, mainly somatic and psychosomatic.

Time, mental faculties and objects of sense organs are mentioned here in their order of importance. Time is the most important factor inasmuch as it is indispensable in character. Then come the mental faculties. It is the defect in mental faculties that lead to the defects in the objects-vide Sutra 28: 39. Thus, even though, the abuses of the objects of sense organs arise out of the defective mental faculties, still owing to its proximity to the psychosomatic diseases, the former is categorised separately. The abuse of mental faculties on the other hand leads to the somatic, oral and psychic ailments.

Even the sinful acts are the causes of diseases-vide Sarira 1 : 117. The sinful acts are included under the abuses of mental faculties. As the sacrifices, through their subsidiary effects in the form of dharma lead to the attainment of heaven, so the abuses of mental faculties through their subsidiary effects in the form of sinful acts lead to the act-born diseases.

There are different theories about the act-born diseases. Some hold the view that such diseases originate from time itself rather than the abuses of mental faculties. In the text itself, there are different statements about the origin of such diseases which are interpreted differently by different commentators. But on an ultimate analysis it is not the time but the abuses of mental faculties that constitute the direct causes of the act-born diseases.

What about natural instincts like hunger, thirst, aging, etc. and the natural variation of dosas like collection, augmentation and vitiation which occur notwithstanding the non-utilisation of time, etc. ? These instintcs may take the form of diseases if they are not properly utilised at proper times. Thus, non-utilisation of these instincts at proper times is certainly the result of the defective utilisation of mental faculties.

शरीरं सत्त्वसंज्ञं च व्याधीनामाश्रयो मतः । तथा सुखानां, योगस्तु सुखानां कारणं समः ।। ५५ ।।

The body and mind constitute the substrata of diseases and happiness (i. e. positive health). Balanced utilisation (of time, mental faculties and object of sense organs) is the cause of happpiness. [ 55 ]

The body and mind are the receptacles of diseases and happinessboth jointly and severally. For example, laprosy is (mainly) physical, passion is (mainly) psychological and insanity is both physical and psychological.

निर्विकारः परस्त्वात्मा सत्त्वभूतगुणेन्द्रियैः । चैतन्ये कारणं नित्यो द्रष्टा पश्यति हि क्रियाः ।। ५६ ।।

The soul is essentially devoid of all pathogenecity. He is the cause of consciousness through the mind and the specific qualities of basic elements (sabda, sparsa, rupa, rasa, and gandha). He is eternal. He is an observer-he observes all activities. [56]

In the preceding verse, mind and body have been described as receptacles of diseases. The soul is however, absolutely detached of all the bodily or psychological ailments. It is only when the soul is associated with the body or mind, he suffers from diseases or enjoys happiness. But the soul (i. e. the absolute soul), in himself is devoid of all pathogenecity. Of course, he causes consciousness through the agency of the mind, the specific qualities of the basic elements (mahabutas, i. e. sabda, sparsa, rupa, rasa and gandha) as well as sense organs. That is why wherever this agency is not available, no consciousness is manifested.

The soul is eternal, but it does not necessarily follow that the consciousness occuring through the above agency will also be eternal. This is like the In fact, consciousness is ephemeral in character. ephemerality of sabda which is the quality of akasa-the latter being eternal. of the But what is the proof for the eternity of the soul? The proof is that knowledge of a thing implies the continuity of Had the knower from the pre-knowledge upto the post-knowledge stage. there been no such continuity, the thing previously known would have remained unknown in the post-knowledge stage. This clearly shows that there is one and the same entity which exists throughout the various stages of knowledge. A thing known to the one individual (say, Devadatta ) is not realised as known by another individual (say, Yajnadatta).

The soul observes all activities. So he is simply an observer. Whatever happiness or misery is found in the mind and body, the soul is quite detached of all these. Like a recluse, placed in a state of absolute tranquility of mind, he only observes all activities rather than being associated with any desire or malice whatsoever. This is so according to the Samkhya system also.

वायुः पित्तं कफश्चोक्तः शारीरो दोषसंग्रहः । मानसः पुनरुद्दिष्टो रजश्च तम एव च ॥५७।

Pathogenic factors in the body are vayu, pitta and kapha while those in the mind are rajas and tamas. [57]

Vata occupies the most prominent place among the pathogenic factors in the body. Its prominence is due to the acuteness, varieties and seriousness of diseases caused by it-cf. Susruta: Nidana 1:9. As it will be explained in the Maharogadhyaya, vata gives rise pitta 40 types and kapha only 20 types.-cf. Sutra 20: 11, 14, 17.

Pitta 80 types of diseases, comes second in order of importance. By dint of its being at the root of digestion and metabolism as well as the relative acuteness of the diseases caused by it, it is certainly more important than kapha.

All these pathogenic factors have their actions in the body both jointly and severally. It is not that the pathogenic factors are confined only to vata, pitta and kapha. By permutation and combination these factors take innumerable shapes-vide Sutra 17:41-44.

This three-fold classification is based on basic factors only. fold one. In the Susruta and elsewhere, rakta is also included as one of the pathogenic factors. A mention about rakta-its specific causes of vitiation, signs, and symptoms of vitiation, diseases due to its vitiation and treatment is also made in the present work-vide Sutra 24: 9, 18, 22. Thus, apparently, rakta is also to be treated as one of the pathogenic factors and so there should be fourfold classification of such factors instead of threefold one. But the reason why rakta has not been included in the classification of pathogenic factors is that this is not in itself an independent pathogenic factor. It is so, only when it is vitiated by vata, pitta or/and kapha. Vata, pitta and kapha, unlike rakta, constitute independent pathogenic factors. So rakta is something that can be vitiated and not the one that can independently vitiate others. In the same way flesh (mamsa dhatu) can as well be vitiated rather than being only a vitiator. The specific cause, signs, symptoms, diseases and treatment referred to above represent merely, the description of the state of rakta when it is vitiated by other pathogenic factors. This is like something burnt by heated oil where although it is fire that actually burns, it is generally said that the thing has been burnt by oil itself. Anything that causes unhappiness, irrespective of its not being an actual pathogenic factor, is also described as dosa (meaning pathogenic factor). For example in Chikitsasthana 5:46 feaces are also described as dosa (meaning pathogenic factor). Even in the Susruta, the description of rakta as a dosa (pathogenic factor) is to be taken only in a secondary sense. Rakta as a dosa (pathogenic factor) is mentioned there only because it plays a very important role in pathogenesis of abscesses, ulcers, etc. But in some other context even the Susruta accepts only three pathogenic factors viz., vata, pitta and kapha-vide Susruta : Sutra 21:3. Had rakta been also a pathogenic factor, it would have also been responsible for the constitutional variations (prakrti). But this is not so. Therefore, there are only three pathogenic factors. This being mainly a book on internal medicine, emphasis here is on the description of vata, pitta and kapha as pathogenic factors of the body.

Rajas and tamas which constitute pathogenic factors of mind, and are of psychological importance have just been briefly described in this work. Out of the three qualities (gunas) of mind viz., sattva, rajas and tamas, it is only the latter two that cause vitiation of the mind, the former one being non-pathogenic.

प्रशाम्यत्यौषधैः पूर्वी दैवयुक्तिव्यपाश्रयैः । मानसो ज्ञानविज्ञानधैर्यस्मृतिसमाधिमिः ॥५८||

The former (pathogenic factors of the body) are reconciled by therapies based on religious rites and physical propriety; the latter ones (pathogenic factors of mind), by spiritual and scriptural knowledge, patience, memory and meditation. [58]

The pathogenic factors of the body or the diseases coming out of them can be overcome in one of the two ways. The one way is to take recourse to performance of auspicious ceremony like religious rites. This is rather more effective inasmuch as it alleviates diseases instantaneously and with the least labour. The other way is to take recourse to the therapy based on physical propriety; for example proper medicines, proper diet and proper regimen. Some such therapies eliminate the pathogenic factors while some only suppress them, resulting in the cure of the disease. So far as the pathogenic factors of the mind are concerned, they can be reconciled only by taking recourse to spiritual and scriptural knowledge, patience, memory and meditation.

क्ष्मश्चलोऽथ विशदः खरः | रूक्षः शीतो लघुः विपरीत गुणैव्यैर्मारुतः सस्नेहमुष्णं तीक्ष्णं च द्रवमम्लं सरं कटु । विपरीतगुणैः पित्तं द्रव्यैराशु प्रशाम्यति ।। ६० ।। गुरुशीत मृदुस्निग्धमधुरस्थिरपिच्छिला mp श्लेष्मणः प्रशमं यान्ति विपरीतगुणैर्गुणाः ।। ६१ ॥ opposiq Sat संप्रशाम्यति ।। ५९ ।।

Vata, which is rough, cool, light, subtle, mobile, non-slimy and coarse, is reconciled by medicines having opposite qualities. Pitta, which is unctuous, hot, sharp, liquid, sour, fluid and pungent is soon overcome by medicines having opposite qualities. Qualities of kapha, which are heavy, cool, soft, unctuous, sweet, immobile and slimy are relieved by medicines of opposite qualities. [59-61]

Even though in the Vaisesika system, vayu is described as having a tactile sensation which is neither hot nor cool, vata is described here as having a cool tactile sensation. This is based on actual observation.

Biological vata is aggravated by the use of cool substances and is alleviated by the use of the hot ones. Moreover, all the diseases caused by vata result in physical coldness. Of course, vata, when combined with pitta behaves as hot, but the element of heat in vata is momentary; this can be likened to a piece of stone which becomes hot when it is heated. So vuta becomes hot momentarily only when in conjunction with pitta. But left to itself, vata is always cool.

Vata is reconciled by medicines possessing opposite qualities. Here the opposite qualities include actions due to taste (rasa), potentiality (virya), vipaka and specific action (prabhava)-vide Sutra 28.

There are medicines which in terms of absoluteness, are not of oppo site qualities but in which opposite qualities just predominate. It is true that vata can be reconciled even by means of such medicines. But the reconciliation in this case would not be radical. Redical reconciliation can be achieved only when the medicines possessing the opposite qualities in absolute terms are administered.

As regards pitta, it is described here as having sour and unctuous qualities. This is so because it is made of jala and tejas. The Susruta does not agree with this view. According to him pitta possesses only the pungent quality according as it is made of tejas only.

As to the kapha, it has been specified that by taking recourse to the medicine of the opposite qualities, reconciliation is primarily brought about in the qualities of kapha culminating in the reconciliation of the kapha as such.

विपरीतगुणैर्देश मात्रा कालोपपादितैः भेषजैर्विनिवर्तन्ते साध्यसंमताः ॥ ६२ ॥

त्वसाध्यानां व्याघीनामुपदिश्यते । The curable diseases are cured by medicines possessing opposite qualities, (when) administered with due regard to the place, dose and time. No medicine is to be prescribed for incurable diseases. [62-63]

साधनं न

It is true that diseases are cured by drugs of opposite qualities. This is not all. It is necessary to take into account the place where the drugs are produced, the physical condition of the patient, the appropriate dose of the drug, the seasonal variation as well as the age of the patient. Unless all these are taken into account, simply the drugs of opposite qualities will not eradicate diseases. This justifies the ten-fold classification of the factors to be examined in connection with the cure of diseases i. e. the dosas affected, medicine, place, time, power of resistence in the body, conditions of the body, diet and its wholesomeness, mind, constitution of the body and age.

But even if all the above factors are taken into account, the drugs will have effect only on the diseases that are curable in nature. Certain diseases are incurable. For them no medicine can be prescribed. It might. be argued that there is no disease which cannot be cured by the sages, well-versed in the method of administration of elixirs, performance of penance, japa and yoga. Such wise persons can even overcome death. Thus, it might not be correct to say that no medicine can be prescribed for incurable diseases. But the statement in the above verse relates only to the physicians in general and not to the exceptional types of the sages,. mentioned above.

The fact that a given disease is incurable can be determined by the symptoms indicative of approaching death (arista laksana). Such symptoms are of two types. Symptoms of the first category are bound to result in death and those of the second category may not result in death. Although, according to some, even such symptoms are indicative of the unavoidability of death. Thus, whenever, the symptoms indicative of approaching death occur, it is to be concluded that the patient must die, sooner or later. But even for such cases the use of elixirs, performance of penance, etc. are prescribed as efficacious therapies. Such therapies however are not accessible to a common man. So, for the purpose of the Ayurvedic prescriptions in general, the cases, where symptoms indicativeof approaching death occur, are incurable in nature and as such need not be treated at all.

भूयश्चातो यथाद्रव्यं गुणकर्माणि वक्ष्यते ॥ ६३ ॥

And so (Agnivesa ) will explain in detail the qualities and actions (of drugs) [63].stai toidu toelictob 3.8

Thus, in view of the fact that the qualities of drugs play a very priate places, the qualities and action of drugs in all their details.

रसनार्थो रसस्तस्य द्रव्यमापः क्षितिस्तथा ।

विशेषे च प्रत्ययाः खादयस्त्रयः ॥ ६४ ॥

निर्वृत्तौ च

Ap and prthvi constitute the substratum for the manifestation of taste (rasa) which is the object of gustatory sense organ (rasanendriya). As to the specific qualities of taste (rasa ) the (remaining) three (akasa vayu and tejas) are responsible (for their manifestation).

Rasa or taste is the object of gustatory sense organ, as distinct from the objects of the other sense organs. Primarily ap is the substratum of rasa. Besides, prthvi also indirectly serves as a substratum thereof.

The qualities of preceding basic elements (akasa, vayu, agni, ap and prthvi) are included in the succeeding ones; so the qualities of ap is automatically included in prthvi. To sum up, ap and prthvi are the substrata for the manifestation of taste (rasa). That is to say, taste (rasa) can manifest itself only through ap and prthvi. (in addition to the remaining three) are also responsible for the maniThese two mahabhutas, festation of specific rasas like sweet, etc. For example, taste is sweet when there is predominance of the qualities of ap and it is sour when the qualities of prthvi and tejas are predominant. The other three basic elements viz. akasa, vayu and tejas are only efficient causes of the manifestation of specific qualities of taste. By no means they can be treated as substrata thereof. These three basic elements have their effects jointly and severally leading to their various degrees, like sweet, sweeter and the sweetest by the process of premutation and combination.

According to some commentators, kala i. e. time is also one of the factors for the manifestation of the various types and degrees of tastes. In fact, inspite of taste being directly related to ap, its manifestation necessarily requires the presence of prthvi in it. For taste connot manifest itself without being related to prthvi.

स्वादुरम्लोऽथ लवणः कटुकस्तिक्त एव च । कषायश्चेति षट्कोऽयं रसानां संग्रहः स्मृतः ॥ ६५ ।।

Sweet, sour, saline, pungent, bitter and astringent-this is the sixfold collection of tastes. [ 65 ]y begues p bits Different schools of thoughts present different classification of taste, details of which may be seen in Sutra 268. The present verse, however, presents the sixfold classification of taste. This is the view of the precepfor Atreya. In this classification, sweet taste occupies the first position inasmuch as it plays an important role in the diets of all living beings.

स्वाद्वम्ललवणा वायुं, कषायस्वादुतिक्तकाः । जयन्ति पित्तं, श्लेष्माणं कषायक टुतितकाः ॥ ६६ ॥

Drugs having sweet, sour and saline taste alleviate vata; those having astringent, sweet and bitter ( tastes) alleviate pitta and those having astringent, pungent and bitter (tastes) alleviate kapha. [66]

Vata has in fact no taste. and saline tastes alleviate it. This is so because the tastes of the drugs Even then the drugs having sweet, sour possess their accessory qualities like unctuousness and as such are of opposite qualities. Thus, as indicated in verse 62, such drugs alleviate vata. Conversely being unctuous and abhisyandi (i. e. a substance which due to its inherent sliminess and heaviness obstructs the channels carrying rasa or serum and as such causes heaviness), drugs having saline and sour tastes aggravate kapha possessing sweet taste, etc.

The various tastes can either alleviate or aggravate dosas. Thus, these tastes which cannot alleviate, do necessarily aggravate the dosas. For example, drugs of sweet, sour and saline tastes alleviate vata. It automatically follows that those having astringent, bitter and pungent tastes would aggravate vata. Similarly pitta is aggravated by pungent, sour and saline drugs, and kapha by sweet, sour and saline drugs.. Action of qualities (guna), potentiality (vir ) and vipaka can be described on the lines of the action of taste-vide Sutra 26: 43, 45, 58.

किंचिद्दोषप्रशमनं किंचिद्धातुप्रदूषणम् । स्वस्थवृत्तौ मतं किंचित्रिविधं द्रव्यमुच्यते ॥६७॥

Drugs are of three categories, some alleviate dosas, some vitiate dhatus and some are good for the maintenance of positive health. [67]

This represents an emperical classification of drugs. There are drugs which not only set right one; two or all the three dosas but also the dhatus like rasa (which includes blood serum, lymph and tissue fluid). For example drugs like amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) and duralabha (Fagonia cretica Linn.) set right dosas and tissue elements. Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn. is in fact an auspicious drug although its capacity to alleviate all the three dosas is effective only through its tastes. (It alleviates vata by sour taste, pitta by sweet taste and kapha by astringent taste-vide Susruta: Sutra 46: 144 ). Still all this is an outcome of its specific action. But for its specific action the sourness of amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) would have amounted to aggravating pitta.

Some drugs vitiate the dosas, which maintain the body when in equilibrium, as well as dhatus like serum, etc. Drugs like yavaka (Hordeum vulgare Linn.), mandaka ( immature curd) and poison may be cited as examples in this connection. Some other drugs are famous for their qualities leading to the maintenance of positive health.

This threefold classification of drugs also includes other types of drugs which are responsible for elimination and suppression of dosas. Elixirs and aphrodisiac drugs come under the third category which are responsible for the maintenance of positive health.

It is not that one and the same drug can eliminate or alleviate the dosas, vitiate the tissue elements as well as be responsible for the maintenance of positive health. To avoid this confusion, the three types of drugs have been maintained separately. Of course, there are drugs which have more than one function. For example, while raktasali (red varieties of Oryza sativa Linn.), sastika (a variety of Oryza sativa Linn.) and yava (Hordeum vulgare Linn.) are responsible for the maintenance of positive health; these also alleviate the dosas. That is why raktasali has been prescribed in fevers. Even though amalaka (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) alleviates all the three dosas, it can also vitiate the tissue elements if taken in excessive quantity. It is also seen that drugs, which vitiate tissue elements like poisons, also, alleviate dosas; therefore in udararoga (ascitis and allied conditions) use of poison is advised. It is the property of mandaka (immature curd) to aggravate all the three dosas. In some patients diseases are caused due to deficiency of one or the other dosa. In such cases if mandaka is administered, it will bring up the deficient dosa to its. normal level resulting in the cure of diseases. Thus, the drugs have varied functions, depending upon the constitution of the patient, physical condition of the patient, the place of residence, time in which it is administered and dose of the drug. But as a matter of fact, these drugs have only one primary function to perform. It is according to this primary function, unaffected by the extraneous conditions that the above three classification of drugs has been suggested. The primary function of the fire is to burn unless inhibited by other extraneous conditions like recitation of mantras. Similarly, healing property of the drugs is effective unless inhibited by any other obstruent factors like heterogenous constitution, etc. Similarly, such of the drugs whose primary function is to vitiate tissue elements, occasionally, develop healing properties due to their association with other extraneous factors. As their primary function is to vitiate the tissue elements so they come under the second category of classification suggested above. This is on the analogy of water which becomes temporarily hot when associated with fire, but in terms of its primary property, is designated as cold in touch. What about

such drugs which alleviate one dosa and aggravate the other? For example marica (Piper nigrum Linn.) alleviates kapha but aggravates pitta. Several drugs come under this category. How to account for their action in terms of the classification given above. On the analogy of the threefold classification of diseases (viz. vatika, paittika and slaismika, some of which are caused by the combination of more than one dosas) the above threefold classification of drugs is justifiable even though some of the drugs alleviate one dosa while aggravating the other. This is one of the views. But in fact, the above classification is primarily based on specific properties of the drugs rather than the function guided by the tastes of the drugs. The dual properties of marica (Piper nigr um Linn.) are however, guided not by their specific actions (prabhava) but by their constituent tastes. Thus, it is irrelevant to cite the example of the dual properties of marica (Piper nigrum Linn.) in the present context. As far as the specific actions are concerned, there are no drugs which can play dual roles in the form of alleviating one dosa and aggravating the other.

The use of the term “dosa” and “dhatu” in the first and second category of classification is quite significant. “Dosas” include “dhatus” and vice-versa. So the drugs that are designated as alleviators of the dosas also alleviate dhatus. Similarly, the drugs that have been designated as vitiators of the dhatus do as well vitiate dosas.

The drugs under the third category are those which have potentialities to maintain the positive health. Apparently it also means that the drugs have got potentialities to prevent the diseases. But, in fact, it is not the prevention of the diseases that constitutes the properties of the drug coming under this category. The primary function of the drugs coming under this category is the maintenance of the equilibrium of the tissue elements so that the tissue elements are neither aggravated nor decreased. That to say, they help normal functioning of the body.

तत् पुनस्त्रिविधं प्रोक्तं जङ्गमौद्भिद पार्थिवम् । मधूनि गोरसाः पित्तं वसा मज्जाऽस्रगामिषम् ॥ ६८ ॥ विण्मूत्रचर्मरेतोऽस्थिस्नायुशृङ्गनखाः खुराः ।

जङ्गमेभ्यः प्रयुज्यन्ते केशा लोमानि रोचनाः ।। ६९ ॥ सुवर्ण समलाः पञ्च लोहाः ससिकताः सुधा मनःशिलाले मणयो लवणं गैरिकिाञ्जने ॥ ७० ॥

भौम मौषधमुद्दिष्टमौद्भिदं तु चतुर्विधम् । वनस्पतिस्तथा वीरुद्वानस्पत्यस्तथौषधिः ॥ ७१ ॥ फलैर्वनस्पतिः पुष्पैर्वानस्पत्यः फलैरपि । स्मृताः ॥ ७२ ॥

ओषध्यः फलपाकान्ताः प्रतानैर्वीरुधः

मूलत्वक्सारनिर्यासनाल(ड) स्वरसपल्लवाः । क्षाराः क्षीरं फलं पुष्पं भस्म तैलानि कण्टकाः ॥ ७३ ॥ पत्राणि शुङ्गाः कन्दाश्च प्ररोहाचौद्भिदो गणः |

According to another classification, dravyas are of three kindsviz., those of animal origin, those of vegetable origin and metals including minerals. Different types of honey, products of cowmilk, bile, fats of muscle tissue, marrow, blood, flesh, faeces, urine, skin, semen, bone, ligament, horn, nail, hoof, hair, loman (hair of the body excluding those of the head and face), rocana (purified Ox bile these are some of the drugs of animal origin used (in medicine ). Gold, five lohas ( copper, silver, tin, lead and iron) alongwith their byeproducts ( different types of bitumen), calcites alongwith silica, red arsenic, yellow arsenic, gems, salt, red chalk, collyriumthese are in brief the metals and minerals (used in medicine).

The drugs of vegetable origin are of four types viz. vanaspati, virudh, vanaspatya and osadhi. Vanaspati is the one having fruits only (without flower). Vanaspatya has flowers as well as fruits. Osadhis are those which die out when their fruits mature. The drugs belonging to the class of virudh are those which spread (with branches )The root, bark, sara (aqueous extract), secretions, fibre, juice, tender leaves, alkali preparations, latex, fruits, flowers, ashes, oils, thorns, matured leaves, adventitious roots, rhyzomes, sprouts all these belong to the group of drugs of vegetable origin. [68-73] –

Another classification of drugs is attempted in these verses. According to this classification, drugs are of three types-those of animal origin, those of vegetable origin, and metals including minerals. In order of priority, the description of drugs of vegetable origin deserve preference over metals and minerals. But only for the sake of convenience, metals and minerals are being described prior to the description of drugs of the to the vegetable origin. Lohas are five in number viz., copper, silver, tin, lead and iron. Their byeproducts like different types of bitumen are included here as well. According to some theorists, lohas are to be classified into two categories viz., gold and those with byeproducts viz., silver, copper, tin, lead and iron.

मूलिन्यः षोडशैकोना फलिन्यो विंशतिः स्मृताः ॥ ७४ ॥ महास्नेहाध चत्वारः पञ्चैव लवणानि च । अष्टौ मूत्राणि संख्यातान्यष्टावेव पयांसि च ॥ ७५ ॥ शोधनार्थाश्च षड् वृक्षाः पुनर्वसुनिदर्शिताः । य एतान् वेत्ति संयोक्तुं विकारेषु स वेदवित् ।। ७६ ।।

As indicated by Punarvasu, those having (therapeutically) useful roots are sixteen, those having (therapeutically) useful fruits are nineteen, important fats are four, salts are five, varieties of urine are enumerated as eight, while those of milk are also eight. Plants used for elimination therapy are six. It is only those who know to apply these to various diseases ( really ) know the science. [74-76]

Out of the drugs of the animal and vegetable origin, and metals including minerals, there are certain drugs which are specifically useful for the prevention and cure of some diseases. They are detailed in the subsequent verses.

हस्तिदन्ती हैमवती श्यामा त्रिवृधोगुडा । सप्तला श्वेतनामा च प्रत्यकश्रेणी गवाक्ष्यपि ॥ ७७ ॥ ज्योतिष्मती च बिम्बी च शणपुष्पी विषाणिका । अजगन्धा द्रवन्ती च क्षीरिणी चात्र षोडशी ।। ७८ ।। शणपुष्पी च बिम्बी च च्छर्दने हैमवत्यपि । श्वेता ज्योतिष्मती चैव योज्या शीर्षविरेचने ॥ ७९ ॥ एकादशावशिष्टा याः प्रयोज्यास्ता विरेचने । इत्युक्ता नामकर्मभ्यां मूलिन्यः,

Sixteen drugs having therapeutically useful roots are hastidanti (Croton oblongifolius Roxb.), haimavati (Acorus calamus Linn.), syama (Operculina_tur pethum R. B. — black variety ), trivrt (Operculina tur pethum R. B.— white variety ), adhoguda (?), saptala ( Acacia concinna D. C. ), svetanama ( Clitoria ternatea Linn.-variety alba ), pratyaksreni ( Baliospermum montanum Muell. ), gavaksi ( Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. ), jyotismai ( Celastrus panniculatus Willd ), bimbi ( Coccinia indica W. and A. ), Sanapushi ( Crotalaria verrucosa Linn.) isanika ( Helicteres isora Linn. ), ajagandha (Gynadropsis gynandra Linn. ), dravanti ( Jatropha glandulifera Roxb. ), ksirini ( Mimusops hexandra Roxb.). Out of them, Sanabusbi (Crotalaria verrucosa Linn.), bimbi ( Coccinia indica W. and A. ) and haimavati ( Acorus calamus Linn.) are used for emesis; Sveta ( Clitoria ternatea Linn. ) and jyotismati { Celastrus panniculatus Willd. ) are used for the elimina• tion (of dosas) from the head and the remaining eleven are for purgation. Thus, the names and actions of plants having therapeutically most useful roots are described here. [ 77-80 ] mentioned in this verse are

Indentification of some of the drugs shrouded in the mist of doubts.

फलिनीः शृणु ॥ ८० ॥ मदनानि च । कृतवेधनम् । त्रपुषं शङ्खन्यथ विडङ्गानि मार्गा जीमूतं आनूपं स्थलजं चैव कृीतकं द्विविधं स्मृतम् ॥ ८१ ॥ प्रकीर्या चोदकीर्या च प्रत्यकपुष्पा तथाऽभया । अन्तःकोटरपुष्पी च हस्तिपर्ण्याश्च शारदम् ॥ ८२ ॥ कम्पिल्लकारग्वधयोः फलं यत् कुटजस्य च । धामार्गवमथेक्ष्वाकु जीमूतं कृतवेधनम् ॥ ८३ ॥ मदनं कुटजं चैव त्रपुषं हस्तिपर्णिनी । एतानि वमने चैव योज्यान्यास्थापनेषु च ॥ ८४ ॥ नस्तः प्रच्छर्दने चैव प्रत्यकपुष्पा विधीयते । दश यान्यवशिष्टानि तान्युक्तानि विरेचने ।। ८५ ।। नामकर्मभिरुक्तानि फलान्येकोनविंशतिः ।

Listen! The plants having therapeutically most useful fruits are sankhini (Canscora decussata Roem. et Sch.) vidanga (Embelia ribes Burm. ), trapusa (Cucumis sativus Linn.), varieties of madana (Randia dumetorum Lam.), dhamargava (Luffa cylindrica Linn. M. Roem.), ik svaku (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.), jimuta ( Luffa echinata Roxb.), krtavedhana ( Luffa acutangula Roxb.), two types of klitaka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.)-the one which grows in marshy land and the other which grows in dry land, prakirya (Caesalpinia crista Linn.), udakirya (Pongamia pinnata Merr.), pratyakpuspa (Achyranthes aspera Linn.), abhaya (Terminalia chebula Linn.) antahkotarapuspi ( Argyreia speciosa Sweet ), Autumnal fruit of hastiparnini (?), fruits of kampillaka (Mallotus philippinensis Muell. Arg.) aragvadha (Cassia fistula Linn.) and also of kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall.). Dhamargava (Luffa cylindrica Linn. M. Roem. ), iksvaku (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.), jimuta (Luffa echinata Roxb.), krtavedhana ( Luffa acutangula Roxb.), madana (Randia dumetorum Lam.), kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. ), trapusa (Cucumis sativus Linn.), hastiparnini (?)-all these are used in emesis and also in asthapana (a type of medicated enema). Pratyakpuspa (Achyranthes aspera Linn.) is employed for elimination (of dosas) by inhalation. Remaining ten are used for purgation. Thus, the names and actions of nineteen plants having therapeutically most useful fruits have been described. [80-86 ].

Even though, according to Susruta, it is the root of klitaka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) which is used for therapeutic purposes, yet from the point of view of purgation, only the fruits of both the types of klitaka (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) are most useful. As regards hastiparnini, only its autumnal fruits are most useful. As to aragvadha K Cassia fistula Linn.) Susruta has described its leaves as useful but in the present context, its fruits are described because they are useful.

सर्पिस्तैलं वसा मज्जा स्नेहो दिष्टश्चतुर्विधः ॥ ८६ ॥ पानाभ्यञ्जनबस्त्यर्थ नस्यार्थ चैव योगतः । स्नेहना जीवना वर्ष्या बलोपचयवर्धनाः ॥ ८७ ॥ स्नेहा ह्येते च विहिता वातपित्तकफापहाः ।

Four varieties of fat are ghee, oil, muscle-fat and marrow. They are prescribed for internal use, massage, enemata and inhalation. All these varieties of fat add to the unctuousness, invigoration, lustre, strength, corpulence ( of the body ) and alleviate vata, pitta and kapha. [ 86-88]

Ghee occupies the most prominent place amongst the varieties of fat inasmuch as no other variety of fat equals it in the matter of carrying along the qualities of other drugs — vide Nidana 1:40. Therefore, it comes first in the list.

सौवर्चलं सैन्धवं च विडमौद्भिदमेव च ॥ ८८ ॥ सामुद्रेण सहैतानि पञ्च स्युलवणानि च । स्निग्धान्युष्णानि तीक्ष्णानि दीपनीयतमानि च ॥ ८९ ॥ आलेपनार्थे युज्यन्ते स्नेहस्वेदविधौ तथा । अधोभागोर्ध्वभागेषु निरूद्वेष्वनुवासने ।। ९० ॥ अभ्यञ्जने भोजनार्थे शिरसश्च विरेचने । शस्त्रकर्मणि अजीर्णानाहयो वर्त्यर्थमञ्जनोत्सादनेषु च ।। ९१ ।। गुल्मे शूले तथोदरे । उक्तानि लवणा (नि) =

Five varieties of salt are sauvarcala (sochal salt), saindhava (rock salt), vit (Amonium chloride), audbhida (salt from the earth ), and samudra ( sea salt ). They are all unctuous, hot, sharp and most exceedingly appetising. They are also used for anointment, causing unctuousness, fomentation, purgation, emesis, niruha, anuvasana, massage, intake, elimination ( of dosas ) from the head, surgical measures, suppositories, collyrium, unction, and also for the correction of indigestion, constipation, treatment of diseases due to vata, gulma ( abdominal tumour ), sula ( colic pain ) and udara ( abdominal diseases including ascitis ). This is about salts. [ 88-92]

Even though saindhava (rock salt) is the most useful amongst all varieties of salt, sauvarcala (sochal salt) is listed first because of its most agreeable taste. As such, sauvarcala (sochal salt ) comes only after saindhava (rock salt ) in order of priority.

न्यू (ऊ) र्ध्व मूत्राण्यष्टौ निबोध मे ॥ ९२ ॥ मुख्यानि यानि दिष्टानि सर्वाण्यात्रेयशासने । अविमूत्रमजामूत्रं गोमूत्रं माहिषं च यत् ॥ ९३ ॥ हस्तिमूत्रमर्थोष्ट्रस्य हृयस्य च खरस्य च । उष्णं तीक्ष्णमथोऽरूक्षं कटुकं लवणान्वितम् ॥ १४ ॥ मूत्रमुत्सादने युक्तं युक्तमालेपनेषु च । युक्तमास्थापने मूत्रं युक्तं चापि विरेचने ॥ ९५ ।। स्वेदेष्वपि तद्युक्तमानाहेष्वगदेषु च । उदष्वथ चा:सु गुल्मिकुष्ठिकिलासिषु ॥ २६ ॥ तथैव च । तयुक्तमुपा परि दीपनीयं विषघ्नं च क्रिमिघ्नं चोपदिश्यते ॥ ९७ ॥ पाण्डुरोगोपसृष्टानामुत्तमं शर्म चोच्यते । श्लेष्माणं शमयेत् पीतं मारुतं चानुलोमयेत् ।। ९८ ।। कर्षेत् पित्तमधोभागमित्यस्मिन् गुणसंग्रहः । सामान्येन मयोक्तस्तु पृथक्त्वेन प्रवक्ष्यते ॥ ९९ ॥ अविमूत्रं सतिक्तं स्यात् स्निग्धं पित्ताविरोधि च । आज कषायमधुरं पथ्यं दोषान्निहन्ति च ।। १०० ।। गव्यं समधुरं किंचिद्दोषघ्नं क्रिमिकुष्ठनुत् । कण्डू’ च शमयेत् पीतं सम्यग्दोषोदरे हितम् ॥ १०१ ॥ अर्शः शोफोदरघ्नं तु सक्षारं माहिषं सरम् । हास्तिकं लवणं मूत्रं हितं तु क्रिमिकुष्ठिनाम् ।। १०२ ।। प्रशस्तं बद्धविण्मूत्रविषश्लेष्मामयार्शसाम् । सतिक्तं श्वासकासनमर्शोघ्नं चौष्ट्रमुच्यते ॥ १०३ ॥ वाजिनां कुष्ठवणविषापहम् । तितकटुकं खरमूत्रमपस्मारोन्मादग्रहविनाशनम् इतीहानि मूत्राणि यथासामर्थ्ययोगतः । ॥ १०४ ॥

Listen! The most useful varieties of urine as explained by Atreya, are eight, viz., urine of sheep, goat, cow, buffalo, elephant, camel, horse and ass. They are hot, sharp, unctuous, pungent and salty. They are used for unction, anointment, asthapana, purgation, fomentation, ( correction of ) constipation, alleviation of diseases in general, udara ( diseases of abdomen including ascitis), piles, gulma ( abdominal tumour), kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), kilasa (a type of leucoderma), poultices and affusion. They are prescribed as appetisers, antitoxics, bactericidals; they are also known as best remedies for those affected by panduroga (anaemia), when taken in, it alleviates kapha and vata and also brings down pitta. These are the general properties (of urine) as described by me, the specific ones are as follows:

Urine of sheep is bitter, unctuous, and not opposed to pitta; that of the goat is astringent, sweet, wholesome and it alleviates dosas. Urine of the cow is slightly sweet; it also alleviates dosas; it is bactericidal, it cures kustha ( obstinate skin diseases including leprosy). If taken in, it alleviates pruritus. It is equally useful for the dosas and udara (abdominal diseases including ascitis). cures piles, sopha That of the buffalo is alkaline, laxative; it c (Oedema) and udara (abdominal diseases including ascitis). That of the elephant is saline; it is useful against bacterial infection and kustha (obstinate skin diseases including leprosy); it is specifically useful in cases of retention of faeces, urine, toxic conditions, diseases due to kapha and piles. That of the camel is bitter, it alleviates svasa (dyspnoea ), kasa ( bronchitis ) and piles. That of horses is bitter and pungent; it cures kustha ( obstinate skin diseases including leprosy), vrana (ulcers) and toxic conditions. That of the ass cures epilepsy, insanity and grahadosa (demoniac seizures). Thus varieties of urine have been described keeping in view their potentiality and applicability. [92-105] most useful because In all the varieties of urine, female urine is the of its lightness. It is due to the lightness of the body of females that their urine is also light. Some commentators ascribe heaviness or lightness of urine to the latter’s association or dissociation with sukra (seed of animals), thus accounting for the heaviness or lightness of the masculine and faminine urines respectively. But, this is not correct. It would have been so had the females been completely devoid of sukra (seed of animals). As it has been pointed out by Susruta in Sarira 2:47, even females do have sukra (seed of animals) and thus, if a female has sexual intercourse with another female, the resultant discharge of sukra (seed) produces a foetus devoid of bones. This shows that females also possess sukra. So the lightness of their urine cannot be ascribed to its dissociation with sukra (seed). Rather, as indicated above, the lightness of faminine urine is due to the faminine lightness itself.

To sum up, a faminine urine serves as the best efficacious drug in the prevention and cure of diseases. Next in order comes masculine urine. The urine of an impotent animal is too inauspicious and useless to be mentioned.

अतः क्षीराणि वक्ष्यन्ते कर्म चैषां गुणाश्च ये ॥ १०५ ।। अविक्षीर मजाक्षीरं गोक्षीरं माहिषं च यत् । उष्ट्रीणामथ नागीनां वडवायाः स्त्रियास्तथा ॥ १०६ ।। प्रायशो मधुरं स्निधं शीतं स्तन्यं पयो मतम् । प्रीणनं बृंहणं वृष्यं मेध्यं बल्यं मनस्करम् ॥ १०७ ।। जीवनीयं श्रमहरं श्वासकासनिबर्हणम् । हन्ति शोणितपित्तं च सन्धानं विहतस्य च ।। १०८ ।। सर्वप्राणभृतां सात्म्यं शमनं शोधनं तथा । तृष्णाघ्नं दीपनीयं च श्रेष्ठं क्षीणक्षतेषु च ।। १०९ ।। पाण्डुरोगेऽम्लपित्ते च शोषे गुल्मे तथोदरे । अतीसारे ज्वरे दाहे श्वयथौ च विशेषतः ॥ ११० ।। योनिशुक्रप्रदोषेषु मूत्रेष्वप्रचुरेषु च । पुरीषे ग्रथिते पथ्यं वातपित्तविकारिणाम् ॥ १११ ।। नस्यालेपावगाहेषु वमनास्थापनेषु च। विरेचने स्नेहने च पयः सर्वत्र युज्यते ॥ ११२ ॥ यथाक्रमं ीरगुणाने कैकस्य पृथक् पृथक् । अन्नपानादिकेऽध्याये भूयो वक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ।। ११३ ।।

Thereafter, action and properties of varieties of milk are being described. ( The animals whose milk is therapeutically useful are) sheep, she-goat, cow, she-buffalo, she-camel, she-elephant, mare and woman. Milk is generally sweet, unctuous, cool, lactogenic, refreshing, nourishing, libidinal stimulant, useful for intelligence, strength-giving, useful for mental faculties, invigorating, fatigue-dispelling, reliever of dyspnoea and bronchitis; it cures raktapitta ( bleeding from different parts of the body) and helps healing of the wound. It is wholesome for all living beings, and is alleviator and eliminator ( of dosas ). It quenches thirst and is appetiser. It is exceedingly useful in ksataksina ( phthisis ), pandu ( anaemia ), amlapitta (hyperacidity ), Sosa ( consumption ), gulma ( abdominal tumour ), udara ( abdominal diseases including ascitis), atisara (diarrhoea), juara (fever), daha (burning syndrome) and specially in svavathu (cedema). (It is also useful) in diseases of female genital tract, male reproductive fluid, inoliguria and hard stool, it is wholesome diet for those suffering from ( diseases due to) vata and pitta. Milk is always used for inhalation, anointment, bathing, emesis, asthapana ( a type of medicated We will explain in greater enemata), purgation and unction. details the properties of milk separately one by one in the chapter Annapanadi (Sutra 27 ). [105-113]

Sweetness, nourishment, unctuousness and coolness ascribed to milk may not be taken in absolute sense. Some varieties of milk do possess For example, milk of a she-camel is these properties while others do not. slightly saline while that of a she-goat is astringent. Similarly, milk of a she-camel is rough and hot. What is meant is that milk is sweet, nourishing, unctuous and cool, only generally speaking.

Milk is beneficial for mental faculties due to its specific action and also owing to its ojas nourishing property; where there is proper nourishment of ojas, the mental potentiality grows. Thus, milk is a means to the proper growth of the faculties of the mind and not the mind itself which is eternal.

As regards the properties of milk in relation to the cure of raktapitta (disease characterised by bleeding from different parts of the body), it is only in certain specified stages of raktapitta that milk is useful. As it has been said, “When the predominance of vata is indicated by the non-alleviation of the raktapitta in spite of the overcoming of the kapha and an increase in the digestive power by virtue of the administration of the various medicinal decoctions, in that stage a she-goat’s milk and also a cow’s milk boiled with five times of water are exceedingly useful.” (Chikitsa 4:82-83). Thus, it is not correct to say that milk is harmful for adhoga and urdhvaga raktapitta due to laxative and kapha-vitiating properties respectively. Milk is, of course, useful in raktapitta only at a certain stage.

अथापरे त्रयो वृक्षाः पृथग्ये फलमूलिभिः | स्नुह्यर्काश्मन्तकास्तेषामिदं कर्म पृथक् पृथक् ॥ ११४ ।। वमनेऽश्मन्तकं विद्यात् स्तुहीक्षीरं विरेचने । वमने क्षीरमर्कस्य विज्ञेयं सविरेचने ॥ ११५ ॥

Apart from the plants having most useful fruits and roots, there are three others viz., snuhi (Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.), arka (Calotropis procera R. Br.) and asmantaka (?) whose actions are indicated separately ( as follows ). Asmantaka (?) is useful for emesis, latex of snuhi (Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.), for purgation; and that of arka (Calotropis gigantia Linn.) for both emesis and purgation. [ 114-115 ]

Asmantaka is a controversial drug. The tree has leaves like those of maluya (?).

इमांस्त्रीनपरान् वृक्षानाहुर्येषां हितास्त्वचः । पूतीकः कृष्णगन्धा च तिल्वकश्च तथा तरुः ।। ११६ ।। विरेचने प्रयोक्तव्यः पूतीकस्तित्व कस्तथा । कृष्णगन्धा परीसपें शोथेष्वर्श:सु चोच्यते ।। ११७ ।। दद्रुविद्रधिगण्डेषु कुष्ठेष्वप्यलजीषु च । षड्वृक्षाञ्छोधनानेतानपि विद्याद्विचक्षणः ॥ ११८ ।। इत्युक्ताः फलमूलिन्यः स्नेहाश्च लवणानि च । मूत्रं क्षीराणि वृक्षाश्च षड् ये दिष्टपयस्त्वचः ॥ ११९ ।।

There are three other trees whose barks are useful viz., putika ( Caesalpinia crista Linn. ), krsnagandha ( Moringa oleifera Lam. ) and tilvaka (Symplocos racemosa R Roxb. ). Putika ( Caesalpinia crista Linn. ) and tilvaka ( Symplocos racemosa Roxb. ) are to be -used for purgation. Krsnagandha ( Moringa oleifera Lam. ) in parisarba ( erysipelas ), different types of sotha (oedema ), piles, ringworm, abscess, goitre and alaji (?). The wise should know all these six plants which are useful in elimination therapy. Thus, the plants with most useful fruits and roots, varieties of fat, salt, urine and milk and also the plants having most useful latex and bark have been enumerated. [ 116–119]

Even though krsnagandha is not prescribed for pancakarma (five therapies for elimination of dosas) and so it cannot be be recognised as a drug useful for elimination therapy, yet, owing to its external use and corrective values for external dosas, it can be rightly included in the list of drugs used for elimination therapy. T The intention of the author on the other hand seems to be quite in favour of including it in the list of drugs meant for elimination therapy.

ओषधीर्नामरूपाभ्यां जानते ह्यजपा वनै । अविपाश्चैव गोपाश्च ये चान्ये वनवासिनः ॥ १२० ।। न नामज्ञानमात्रेण रुपज्ञानेन चा पुनः । ओषधीनां परां प्राप्तिं कश्चिद्वेदितुमर्हति ॥ १२१ ॥

योगवित्त्वप्यरूपज्ञस्तासां तवविदुच्यते । किं पुनर्यो विजानीयादोषधीः सर्वथा भिषक् ॥ १२२ ।। योगमासां तु यो विद्यादेशकालोपपादितम् । पुरुषं पुरुषं वीक्ष्य स ज्ञेयो भिषगुत्तमः । १२३ ।।

The goatherds, shephards, cowherds and other forest dwellers know the drugs by name and form.No one can know the principles governing correct application of drugs simply by knowing their names and forms.physician, even igonrant of their forms can be said to be a knower of the essence [ of this science ] if he is acquainted with the principles governing the correct application of drugs, let alone the one who knows drugs in their entirety. 123 One who knows the principles governing their correct application in consonance with the place, time and individual variation, should be regarded as the best physician. [ 120-123 ]

It is true that local people (goatherds, shephards, cowherds and other forest dwellers) indentify the drugs. It is not the identification but the knowledge of the principles governing the proper application of these drugs that counts most from the stand-point of the Science of Medicine. Even though, one might not be knowing a drug by its name and form but if he knows the principles underlying its application, he won’t err in therapeutics. Of course, the best physician is he who is well acquainted with the drugs in their entirety.

यथा विषं यथा शस्त्रं यथाऽग्निरश निर्यथाmoosinge तथौषधमविज्ञातं विज्ञातममृतं यथा ॥ १२४ ॥iode औषधं ह्यनभिज्ञातं नामरूपगुणैस्त्रिभिः । ॐ विज्ञातं चापि दुर्युक्तमनर्थायोपपद्यते ॥ १२५ ॥

A drug not known is likened to poison, weapon, fire and thunderbolt while the one known, to the nectar. A drug known in respect of its name, form and properties or even if known, improperly administered, leads to bad consequences. [ 124-125 ]

Proper application of drugs depends upon their proper knowledge. Unless the physician knows the drugs properly he cannot cure a patient; his prescription would rather kill his patient. The drug unknown, might act as poison which kills after bringing about unconsciousness or as a weapon which kills after piercing through the vital organs, or like fire which kills by causing boils, etc. or as a thunderbolt which kills instantaneously. It is only when a physician knows all the three aspects, viz.,name, form and properties of drugs, he can treat his patients successfully..

योगादपि विषं तीक्ष्णमुत्तमं भेषजं भवेत् । भेषजं चापि दुर्युक्तं तीक्ष्णं संपद्यते विषम् ॥ १२६ ।। तस्मान्न भिषजा युक्तं युक्तिबाह्येन भेषजम् । धीमता किंचिदादेयं जीवितारोग्यकाङ्क्षिणा ।। १२७ ।। कुर्यान्निपतितो मूर्धिन सशेषं वासवाशनिः । सशेषमातुरं कुर्यान्नत्वज्ञमपमौषधम् ॥ १२८ ।। दुःखिताय शयानाय श्रद्दधानीय रोगिणे । यो भेषजमविज्ञाय प्राज्ञमानी प्रयच्छति ।। १२९ ।। त्यक्तधर्मस्य पापस्य मृत्युभूतस्य दुर्मतेः । नरो नरकपाती स्यात्तस्य संभाषणादपि ।। १३० ।। वरमाशीविषविषं कथितं ताम्रमेव वा । पीतमत्यग्निसन्तप्ता भक्षिता वाऽव्ययोगुडाः ॥ १३१ ॥ नतु श्रुतवतां वेशं बिभ्रता शरणागतात् । गृहीतमन्नं पानं वा वित्तं वा रोगपीडितात् ।। १३२ ।। भिषभूषुतिमानतः स्वगुणसम्पदि । परं प्रयत्नमातिष्ठेत् प्राणदः स्याद्यथा नृणाम् ॥ १३३ ।।

Even an acute poison can become an excellent drug if it is properly administered. ( On the other hand ) even a drug, if not properly administered, becomes an acute poison. So a wise patient desirous of longevity and health should not accept any medicine prescribed by a physician ignorant of the principles governing its application. Sometimes, one might escape ( death ) even when thunderbolt of Indra has fallen on his head, but one can never survive if he takes medicine prescribed by a physician ignorant of the principles governing its application If the one pretending to be a wise physician, without knowing the principles governing its applicability, prescribes a medicine for a patient, distressed, lying ( on bed ) having faith ( in the former’s prescription teche, the mischievous one is a sinner, devoid of virtuous acts, the messenger of death (as it were), even a talk with him will lead a man to hell. One can take the poison of a serpent, melted copper; one can take iron-pills heated with fire, 3 but the one ( physician ) wearing the garment of wise ones should not accept food, drink or wealth from a patient seeking his shelter. Thus, the wise one who aspires to be a physician should make special efforts to maintain his (good) qualities so that he can be the life-giver to human beings. [126-133]

To sum up, neither the patient should take medicine prescribed by pseudo-physicians, nor a physician, without being proficient in the principles governing the application of drugs, should prescribe any medicine to his patient.

तदेव युक्तं भैषज्यं यदारोग्याय कल्पते ।

स चैव भिषजां श्रेष्ठो रोगेभ्यो यः प्रमोचयेत् ।। १३४ ।।

Only that, which can bring about a cure, is a correct medicine. It is only he who can relieve his patients of their ailments is the best physician. [134]

For the purpose of the Science of medicine, it is necessary to explain the qualities of correct medicine and a good physician. It is only that which possesses the requisite curative values is to be treated as a correct medicine. As regards physician, he should first of all know the principles underlying the correct application of medicines. Unless he knows it, he will not be able to relieve his patients of their ailments. Even if per chance, medicines selected by him at random succeed in alleviating ailments, the credit is not his; it is just accidental. Thus, only he who can, by dint of his proficiency in the science, select proper medicine and help cure diseases can be regarded as the best physician.

सम्यक्प्रयोगं सर्वेषां सिद्धिराख्याति कर्मणाम् । सिद्धिराख्याति सर्वेश्च गुणैर्युक्तं भिषक्तमम् ।। १३५ ।।

Accomplishment of all objects (i. e. actual prevention and cure of diseases) implies the proper application (of medicine). Success also implies the (presence of) best physician endowed 242 with all (good) qualities. [135]

As elsewhere, in the field of medicine also, the effect implies the existence of a cause. If a disease is cured, it naturally implies that a proper therapy possessing the requisite curative properties has been administered, but for which, the disease could not have been cured. Similarly, if there is a success in the treatment of a disease, it also implies that the physician is proficient in the science of medicine and is endowed with all the good qualities as envisaged in Khuddaka Catuspada (cf. Sutra 10 : 6)

तत्र श्लोकाः – आयुर्वेदागमो हेतुरागमस्य सूत्रणस्याभ्यनुज्ञानमायुर्वेदस्य प्रवर्तनम् । निर्णयः ॥ १३६ ।। संपूर्ण कारणं कार्यमायुर्वेदप्रयोजनम् । हेतवश्चैव दोषाश्च भेषजं संग्रहेण च ।। १३७ ।। रसाः सप्रत्ययद्रव्यास्त्रिविधो द्रव्यसंग्रहः । मूलिन्यच फलिन्यश्च स्नेहाश्च लवणानि च ॥ १३८ । मूत्रं क्षीराणि वृक्षाच षड् ये क्षीरत्वगाश्रयाः । कर्माणि चैषां सर्वेषां योगायोगगुणागुणाः ।। १३९ ।। वैद्यापवादो यत्रस्थाः सर्वे च भिषजां गुणाः । सर्वमेतत् समाख्यातं पूर्वाध्याये महर्षिणा ॥ १४० ।।

Summing up the contents :

Thus the transmission of Ayurveda, object of transmission, spread, approval of the codification ( in a seminar ), definition of ayurveda, entire cause ( means ), object of Ayurveda, etiology ( of diseases ), ( enumeration of ) dosas, collection of ( most useful) medicines, enumeration of rasas ( tastes ) alongwith their corresponding material objects, threefold classification of material objects, drugs, with most useful roots and fruits, important fats, varieties of useful salt, urine, and milk, those six plants whose latex and bark are most useful, actions of all these ( drugs ), their applicability and otherwise, good as well as bad qualities of theirs, abuse of physicians, the good qualities of physicians-all these have been explained by the sage in the first chapter. [ 136-140 ]

Wherever the author sums up his views already expounded in a particular chapter, he introduces this by the clause “Tatra Slokah” i.e., here are the verses that sum up the contents of the chapter. Wherever, he does not have to add anything over and above what has already been said, he does say “Bhavati catra” i. e. this is so. Thus, following the same principle of exposition, the author concludes this first chapter by summing up the contents already dealt with. This summing up of the contents of this chapter is quite useful. Because this gives in a nut-shell the entire matter covered under this chapter and also it removes any ill-conceived notion about exposition. As it has been said, if something said in a prose form is explained again in a verse form, this is done only as an aid to the proper understanding of the disciple and is not to be despised as a repetition (cf. Nidana 1:41 ).

इत्यग्निवेशकृते तन्त्रे चरकप्रतिसंस्कृते सूत्रस्थाने दीर्घजीवितीयो नाम प्रथमोऽध्यायः ॥ १ ॥

Thus ends the first chapter on “The Quest for Longevity” of Sutra section of Agnivesa’s work as redacted by Charaka.


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