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Sushruta SamhitaChikitsasthanaAnagata-badha-Prati-sedha - rules of hygiene and the prophylactic measures in general -...

Anagata-badha-Prati-sedha – rules of hygiene and the prophylactic measures in general – Sushrutasamhita Chikitsasthana Chapter 24

चतुर्विंशोऽध्यायः । अथातोऽनागताबाधप्रतिषेधनीयं चिकित्सितं व्याख्यास्यामः, यथोवाच भगवान् धन्वन्तरिः ।। १ ।।

Now we shall discourse on the rules of hygiene and the prophylactic measures in general (Anagata-badha-Prati-sedha). 1

उत्थायोत्थाय सततं स्वस्थेनारोग्यमिच्छता । धीमता यदनुष्ठेयं तत् सर्वं सम्प्रवक्ष्यते ।।२।।

Metrical Texts: Now we shall describe the rules of conduct to be daily observed by an intelligent man (after leaving his bed) seeking perfect health and a sound body. 2

Tooth brushing

तत्रादौ दन्तपवनं द्वादशाङ्गुलमायतम् । कनिष्ठिकापरीणाहमज्वग्रन्थितमव्रणम् ।।३।।

अयुग्मग्रन्थि यच्चापि प्रत्यग्रं शस्तभूमिजम् । अवेक्ष्यञ्च दोषञ्च रसं वीर्यञ्च योजयेत् । कषायं मधुरं तिक्तं कटुकं प्रातरुत्थितः ॥ ४ ॥

निम्बश्च तिक्तके श्रेष्ठः कषाये खदिरस्तथा । मधूको मधुरे श्रेष्ठः करञ्जः कटुके तथा ॥ ५ ॥

Tooth-brushing: A man should leaves his bed early in the morning and brush his teeth. The tooth-brush (Danta-Kastha) should be made of a fresh twig of a tree or a plant grown on a commendable tract and it should be straight, not worm-eaten, devoid of any knot or at most with one knot only (on one side), and should be twelve fingers in length and like the small finger in girth. The potency and taste of the twig (tooth-brush) should be determined according to the season of the year and the preponderance of any particular Dosa in the physical temperament of its userRasas and Virya. The twig of a plant possessed of any of the four tastes as sweet, bitter, astringent and pungent should be alone collected and used. Nimba is the best of all the bitter trees; Khadira of the astringent ones; Madhuka of the sweet; and Karanja of the pungent ones. 3-5

1. The teeth should be at least cleansed twice a day with a brush only.

क्षौद्रव्योषत्रिवर्गाक्तं सतैलं सैन्धवेन च । JI चूर्णेन तेजोवत्याश्च दन्तान् नित्यं विशोधयेत् ॥ ६ ॥ एकैकं घर्षयेद् दन्तं मृदुना कूर्चकेन च। दन्तशोधनचूर्णेन दन्तमांसान्यबाधयन् ।। ७ ।। ।।७।। तद् दौर्गन्थ्योपदेहौ तु श्लेष्माणञ्चापकर्षति । वैशद्यमन्नाभिरुचिं सौमनस्यं करोति च ॥८॥ च।।८।।

The teeth should be daily cleansed with (a compound consisting of) honey, powdered Tri-katu, Tri-varga², Tejovati, Saindhava and oil. Each tooth should be separately cleansed with the preceding cleansing paste applied on (the top of the twig bitten into the form of) a soft brush, and care should be taken not to hurt the gum anywise during the rubbing. This tends to cleanse and remove the bad smell (from the mouth) and the uncleanliness (of the teeth) as well as to subdue the Kapha (of the body). It cleanses the mouth and moderate hardness. This is the first thing to be done in the morning and the last thing in the night. The Indian datun, if properly made into brush, is perhaps very much cleaner and healthier than a tooth brush.

• a plant possessed of a pungent taste (Tikta) in brushing his teeth. A man of a Pittaja temperament should brush his teeth with a twig possessed of a sweet taste (Madhura), while a man of a Vatika temperament (nervous) should use that with an astringent (Kasaya) taste. This rule should be observed even in respect of the preponderant Dosas of the body, in a disease also produces a good relish for food and a cheerfulness of mind.¹ 6-8

1. A man of a Kaphaja temperament should use a twig of

2. The term “Tri-varga” generally means Tri-katu, Tri-phala and Tri-mada. Dalhana explains it as meaning Tri-sugandhi, i.e., Tvak, Ela and Patra.

Cases where tooth-brushing is for-bidden

न खादेद् गलताल्वोष्ठ-जिह्वारोगसमुद्भवे । अथास्यपाके श्वासे च कासहिक्कावमीषु च ।। ९ ।। दुर्बलोऽजीर्णभक्तश्च मूर्च्छा मदपीडितः । शिरोरुगार्त्तस्तृषितः श्रान्तः पानक्लमान्वितः । अर्दिती कर्णशूली च दन्तरोगी च मानवः ।।१०।।

Cases where tooth-brushing is for-bidden : Tooth-brushing is forbidden to the persons suffering from affections of the teeth, lips, throat, palate, or tongue, or from stomatitis, cough, asthma, hiccough and vomiting, weakness, indigestion, epilepsy, headdisease, thirst, fatigue, alcoholism, facial paralysis, ear-ache, and to persons tired with over-drinking. 9-10

जिह्वानिर्लेखनं रौप्यं सौवर्णं वार्क्षमेव च । तन्मलापहरं शस्तं मृदु श्लक्ष्णं दशाङ्गुलम् ।

मुखवैरस्यदौर्गन्ध्य-शोफजाड्यहरं सुखम् ।।११।। दन्तदाढर्चकरं रुच्यं स्नेहगण्डूषधारणम् ।। १२ ।।

The use of a thin, smooth and flexible foil of gold, silver, or wood. ten fingers in length, is commended for the purpose of cleansing the tongue by scraping. It gives relief and removes the bad taste, foetor, swelling and numbness of the mouth. Sneha (oil) should be used as a gargle (Gand usa) every day (after the cleansing of the teeth), as it makes them firm, and brings on a natural relish for food. 11-12

1. Additional Texts: It brings on a relish for food imparts a cleanliness, lightness and sense of freedom to the teeth, tongue, lips and palate. It protects the mouth, throat, palate, lips and tongue from being affected by any disease. It arrests salivation, imparts an agreeable aroma to the mouth and relieves nausea and water brush. It strengthens the religious inclination and gives a lightness to the organs. Hence one should every day use the tooth-twig, but its use is prohibited in respect of persons suffering from diseases of the palate, lips or tongue as well as from Mukha-paka (stomatitis), dyspnoea, hiccough, parchedness of the mouth and nausea. The last two lines of the additional text, however, occur in the text in a slightly different form. See the next two lines of the text.

Eye and Mouth-washes

क्षीरवृक्षकषायैर्वा क्षीरेण च विमिश्रितैः । भिल्लोदककषायेण तथैवामलकस्य वा ।

प्रक्षालयेन्मुखं नेत्रे स्वस्थ : शीतोदकेन वा । । १३ ।।

नीलिकां मुखशोषञ्च पिडकां व्यङ्गमेव च । रक्तपित्तकृतान् रोगान् सद्य एव विनाशयेत् ।

मु (सु) खं लघु निरीक्षेत दृढं पश्यति चक्षुषा ।।१४।।

Eye and Mouth-washes: The mouth and the eyes of a person of sound health should be washed with the decoction of the barks of Ksira trees mixed with milk, or with that of Bhillodaka, or of Amalaka, or with (a copious quantity of) cold water. This procedure would soon prove efficacious in destroying such affections of the body. as Nilika dryness in the mouth, pustules or eruptions, Vyanga and the diseases due to the (concerted) action of the Rakta and Pitta, and by such washings the face becomes lighter and the sight stronger. 13-14


मतं स्त्रोतोऽञ्जनं श्रेष्ठं विशुद्धं सिन्धुसम्भवम् । दाहकण्डूमलघ्नञ्च अक्ष्णो रुपावहञ्चैव न नेत्ररोगा जायन्ते भुक्तवान् शिरसा स्नातः श्रान्तश्छर्द्दनवाहनैः । रात्रौ जागरितश्चापि नाञ्ञ्ज्याज्ज्वरित एव च ।। १७ ।। दृष्टिक्लेदरुजापहम् । सहते मारुतातपौ ।। १५ ।। तस्मादञ्जनमाचरेत् ।।१६ ।।

Collyrium : Srotonjana, produced in the river Indus, is the best and purest of Collyriums. It alleviates the burning and itching sensations in the eyes, removes all local pains, secretions and impurities, increases the range of vision, enables the eyes to bear

1. Gayadasa interprets that the mouth should be washed with the decoction of Bhillodaka and the eyes with that of Amalaka. He also interprets that the eyes and the mouth may both, however, be washed with cold water. Perhaps Gayadasa was of opinion that the decoction of Amalaka, being astringent, might arrest the dilatation of the pupils due to age, and so help to keep the eye-sight unimpaired. Others explain that the mouth should be washed with the decoctions of Bhillodaka and of Amalaka, and the eyes with cold water. The decoctions however, if used as an eye-wash, should be used in a cold state. the blasts of the wind and the glare of the sun and guards against the inroads of occular affections. Hence the application of collyrium (along the eye-lids) is highly recommended; but its use is forbidden just after taking one’s meal or bath (washing the head) and after the fatigue of vomiting, or riding, etc., nor after sleeping late hours and also not during an attack of fever. 15-17

कर्पूरजातिकक्कोल-लवङ्गकटुकाह्वयैः सचूर्णपूगै: सहितं पत्रं ताम्बूलजं शुभम् ।।१८।। मुखवैशद्यसौगन्ध्य – कान्तिसौष्ठवकारकम् । हनुदन्तस्वरमल-जिह्वेन्द्रियविशोधनम् हृद्यं प्रसेकशमनं गलामयविनाशनम्। पथ्यं सुप्तोत्थिते भुक्ते स्नाते वान्ते च मानवे ।।२०।। रक्तपित्तक्षतक्षीण-तृष्णामूर्च्छापरीतिनाम् रूक्षदुर्बलमर्त्यानां न हितञ्चास्यशोषिणाम् ।। २१ ।। ।।१९।।

A betel-leaf prepared with cloves, camphor, nut-meg (Jati). lime, araca-nut, Kakkola and Katukahva (Lata-kasturi), etc., should be taken (chewed after meals), as it tends to cleanse the mouth. impart a sweet aroma to it, enhance its beauty and cleanse and strengthen the voice, the tongue, the teeth, the jaws and the senseorgans. It checks excessive salivation, gives strength to the heart (Hrdya), and acts as a general safeguard against throat-disease. A betel-leaf (prepared as before) proves wholesome after a bath, after meals, after vomiting as well as after rising from sleep. A person suffering from Rakta- Pitta, Ksata – Ksina, thirst and fainting should refrain from taking betel-leaf as well as those who are dehydrated, weak and are suffering from dryness of the mouth. 18-21


शिरोगतांस्तथा रोगान् शिरोऽभ्यङ्गोऽपकर्षति । केशानां मार्दवं दैर्ध्य बहुत्वं स्निग्धकृष्णताम् ।। २२ ।। करोति शिरसस्तृप्तिं सुत्वक्कमपि चाननम्। सन्तर्पणञ्चेन्द्रियाणां शिरसः प्रतिपूरणम् ।।२३।। मधुकं क्षीरशुक्ला च सरलं देवदारु च। क्षुद्रकं पञ्चनामानं समभागानि संहरेत् ॥ २४ ॥ तेषां कल्ककषायाभ्यां चक्रतैलं विपाचयेत् । सदैव शीतलं जन्तोर्मूर्ध्नि तैलं प्रदापयेत् ॥ ॥ २५ ॥

Sirobhyanga : Anointing (Abhyanga) the head with oil is a good cure for the affections of the head. It makes the hair grow luxuriantly, and imparts thickness, softness and a dark gloss to them. It soothes and invigorates the head and the sense-organs and removes the wrinkles of the face. The medicinal oil known as the Cakra-Taila should be cooked with the paste (Kalka) and the decoction of Madhuka, Ksira-sukla, Sarala, Deva-daru and the minor Pancha-mula taken in equal parts (in each case). The head should be constantly anointed with this cooling oil. 22-25

केशप्रसाधनी केश्या रजोजन्तुमलापहा ।। २६॥ हनुमन्याशिरः कर्ण-शूलघ्नं कर्णपूरणम् ।।२७।। अभ्यङ्गो मार्दवकरः कफवातनिरोधनः । धातूनां पुष्टिजननो मृजावर्णबलप्रदः ।। २८ ।।

Combing the hair improves its growth, removes dandruff and dirt, and destroys the parasites of the scalp. Pouring oil (Karnapurana) into the cavities of the ears is highly efficacious in pains of the jaws (Hanu and of the Manya, and acts as a good cure for headeache and ear-ache. Anointing (Abhyanga) the body (with oil, etc.) imparts a glossy softness to the skin, guards against the aggravation of the Vayu and the Kapha, improves the colour and strength and gives a tone to the root-principles (Dhatus) of the body.¹ 26-28

1. Rubbed on the body and allowed to stand or kept unwiped, the Sneha (oil) reaches down the skin, through the hair-follicles in the course of time necessary to utter four hundred Matras. It reaches the principle of blood in the course of that necessary to utter five hundred Matras and to the principle of flesh in the course of that necessary to utter six hundred Matras. It penetrates further to the principle of fat in the course of that necessary to utter seven hundred Matras, and to the principle of bone in the course of that necessary to utter eight hundred Matras, and lastly to the principle of marrow in the course of that necessary to utter nine hundred Matras. It successively cures the diseases respectively located in those principles. Dalhana


सेकः श्रमघ्नोऽनिलहृद् भग्नसन्धिप्रसाधकः । क्षताग्निदग्धाभिहत विघृष्टानां रुजापहः ।। २९ ।। जलसिक्तस्य वर्धन्ते यथा मूलेऽङ्करास्तरोः । तथा धातुविवृद्धिर्हि स्नेहसिक्तस्य जायते ।। ३० ।। सिरामुखै रोमकूपैर्धमनीभिश्च तर्पयन् । शरीरबलमाधत्ते युक्तः स्नेहोऽवगाहने । ॥ ३१ ।।

Pariseka: Affusing the body (Pariseka) removes the sense of fatigue, and brings about the adhesion of broken joints. It alleviates the pain which usually attends burns, scalds, bruises and lacerations, and subdues the actions of the deranged Vayu. Sneha (oil) affused on the human organism imparts a tone and vigour to its rootprinciples (Dhatus), in the same manner as water furnishes the roots of a tree or a plant with the necessary nutritive elements, and fosters its growth, when poured into the soil where it grows. The use of Sneha (oil, etc.) at a bath causes the Sneha to penetrate into the system through the mouths of the veins (Siras) and the ducts (Dhamanis) of the body, as also through the roots of the hair. and thus soothes and invigorates the body with its own essence. 29-31

तत्र प्रकृतिसात्म्यर्त्तु-देशदोषविकारवित् । तैलं घृतं वा मतिमान् युञ्जयादभ्यङ्गसेकयोः ॥ ३२ ॥

Under the circumstances, affusions and anointments of the body with oil or clarified butter should be prescribed by an intelligent person with due regard to one’s constitution, congeniality and temperament and to the climate and the season of the year, place as well as to the preponderance of the deranged Dosa or disease in one’s physical constitution. 32

Prohibitions of anointments

केवलं सामदोषेषु न कथञ्चन तरुणज्वर्यजीर्णी च नाभ्यक्तव्यौ कथञ्चन । योजयेत् । तथा विरिक्तो वान्तश्च निरूढो यश्च मानवः ||३३ || पूर्वयोः कृच्छ्रता व्याधेरसाध्यत्वमथापि वा। शेषाणां तदहः प्रोक्ता अग्निमान्द्यादयो गदाः ||३४|| सन्तर्पणसमुत्थानां रोगाणां नैव कारयेत् । ।३५ ।।

Prohibitions of anointments, etc. : Anointments of the body simply with (unmedicated) Sneha are strictly forbidden in cases of undigested (Ama) Dosas (as long as the aggravated Dosas of the body continue in an unassimilated or undigested state and in their full virulence and intensity). Anointment should not be resorted to in cases of acute fever and indigestion, nor after the administration of emetics and purgatives, nor after an application of a NirudhaVasti. Anointment in the first two cases (actue fever and indigestion) serves to make the diseases curable with difficulty and even incurable, while that made on the same day after the application of purgatives, emetics, or a Niruha-Vasti tends to impair the digestive capacity, etc. Anointment is similarly prohibited in diseases due to Samtarpana (repletion, etc.). 33-35

Physical Exercise

शरीरायासजननं कर्म तत् कृत्वा तु सुखं देहं विमृदनीयात् समन्ततः ।।३६ ।।

शरीरोपचय: कान्तिर्गात्राणां सुविभक्तता । दीप्ताग्नित्वमनालस्यं स्थिरत्वं लाघवं मृजा ||३७ ।।

श्रमक्लमपिपासोष्ण-शीतादीनां आरोग्यञ्चापि परमं व्यायामादुपजायते ।।३८ ।।

न चास्ति सदृशं तेन किञ्चित् स्थौल्यापकर्षणम् । च व्यायामिनं मर्त्यमर्दयन्त्यरयो बलात् ।।३९ ।।

चैनं सहसाक्रम्य जरा समधिरोहति । न न स्थिरीभवति मांसच व्यायामस्विन्नगात्रस्य व्यायामसंज्ञितम् ।

व्यायामाभिरतस्य सहिष्णुता । च ।।४० ।।

पद्भ्यामुद्वर्त्तितस्य व्याधयो नोपसर्पन्ति सिंहं क्षुद्रमृगा वयोरूपगुणैर्हीनमपि व्यायामं कुर्वतो नित्यं च।

कुर्यात्वि दग्धमविदग्धं वा हव ।। ४१ ।।

सुदर्शनम् । विरुद्धमपि निर्दोषं भोजनम् । परिपच्यते।।४२।।

व्यायामो हि सदा पथ्यो बलिनां स्निग्धभोजिनाम् । स च शीते वसन्ते च तेषां पथ्यतमः स्मृतः ॥४३ ।।

सर्वेष्वृतुष्वहरहः पुंभिरात्महितैषिभिः बलस्यार्धेन कर्त्तव्यो व्यायामो हन्त्यतोऽन्यथा | ॥४४॥

हृदि स्थानस्थितो वायुर्यदा वक्तुं व्यायामं कुर्वतो जन्तोस्तद् बलार्धस्य वयोबलशरीराणि देशकालाशनानि प्रपद्यते । लक्षणम् ॥ ४५ ॥ समीक्ष्य कुर्याद् व्यायाममन्यथा रोगमाप्नुयात् ।।४६ ।।

Physical Exercise: What is (popularly) known as physical exercise is (nothing but) a sense of weariness from bodily labour, and it should be taken every day. After taking physical exercise, the whole body should be massaged, until it gives rise to a comfortable sensation in the limbs. It makes the body stout and strong, helps the symmetrical growth of the limbs and muscles. improves the complexion and the digestive powers. prevents laziness and makes the body light and glossy, firm and compact. The power of enduring fatigue and weariness and the variations of temperature, thirst, etc., are the virtues which are invariably found to follow in its train. It leads to an undiseased existence and is the best means of reducing corpulency. The enemies of a man habituated to regular physical exercises, dare not to molest him through fear (for his strengthD. R.). Imbecility and senile decay never approach him, and the muscles of his body become firm and steady. Diseases fly from the presence of a person, habituated¹ to regular physical exercise and (subsequent) massaging, just as small beasts do on seeing a lion. It makes an aged and deformed man (young and) good-looking. Food consisting of articles incompatible in their potency, and indigested and decomposed food are easily digested in a man who takes regular physical exercise (and cannot produce any bad effect). Regular physical exercise is (particularly) beneficial to a strong man accustomed to the use of emollient food (abounding in protein matter), in all seasons of the year; but in the winter and the spring. it is highly (indispensably) necessary for him. A man seeking his own good should take physical exercise every day only to the half extent of his capacity (Balardha), as otherwise it may prove fatal. That amount of exercise which makes the Prana-Vayu come out through the mouth.’ (i.c, as soon as hard-breathing would set in), is known as the Balardha exercise. One’s own age, strength, physique and food as well as the season of the year and the physical nature of the country are the factors which should be considered before one begins to take physical exercise, as otherwise it might bring on some disease. 36-46

1. Dalhana’s reading here evidently is “f” in place of ” “This would mean “of one taking so much exercise as produces

क्षयतृष्णारुचिच्छर्दि-रक्तपित्तभ्रमक्लमाः कासशोषज्वरश्वासा अतिव्यायामसम्भवाः ।।४७ ।। रक्तपित्ती कृशः शोषी श्वासकासक्षतातुरः । भुक्तवान् स्त्रीषु च क्षीणो भ्रमार्त्तश्च विवर्जयेत् ॥४८॥

Consumption, haemorrhage (Rakta-pitta), thirst, phthisis, aversion to food, vomiting, illusiveness, weariness, fever, cough and asthma are the diseases, which are likely to originate from excessive physical exercise, and is, therefore, forbidden after a meal and the fatigues of sexual intercourse, in a fit of vertigo and in resepct of persons suffering from haemorrhage, phthisis, cachexia. cough, asthma and ulcer. 47-48

उद्वर्त्तनं वातहरं कफमेदोविलापनम् । स्थिरीकरणमङ्गानां त्वक्प्रसादकरं परम् ।।४९।।

The deranged Vayu of the body is restored to its normal condition by the help of Udvartana (massage). It reduces the fat and the aggravated Kapha of the system, smoothes and cleanses the skin and imparts a firmness to the limbs. 49

सिरामुखविविक्तत्वं उद्घर्षणोत्सादनाभ्यां त्वक्स्थस्याग्नेश्च तेजनम् । जायेयातामसंशयम् ।।५० ।। उत्सादनाद् भवेत् स्त्रीणां विशेषात् कान्तिमद् वपुः । प्रहर्षसौभाग्यमृजा-लाघवादिगुणान्वितम् विज्ञेयं उद्घर्षणन्तु कण्डूकोठानिलापहम् ।।५१ ।।

1. According to several authorities, the appearance of perspiration on the nose, the axilla, the forehead and in the joints of the hands and legs and dryness of the mouth are the symptoms which indicate that one has taken Balardha physical exercise (i.e. to the half extent of his capacity). Dalhana.

Utsadana (rubbing ) and Udgharsana (friction)

ऊर्वो: सञ्जनयत्याशु फेनक: कण्डूकोठानिलस्तम्भ-मलरोगापहश्च त्वग्गतस्याग्नेः तेजनं स्थैर्यलाघवे । सः ।। ५२ ।। सिरामुखविवेचनम्। कण्डूकोठविनाशनम्।।५३।। उद्घर्षणन्त्विष्टिकया

Utsadana (rubbing ) and Udgharsana) (friction) tend to dilate the orifice of the (superficial) ducts and increase the temperature of the skin. Utsadana specifically improves the complexion of females and gives a lovely appearance, cleanliness, beauty and suppleness to the female from Udgharsana (friction) pacifies the bodily Vayu, cures itches, rashes and eruptions (Kotha). Friction by Phenaka² imparts lightness and steadiness to the thighs, cures itches, eruptions, Vata-stambha and excretal diseases. Friction of the body with brick excites the heat of skin, brings on the dilation of the orifices of the bodily ducts, and cures itches and Kotha. 50-53


निद्रादाहश्रमहरं हृद्यं मलहरं श्रेष्ठं तन्द्रापापोपशमनं रक्तप्रसादनञ्चापि स्वेदक्लेदतृषापहम् । सर्वेन्द्रियविशोधनम् ॥५४॥

पुंस्त्ववर्धनम् । स्नानमग्नेश्च दीपनम् ।।५५ ।।

तुष्टिदं उष्णेन शिरसः स्नानमहितं चक्षुषः सदा । शीतेन शिरसः स्नानं चक्षुष्यमिति निर्दिशेत् ।।५६ ।।

श्लेष्ममारुतकोपे तु ज्ञात्वा व्याधिबलाबलम् । काममुष्णं शिरःस्नानं भैषज्यार्थं समाचरेत् ।।५७ ।।

Bathing : Bathing removes somnolence, (inordinate ) bodily heat and a sense of fatigue. It allays thirst and checks itching and perspiration, brings on a fresh relish for food, removes all bodily impurities, clears the sense-organs, gladdens the mind, purifies the blood, increases the appetising power, destroys drowsiness and sin, and increases semen. The sight of a man is invigorated by applying cold water to the head at the time of bathing, while the pouring of warm water on the head tends to injure the eye-sight. In cases of an

1. Utsadana and Udgharsana are the two kinds of rubbing the body with medicinal powders with and without a Sneha respectively. 2.

Phenaka is a kind of friction of the body with small wooden rollers.

aggravation of the deranged Vayu and Kapha, the head may be washed with warm water, as a medicine, after a careful consideration of the intensity of the disease. 54-57

Prohibition of Bathing

अतिशीताम्बु शीते च श्लेष्ममारुतकोपनम् ।।५८ ।। अत्युष्णमुष्णकाले च पित्तशोणितवर्धनम् ॥ ॥ ५९ ॥ तच्चातिसारज्वरित-कर्णशूलानिलार्त्तिषु आध्मानारोचकाजीर्ण-भुक्तवत्सु च गर्हितम् ॥६० ।।

Prohibition of Bathing : Bathing in extremely cold water in winter tends to enrage the bodily Vayu and the Kapha, while bathing in hot water in summer agitates the blood and the Pitta. Bathing is not beneficial in fever, diarrhoea, ear-ache, tympanitis, Adhmana, aversion to food and indigestion, and in the disorders or diseases due to the actions of the deranged Vayu. It should not also be taken just after a meal. 58-60


सौभाग्यदं वर्णकरं प्रीत्योजोबलवर्धनम्। स्वेददौर्गन्ध्यवैवर्ण्य -श्रमघ्नमनुलेपनम् । स्नानं येषां निषिद्धन्तु तेषामप्यनुलेपनम् ।।६१ ।।

Anulepana : Anointing ( Anulepana) the body (with scented pastes) removes a sense of fatigue and foetor and perspiration. It produces a sense of pleasure and improves the Ojas, the strength and the complexion of the body enhances the beauty and glow of the frame and gives it a lovely appearance Anulepana is forbidden in those cases in which bathing is prohibited. 61

रक्षोघ्नमथ चौजस्यं सौभाग्यकरमुत्तमम् । सुमनोऽम्बररत्नानां धारणं प्रीतिवर्धनम् ||६२॥

The wearing of gems, flowers and clean clothes is beneficial in a variety of ways, as it acts as a good prophylactic against the influences of monsters and malignant spirits, enhances the Ojas and the beauty of the body and keeps the mind in a cheerful mood and proves highly auspicious. 62


मुखालेपाद् दृढं चक्षुः पीनगण्डं तथाऽऽननम् । अव्यङ्गडिकं कान्तं भवत्यम्बुजसन्निभम् ।।६३।।

पक्ष्मलं विशदं कान्तममलोज्ज्वलमण्डलम् । नेत्रमञ्जनसंयोगाद् भवेच्चामलतारकम् ॥६४ ।।

Alepa : Besmearing (alepa) the face (with scented pastes. etc.) imparts steadiness to the eyes, brings on a broad and graceful contour of the cheeks and mouth, produces their healthful glow like that of a lotus flower and prevents its disfigurement by pimples, moles and such like growths and eruptions (Vyanga). The use of collyrium (Anjana) furthers the growth of large and beautiful eye lashes, cleanses the eyes by removing the unhealthy secretions. makes the eyes more wide and graceful and also imparts a brilliant lustre to the pupils. 63-64

यशस्यं स्वर्ग्यमायुष्यं धनधान्यविवर्धनम् । देवतातिथिविप्राणां पूजनं गोत्रवर्धनम् ।। ६५ ।। आहारः प्रीणनः सद्यो बलकृद् देहधारकः । आयुस्तेजः समुत्साह- स्मृत्योजोऽग्निविवर्धनः ॥६६ ।।

Devotion to the gods and Brahmanas and hospitality towards guests (Atithi) add to one’s good name. piety. wealth progeny and duration of life. Food (Ahara) nourishes and gladdens the heart and directly contributes to one’s bodily strength. It improves the memory, appetising power, energy and the natural strength of the mind (Tejas) and increases the Ojas and the duration of one’s life. 65-66

पादप्रक्षालनं चक्षुःप्रसादनं वृष्यं रक्षोघ्नं पाद-मलरोगश्रमापहम् । प्रीतिवर्धनम् ।।६७ ।। निद्राकरो देहसुखश्चक्षुष्यः श्रमसुप्तिनुत् । पादत्वङ्मदुकारी च पादाभ्यङ्गः सदा हितः ||६८ ।।

Washing the feet increases the semen (Vrsya), removes the sense of fatigue, gladdens the heart, makes the soles free from all adhering dirt and local diseases, acts as a prophylactic against evil spirits (Raksoghna) and clears up’ the vision. Anointing (Abhyanga)

1. Dalhana explains that washing the feet keeps the nerve (Nadi) joining the soles with the eyes cool and thus helps to clear up the vision. There is a custom of frequently washing the feet amongst the Hindus most probably on this account. the feet (with oil, etc.) brings on sleep. It is refreshing and invigorating to the body and the sight, removes all drowsiness and sense of fatigue and softens the skin of the soles of the feet. 67-68

रक्षोघ्नं रक्षोघ्नं प्रीतिवर्धनम् । पादरोगहरं वृष्यं सुखप्रचारमौजस्यं सदा पादत्रधारणम् ।।६९।।

अनारोग्यमनायुष्यं चक्षुषोरुपघातकृत् । पादाभ्यामनुपानद्भ्यां सदा चंक्रमणं नृणाम् ।।७० ।।

The use of shoes is efficacious in curing the diseases of the feet and is conducive to pleasure and verile potency. It acts as a prophylactic against the influences of evil spirits, makes walking easy and pleasant, and improves the Ojas in the body. Walking without shoes is perilous to life and health, and is attended with the danger of impaired vision. 69-70

पापोपशमनं केश नखरोमापमार्जनम् । हर्षलाघवसौभाग्य – करमुत्साहवर्धनम् ।।७१।।

बाणवारं मृजावर्ण-तेजोबलविवर्धनम् ।।७२।। पवित्रं केश्यमुष्णीषं वातातपरजोऽपहम् ।।७३ ।।

The shaving of hair and the paring of nails lead to the expiation of one’s sins, make a man cheerful, tend to appease his fate, increase his energy and impart a lightness to the frame. The putting on of armour (Banavara) improves one’s strength, energy and complexion and gives a lustre to the body. The wearing of a turban (Usnisa ) acts as a protection against wind, dust sun and light, helps the luxurious growth of hair and tends to improve the purity of the mind. 71-73

वर्षानिलरजोधर्म-हिमादीनां निवारणम् । वर्ण्य चक्षुष्यमौजस्यं शङ्करं छत्रधारणम् ।।७४ ।।

शुन: सरीसृपव्याल-विषाणिभ्यो भयापहम् । श्रमस्खलनदोषघ्नं स्थविरे च प्रशस्यते ।।७५ ।।

सत्त्वोत्साहबलस्थैर्य-धैर्यवीर्यविवर्धनम् अवष्टम्भकरञ्चापि भयघ्नं दण्डधारणम् ।।७६ ।।

The use of an umbrella is a protection against rain, wind, dust, dew and sun. It improves one’s energy, Ojas, eye-sight and complexion, and is an auspicious thing in itself. The use of a stick (Danda) dispels the fear of dogs, snakes, beasts of prey, (tigers, etc.) and horned animals. It considerably alleviates the toil of a journey, lessens the probability of making a false step and is specially commended to the weak and imbecile. It increases one’s energy, strength and patience, makes the mind firm and bold, acts as a proper support and makes one fearless. 74-76

आस्या वर्णकफस्थौल्य-सौकुमार्यकरी सुखा ॥७७ ।। वर्णकफस्थौल्य-सौकुमार्यविनाशनः ।।७८ ।। अध्वा अत्यध्वा विपरीतोऽस्माज्जरादौर्बल्यकृच्च सः ॥ ७९ ॥ यत् तु चंक्रमणं नाति-देहपीडाकरं भवेत् । तदायुर्बलमेधाग्नि-प्रदमिन्द्रियबोधनम् ।।८०।।

Sitting idle (asya) gives pleasure. It improves the glow of one’s complexion, increases the Kapha and corpulency and makes the body delicate, while an active pedestrian habit ( Adhva) is detrimental to the complexion. It reduces the fat and Kapha of the body, and removes the delicateness of the frame. Contrary results (to those produced by sitting idle) are produced by excessive walking which further brings on weakness and emaciation of the body. A gentle walk or stroll, which is not very fatiguing to the body, tends, on the contrary, to improve his memory, strength, digestive capacity (Agrni) and the functions of the sense-organs. It increases also the duration of life. 77-80

श्रमानिलहरं वृष्यं पुष्टिनिद्राधृतिप्रदम् । सुखं शय्यासनं, दुःखं विपरीतगुणं मतम् ।।८१ ।।

बालव्यजनमौजस्यं मक्षिकादीनपोहति । शोषदाहश्रमस्वेद-मूर्च्छाघ्नो व्यजनानिलः । ॥८२ ॥

प्रीतिनिद्राकरं वृष्यं कफवातश्रमापहम्। संवाहनं मांसरक्त त्वक्प्रसादकरं सुखम् ।।८३ ।।

Lying down in an easy posture on a soft bed removes the sense of fatigue, pacifies or soothes the bodily Vayu, brings on sleep and lost recollections to the mind, is spermatopoetic and is conducive to the growth of the body; while lying down in a contrary manner is attended with contrary results. Fanning with Chowries (Balavyajana) is refreshing and keeps off flies and mosquitoes; while fanning (with ordinary fans) arrests perspiration, removes the sense of fatigue and fainting fits, and alleviates the burning, scorching and parched sensations. Shampooing (Samvahana) is pleasant, refreshing, soporific, and spermatopoetic (Vrsya). It ys the bodily Vayu and Kapha, removes the sense of fatigue and is soothing to the blood, skin and the muscles. 81-83

।।८४।। प्रवातं रौक्ष्यवैवर्ण्य – स्तम्भकृद् दाहपक्तिनुत् । स्वेदमूर्च्छापिपासाघ्नमप्रवातमतोऽन्यथा सुखं वातं प्रसेवेत ग्रीष्मे शरदि मानवः । निवातं ह्यायुषे सेव्यमारोग्याय च सर्वदा ॥८५ ।। आतपः पित्ततृष्णाग्नि-स्वेदमूर्च्छाभ्रमास्त्रकृत् । दाहवैवर्ण्यकारी च छाया चैतानपोहति ।। ८६ ।। अग्निर्वातकफस्तम्भ-शीतवेपथुनाशनः । रक्तपित्तप्रदूषणः ।।८७।। पुष्टिवर्णबलोत्साहमग्निदीप्तिमतन्द्रिताम् । करोति धातुसाम्यञ्च निद्रा काले निषेविता ।।८८ ।। आमाभिष्यन्दजरणो

A strong wind (Pravata) is parchifying in its effect and injurious to the complexion. It destroys the burning sensation (if any) in the body, allays thirst, removes fainting fits and stops perspiration, but (at the same time) produces numbness of the body and destroys the digestive powers; whereas the contrary results are produced by a gentle wind. The gentle breeze of summer and of autumn should be breathed (as it is attended with beneficial results to the health). A seeker after health and a long life should reside in a chamber, not exposed to strong blasts of wind (Nivata). An undue exposure to the sun (Atapa) aggravates the Pitta, but increases the power of digestion. It agitates the blood and begets thirst, perspiration, faintness (sun stroke), vertigo and a burning sensation in the body attended with a discolouring of the complexion, etc.; whereas the contrary results are produced by a (cool) shade (Chaya). A basking in the glare of fire (Agni) remedies the (wrong) coursing of the Vayu and Kapha, removes cold and shivering, digests the slimy secretions in the channels; but aggravates the blood and Pitta: A good sleep (Nidra) enjoyed at the proper time (and for the proper period) tends to improve the growth, strength, vigour and complexion of the body. It increases the power of digestion, removes drowsiness and restores the natural equilibrium among the different fundamental principles (Dhatus) of the organism. 84-88

General rules of conduct

तत्रादित एव नीचखरोम्णा शुचिना शुक्लवाससा लघूष्णीषच्छत्रोपानत्केन दण्डपाणिना काले हितमितमधुरपूर्वाभिभाषिणा बन्धुभूतेन भूतानाम् गुरुवृद्धानुमतेन सुसहायेनानन्यमनसा खलूपचरितव्यम्, तदपि न रात्रौ, न केशास्थि-कण्टकाश्मतुषभस्मोत्कर-कपालाङ्गारामेध्यस्नानबलिभूमिषु, न विषमेन्द्रकीलचतुष्पथश्वभ्राणामुपरिष्टात् ।।८९।।

General rules of conduct: The first rule is that one should keep his nails pared and hairs trimmed, always put on clean and white clothes, wear a light turban and a pair of shoes and carry an umbrella and a stick in his hand. One should discourse, when necessary, with another in a sweet and gentle voice and his speech should be laconic and pleasing. He should first accost his elders and acquaintances in cases of meeting before they speak. He should be kind and compassionate to all creatures, and be approved of by his elders and superiors. He should be in full possession of resources and in an undisturbed state of the mind. One should not stir out at night nor walk about in the grounds of public executions, undulated places, dens and rocks. He should not go (at night) to where roads cross nor to places covered with heaps of husks, ashes, bones, hair, stones, baked earth and charcoal, nor to places commonly considered as unholy. 89

न राजद्विष्टपरुषपैशुन्यानृतानि वदेत्, न देवब्राह्मणपितृपरिवादांश्च; न नरेन्द्रद्विष्टोन्मत्तपतितक्षुद्रनीचाचारानुपासीत ।। ९० ।।

Men should never deride a king, nor use harsh and impolite words to, nor act meanly and treacherously towards him. One should not speak ill of the king, the gods, the Brahmanas and the Pitris (departed Manes), and he should never use harsh and slanderous words. He should not tell a lie nor associate with kinghaters nor with the insane, degraded, mean and narrow-hearted persons. 90

1. The text has Indra-kila which means a hilly country inhabited by barbarous people.

– वृक्षपर्वतप्रपातविषमवल्मीकदुष्टवाजिकुञ्जराद्यधिरोहणानि परिहरेत्, पूर्णनदीसमुद्राविदितपल्वलश्वभ्रकूपावतरणानि, भिन्नशून्यागार – श्मशानविजनारण्यवासाग्निसम्भ्रमव्यालभुजङ्गकीटसेवाश्च, कलहशस्त्रसन्निपातव्यालसरीसृपशृङ्गिसन्निकर्षांश्च ॥९१ ।। ग्रामाघात

Climbing up trees, mountains, ant-hills and undulating grounds, etc., and going up to a waterfall as well as riding on a wild and unbroken horse or elephant are strictly prohibited. One should not descend into an unknown tank, den as well as into the sea or into a river at flood times. Old haunted and deserted houses, cremation grounds and solitary forests should be strictly shunned. One should not come into actual contact with fire, wild beasts, snakes and venomous insects. The site infested with wild beasts, snakes, venomous insects, lizards and horned animals as well as where virulent epidemics would be raging should be avoided, nor should the sites of actual affrays and battles be resorted to, nor the scene of a violent conflagration of fire. 91

नाग्निगोगुरुब्राह्मणप्रेङ्खादम्पत्यन्तरेणाभियायात्। न शवमनुयायात् । देवगोब्राह्मणचैत्यध्वजरोगिपतितपायकारिणाञ्च छायां नाक्रमेत । नास्तं गच्छन्तमुद्यन्तं वाऽदित्यं वीक्षेत | गां धापयन्तीं धयन्तीं परशस्यं वा चरन्तीं (परस्मै) न कस्मैचिदाचक्षीत, न चोल्कापातोत्पातेन्द्रधनूंषि । नाग्निं मुखेनोपधमेत् । नापो भूमिं वा पाणिपादेनाभिहन्यात् ।। ९२ । ।

Passing between two rows of fire, between cows, elders, Brahmanas, moving cradles and a married couple is forbidden. One should not (unnecessarily) follow a corpse. Even the shadow of a falien, degraded and sick person as well as of a cow, Brahmana, divine image, banner or of a Caitya (tree growing on a cremation ground) should not be trodden upon. One should not gaze at the rising or the setting sun. One should not report to another the fact of a milch cow sucking her own calf, nor of her traversing or freely grazing in another’s field nor the fact of witnessing a rainbow or a meteor fall. One should not blow up a fire with one’s breath, nor hit the ground or water with one’s hands and feet. 92

न वेगान् धारयेत्। वातमूत्रपुरीषादीनाम्। न बहिर्वेगान् ग्रामनगरदेवतायतनश्मशानचतुष्पथसलिलाशयपथिसन्निकृष्टानुत्सृजेत्, न प्रकाशं, न वाय्वग्निसलिलसोमार्कगोगुरुप्रतिमुखम् ।। ९३ । ।

A man should never repress any natural urging of his body, nor should he pass water or evacuate excrements in an open or public place, within the confines of a town or village, close to a cremation ground or any place of worship, at the crossing of roads, in reservoirs of water or on the high road nor should he do so facing a fire, in the presence of his superiors, cows, the sun and the moon nor facing against the wind. 93

न भूमिं विलिखेत् । नासंवृतमुखः सदसि जृम्भोद्गारश्वासक्षवथूनुत्सृजेत् । न पर्यङ्किकावष्टम्भपादप्रसारणानि गुरुसन्निधौ कुर्यात् ।। ९४ ।।

Scratching (unnecessarily ) the ground with one’s nails. etc.. should not be done, and one should not yawn nor sneeze, nor raise any eructations nor breathe hard in an assembly (of gentlemen) without previously covering his face. Sitting in an unseemly raised- up position on a couch as well as with extended feet in front of one’s superiors should be renounced. 94

न बालकर्णनासास्त्रोतोदशनाक्षिविवराण्यभिकुष्णीयात् । न वीजयेत् केशमुखनखवस्त्रगात्राणि । न गात्रनखवक्तूवादित्रं कुर्यात् । न काष्ठलोष्टतॄणादीनभिहन्याद् छिन्ह्याद् भिन्द्याद् वा ।। ९५ ।।

The hair, nostrils, ear holes, teeth or any channel of the body should not be fingered. The hair, face, finger-nails, clothes and the body should not be shaken. Never keep time with music by beating the body or the cheeks with the hands or by striking the finger nails against each other. Never ( wantonly) strike or break or cleave a piece of wood or stone or weed, etc. 95

न प्रतिवातातपं सेवेत । न भुक्तमात्रोऽग्निमुपासीत। नोत्कटकाल्पकाष्ठासनमध्यासीत। न ग्रीवां विषमं धारयेत् । न विषमकायः क्रियां भजेत भुञ्जीत वा । न प्रततमीक्षेत विशेषाज्ज्योतिर्भास्करसूक्ष्मचल भ्रान्तानि । न भारं शिरसा वहेत् । न स्वप्नजागरणशयनासनस्थानचंक्रमणयानवाहनप्रधावनलङ्घनप्लवनप्रतरणहास्यभाष्यव्यवायव्यायामादीनुचितानप्यतिसेवेत ।। ९६ ।।

Never expose yourself to the rays of the sun, or to the gusts of vind blowing in your face. Basking before a fire immediately after a meal or sitting on one’s legs on a narrow wooden stool should not be indulged in. Never hold the neck in a contrary (contorted) posture. Neither do nor eat anything by keeping the body in a contrary posture. Never look stead fastly towards any object and particularly towards the sun or any luminous body¹ or towards any extremely attenuated, revolving or moving object. Never carry a load on the head. Sleeping, waking, sitting, lying down, walking, jumping, running fast, plunging in water, swimming, riding on a horse or in a vehicle, talking, laughing, sexual intercourse and taking (any other) physical exercise through accustomed and recommended should not be inordinately indulged in. 96

उचितादप्यहितात् क्रमशो विरमेत्, हितमनुचितमप्यासेवेत क्रमशः न चैकान्ततः पादहीनात् ।। ९७ ।।

A bad habit should be gradually discontinued and a good one even when (beneficial to health) should similarly be gradually inculcated by a quarter only and not all at once. 97

नावाक्शिराः शयीत, न भिन्नपात्रे भुञ्जीत, न विना पात्रेण, नाञ्जलिपुटेनापः पिबेत्, काले हितमितस्निग्धमधुरप्रायमाहारं वैद्यप्रत्यवेक्षि तमश्नीयात्, ग्रामगणगणिकापणिकशत्रुसत्रशठपतितभोजनानि परिहरेत् ; शेषाण्यपि चानिष्टरूपरसगन्धस्पर्शशब्दमानसानि, अन्यान्येवंगुणान्यपि सम्भ्रमदत्तानि ( तान्यपि) मक्षिकाव्या (बा) लोपहतानि, नाप्रक्षालितपाणिपादो भुञ्जीत, न मूत्रोच्चारपीडितः, न सन्ध्ययोर्नानुपाश्रितो नातीतकालं हीनमतिमात्रञ्चेति । । १८ ।। ,

It is improper to lie down with one’s head downward. One should not take food from a broken pot nor with the help of blended palms. One should not drink water from the cupped hands only.

I Some explain “Jyotis” as a blaze of fire and others explain it as stars.

Food, which is wholesome and approved of by one’s physician and which abounds in articles of sweet and emollient properties¹ should be taken at the proper (and regular) time (every day) in a moderate quantity. It is forbidden to take any food in the house of a trade (i.e., of a hotel-keeper) or a courtesan, nor in the house of a wi: degenerate or inimical person, nor at a village-assembly. Th refuse of another’s dishes, as well as articles of food infested with flies, insects, etc., or possessed of an objectionable colour, taste, smell, touch or sound or those which produce an unpleasant impression in the mind, or food of like nature as well as those served (handled) by many persons should not be partaken of (ir. spite of repeated requests in that behalf). It is not advisable to si down to a meal without washing one’s hands and feet. One should never take anything by repressing a natural urging for stool and urine, nor sit down to a meal just at the break or the close of day, nor in an unprotected situation (i.e. without any shade, or without something to sit upon). One should not take his meal after the expiry of the (daily) appointed time nor in an insufficient or inordinate quantity, nor partake of food whose Sneha (oleaginous substance) has been removed. 98

न भुञ्जीतोद्धृतस्नेहं नष्टं पर्युषितं पयः । नोदके पश्येदात्मानं न नग्नः प्रविशेज्जलम् ।।९९ ।। न नक्तं दधि भुञ्जीत न वाप्यघृतशर्करम् । नामुद्गयूषं नाक्षौद्रं नोष्णं नामलकैर्विना ।।१०० ।। अन्यथा जनयेत् कुष्ठविसर्पादीन् गदान् बहून् । १०१ ।।

Metrical Text: One should not take skimmed, disintegrated or stale milk. It is forbidden to see one’s image reflected in water, nor is it advisable to plunge naked into water. Curd should never be taken at night, nor should it be taken (at all) without sugar² or clarified butter, nor without saturating it with Mudga-soup or the admixture of honey, nor without (the expressed juice of) the Amalaka, nor with any hot substance¹ or article, as otherwise it may bring on Kustha (Skin DIseases ), erysipelas, etc. 99-101

1. The framers of the Ayurveda were aware of the fact that the human system is incapable of directly assimilating starchy substances wihout converting them into sugar. This has been emphasised in the Sutra-Sthana, where Susruta insists that a food stuff, in order to be worthy of the epithet, must be Madhura (i.e., of sweet flavour) and contain a large quantity of proteid matter such as is found in milk, butter, meat, etc. -Ed.

2. Dalhana adds that curd should not be taken wihout an addition of water and salt as well. This is also the practice in general.

द्यूतमद्यातिसेवाप्रतिभूत्वसाक्षित्वसमाह्वानगोष्ठीवादित्राणि न सेवेत । स्त्रजं छत्रोपानहौ कनकमतीतवासांसि न चान्यैर्घृतानि धारयेत् । ब्राह्मणमग्निं गाञ्च नोच्छिष्टः स्पृशेत् ।। १०२ ।।

One should not indulge in gambling, excessive drinking (of wine), standing, security, bearing witness, imposing gossip with some one unnecessarily or indulge in meetings and instrumental music in excess. One should not use the shoe, umbrella, garland (of flowers), ornaments or ragged clothes previously used by another. Never defile a Brahmana, or a fire, or a cow by touching them before washing ( your hands and mouth) after eating. 102

भवन्ति चात्र

यस्मिन् यस्मिन्नृतौ ये ये दोषाः कुप्यन्ति देहिनाम् ।।१०३ ।। तेषु तेषु प्रदातव्या रसास्ते ते विजानता ।। १०४ ।।

Memorable Verses: A wise physician should prescribe food of such tastes (Rasa) in any particular season of the year as is antidotal to the bodily Dosa which is naturally aggravated in that season. 103-104

वर्षासु न पिबेत् तोयं पिबेच्छरदि मात्रया । वर्षासु चतुरो मासान् मात्रावदुदकं पिबेत् ।। १०५ ।। उष्णं हैमे वसन्ते च कामं ग्रीष्मे तु शीतलम् । हेमन्ते च वसन्ते च सीध्वरिष्टौ पिबेन्नरः ।।१०६ ।। शृतशीतं पयो ग्रीष्मे प्रावृट्काले रसं पिबेत् । यूषं वर्षति, तस्यान्ते प्रपिबेच्छीतलं जलम्।।१०७।।

1. All the existing editions of the Susruta Samhita read “नोष्णै:” (i.e. curd should not be taken with any “hot” substance). Here it should be noted that the term “hot” may also include the substances which are heat-making in their potency. Here, however, the reading seems to be in-correct. The lines are found verbatim in the work of Charaka, where he reads “नोष्णं” i.e, hot curd should not be taken, since it produces, as he himself tells us later on, an aggravation of the blood and the Pitta.

Rules of drinking water

स्वस्थ एवमतोऽन्यस्तु

दोषाहारमतानुगः ।।१०८ । ।

Rules of drinking water, etc. : Water should not be taken during the rainy season (in excessive quantity) and only in moderate quantities in autumn. Water may be sparingly taken during the firs four months of the rainy season (if found to be indispensably necessary). Hot water should be taken in winter and spring (Vasanta), but cold water to one’s fill in summer. Sidhu and Arista should be taken in winter and spring. Milk boiled and subsequently cooled should be drunk in summer and meat-juice in Pravrt. Yusa (Mudgasoup, etc.) should be taken in the rainy season and cold water after the expiry of the rains. These rules should be observed only by persons in sound health, whereas the rules regarding persons suffering from any disease should be regulated by the prescription of any diet according to the particular Dosas involved in each case. 105-108

स्नेहं सैन्धवचूर्णेन पिप्पलीभिश्च संयुतम् । पिबेदग्निविवृद्धयर्थं न च वेगान् विधारयेत् ।।१०९ ।। अग्निदीप्तिकरं नृणां रोगाणां शमनं प्रति । प्रावृद्शरवसन्तेषु सम्यक् स्नेहादिमाचरेत् ।।११० ।। कफे प्रच्छर्दनं पित्ते विरेको बस्तिरीरणे । शस्यते त्रिष्वपि सदा व्यायामो दोषनाशनः ।।१११ ।। भुक्तं विरुद्धमप्यन्नं व्यायामान्न प्रदुप्यति ।। ११२ ।।

Any Sneha (such as oil or clarified butter) saturated with powdered Saindhava salt and Pippali should be regularly taken for the purpose of improving the digestive capacity. The natural urging of the body should never be repressed (as a repressed physical propulsion is sure to usher in a physical distemper). A Sneha (oleaginous substance) should be freely and largely used during the Pravrt and the spring seasons as well as in autumn (Sarat) as such a proceeding would act as a good appetising measure and a cure for diseases. Emetics, purgatives and applications of Bastis are respectively beneficial in diseases due to the actions of the deranged Kapha, Pitta and Vayu, whereas a regular course of physical exercise tends (equally) to urb an aggravation of all the three preceding Dosas of the body, so much so that their aggravation can never be detected in persons in the habit of taking it regularly every day, though otherwise addicted to an incompatible diet, etc. 109-112

उत्सर्गमैथुनाहार-शोधने स्यात् तु तन्मनाः ।। ११३ ।। नेच्छेद्दोष चयात् प्राज्ञः पीडां वा कायमानसीम् ।।११४ ।।

The attention should not be diverted to any other subject at the time of urination, defecation, sexual inter-course, taking of food, as well as at the time of taking emetics and purgatives, etc. It is not wise to anticipate and indulge in the gloomy thoughts of a future and probable invasion of a disease, and to suffer any physical privation on that account. 113-114

अतिस्त्रीसंप्रयोगाच्च रक्षेदात्मानमात्मवान् । शूलकासज्वरश्वास-कार्यपाण्ड्वामयक्षयाः । अतिव्यवायाज्जायन्ते रोगाश्चाक्षेपकादयः । ॥ ११५ ।। आयुष्मन्तो मन्दजरा वपुर्वर्णबलान्विताः । स्थिरोपचितमांसाश्च भवन्ति स्त्रीषु संयताः ।।११६ ।। त्रिभिस्त्रिभिरहोभिर्वा समीयात् प्रमदां नरः । सर्वेष्वृतुषु धर्मेषु पक्षात् पक्षाद् व्रजेद् बुधः।।११७ ।।

All sexual excesses should be studiously abstained in as much as they are sure to produce Sula (colic), cough, asthma, fever, emaciation, phthisis, anaemea, epilepsy, convulsions, etc. A person, who is moderate in sexual intercourse, lives a long life, becomes good-looking, healthy, strong and firm in his nerves and muscles. and becomes capable of averting (untimely) decay. One may visit his wife (lit. a woman) on each fourth night in all the seasons of the year except in summer when he may see her once a fortnight. 115-117

Women unfit to visit

मलिनामप्रियां रजस्वलामकामाञ्च तथा । वर्णवृद्धां वयोवृद्धां तथा व्याधिप्रपीडिताम् ।।११८ ।। हीनाङ्गीं गर्भिणीं द्वेष्यां योनिदोषसमन्विताम् । सगोत्रां गुरुपलीञ्च तथा प्रव्रजितामपि । सन्ध्यापर्वस्वगम्याञ्च नोपेयात् प्रमदां नरः । ॥ ११९ ।। गोसर्गे चार्धरात्रे च तथा मध्यन्दिनेषु च। लज्जासमावहे देशे विवृतेऽशुद्ध एव क्षुधितो व्याधितश्चैव वातविण्मूत्रवेगी तिर्यग्योनावयोनौ च एव च । । १२०।। क्षुब्धचित्तश्च मानवः । पिपासुरतिदुर्बलः ।।१२१ ।। प्राप्तशुक्रविधारणम् । दुष्टयोनौ विसर्गन्तु बलवानपि वर्जयेत् ||१२२ ||

Women unfit to visit : A woman in her menses, not amorously, disposed, uncleanly in her habits, not sufficiently endeared and endearing and belonging to a higher social order,’ older than one’s self, affected with any disease, wanting in any limbs, inimically disposed to one’s self, in her period of gestation, suffering from any uterine disorder, belonging to his own blood (Gotra), or leading the life of an anchorite, or who is his preceptor’s wife, should not be gone unto by a man (seeking health and longevity). A woman should not be gone unto in the Sandhyas (morning and evening), as well as on the Parva days² (prescibed in the Sastras), early in the morning, at mid-day, or in the dead of night. Going unto a woman at an infamous, unwholesome, or exposed place is similarly forbidden. Sexual intercourse by a man who is hungry, or thirsty, or who may be suffering from any disease, or may be angry, or in a cheerless spirit, is strictly forbidden. A man should not go unto a woman by repressing a natural urging for Vata (flatus), stool or urine, or if he is in a weak state of health. (as it would be highly injurious to his health). Incest with lower animals, unnatural sexual intercourse, obstruction of semen in its passage, as well as sexual intercourse with a woman having any vaginal disease are strictly forbidden even in respect of a strong person. 118-122

मूर्धावरणमेव च। रेतसश्चातिमात्रन्तु स्थितावुत्तानशयने विशेषेणैव गर्हितम् । क्रीडायामपि मेधावी हितार्थी परिवर्जयेत् ।।१२३ ।।

1. The text has “Varna-Vrddha” which literally means superior to the man in respect of Varna or the magnetic vibrations of the body, which are determined by one’s birth in a certain family. It means several castes of the Hindus. Ed.

2. The Parva days are the 8th, the 14th and 15th days of either fort-nights and the last days of the solar months.

It is highly injurious for a man to indulge excessively in sexual intercourse, or to enjoy it while standing, or while lying on his back, or to shake his head at the time; these should not be indulged in by an intelligent and judicious person even (occasionally) for pleasure’s sake. 123

Evil effects of the foregoing abuses

रजस्वलां प्राप्तवतो नरस्यानियतात्मनः । दृष्टचायुस्तेजसां हानिरधर्मश्च ततो सगोत्रामथ भवेत् । पर्वसु । लिङ्गिनीं गुरुपत्नीञ्च

। १२४ ।।

वृद्धाञ्च सन्ध्ययोश्चापि गच्छतो जीवितक्षयः । गर्भिण्यां गर्भपीडा स्याद् व्याधितायां बलक्षयः ।।१२५ || हीनाङ्गीं मलिनां द्वेष्यां कामं बन्ध्यामसंवृते । देहेऽशुद्धे च शुक्रस्य मनसश्च क्षयो भवेत् ।। १२६ ।।

Evil effects of the foregoing abuses: Visiting a woman in her menses results in the loss of sight. longevity and vital power. and should be accordingly considered as a sinful act. The duration of a man’s life is diminished by going unto a woman, older in age or higher in social status (Varna), or unto the wife of his preceptor or superior, in the morning or the evening, or on the Parva days (the interdicted days), or unto a woman belonging to the same blood as he. A visit to a woman big with child is extremely painful and injurious to the foetus confined in the womb. A visit to a diseased woman results in the loss of the man’s vital power. A going unto a deformed, uncleanly, spiteful, non amorous, or sterile woman, or at an unclean, infamous, or exposed place is detrimental to the semen and intellect of the visitor. 124-126

क्षुधितः क्षुब्धचित्तश्च मध्याह्ने तृषितोऽबलः । स्थितश्च हानिं शुक्रस्य वायोः कोपञ्च विन्दति ।। १२७ ।। अतिप्रसङ्गाद् भवति शोषः शुक्रक्षयावहः। व्याधितस्य ऊजा प्लीहि मृत्युर्मूर्च्छा च जायते । । १२८ ।। प्रत्यूषस्यर्धरात्रे च वातपित्ते प्रकुप्यतः । तिर्यग्योनावयोनौ च दुष्टयोनौ तथैव च। उपदंशस्तथा वायोः कोपः शुक्रस्य च क्षयः ।। १२९ ।। रेतसश्च विधारणे । उच्चारिते मूत्रिते च रेतसश्च उत्ताने च भवेच्छीघ्रं शुक्राश्मर्यास्तु सम्भवः ।।१३० ।।

Similarly, sexual intercourse enjoyed by a man at noon time, or by one who is in an enfeebled, thirsty, or hungry state of the body, in a standing up posture, or in a cheerless mood, brings on an excessive loss of semen and aggravation of the bodily Vayu. Phthisis due to the loss of semen is the result of over-intemperance in sexual matters. Pain, enlargement of the spleen, epilepsy and even death may follow from sexual gratifications in a diseased state of health. The Vayu and the Pitta become aggravated by the sexual intercourse enjoyed early in the morning or at midnight. An incest with lower animals, unnatural sexual intercourse. or that with a woman having a diseased vagina is attended with an excessive loss of semen and an aggravation of the bodily Vayu and is the case of Upadamsa (syphilitic virus). An act of coition enjoyed by holding the woman on one’s bosom or by repressing the natural urgings towards urination or defecation, as well as a repressing of seminal discharge would help the early formation of seminal concretions ( in the bladder). 127-130

सर्वं परिहरेत् तस्मादेतल्लोकद्वयेऽहितम् । शुक्रञ्चोपस्थितं मोहान्न सन्धार्यं कथञ्चन ।। १३१ ।। वयोरूपगुणोपेतां तुल्यशीलां गुणान्विताम् । अभिकामोऽभिकामान्तु हृष्टो हृष्टामलङ्कृताम् । सेवेत प्रमदां युक्त्या वाजीकरणबृंहितः ।।१३२ ।। भक्ष्याः सशर्कराः क्षीरं ससितं रस एव च । स्नानं सव्यजनं स्वप्नो व्यवायान्ते हितानि तु ||१३३ || मुखमात्रं समासेन सद्वृत्तस्यैतदीरितम् । आरोग्यमायुरर्थो वा नासद्भिः प्राप्यते नृभिः ।।१३४।।

Hence these (injurious and harmful) practices should be shunned by a man for his welfare in this life as well as for that in the next. On the contrary, repression of a natural and (legitimate) sexual desire, from a sense of unwise delicasy cr shame, is a physical sin.¹ Hence a healthy and passionate man possessed of the

1. It should be always borne in mind that God has implanted this desire in the mind of man and provided him with the necessary organic appendages only necessary fecundating element, under the course, of a proper Bajikarana (aphrodisiac) remedy, should cheerfully go unto and duly enjoy the pleasures of company with a girl, beautiful in looks, tender in years, modest, virtuous, equally passionate, cheerful, kindred to him both in physical and mental temperaments, and well-decked with ornaments. Fatigue after coition should be removed by the enjoyment of a bath¹ a cool breeze, or a sound sleep. Food or milk, saturated with sugar, and meat-juice, prove very refreshing after the act. 131-134

इति सुश्रुत संहितायां चिकित्सितस्थानेऽनागताबाधप्रतिषेधनीयं चिकित्सितं नाम चतुर्विंशोऽध्यायः ।। २४ ।।

Thus ends the Twenty-fourth Chapter in the Chikitsa Sthana of the Susruta Samhita which deals with the rules of Hygiene and the prophylactic measures in general. for the propagation of his species and not for the gratification of any diseased or morbid sexual propensity which is found nowhere elese in Nature save and except in debauched human subjects and which lowers them even below the level of brutes. Hence love should be the essence of the bond which binds a couple and converts them into a kind of human centaur, the man and the wife, and union sexually considered, should be effected only under the promptings of that sacred instinct in Nature which makes the lilies blow and causes the pollens to unite their fecundating principles with one another and which a healthy unsophisticated human heart can instinctively read as the seed time of youthful exuberance.

1. A bath is recommended for a man of strong virile power, in case of sexual intercourse in the day time or it may be possible to take a bath early in summer nights. – Dalhana.


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