पञ्चषष्टितमोऽध्यायः अथातस्तन्त्रयुक्तिमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः, धन्वन्तरिः ॥ १ ॥ यथोवाच भगवान्
Now we shall discourse on the chapter which deals with the technical terms used in this treatise (Tantra Yukti-Nama-Adhyaya). 1
द्वात्रिंशत् तन्त्रयुक्तयो भवन्ति शास्त्रे । तद्यथा— अधिकरणं योगः पदार्थो हेत्वर्थः उद्देशो निर्देश: उपदेशोऽपदेशः प्रदेशोऽतिदेशोऽपवर्गो वाक्यशेषोऽर्थापत्तिविपर्ययः प्रसङ्ग एकान्तोऽनेकान्तः पूर्वपक्षो निर्णयोऽनुमतं विधानमनागतावेक्षणमतिक्रान्तावेक्षणं संशयो व्याख्यानं स्वसंज्ञा निर्वचनं निदर्शनं नियोगो विकल्प: समुच्चयः ऊह्यमिति ॥ २ ॥
Names of the technical terms – There are thirty-two technical terms in this treatise. They are – ( 1 ) Adhikarana, (2) Yoga, (3) Padartha, (4) Hetvartha, (5) Uddesa, (6) Nirdesa, (7) Upadesa, (8) Apadesa, (9) Pradesa (10) Atidesa, (11) Apavarga, (12) Vakya-sesa, (13) Arthapathi, (14) Viparyaya, (15) Prasanga, (16) Ekanta, ( 17 ) Anekanta, (18) Purvapaksa, (19) Nirnaya (20) Anumata, (21) Vidhana, (22) Anagataveksana, (23) Atikranta-veksana, (24) Sansaya, (25) Vyakhyana, (26) Sva-samjna, (27) Nirvacana, (28) Nidarsana, (29) Niyoga, (30) Samuccaya, (31) Vikalpa, and (32) Uhya. 2
अत्रासां तन्त्रयुक्तीनां किं प्रयोजनमित्युच्यते – वाक्ययोजनमर्थयोजनञ्च ॥ ३ ॥
Necessity- What is the necessity of the use of these technical terms (Tantra-Yukti)? The answer is — For connecting words together, i.e., making up sentences and giving a sense or meaning to them. 3
भवन्ति चात्र श्लोकाः । असद्वादिप्रयुक्तानां वाक्यानां प्रतिषेधनम् । स्ववाक्यसिद्धिरपि च क्रियते तन्त्रयुक्तितः ॥ ४ ॥ व्यक्ता नोक्तास्तु ये ह्यर्था लीना ये चाप्यनिर्मलाः । लेशोक्ता ये च केचित् स्युस्तेषाञ्चापि प्रसाधनम् ॥ ५ ॥ यथाम्बुजनवस्यार्क: प्रदीपो वेश्मनो यथा । प्रबोध्यस्य प्रकाशार्थास्तथा तन्त्रस्य युक्तयः ॥ ६ ॥
Memorable verses – By the use of technical terms in a scientific treatise the points of argument of the opposite party are frustrated and the points of one’s own argument are established. The meanings of the words, whether clearly used or not, whether direct or indirect, or partially used, if there is any such, in the treatise are also made distinct (by the use of the technical terms). Just as the sun blows a cluster of lotus and a lighted lamp lights (the inside of ) a room at their best, so the technical terms used in a treatise clearly show i.e., explain the intended meaning. 4-6.
तत्र यमर्थमधिकृत्योच्यते तदधिकरणम् । यथा – रसं दोषं वा ॥ ७ ॥
Of these terms Adhikarana is the subject about which something is spoken of. For example-on (the subject of) Rasa or on (the subject of) Dosa. 7.
येन वाक्यं युज्यते स योगः यथा – तैलं पिबेच्चामृतवल्लिनिम्ब – हिंस्राभयावृक्षकपिप्पलीभिः । सिद्धं बलाभ्याञ्च सदेवदारु हिताय नित्यं गलगण्डरोगे ॥ ८॥ इत्यत्र तैलं सिद्धं पिबेदिति प्रथमं वक्तव्ये तृतीयपादे सिद्धमिति प्रयुक्तम् । एवं दूरस्थानामपि पदानामेकीकरणं योगः ॥ ९ ॥
The term “Yoga” is the union of words or sentences together. For example — an oil duly cooked with Amrta-valli, Nimba, Himsra, Abhaya, Vrksaka, Pippali, the two kinds of Bala and with Deva-daru should be prescribed for drinking as being efficacious in all cases of Gala-ganda. Here the main idea is ‘Siddha pibet’ i.e. should be cooked and taken internally; but the word ‘Siddha’ is used in the first half of the second hemistich, far away from the word ‘Pibet’ in the sentence. This combining together of the different words, however distant in a sentence, is called a Yoga. 8-9.
योऽर्थोऽभिहितः सूत्रे पदे वा स पदार्थः, पदस्य पदयोः पदानां वाऽर्थः पदार्थः, अपरिमिताश्च पदार्थाः । यथा – स्नेहस्वेदाञ्जनेषु निर्दिष्टेषु द्वयोस्त्रयाणां वाऽर्थानामुपपत्तिर्दृश्यते । तत्र योऽर्थः पूर्वापरयोगसिद्धो भवति स ग्रहीतव्यः । यथा – वेदोत्पत्तिं व्याख्यास्याम इत्युक्ते सन्दिह्यते बुद्धिः – कतमस्य वेदस्योत्पत्तिं वक्ष्यतीति, यतः ऋग्वेदादयस्तु वेदाः । विद् विचारणे, विलृलाभे इत्येतयोश्च धात्वोरनेकार्थयोः प्रयोगात्, तत्र पूर्वापरयोगमुपलभ्य प्रतिपत्तिर्भवति – आयुर्वेदोत्पत्तिमयं विवक्षुरित्येष पदार्थः ॥ १० ॥ – –
The term “Padartha” is the meaning implied by a word or an aphorism (i.e. a sentence). Padarthas are innumerable. For exampleSneha, Sveda or Anjana, when used in a sentence, would each imply two or three meanings; but only one meaning which tallies with the use of the previous or subsequent word (in the text) should be understood in each case. Thus, in the sentence “Vedotpattim Vyakhya syamah” i.e. we shall discourse on the origin of the ‘Veda’, the use of the word “Veda” would put the hearer at a loss to understand which of the Vedas is going to be discoursed on, for there are several Vedas, viz, Rgveda, etc. But when we try to understand the expression in connection with the previous or subsequent use of the expression-for the root ‘vid’ may mean either ‘Vicarana’ (discussion) or ‘Vindati’ (to get)— we can afterwards come to the conclusion that the subject to be discoursed upon is the origin of Ayurveda. This is what is meant by the term Padartha. 10.
यदन्यदुक्तमन्यार्थसाधकं भवति स हेत्वर्थः । यथा मृत्पिण्डोऽद्भिः प्रक्लिद्यते तथा माषदुग्धप्रभृतिभिर्व्रणः प्रक्लिद्यत इति ॥ ११ ॥
Hetwartha is the meaning indirectly implied by a word. For example as earth is moistened by water, so an ulcer is moistened (and consequently secretes) by (the taking of) Masa-pulse, milk, etc. 11.
समासवचनमुद्देशः । यथा शल्यमिति ॥ १२ ॥
Uddesa is the statement in brief. For example — Salya ordinarily means any foreign matter but secondarily implying any obstructing matter in the body.) 12.
विस्तरवचनं निर्देशः । यथा – शारीरमागन्तुकञ्चेति ॥ १३ ॥
Nirdesa is the statement in detail. For example — “salya” is of two kinds “Sarira” (idiopathic) and “Aagantuka” (traumatic). 13.
एवमित्युपदेशः । यथा – तथा न जागृयाद् रात्रौ दिवास्वप्रञ्च वर्जयेदिति ॥ १४ ॥
Upadesa is an instruction for the doing of a thing in a particular way. For example- one should not sit up at night and one should give up sleep at the day time. 14.
अनेन कारणेनेत्यपदेशः । यथोपदिश्यते मधुरः श्लेष्माणमभिवर्धयतीति ॥ १५ ॥
Apadesa is the statement of reason. For example- it has been specified that Slessma is increased by the use of the articles of sweet taste. 15.
प्रकृतस्यातिक्रान्तेन साधनं प्रदेशः । यथा – देवदत्तस्यानेन शल्यमुद्धृतं तस्माद् यज्ञदत्तस्याप्ययमेवोद्धरिष्यतीति ॥ १६॥
Pradesa is the determination of a present action from past events. For example — Devadatta’s Salya has been extracted by this person, hence Yajnadatta’s Salya will also be extracted by him. 16.
प्रकृतस्यानागतस्य साधनमतिदेशः । यथा – अनेनास्य वायुरुर्ध्व, मुपतिष्ठते तेनोदावर्ती स्यादिति ॥ १७ ॥
Atidesa is the determination of some future event from some present event. For example-one’s bodily Vayu courses upwards by such action, hence one may get (an attack of Vataja) Udavarta by such an action. 17.
कीटविषादिति ॥ १८ ॥ अभिव्याप्यापकर्षणमपवर्गः । यथा – अस्वेद्या विषोपसृष्टा अन्यत्र –
Apavarga is the extraction-i.e. exception of (something ) from something more comprehensive or extended, that is to say, it is an exception to the general rule. For example-fomentation should not be applied to persons suffering from insect-poison. 18.
येन पदेनानुक्तेन वाक्यं समाप्यते स वाक्यशेषः । यथा – शिरः पाणिपादपार्श्वपृष्ठोदरोरसामित्युक्ते पुरुषग्रहणं विनापि गम्यते पुरुषस्येति ॥ १९ ॥
Vakya-sesa is the word where the sentence is made ended without mentioning the intended relevant word. For example-when we say of the head, the hands, the legs, the sides, the back, the abdomen (Udara) and the chest” it becomes evident that these parts are of a ‘person’ which is intended. 19.
यदकीर्तितमर्थादापद्यते साऽर्थापत्तिः । यथा – ओदनं भोक्ष्ये इत्युक्तेऽर्थादापन्नं भवति नायं पिपासुर्यवागूमिति ॥ २० ॥
Arthapatti (presumption ) is the term used when the sense (of a sentence), though not specifically mentioned, can yet be indirectly presumed or deduced. For example¹-when one says to another that he should be fed rice (solid food), it becomes evident that he is not willing to drink a (liquid) Yavagu or gruel. 20.
यद् यत्राभिहितं तस्य प्रातिलोम्यं विपर्ययः । यथा – कृशाल्पप्राण – भीरवो दुश्चिकित्स्या इत्युक्ते विपरीतं गृह्यते दृढादयः सुचिकित्स्या इति ॥ २१ ॥
Viparyaya (reverse) is the term used when the words used (in a sentence) convey quite a different or opposite sense. For example when it is said that ’emaciated, weak and frightened persons are very difficult to be medically treated’, the opposite sense becomes evident, viz., that strong, and such-like persons are very easy to be medically treated. 21.
प्रकरणान्तरेण समापनं प्रसङ्गः यद्वा प्रकरणान्तरितो योऽर्थोऽसकृदुक्तः समाप्यते स प्रसङ्गः । यथा – पञ्चमहाभूतशरीरिसमवायः पुरुषस्तस्मिन् क्रिया सोऽधिष्ठानमिति वेदोत्पत्तावभिधाय भूतचिन्तायां पुनरुक्तं यतोऽभिहितं
1. The common example of an Arthapatti (presumption ) in Sanskrt philosophy is ‘Pino Devadatto diva na bhumkte’, (i.e. fat Devadatta does not cat at day-time), from which it is evident that he certainly cats at night, otherwise he could not have become fat.
पञ्चमहाभूतशरीरिसमवायः पुरुष इति स खल्वेष कर्मपुरुषश्चिकित्सायामधिकृतः ॥ २२ ॥
Prasanga (connected reasoning) is the term used when a different subject is introduced at the end. It is also the term used when the same sense is repeated in different words at different places (in the same topic). For example- it is said in the chapter on Vedotpatti (chapter I, Sutra- Sthana) that “Purusa” (living organism) is the sum-total of the “Maha-bhutas” (or the five primary elements— viz., earth, water, fire, air and ether) and the Sariri (the soul), that medical treatment should be made in him (Purusa) and that he is the subject matter of every action); and it has been repeated in the chapter on Bhuta-cinta (Sarir sthana) that the Purusa has therefore been said to be the combination of the five Maha-bhutas and the soul and that he is the subject-matter of all sorts of medical treatment. 22.
सर्वत्र यदवधारणेनोच्यते स एकान्तः । यथा – त्रिवृद् विरेचयति, मदनफलं वामयति एव ॥ २३ ॥
Ekanta is the term used to denote a thing which is certain in every case. For example—Trivrit causes purgation, and Madana-fruit produces vomiting. 23.
क्वचित् तथा क्वचिदन्यथेति यः सोऽनेकान्तः । यथा – केचिदाचार्या ब्रुवते द्रव्यं प्रधानं, केचिद् रसं, केचिद् वीर्यं, केचिद् विपाकमिति ॥ २४ ॥
Anekanta is the term used to denote certainty in some cases and uncertainty in some other cases. For example- some authorities hold that ‘Dravya’ or the thing itself is the principal factor, some hold the ‘Rasa’ or taste (in a thing) to be the principal factor, some again hold the “Virya” or potency to be the principal factor and others hold “Vipaka” or digestive reaction to be the principal factor. 24.
आक्षेपपूर्वकः प्रश्नः पूर्वपक्षः । यथा – कथं वातनिमित्ताश्वत्वारः प्रमेहा असाध्या भवन्तीति ॥ २५ ॥
Purva-paksa is (the putting of) a question with an apparent objection. For example (the question ) why the four kinds of VatajaPrameha are incurable. 25.
तस्योत्तरं निर्णयः । यथा – शरीरं प्रपीड्य पश्चादधो गत्वा वसामेदोमज्जानुविद्धं मूत्रं विसृजति वातः, एवमसाध्या वातजा इति । यथा चोक्तम्कृत्स्नं शरीरं निष्पीड्य मेदोमज्जावसायुतः । अधः प्रकुप्यते वायुस्तेनासाध्यास्तु वातजाः ॥ २६ ॥
Nirnaya is the reply to a Purva-paksa or question. For example the (bodily) Vayu effects i.e. spreads over the (whole) body and then excretes urine through the passage with vitiated Vasa (grease), Medas (fat) and Majja (marrow). The Vataja cases (of Prameha) are, therefore, incurable. As it has been said— The (bodily) Vayu effects i.e. spreads over the whole body and coming in contact with the (bodily) Medas (fat), Majja (marrow) and Vasa (grease) becomes vitiated and course downward. The Vataja cases (of Prameha) are, therefore, incurable. 26.
परमतमप्रतिषिद्धमनुमतम् । यथा – अन्यो ब्रूयात् सप्तरसा इति तच्चाप्रतिषेधादनुमन्यते कथञ्चिदिति ॥ २७ ॥
Anumata is the term used when an opinion of another is quoted but not refuted. For example-some authorities hold that there are seven Rasas or tastes. (Now, as this is not refuted it is said to be Anumata or sanctioned by the author). 27.
प्रकरणानुपूर्व्याऽभिहितं विधानम् । यथा – सक्थिमर्माण्येकादश प्रकरणानुपूर्व्याऽभिहितानि ॥ २८ ॥
Vidhana- is the act of mentioning, at the beginning, the fact to be established. For example— the vulnerable or vital parts (Marmans) in the thigh are eleven in number and this has already been stated to be established. 28.
एवं वक्ष्यतीत्यनागतावेक्षणम् ॥ यथा – श्लोकस्थाने ब्रूयाच्चिकित्सितेषु वक्ष्यामीति ॥ २९ ॥
Anagataveksana is the term used when something in the future is referred to in such terms as ‘this will be dealt with hereafter’. For example — it can be said in the Sutra-sthana ‘it will be dealt with in the Chikitsasthana’. 29.
यत् पूर्वमुक्तं तदतिक्रान्तावेक्षणम् | यथा- चिकित्सितेषु ब्रूयात् श्लोकस्थाने यदीरितमिति ॥ ३० ॥
Atikrantaveksana is the term used when something in the past is referred to. For example — it can be said in the Chikitsa-sthana ‘it has already been said in the Sutra-sthana.’ 30.
उभयहेतुदर्शनं संशयः । यथा – तलहृदयाभिघातः प्राणहरः, पाणिपादच्छेदनमप्राणहरमिति ॥ ३१ ॥
Samsaya is the term used when examples of two opposite and dissimilar subjects are cited. For example — hurt to the Tala-Hrdaya (Marmanas in the hands and legs) is fatal; amputation of the hand and of the leg is not fatal. 31.
तन्त्रेऽतिशयोपवर्णनं व्याख्यानम् । यथा – इह पञ्चविंशतिकः पुरुषो व्याख्यायते । अन्येष्वायुर्वेदतन्त्रेषु भूतादिप्रभृत्यारभ्य चिन्ता ॥ ३२ ॥
Vyakhyana is the description or explanation of the details. For example-Purusa consisting of twenty-five factors has been dealt with in this book. While only the twenty-four factors constituting this body have been dealt with in other works. 32.
अन्यशास्त्रासामान्या स्वसंज्ञा । यथा – मिथुनमिति मधुसर्पिषोर्ग्रहणम्ः लोके प्रसिद्धमुदाहरणं वा ॥ ३३-३४॥
Sva-samjna– denotes the specific terms specially used in any work and not in common with any other work. For example-the term ‘Mithuna’ (in medical works) means the two things, viz., honey and clarified butter.
Udaharana’ is the example of what is well-established or well
1. Udaharana has been recognised here as a technical term. But it should not have been recognised as such, since it has not been included in the list 9see para 2). had it been so, the number would have been 33 and not 32. Dalhana prefers to regard the portion यथोष्णभयात् etc. as an interpolation and adding a वा after the sentence लोके प्रथितमुदाहरणम् takes it in continuation of the example of स्वसंज्ञा in the previous para. His meaning is that the word f being not found in the sense referred to in para 30, the reader is asked to find out a popular example known in the world. For example- cooling measures should be had recourse to guard against warmth. 33-34.
– निश्चितं वचनं निर्वचनम् । यथा – आयुर्विद्यतेऽस्मिन्ननेन वा आयुर्विन्दतीत्यायुर्वेदः ॥ ३५ ॥
Nirvacana is the derivation of a term. For example – Ayu (life) is the subject-matter of this work, and a man gets (the means of) ayu (longevity) from this work and hence it is called ayurveda. 35.
दृष्टान्तव्यक्तिर्निदर्शनम् । यथा – अग्निर्वायुना सहितः कोष्ठे वृद्धिं गच्छति तथा वातपित्तकफदुष्टो व्रण इति ॥ ३६ ॥
Nidarsana is the term used when the meaning (of a word or sentence ) is supported by examples. For example — just as the digestive) fire in the Kostha (abdomen) increases in contact with (the local bodily Vayu, so also an ulcer increases when assisted by the (bodily) Vayu, Pitta and Kapha. 36.
इदमेव कर्तव्यमिति नियोगः । यथा – पथ्यमेव भोक्तव्यमिति ॥ ३७॥ –
Niyoga is the enjoining of something to be done as a duty. For example—only what is beneficial (Pathya) should be taken. 37.
इदञ्चेदञ्चेति समुच्चयः । यथा – मांसवर्गे एणहरिणादयो लावतित्तिरिशारङ्गाश्च प्रधानानीति ॥ ३८ ॥
Samuccaya is the joining (of two or more connected but independent ideas) as such. For example– in the group of flesh, (those of) Ena and Harina (two kinds of deer), Lava and ra (two kinds of birds) and Saranga (spotted deer) are the principal ones.38
इदं वेदं वेति विकल्पः । यथा – रसौदनः सघृता यवागूर्वा ॥ ३९ ॥ –
Vikalpa is the term used when something is said to be this or that, i.e., when alternatives are used. For example-either meat-soup or Yavagu (gruel) cooked with clarified butter (should be used in such a case). 39.
यदनिर्दिष्टं बुद्ध्यावगम्यते तदूह्यम् । यथा – अभिहितमन्नपानविधौ चतुर्विधञ्चान्त्रमुपदिश्यते – भक्ष्यं भोज्यं लेह्यं पेयमिति, एवं चतुर्विधे वक्तव्ये – द्विविधमभिहितम् । इदमत्रोह्यम् – अन्नपाने विशिष्टे द्वयोर्ग्रहणे कृते चतुर्णामपि ग्रहणं भवति । चतुर्विधश्चाहारः प्रविरलः, प्रायेन द्विविधः प्रसिद्ध इति । किञ्चान्यत् – अन्नेन भक्ष्यमवरुद्धं घनसाधर्म्यात् । पेयेन लेह्यं द्रवसाधर्म्यात् ॥ ४० ॥
Uhya is the term used when something more can be understood by an intelligent man, though not definitely used. For example – it has been said in the chapter on Anna-pana-vidhi (chapter XLVI, Sutra Sthana) that Anna (food) is of four kinds, viz., ( 1 ) Bhaksya (masticable) or the solid food that has to be bitten with the teeth before eating (2) Bhojya (edible) or the solid food proper i.e., which has not to be bitten with the teeth, (3) Lehya ( lambative) or the semi-liquid food that has to be licked like an electuary, and (4) Peya (drink) or the liquid like an electuary, that has to be drunk; but of these four kinds, two kinds only ( viz., Anna and Pana) have been mentioned (in naming the chapter). Here it is (said that the other two kinds are) understood. For, when only two are mentioned in respect of food and drink, the inclusion of all the four therein is easily comprehended. And why? Because the term ‘Bhaksya’ and Bhojya are included in the term ‘Anna’ — both being of the same kind, viz, solid food; and the term ‘Lehya’ is included in the term ‘Peya’ – both being of the same kind, viz, liquid. And the articles of food, though they are really of four kinds, are usually spoken of in the common language as being of two kinds only (viz, solid and liquid). 40.
भवन्ति चात्रसामान्यलक्षणेनैता व्यासतः संप्रदर्शिताः । विशेषस्तु द्वात्रिंशयुक्त यथायोगमुपधार्यो विपश्चिता ॥ ४१ ॥ ह्येतास्तत्रसारगवेषणे । मया सम्यग्विनिहिताः शब्दन्यायार्थसंयुताः ॥ ४२ ॥ यो ह्येता विधिवद् वेत्ति दीपभूतास्तु बुद्धिमान् । स पूजार्हो भिषक्श्रेष्ठ इति धन्वन्तरेर्मतम् ॥ ४३ ॥
Here have been fully described by me the thirty-two technical terms for the investigation into the essence of this Tantra (work). The intelligent man who is fully conversant with these technical termswhch work like lights, as it were- is to be regarded as the greatest physician and to be held in great esteem. —This is what the Sage Dhanvantari has stated. 41-43.
इति सुश्रुत संहितायामुत्तरतन्त्रे तन्त्रयुक्तिर्नाम पञ्चषष्टितमोऽध्यायः ॥ ६५ ॥
Thus ends the sixty-fifth chapter of the Uttara-Tantra in the Susruta Samhita which deals with the technical terms used in this work.