चतुःषष्टितमोऽध्यायः अथातः स्वस्थवृत्तमध्यायं व्याख्यास्यामः, यथोवाच धन्वन्तरिः ॥ १ ॥ भगवान्
Now we shall discourse on the chapter which deals with the Rules of Health (Swastha-Vrutta-adhyaya). 1
समदोष: समाग्निश्च समधातुमलक्रियः । प्रसन्नात्मेन्द्रियमनाः स्वस्थ इत्यभिधीयते ॥ २ ॥ सूत्रस्थाने समुद्दिष्टः स्वस्थो भवति यादृशः । तस्य यद्रक्षणं तद्धि चिकित्साया: प्रयोजनम् ॥ ३ ॥ तस्य यद्वृत्तमुक्तं हि रक्षणञ्च मयाऽऽदितः । तस्मिन्नर्थाः समासोक्ता विस्तरेणेह वक्ष्यते ॥ ४ ॥
Health indicates a normal condition of the (three) Dosas (fundamental principles), Agni (the digestive fire), Mala (excrements viz., faeces, urine, etc. ) 1, and the (seven) Dhatus or root-principles of the body as well as a serene state of the body, mind and the senseorgans. It has already been stated in the Sutra-sthana, that the primary object of medical treatment is to maintain this healthy state (of the body and of the mind) in its normal equilibrium. A brief outline of the means to be applied and of the rules to be observed for the realisation of that end, has also been given before. Now we shall enter into a lengthy and elaborate dissertation on the subject. 2-4.
1. Some explain ‘Kriya’ separately as the organic functions e.g. sleep and awakening, etc. – Dalhana.
Regimen of diet and conduct in the Varsha ( rainy) season
ये ये दोषाः कुप्यन्ति देहिनाम् । तेषु तेषु प्रदातव्या रसास्ते ते विजानता ॥ ५ ॥ प्रक्लिन्नत्वाच्छरीराणां वर्षासु भिषजा खलु । मन्देऽग्नौ कोपमायान्ति सर्वेषां मारुतादयः ॥ ६ ॥ तस्मात् क्लेदविशुद्धयर्थं दोषसंहरणाय च । कषायतिक्तकटुकैः रसैर्युक्तमपद्रवम्॥७॥ नातिस्निग्धं नातिरुक्षमुष्णं दीपनमेव देयमन्नं नृपतये तप्तावरतमम्भो वा च। यज्जलञ्चोक्तमादितः ॥ ८ ॥ पिबेन्नमधुसमायुतम्। अह्नि मेघानिलाविष्टेऽत्यर्थशीताम्बुसङ्कुले यस्मिन् यस्मिन्नृतौ ॥ ९ ॥
Regimen of diet and conduct in the Varsa ( rainy) season – Articles of particular tastes which are remedial to the specific deranged bodily Dosas should be used or employed by experienced persons in the particular season of the year in which the Dosas are respectively aggravated. The bodily Vayu etc. of a person is generally aggravated during the Varsaa (rainy) season owing to a slimy condition of the organism, producing an impairment of the digestive fire as well as goose-flesh on the skin. Articles of astringent, bitter and pungent tastes should therefore be prescribed for a king and king-like personages during those months of the year for correcting or remedying the altered slimy condition of (things which obtain inside) the body, as well as for mitigating the aggravation of the bodily Dosas. The food should be non-liquid and made neither too emollient (fatty or lardacious) nor too Ruksa (dry), and should be composed of articles which are appetising and heat-making in their potency. Water for drinking should be prescribed according to the rules laid down before (in chapter XLV, Sutra-sthana), or water, heated and subsequently cooled, should be taken in combination with honey, if the sky is overcast with clouds and the air is charged with humid vapours, making the water consequently very cold. 5-9.
तरुणत्वाद् विदाहञ्च गच्छन्त्योषधयस्तदा । मतिमांस्तन्निमित्तञ्च नातिव्यायाममाचरेत् ॥ १० ॥ वर्जयेत् तत्र यत्नतः ॥ १३ ॥
The herbs and vegetables being newly grown in this (rainy) season, are (over-juicy and) consequently not very easy to digest; a wise man should, therefore, avoid the excessive use of physical exercise, water, dew, sexual intercourse and the sun’s rays (which might lead to indigestion). One should, in this season, lie upon some higher place to avoid the cold damp due to the emission of earthly vapours at this time. When feeling cold one should protect oneself from it with warm clothes and should lie inside a room free from blasts of wind and with fire burning within. Fine Aguru should be used as pastes, and elephants should be used as conveyance in this season. Sleep at she day-time and eating before the previous meal is digested should be strictly avoided. 10-13.
Diet and Rules for Autumn Season
सेव्याः शरदि यत्नेन कषायस्वादुतिक्तकाः । क्षीरेशुविकृतिक्षौद्रशालिमुद्रादिजाङ्गलाः श्वेतस्त्रजश्चन्द्रपादाः प्रदोषे लघु चाम्बरम् । सलिलञ्च प्रसन्नत्वात् सर्वमेव तदा हितम् । सरः स्वाप्लवनञ्चैव प्रदोषे शशिनः तिक्तस्य सर्पिष: पानैरसृक्स्त्रावैश्च युक्तितः ॥ १६ ॥ वर्षासूपचितं पित्तं हरेच्चापि विरेचनैः । नोपेयात् तीक्ष्णमम्लोष्णं क्षारं स्वप्नं दिवाऽऽतपम् ॥ १७ ॥ रात्रौ जागरणञ्चैव मैथुनञ्चापि वर्जयेत् । स्वादुशीतजलं मेध्यं शुचिस्फटिकनिर्मलम् ॥ १८ ॥ शरच्चन्द्रांशुनिर्धौतमगस्त्वोदयनिर्विषम् प्रसन्नत्वाच्च सलिलं सर्वमेव तदा हितम् ॥ १९ ॥ वासश्चामलिनं लघु । सचन्दनं सकर्पूरं भजेच्च शारदंमाल्यं सीधोः पानञ्च युक्तितः ॥ २० ॥ ॥१४॥ कमलोत्पलशालिषु ॥ १५ ॥ पादाश्चन्दनञ्चानुलेपनम् । पित्तप्रशमनं यच्च तच्च सर्व समाचरेत् ॥ २१ ॥
Rules for Autumn — Articles of astringent, sweet and bitter tastes, different preparations of milk and of sugar-cane-juice as well as honey, Sali-rice, Mudga-pulse, oil and the meat of Jangala animals should be used in the Autumn (Sarat) season. All kinds of water are recommended in this season as they are all clear and pure at this time of the year. Swimming and (immersion) in ponds full of Kamala ( lotus ) and Utpala (water lily), enjoying the moon’s rays at dusk and the use of sandal-pastes are recommended. The aggravation of Pitta in the ( previous) rainy season should, in this season, be duly remedied by the use of Tikta-Ghrita ( Chapter IX, Chikitsa sthana), by means of venesection or by the use of purgatives. Tiksna (sharp-potencied or pungent), acid, hot and alkaline articles (of food) as well as the sun’s rays, sexual excess and sleep at day-time and keeping late hours should be avoided. Sweet and cold water and purified wine as transparent as crystals are also recommended. All kinds of water are in this season washed, as it were, by the clear white rays of the autumnal moon and being detoxified by the rising of the Agastya star¹, become very clear and transparent and consequently beneficial. Clean and thin clothes scented with sandal-pastes or with camphor as well as garlands of autumnal flowers should be worn, and the Sidhu class of wine should be judiciously taken In short, all Pitta-subduing measures should be taken in this season. 14-21.
हेमन्तः शीतलो रुक्षो मन्दसूर्योऽनिलाकुलः । ततस्तु शीतमासाद्य वायुस्तत्र प्रकुप्यति ॥ २२ ॥ कोष्ठस्थ : शीतसंस्पर्शादन्तः पिण्डीकृतोऽनलः । रसमुच्छोषयत्याशु तस्मात् स्निग्धं तदा हितम् ॥ २३ ॥ हेमन्ते लवणक्षार- तिक्ताम्लकटुकोत्कटम् । ससर्पिस्तैलमहिममशनं हितमुच्यते ॥ २४ ॥ तीक्ष्णान्यपि च पानानि पिबेदगुरुभूषितः । तैलाभ्यक्तं सुखोष्णे च वारिकोष्ठेऽवगाहयेत् ॥ २५ ॥
1. The waters in the rainy season are generally muddy and impure. When, after the rains, the waters become purer, it is said in Hindu mythology that owing to the rise of Agastya (a star making its appearance in the horizon after the rains-generally in the beginning of September) the waters become clear and transparent.
Rules and Diet for Hemanta and Winter Season
साङ्गारयाने महति कौशेयास्तरणास्तृते । शयीत शमने तैस्तैर्वृतो गर्भगृहोदरे ॥ २६ ॥ स्त्रीः श्लिष्ट्वाऽगुरुधूपाढ्या: पीनोरुजघनस्तनीः । प्रकामञ्च निषेवेत मैथुनं तर्पितो नृपः ॥ २७ ॥ मधुरं तिक्तकटुकमम्लं लवणमेव च । अन्नपानं तिलान् माषाञ्छाकानि च दधीनि च ॥ २८ ॥ तथेक्षुविकृती: शालीन् सुगन्धांश्च नवानपि । प्रसहानूपमांसानि क्रव्यादविलशायिनाम् । औदकानां प्लवाञ्च पादिनाञ्चोपसेवयेत् ॥ २९ ॥ मद्यानि च प्रसन्नानि यच्च किञ्चिद्बलप्रदम् । कामतस्तन्निषेवेत पुष्टिमिच्छन् हिमागमे ॥ ३० ॥ एष एव विधिः कार्य: शिशिरे समुदाहृतः ॥ ३१ ॥
Rules for Hemanta and winter seasons – The season Hemanta is cold but dry (Ruksa). The sun is weak and the atmosphere very airy. Hence, owing to the outside cold, the bodily Vayu is aggravated in this season. The abdominal fire becomes dull owing internal cold and dries up the bodily Rasa (liquid portion of system). The use of oleaginous things is, therefore, beneficial in season. The use of saline, alkaline, bitter, acid and pungent articles (prepared) with the addition of clarified butter or oil are beneficialshould not be taken cold, and drinks prepared with Tiksna (potencied) articles (such as strong wine should be taken, after pasting body all over with Aguru-pastes. Baths should taken in water after rubbing in oil all over the body. Large inner apartments completely surrounded by rooms on all sides and containing fireposts (serving the purpose of chimney) should be used as bed-rooms and the bed-sheets should be silken. Sufficiently warm coverings for the body should be used. Kings (and king-like personages) should be within the sweet embrace of maidens with big breasts and thighs and scented with the fumes of Aguru, and they can, in this season, enjoy the sexual pleasures to their heart’s content and should take proper soothing food. Sweet, bitter, pungent, acid and saline articles of food and drink, as well as Tila (sesamum-seeds), Masa-pulse, pot-herbs, curd, different modifications of sugar-cane-juice, scented and newly husked Sali-rice, flesh of Prasaha, Anupa, Kravyada, Bilesaya, Audaka (aquatic), Plava and Padin classes’ of animals, as well as clear transparent wines and all other invigorating articles of diet should be used to his content at the advent of cold by a person wishing vigour (of the body and of the mind). The rules for Hemanta enumerated above would hold equally good for the Sisira (winter) season. 22-31.
Rules and Diet for Spring
हेमन्ते निचितः श्लेष्मा शैत्याच्छीतशरीरिणाम् । औष्ण्याद् वसन्ते कुपितः कुरुते च गदान् बहून् ॥ ३२ ॥ ततोऽम्लमधुरस्निग्ध-लवणानि गुरूणि च । वर्जयेद् वमनादीनि कर्माण्यपि च कारयेत् ॥ ३३॥ षष्टिकान्नं यवाञ्छीतान् मुद्गान् नीवारकोद्रवान् । लावादिविष्किररसैर्दद्याद्यूषैश्च पटोलनिम्बवार्ताक-तिक्तकैश्च युक्तितः ॥ ३४ ॥ हिमात्यये । सेवेन्मध्वासवारिष्टान् सीधुमाध्वीकमाधवान् ॥ ३५ ॥ व्यायाममञ्जनं धूमं तीक्ष्णञ्च कवलग्रहम् । सुखाम्बुना च सर्वार्थान् सेवेत कुसुमागमे ॥ ३६॥ तीक्ष्णरूक्षकटुक्षार-कषायं कोष्णमद्रवम् । वसन्ते भोजनं हितम् ॥ ३७ ॥ यवमुद्गमधुप्रायं व्यायामोऽत्र नियुद्धाध्व-शिलानिर्घातजो हितः । उत्सादनं तथा स्नानं वनिताः काननानि च ॥ ३८ ॥ सेवेत निर्हरेच्चापि हेमन्तोपचितं कफम् । शिरोविरेकवमन-निरूहकवलादिभिः वर्जयेन्मधुरस्निग्ध-दिवास्वप्नगुरुद्रवान् ॥३९॥
Rules for Spring- The bodily Kapha already stored in the organism owing to the coldness of the body during the Hemanta season is provoked during the spring by the (increasing) heat (of the sun and consequently of the organism) and gives rise to many diseases. Acid, sweet, demulcent and saline articles of food and drink as well as those that are heavy (of digestion) should, therefore, be avoided, and recourse should be had to vomiting, etc. Sastika-rice, barley, articles of cold potency, Mudga-pulse, Nivara rice, and Kodrava-rice, should be duly prescribed after the cold i.e. in the spring wih the soup of the meat of the animals of the Viskira class, such as Lava, etc. as well as with the soup of Patola, Nimba-leaves, brinjals and other bitter vegetables. All sorts of Asava and especially the Asava and Sidhu prepared from honey should be freely used in the spring. Physical exercise should be had recourse to, Anjana (collyrium) should be applied (to the eyes), strong smokes shold be inhaled and strong gargles used inthe spring. Everything should be used with tepid water and a diet consisting of Tiksna (strong-potencied), Ruksa (non-demulcent), pungent, alkaline, astringent, tepid and non-liquid articles and especially the preparations of barley, Mudga pulse and honey would be beneficial in the spring. Physical exercise in the shape of mock-fight, walk, or the throwing of stones would be beneficial. Utsadana ( massage) and bath should be had, and groves should be resorted to. Sexual pleasure may be enjoyed in this season. The bodily Kapha stored in the body during the Hemanta season should be eliminated by means of Siro-Vireka (errhines), vomiting, Niruha-basti and gargles, etc. Day-sleep, demulcent and liquid articles of fare as well as those hard to digest should be strictly avoided. 32-39.
1. For a list of the animals of the different classes mentioned here, see chapter XLVI, Sutra-sthana. Pages 459 & c. vol. I
Rules and Diet for Summer
व्यायाममुष्णमायासं मैथुनं परिशोषि च । रसांश्चाग्निगुणोद्रिक्तान् निदाघे परिवर्जयेत् ॥ ४० ॥ सरांसि सरितो वापीर्वनानि रुचिराणि च । चन्दनानि परार्ध्यानि स्त्रजः सकमलोत्पलाः ॥ ४१ ॥ तालवृन्तानिलान् हारांस्तथा शीतगृहाणि च । घर्मकाले निषेवेत वासांसि सुलघूनि च ॥ ४२ ॥ शर्कराखण्डदिग्धानि सुगन्धीनि हिमानि च । पानकानि च सेवेत मन्थांश्चापि सशर्करान् ॥ ४३ ॥ भोजनञ्च हितं शीतं सघृतं मधुरद्रवम् । भृतेन पयसा रात्रौ शर्करामधुरेण च ॥४४॥ प्रत्यग्रकुसुमाकीर्णे शयने हर्म्यसंस्थिते । शयीत चन्दनार्द्राङ्गः स्पृश्यमानोऽनिलः सुखैः ॥ ४५ ॥
Rules for Summer – Physical exercise, toil, sexual intercourse hot and excessively drying articles of fare (e.g. those prepared with rules), as well as those abounding in heat-producing (e.g. pungent, acid and saline) tastes should be avoided in summer. Large tanks, lakes and rivers as well as charming gardens and cold rooms should be resorted to, and the finest (refreshing) sandal-pastes and garlands of flowers of lotuses and lilies, soft breeze from palm-leaf-fans and necklaces (of precious stones and pearls) as well as light clothes should be used in summer. Sweet-scented and cooling Panakas and Manthas with abundance of sugar should be used. Sweet, liquid and cold food mixed with clarified butter and boiled milk sweetened with sugar, etc. taken at night-time would be found (tasteful and) beneficial at that time. Onc should at that time lie on a bed strewn over with full-blown and fresh flowers in some palatial building with his body besmeared with sandal-pastes and refreshed by cooling breeze. 40-45.
Rules for Pravrit (rainy) season
तापात्यये हिता नित्यं रसा ये गुरवस्त्रयः | पयो मांसरसाः कोष्णास्तैलानि च घृतानि च । बृंहणञ्चापि यत्किञ्चिदभिष्यन्दि तथैव च ॥ ४६॥ निदाघोपचितञ्चैव प्रकुप्यन्तं समीरणम् । निहन्यादनिलघ्नेन विधिना विधिकोविदः ॥ ४७ ॥
Rules for Pravrit (rainy) season — Articles of the three (viz. sweet, acid and saline) heavy Rasas as well as milk, tepid meat-spup, oil, clarified butter, and everything which is Brmhana (fat-making ) and Abhisyandi (secreting) in its nature are beneficial after the end of the summer season i.e. in the rainy season. The bodily Vayu which is liable to be aggravated and which actually begins to aggravate in the summer should be pacified by wise men with Vayu subduing remedies. 46-47.
नदीजलं रूक्षमुष्णमुदमन्थं तथाऽऽतपम् | व्यायामञ्च दिवास्वप्नं व्यवायञ्चात्र वर्जयेत् ॥ ४८ ॥
1. period of four months has been ascribed to the rains. Of these the first two month are called Pravrt, and the last two Varsa-both meaning the rainy season. See chapter VI, Sutra-sthana.
नवान्नरूक्षशीताम्बु सक्तूंश्चापि विवर्जयेत् । यवषष्टिकगोधूमान् शालींश्चाप्यनवांस्तथा । हर्म्यमध्ये निवाते च भजेच्छय्यां मृदूत्तराम् ॥ ४९ ॥ सविषप्राणिविण्मूत्र- लालानिष्ठीवनादिभिः । समाप्लुतं तदा तोयमान्तरीक्षं विषोपमम् ॥ ५० ॥ वायुना विषदुष्टेन प्रावृषेण्येन दूषितम् । तद्धि सर्वोपयोगेषु तस्मिन् काले विवर्जयेत् ॥५१॥ अरिष्टासवमैरेयान् सोपदंशांस्तु युक्तितः ॥ ५२ ॥ पिबेत् प्रावृषि जीर्णांस्तु रात्रौ तानपि वर्जयेत् । निरूहैर्बस्तिभिश्चान्यैस्तथान्यैर्मारुतापहैः . कुपितं शमयेद् वायुं वार्षिकञ्चाचरेद् विधिम् ॥ ५३॥
River-water, Ruksa (non-demulcent) and heat-producing articles, Manthas prepared with abundance of water, the sun’s rays, physical exercise, day-sleep and sexual intercourse should be avoided in this season. Old barley, old Sastika-rice, old Sali-rice, and old wheat should be used as food, and the bed to lie upon should be stretched inside a room where there is no blast of wind and should be covered over with a soft bed-sheet. The rain-water (in and after its descent on the earth) becomes poisoned with the excretions, urine, salivation, sputum, etc. of poisonous animals as well as with the poisonous atmosphere peculiar to the rainy season; it should, therefore, be striclty avoided in this season. The naturally aggravated bodily Vayu (in this season ) should be duly pacified, or the rules for Varsa (i.e. the rainy season ) should be duly observed in this season. 48-53.
ऋतावृतौ य एतेन विधिना वर्तते नरः । घोरानृतुकृतान् रोगान् नाप्नोति स कदाचन ॥ ५४॥
Whoever observes these rules for the different seasons of the year does not suffer from the evil consequences due to the change of seasons. 54.
1. The whole of this para is an interpolation in as much as Jejjata does not read this — Dalhana.
अत ऊर्ध्वं द्वादशाशनप्रविचारान् वक्ष्याम्: – तत्र शीतोष्णस्त्रिग्धरूक्षद्रवशुष्कैककालिकद्विकालिकौषधयुक्तमात्राहीनदोषप्रशमनवृत्त्यर्थाः ॥ ५५ ॥
Different kinds of food- Now we shall deal with the twelve different kinds of food (and drink ). They are-Cold, hot, Snigdha (demulcent ), Ruksa (non-demulcent ), liquid, dry, taken once a day, twice a day, taken with medicine, taken in smaller quantity, taken for the pacification of (any aggravated Dosa) and taken for subsistence. 55.
तृष्णोष्णमददाहार्तान् रक्तपित्तविषातुरान् । मूर्च्छार्तान् स्त्रीषु च क्षीणान् शीतैरन्नैरुपाचरेत् ॥ ५६ ॥ कफवातामयाविष्टान् विरिक्तान् स्नेहपायिनः । अक्लिन्नकायांश्च नरानुष्णैरन्नैरुपाचरेत् ॥ ५७ ॥
Persons afflicted with thirst, heat, alcoholism, burning sensation, Rakta-pitta, poisoning and epileptic fits as well as those suffering from the effects of sexual excess should be treated with cold food (and drink); while persons afflicted with the aggravation of bodily Kapha and Vayu as well as those already treated with purgatives of Sneha and those whose bodies are full of Kleda (physical moisture) should be treated with warm food (and drink). 56-57.
वातिकान् रूक्षदेहांश्च व्यवायोपहतांस्तथा । व्यायामिनश्चापि नरान् स्निग्धैरन्नैरुपाचरेत् ॥ ५८ ॥ मेदसाऽभिपरीतांस्तु स्निग्धान् मेहातुरानपि । कफाभिपन्नदेहांश्च रूक्षैरन्नैरुपाचरेत् ॥ ५९ ॥
Persons suffering from the aggravation of bodily Vayu and from a parched (Ruksa) condition of the body as well as those sufering from the effects of sexual excess and those accustomed to physical exercise should be treated wih Snigdha food (and drink); while persons with an excess of bodily Medas and Kapha as well as those suffering from Meha and those previously treated with a Sneha should be treated with Ruksa (or non-demulcent) food and drink. 58-59.
शुष्कदेहान् पिपासार्तान् दुर्बलानपि च द्रवः । प्रक्लिन्नकायान् व्रणिनः शुष्कैर्मेहिन एव च ॥ ६० ॥
एककालं भवेद् देयो दुर्बलाग्निविवृद्धये । समाग्नये तथाऽऽहारो द्विकालमपि पूजितः ॥ ६१॥ ;
Weak, parched and thirsty pesons should be given Drava (liquid) food; while those suffering from Meha and ulcers as well as those whose bodies are full of Kleda (bodily moisture) should be given dry (non-juicy) food. Person with impaired digestion should be given only one meal every day, so that the digestive fire may have opportunities to) be rekindled; while persons with the proper amount of digestion should be given two meals a day. 60-61.
देयस्तथौषधसमायुतः। औषधद्वेषिणे मन्दाग्नये रोगिणे च मात्राहीनः प्रशस्यते ॥ ६२ ॥
यथर्तुदत्तस्त्वाहारो दोषप्रशमनः स्मृतः । अतः परन्तु स्वस्थानां वृत्त्यर्थं सर्व एव च । द्वादशान्नप्रविचारानेतानेव प्रचक्षते ॥ ६३ ॥
Medicine should be given with food and drink to a person averse to it, while food and drink in smaller quantity would be beneficial to persons suffering from impaired digestion or any other disease. Food and drink administered with due regard to the bodily Dosas is called Dosa-prasamana; while any kind of food and drink taken for the preservation of life by a halthy person would be called Vriyartha food and drink. These are the twelve different kinds of food and drink. 62-63.
Proper times for administration of Medicine
अतः ऊर्ध्वं दशौषधकालान् वक्ष्यामःतत्राभक्तं प्राग्भक्तमधोभक्तं मध्येभक्तमन्तराभक्तं सभक्तं सामुद्गं मुहुर्मुहुर्ग्रासं ग्रासान्तरञ्चेति दशौषधकालाः ॥ ६४॥
Proper times for the administration of Medicines – We shall now spcak of the ten specific times (i.e. proper occasions) for the administration of medicines. They are- Abhakta, Prag-bhakta, Adhobhakta, Madhye-bhakta, Antara-bhakta, Sa-bhakta, Samudga, Muhurmuhu, Grasa and Grasantara, 64.
तत्राभक्तन्तु यत् केवलमेवौषधमुपयुज्यते । वीर्याधिकं भवति भेषजमन्नहीनं हन्यात् तथामयमसंशयमाशु चैव । तद् बालवृद्धवनितामृदवस्तु पीत्वा ग्लानिं परां समुपयान्ति बलक्षयञ्च ॥ ६५ ॥
Of the above medicines what is applied alone (with or without some vehicle but not with any food or drink) is called Abhakta medicine. A medicine not applied with any food (but applied by itself with or without any vehicle) would have greater effect and would soon and certainly destory the disease it is applied in; but a medicine should not be applied in this way to a child, an old man, a young woman and persons of mild temperament, for it is likely to produce lassitude and weaken the patient ( in such cases). 65.
प्राग्भक्तं नाम – यत् प्राग्भक्तस्योपयुज्यते । शीघ्रं विपाकमुपयाति बलं न हिंस्यादन्नावृतं न च मुहुर्वदनान्निरेति । प्राग्भक्तसेवितमथौषधमेतदेव दद्याच्च वृद्धशिशुभीरुवराङ्गनाभ्यः॥६६॥ अधोभक्तं नाम – यदधो भक्तस्येति ॥ ६७॥ मध्येभक्तं नाम – यन्मध्ये भक्तस्य पीयते । पीतं यदन्नमुपयुज्य तदूर्ध्व काये हन्याद् गदान् बहुविधांश्च बलं ददाति ॥ ६८ ॥
A medicine taken (in an empty stomach) just before a meal, is called Pragbhakta. A medicine taken in such a manner, is easily digested, does not lead to any diminution of strength and is not ejected out of the mouth owing to its being covered over with the meal. On the other hand, taken before the meal, it adds to bodily strength and proves the most convenient form in which a medicine can be administered to old men, infants, females and persons of timid disposition. A medicine taken just after a meal is called Adhobhakta. It conquers diseases which affect the upper part of the body and gives strength in many ways. 66-68.
मध्ये तु पीतमुपहन्त्यविसारिभावाद् ये मध्यदेहमभिभूय भवन्ति रोगाः ॥ ६९॥ अन्तराभक्तं नाम – यदन्तरा पीयते पूर्वापरयोर्भक्तयोः । सभक्तं नाम – यत् सह भक्तेन । हृद्यं मनोबलकरं त्वथ दीपनञ्च पथ्यं सदा भवति चान्तरभक्तकं यत् ॥ ७० ॥ पथ्यं सभक्तमबलाबलयोर्हि नित्यं तद्वेषिणामपि तथा शिशुवृद्धयोश्च ॥ ७१॥
A medicine taken in the course of a meal is called madhyebhakta. A medicine taken in this manner fails to be diffused all through the organism and hence proves beneficial only in those ailments which are confined to the middle part of the body. A medicine taken between the two meals (i.e. after the morning-meal but before the eveningmeal) is called Antarabhakta. It is invigorating to the mind, greatly appetising and Hrdya (agreeble) and is beneficial in every respect. A medicine applied with any food is called Sabhakta. It is most convenient to administer a medicine with food in cases of female, old and infant patients as well as in cases of those averse to taking any medicine. 69-71.
सामुद्रं नाम- यद् भक्तस्यादावन्ते दोषे द्विधा प्रविसृते तु समुद्रसंज्ञमाद्यन्तयोर्यदशनस्य निषेव्यते तु ॥ ७२ ॥ मुहुमुहुर्नाम-सभक्तमभक्तं यदौषधं मुहुर्मुहुरुपयुज्यते । वा श्वासे मुहुर्मुहुरतिप्रसृते च कासे हिक्कावमीषु च वदन्त्युपयोज्यमेतत् ॥ ७३ ॥ ग्रासन्तु यत् पिण्डव्यामिश्रम् । यद् ग्रासान्तरेषु । पीयते । ग्रासान्तरन्तु – ग्रासेषु चूर्णमबलागिषु दीपनीयं वाजीकराण्यपि तु योजयितुं यतेत । ग्रासान्तरेषु वितरेद् वमनीयधूमान् श्वासादिषु प्रथितदृष्टगुणांश्च लेहान् ॥ ७४ ॥ एवमेते दशौषधकालाः ॥ ७५ ॥
A medicine taken at the beginning and again at the close of a meal is called Samudga. This form of administration is most beneficial in cases where the deranged bodily Dosas take both the (upward and downward) course. A medicine taken at intervals, either with or without food, is called Muhurmuhuh. This mode is to be adopted in severe cases of asthma, cough, hiccough and vomiting. A medicine taken with every morsel (Grasa) of food is called Grasa. In this form the medicine in the shape of a powder is administered for increasing the appetite in cases of weak patients. Bajikara (aphrodisiac) medicines are also better administered in this form. A medicine taken with each alternate morsel of food is called Grasantara. Emetics and Dhumas as well as the well-known and well-experimented lambatives for cases of asthma should be administered in this form. These are the ten proper occasions for administering medicines. 72-75.
1. “A medicine applied with food” may mean a mdicine prepared before and taken with the meal; or it may mean that the meal is cooked (while being prepared) with the medicines to be applied.
विसृष्टे विण्मूत्रे विशदकरणे देहे च सुलघौ विशुद्धे चोद्गारे हृदि सुविमले वाते च सरति । तथाऽन्नश्रद्धायां क्लमपरिगमे कुक्षौ च शिथिले प्रदेयस्त्वाहारो भवति भिषजां कालः स तु मतः ॥ ७६ ॥
The proper time for giving diet to a patient is when he gets free of stool, urine and eructations, and feels his body and sense-organs light and free, when he gets free actions of the heart as well as natural courses of his bodily (Apana) Vayu, when he feeds hungry ( D. R. feels easy) and has got relish for food and when his Kuksi (belly) becomes light (i.e. when his belly appears to be empty on account of hunger). 76.
इति सुश्रुत संहितायामुत्तरतन्त्रे स्वस्थवृत्तंनाम चतुःषष्टितमोऽध्यायः ॥ ६४ ॥
Thus ends the sixty fourth chapter in the Uttara-tantra on the SusrutaSamhita which deals with the Rules of Hygiene.